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Sample records for somali women living

  1. Attitudes towards and perceptions about contraceptive use among married refugee women of Somali descent living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, F; Koivusilta, L; Ojanlatva, A

    2006-09-01

    To assess attitudes towards and perceptions about contraceptive use among married refugee women of Somali descent living in Finland. A sample of 100 married refugee women of Somali descent (18-50 years of age) were invited to participate in a study on contraceptive use in Finland (30 women refused). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. Questionnaire of the first data set was written in the Somali language. Interviews were conducted in the Somali language. The attitudes and opinions of these women towards contraceptive use (73% did not use contraceptives, 27% did use them) were connected with religious beliefs and issues involving marital relations. Religious or gender issues did not seem to influence those who used contraception. The findings indicated that the majority of the married refugee women of Somali descent living in Finland did not use contraception. The process of starting the use of contraception was possible because of an access to good reproductive health care and family planning services, changes in life situations, and adaptations to Finnish social and cultural norms.

  2. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

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    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  3. Communication and cultural issues in providing reproductive health care to immigrant women: health care providers' experiences in meeting the needs of [corrected] Somali women living in Finland.

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    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari; Essén, Birgitta; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-04-01

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  4. Postpartum Depression Among Somali Women in Norway.

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    Løvlie, Astrid Louise; Madar, Ahmed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been described as the most common complication experienced postpartum, affecting about 10-15 % of all new mothers. Factors like a history of mental illness, and experienced recent adverse life events has been associated with an increased risk for developing PPD. Immigrant women in Western countries have been found to have a marked higher prevalence of PPD compared to the general population. In Norway the prevalence of PPD in the general population has been found to be around 8-10 %, and among Pakistani immigrants a rate of 7.6 % was found. Somali people in Norway are the second largest immigrant group in Norway with a non-Western background. No study on PPD and associated factors among Somali women has been found in the literature. The aim of the study was to assess PPD and associated factors among Somali women in greater Oslo region, Norway. A cross-sectional survey was conducted; recruiting new mothers through all maternity wards in the Oslo region. Data was collected with interview-administrated questionnaires. PPD was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), defining those scoring ≥10 to have a possible PPD. Of the 80 eligible women identified, 39 (49 %) consented to participate, and completed the study. Of the 39 respondents 3 (7.7 %) were assessed to have a possible PPD. Most important associated factors found were history of mental illness, having experienced technical assistance during delivery, self-rated health and experienced economical problems last 12 months. A low prevalence of PPD was found, and both the prevalence and its associated factors should be interpreted with caution. The associated factors do not have enough power to give any strength to the associations. However, some of the results can be used in develop new hypotheses with regard to PPD among Somali women as immigrants in a Western society.

  5. "A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?" A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer.

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    Salad, Jihan; Verdonk, Petra; de Boer, Fijgje; Abma, Tineke A

    2015-08-21

    Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This qualitative study, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and an intersectionality-based framework, explores the perceptions of Somali women living in the Netherlands regarding measures to prevent cervical cancer. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with young Somali women aged 17-21 years (n = 14) and Somali mothers aged 30-46 years (n = 6). Two natural group discussions have been conducted with 12 and 14 Somali mothers aged 23-66 years. The collected data has been analyzed thematically for content. In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: (1) Somali women and preventive healthcare; (2) Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions; and (3) Sexual standards, culture, and religion. Many issues have been identified across these themes, e.g., distrust of the Dutch health care system or being embarrassed to get Pap smears due to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and having a Dutch, male practitioner; or a perceived low susceptibility to HPV and cancer because of the religious norms that prohibit sex before marriage. Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing cervical cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant. Dutch education strategies about cervical cancer deviate from ways of exchanging information within the Somali community. Teachers can provide culturally sensitive information to young Somali women in schools. For Somali mothers, oral education (e.g., poetry or theater) about the Dutch health care system and men's roles in HPV transmission may be useful. An intersectional approach, grounded in

  6. Somali women's view of physical activity--a focus group study.

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    Persson, Gerthi; Mahmud, Amina Jama; Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Strandberg, Eva Lena

    2014-10-23

    Physical inactivity presents a major public health challenge and is estimated to cause six to ten percent of the major non-communicable diseases. Studies show that immigrants, especially women, have an increased risk of non-communicable diseases compared to ethnic Swedes. Somali immigrant women have increased rates of overweight and obesity, low fitness levels and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness compared to non-immigrant women. These findings suggest that Somali women are at increased risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases. Few studies explore determinants of physical activity among Somali women. The aim of this study was to explore Somali women's views and experiences of physical activity after migration to Sweden. A qualitative focused ethnographic approach was used in this study. Four focus groups were conducted with twenty-six Somali women ranging from 17 to 67 years of age. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes and ten categories: Life in Somalia and Life in Sweden, Understanding and enhancing health and Facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Great differences were seen between living in Somalia and in Sweden but also similarities such as finding time to manage housework, the family and the health of the woman. The extended family is non-existent in Sweden, making life more difficult. Health was considered a gift from God but living a healthy life was perceived as the responsibility of the individual. Misconceptions about enhancing health occurred depending on the woman's previous life experience and traditions. There was an awareness of the importance of physical activity among the participants but lack of knowledge of how to enhance activity on an individual basis. Enhancing factors to an active lifestyle were identified as being a safe and comfortable environment. Some barriers, such as climate, lack of motivation and time

  7. "A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?" A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salad, J.; Verdonk, P.; de Boer, F.; Abma, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This

  8. Providers' Perceptions of Challenges in Obstetrical Care for Somali Women

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    Jalana N. Lazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This pilot study explored health care providers’ perceptions of barriers to providing health care services to Somali refugee women. The specific aim was to obtain information about providers’ experiences, training, practices and attitudes surrounding the prenatal care, delivery, and management of women with Female Genital Cutting (FGC. Methods. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 obstetricians/gynecologists and nurse midwives in Columbus, Ohio. Results. While providers did not perceive FGC as a significant barrier in itself, they noted considerable challenges in communicating with their Somali patients and the lack of formal training or protocols guiding the management of circumcised women. Providers expressed frustration with what they perceived as Somali patients' resistance to obstetrical interventions and disappointment with a perception of mistrust from patients and their families. Conclusion. Improving the clinical encounter for both patients and providers entails establishing effective dialogue, enhancing clinical and cultural training of providers, improving health literacy, and developing trust through community engagement.

  9. Food Insecurity: Its Relationship to Dietary Intake and Body Weight among Somali Refugee Women in the United States

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    Dharod, Jigna M.; Croom, Jamar E.; Sady, Christine G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between food insecurity, dietary intake, and body mass index among Somali refugee women living in the United States. Methods: Cross-sectional study utilizing the snowball sampling method. Results: Most (67%) participants experienced some level of food insecurity, which was common among recent arrivals and…

  10. Views of Somali women and men on the use of faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening for Somali women: a focus-group study

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    Rebekah Pratt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening rates for breast and cervical cancer for Muslim women in the United States are low, particularly for first-generation immigrants. Interpretations of the Muslim faith represent some of the barriers for breast and cervical cancer screening. Working to understand how faith influences breast and cervical screening for Somali women, and working with the community to identify and utilize faith-based assets for promoting screening, may lead to life-saving changes in screening behaviors. Methods We partnered with an Imam to develop faith-based messages addressing the concerns of modesty and predetermination and promoting cancer testing and screening. A total of five focus groups were convened, with 34 Somali women (three groups and 20 Somali men (two groups. Each focus group first discussed participant views of breast and cervical cancer screening in general and then viewed and discussed video clips of the Imam delivering the faith-based messages. Results Both Somali women and men had an overwhelmingly positive response to the faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening. The faith-based messages appeared to reinforce the views of those who were already inclined to see screening positively, with participants describing increased confidence to engage in screening. For those who had reservations about screening, there was feedback that the faith-based messages had meaningfully influenced their views. Conclusions Somali immigrant women and men found faith-based messages addressing topics of predestination and modesty and encouraging the use of screening and treatment to be both acceptable and influential. Faith can play an important role as an asset to promote breast and cervical cancer screening, and there may be substantial benefits to adding faith-based messaging to other interventions that focus on improving screening uptake. This may help to address health disparities for Somali women in this area.

  11. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

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    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  12. Being a bridge: Swedish antenatal care midwives' encounters with Somali-born women and questions of violence; a qualitative study.

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    Byrskog, Ulrika; Olsson, Pia; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie-Klingberg

    2015-01-16

    Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence. Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis. The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women's' strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman's access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women. Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives' ability to identify Somali born woman's resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the

  13. Beyond Culture and Language: Access to Diabetes Preventive Health Services among Somali Women in Norway.

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    Gele, Abdi A; Torheim, Liv Elin; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women's knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.

  14. Health literacy: the missing link in improving the health of Somali immigrant women in Oslo.

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    Gele, Abdi A; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Torheim, Liv Elin; Kumar, Bernadette

    2016-11-03

    Existing studies report a positive association between inadequate health literacy and immigrant's adverse health outcomes. Despite substantial research on this topic among immigrants, little is known about the level of health literacy among Somali women in Europe, and particularly in Norway. A cross sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted in Oslo, Norway. A sample of 302 Somali women, 25 years and older, was interviewed using the short version of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Data was analysed using logistic regression. Findings revealed that 71 % of Somali women in Oslo lack the ability to obtain, understand and act upon health information and services, and to make appropriate health decisions. Being unemployed (OR 3.66, CI 1.08-12.3) and socially less integrated (OR 8.17, CI 1.21-54.8) were independent predictors of an inadequate health literacy among Somali women. Enhanced health literacy will most likely increase the chance to better health outcomes for immigrants, thereby moving towards health equity in the Norwegian society. Therefore, policies and programs are required to focus and improve health literacy of immigrant communities.

  15. Health literacy: the missing link in improving the health of Somali immigrant women in Oslo

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    Abdi A. Gele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing studies report a positive association between inadequate health literacy and immigrant’s adverse health outcomes. Despite substantial research on this topic among immigrants, little is known about the level of health literacy among Somali women in Europe, and particularly in Norway. Methods A cross sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted in Oslo, Norway. A sample of 302 Somali women, 25 years and older, was interviewed using the short version of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Data was analysed using logistic regression. Results Findings revealed that 71 % of Somali women in Oslo lack the ability to obtain, understand and act upon health information and services, and to make appropriate health decisions. Being unemployed (OR 3.66, CI 1.08–12.3 and socially less integrated (OR 8.17, CI 1.21–54.8 were independent predictors of an inadequate health literacy among Somali women. Conclusions Enhanced health literacy will most likely increase the chance to better health outcomes for immigrants, thereby moving towards health equity in the Norwegian society. Therefore, policies and programs are required to focus and improve health literacy of immigrant communities.

  16. Beyond Culture and Language: Access to Diabetes Preventive Health Services among Somali Women in Norway

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    Abdi A. Gele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women’s knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.

  17. Diabetes Risk by Length of Residence among Somali Women in Oslo Area.

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    Gele, Abdi A; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes represents a major health problem worldwide, with immigrants strongly contributing to the increase in diabetes in many countries. Norway is not immune to the process, and immigrants in the country are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of diabetes after arrival. However, the dynamics of these transitions in relation to the duration of residence in the new environment in Norway are not clearly understood. From this background, a cross-sectional quantitative study using a respondent-driven sampling method was conducted among 302 Somali women living in Oslo area. The results show that 41% of the study participants will be at risk for developing diabetes in the coming 10 years, which coincides with 85% of the study participants being abdominally obese. Significant associations were found between years of stay in Norway and the risk for diabetes with those who lived in Norway >10 years, having twofold higher odds of being at risk for developing diabetes compared to those who lived in Norway ≤5 years (OR: 2.16, CI: 1.08-4.32). Understanding the mechanisms through which exposure to the Norwegian environment leads to higher obesity and diabetes risk may aid in prevention efforts for the rapidly growing African immigrant population.

  18. Diabetes Risk by Length of Residence among Somali Women in Oslo Area

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    Abdi A. Gele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes represents a major health problem worldwide, with immigrants strongly contributing to the increase in diabetes in many countries. Norway is not immune to the process, and immigrants in the country are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of diabetes after arrival. However, the dynamics of these transitions in relation to the duration of residence in the new environment in Norway are not clearly understood. From this background, a cross-sectional quantitative study using a respondent-driven sampling method was conducted among 302 Somali women living in Oslo area. The results show that 41% of the study participants will be at risk for developing diabetes in the coming 10 years, which coincides with 85% of the study participants being abdominally obese. Significant associations were found between years of stay in Norway and the risk for diabetes with those who lived in Norway >10 years, having twofold higher odds of being at risk for developing diabetes compared to those who lived in Norway ≤5 years (OR: 2.16, CI: 1.08–4.32. Understanding the mechanisms through which exposure to the Norwegian environment leads to higher obesity and diabetes risk may aid in prevention efforts for the rapidly growing African immigrant population.

  19. Prevalence of Autism in Children Born to Somali Parents Living in Sweden: A Brief Report

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    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    In a geographical area of Stockholm, with a relatively large Somali immigrant population, parents as well as teachers in special schools and staff at habilitation centres have raised concerns over whether children with a Somali background are over-represented in the total group of children with autism. The aim of the study was, therefore, to…

  20. Health is a spiritual thing: perspectives of health care professionals and female Somali and Bangladeshi women on the health impacts of fasting during Ramadan.

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    Pathy, Rubini; Mills, Kelsey E; Gazeley, Sharon; Ridgley, Andrea; Kiran, Tara

    2011-02-01

    To explore perspectives of health care professionals and female Somali and Bangladeshi Muslim women on practices related to fasting during Ramadan, the impact of fasting on health and the role of health professionals during Ramadan. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Two culturally specific focus groups were conducted with six Somali and seven Bangladeshi Muslim women who observed Ramadan and lived in an inner-city neighbourhood of Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 health care professionals practicing in this inner-city area (three of whom were Muslim). Data were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. Both Muslim women and health care professionals recognised the spiritual significance of the Ramadan fast. Muslim participants considered the fast to be beneficial to health overall, whereas health care professionals tended to reflect on health concerns from fasting. Many health care professionals were not fully aware of fasting practices during Ramadan and some found it challenging to counsel patients about the health effects of fasting. Muslim women expressed disagreement regarding which medical interventions were permitted during fasting. They generally agreed that health care professionals should not specifically advise against fasting, but instead provide guidance on health maintenance while fasting. Both groups agreed that guidelines developed by the health care and faith communities together would be useful. There are a variety of health beliefs and observances among female Muslim Somali and Bangladeshi women and a range of knowledge, experience and opinions among health care professionals related to fasting during Ramadan and health. Overall, there is a need for improved communication between members of the Muslim community and health professionals in Canada about health issues related to fasting during Ramadan. Strategies could include published practice guidelines endorsed by the Muslim

  1. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

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    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study

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    Gele AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Samera A Qureshi,1 Prabhjot Kour,1 Bernadette Kumar,1 Esperanza Diaz1,3 1Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, 2Department of Health, Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo; 3Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract: Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women’s participation in cervical cancer screening: 1 in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2 verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3 the initiation of better recall

  3. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and inter-pregnancy weight change among women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and the general Finnish population.

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    Bastola, Kalpana; Koponen, Päivikki; Härkänen, Tommi; Gissler, Mika; Kinnunen, Tarja I

    2017-05-01

    We studied the differences in the mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and mean inter-pregnancy weight change in women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and women in the general Finnish population. The population-based samples were from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the Health 2011 Survey conducted in six cities in Finland in 2010-2012. This study included women with at least one birth in Finland. Data on their previous pregnancies in Finland were obtained from the National Medical Birth Register for 318 Russian, 584 Somali and 373 Kurdish origin women and for 243 women in the general Finnish population (reference group). Data on pre-pregnancy weight and height were self-reported in early pregnancy. Linear logistic regression was the main method of analysis. The unadjusted mean pre-pregnancy BMI was higher in Somali (27.0 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) and Kurdish (25.8 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) women, but lower in Russian (22.2 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) women than in the reference group (24.1 kg/m 2 ). The adjusted coefficients for the difference in the mean pre-pregnancy BMI were -1.93 (95% CI -2.77 to -1.09) for Russian, 1.82 (95% CI 0.89-2.75) for Somali and 1.30 (95% CI 0.43-2.17) for Kurdish women compared with the reference group. Among women with at least two births, no statistically significant difference was observed in the mean inter-pregnancy weight change between the migrant groups and the reference group. Somali and Kurdish women had higher mean pre-pregnancy BMIs than women in the general Finnish population and may need special support and health promotion strategies for weight management.

  4. Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study.

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    Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette; Hjelde, Karin Harsløf; Sundby, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC) has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants' attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further.

  5. Culturally adapting a physical activity intervention for Somali women: the need for theory and innovation to promote equity.

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    Murray, Kate E; Ermias, Azieb; Lung, Amber; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Ellis, B Heidi; Linke, Sarah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Bowen, Deborah J; Marcus, Bess H

    2017-03-01

    There is pressing need for innovation in clinical research to more effectively recruit, engage, retain, and promote health among diverse populations overburdened by health disparities. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed illustration of the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based intervention to bolster translational research with currently underserved communities. The cultural adaptation heuristic framework described by Barrera and colleagues is applied to the adaptation of a physical activity evidence-based intervention with adult Somali women. Widespread changes were required to ensure program feasibility and acceptability, including the reduction of assessment protocols and changes discordant with current trends in physical activity research. The cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions offers an important mechanism for reducing health disparities. Improved reporting standards, assessment of features relevant to underserved communities, and greater funding requirements to ensure better representation are needed to promote more widespread access for all people.

  6. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O A; Sematimba, Douglas; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M

    2017-07-05

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants' coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample

  7. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O. A.; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Methods: Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the

  8. Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Verena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17 separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05. The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19 on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7. Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study.

  9. Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele1,2, Bernadette Kumar3, Karin Harsløf Hjelde3, Johanne Sundby21The Department of Social Science, Oslo University College, 2Section for International Health, Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, University of Oslo, 3Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further.Keywords: female circumcision, attitude, behavior, immigrants, Somalis

  10. Cigarettes and the Somali diaspora: tobacco use among Somali adults in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Kristin K W; Mire, Osman; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Ehrlich, Laura C; Stigler, Melissa H; Pryce, Douglas J; DuBois, Diana K

    2012-11-01

    Since the onset of the Somali civil war in 1991, more than 1 million Somalis have been displaced from Somalia. Minnesota has the largest Somali population in the U.S. Informal tobacco prevalence estimates among Somali populations in the U.S. and the United Kingdom range from 13% to 37%, respectively. Little research has been conducted to determine the extent of Somali tobacco use. This paper reports the results from a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey conducted and analyzed in 2009 that explores tobacco use and estimates prevalence among Somali adults aged ≥ 18 years in Minnesota. Modeled after validated state and national tobacco use surveys, the survey was adapted for Somalis and administered to ethnically Somali adults (N=392) from 25 neighborhood clusters in Minnesota. Participants were chosen through probability proportional to size and multistage random sampling methods. Estimated prevalence for cigarette use among Somalis was 24% (44% among men, 4% among women). Ever users were significantly more likely to be men, have attended college, and have friends who used cigarettes (pIslamic prohibition of tobacco was protective and affected current use and future intention to use tobacco (peducation levels. Positive peer pressure and religion are protective factors from tobacco use and should be integrated into prevention and cessation programs. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving women's lives

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has supported poor women in develop- ing countries ... and business management. Thanks to ... to local levels has changed the face of gov- ... Although formidable challenges ... Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  12. The FAV-S Pilot Study: Increasing Self-Efficacy and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Somali Women and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Hearst, Mary O.; Sherman, Shelley; Elwell, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 FAV-S pilot study was developed as a dietary intervention program for low-income Somali mothers grounded in the health belief model. The intervention was geared toward increasing fruit and vegetable intake among participants' children. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of the FAV-S program on participants' (1)…

  13. Somalis in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    FAGIOLI-NDLOVU, Monica

    2015-01-01

    INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals? Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration Somalis have a long history in Europe; the first Somalis were seamen who arrived in the UK working on British ships at the beginning of the 20th century. Throughout different waves of migrations directly related to European colonial history, Somalis have settled down in various cities throughout Europe. More recently,...

  14. Somalis in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    , particularly a very high level of discrimination and stereotyping. The study reveals institutional gaps across different areas that need to be addressed urgently but also good practices at the local level.Somalis in Copenhagen is part of a comparative seven-city research series entitled Somalis in European...

  15. Somali Parents' Experiences of Bringing up Children in Finland: Exploring Social-Cultural Change within Migrant Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filio Degni

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 5,000 to 6,000 Somalis arrived in Finland between 1990 and 1995 through Russia. Currently, 8,096 have settled permanently in the country. The data reported here is from a 1998-1999 research survey carried out in the Finish cities of Helsinki and Turku. The survey of 117 married Somalis explored the social-cultural determinants of contraception use. The paper presented here focuses upon one particular aspect of the survey. We selected 21 Somali parents (11 women and 10 men to look in-depth at the experiences of Somali migrants raising children in Finland. All of the respondents selected have more than 5 children in their family and all were asked to describe their experiences of raising children in Finland and, more generally, in establishing and maintaining family structures. Unlike their experiences in Somali, bringing up large families (by Westerns standards is not a collective matter in Finland where biological parents are left to manage the family for themselves. A number of challenges also accompany this shift in family norms: first, and most notably, there is the need to re-establish control over one's life in an alien environment; second, intergenerational conflict between adult migrants and their adolescent children is often heightened. The findings indicate that Somalis' experiences of raising children in Finland raise important parenting challenges associated with changing generational, gender and family relations within the migrant household. Importantly, this case study of large Somali families shows how migrants' lives are intricately linked to the household dynamic between home and host country. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060388

  16. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  17. The situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence: A focused enquiry of Somali young women's views, knowledge and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrskog, Ulrika; Hussein, Ifrah Hashi; Yusuf, Farah Mohamed; Egal, Jama Ali; Erlandsson, Kerstin

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study is to elucidate young women's perceptions of the situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Young Somali women with diverse backgrounds (n = 25) shared views, knowledge and opinions about non partner sexual violence in focus group discussions held in urban settings. Data was analysed using content analysis. A main category "Bound by culture and community perceptions" with four subcategories comprises the informants' perceptions of non-partner sexual violence among young women in Somaliland. Illuminated is the importance of protecting oneself and the family dignity, a fear of being rejected and mistrusted, how the juridical system exists in the shadow of tradition and potential keys to healthcare support. The study raises awareness of the dilemmas which may be faced by young women subjected to non-partner sexual violence and healthcare providers in the intersection between state and traditional norms. Education is a key when it comes to a young woman considering the use of the services available in a society where traditional problem-solving is relied on parallel to state-based support. State-based functions, communities and families need to work together to provide comprehensive support to young female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of "Islamic feminism" in Somali Immigrant Women's Intra-and Extra-Household Bargaining Power and in Mitigating the Negative Effects of the Image Problem in their Integration in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ngunjiri, Anne Wangui

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the aspirations and life experiences of Somali immigrant women in Bergen as they embark on gender-tuned interpretation of the Quran as a source of bargaining power within the household and in the wider Norwegian immigration context. By bargaining power I mean an individual's interests or preferences and the ability to act on those interests or preferences. I show that, faced by constraints such as restrictive structures within the Norwegian immigration context and pa...

  19. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  20. Women's lives in times of Zika: mosquito-controlled lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ana Rosa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-05-10

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika. Women were recruited through the snowball sampling technique and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. We describe the effects in mental health and the coping strategies that women use to deal with the Zika epidemic. Zika is taking a heavy toll on women's emotional well-being. They are coping with feelings of fear, helplessness, and uncertainty by taking drastic precautions to avoid infection that affect all areas of their lives. Coping strategies pose obstacles in professional life, lead to social isolation, including from family and partner, and threaten the emotional and physical well-being of women. Our findings suggest that the impacts of the Zika epidemic on women may be universal and global. Zika infection is a silent and heavy burden on women's shoulders.

  1. Contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon; Steyn, Petrus; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-08-01

    Women living with HIV are often of reproductive age, and many desire effective contraceptive options to delay or prevent pregnancy. We review the safety of various hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, we discuss drug interactions between contraceptive methods and antiretrovirals and the safety of methods with respect to onward transmission to HIV-negative partners for women in sero-discordant partnerships. In general, most methods are safe for most women living with HIV. An understanding of the reproductive goals of each individual patient, as well as her medical condition and medication, should be taken into account when counselling women on their contraceptive options. Further research is needed to understand drug interactions between contraceptives and antiretrovirals better and how to fulfil the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. When female circumcision comes to the West: attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Johansen, Elise B; Sundby, Johanne

    2012-08-27

    Female circumcision (FC) has lifelong adverse social and health consequences for women, and its abolition will not only enhance the health of children and women, but also promote gender equality. Like many other Western countries, Norway hosts a large proportion of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, though primarily from Somalia, which is the country with the highest prevalence of FC in the world. A behavioral change by the practicing communities has the best chance to successfully and sustainably eliminate this practice. However, FC prevention programs require a behavioral surveillance that monitors the process of change, with this being the first quantitative study since the major migration of the Somali community to Norway began in 1991 to investigate whether or not Somali immigrants' attitudes toward the practice has improved in favor of its abandonment. A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was conducted in Oslo from April to June of 2011. A sample of 214 persons was interviewed, using structured questionnaires. The results show that 70% of Somalis in Oslo support the discontinuation of all forms of FC compared to 30% who support its continuation, with the latter group more likely to be people who lived in Norway ≤ 4 years. Of the 10 girls who came to Norway at the age of ≤ 7 years, only one was circumcised, though whether the circumcision occurred before or after the girl's arrival in Norway remains unclear. The perception that FC is required by religion was the sole factor to be significantly associated with an ongoing support of FC. The study reveals that Somalis in Oslo demonstrate a trend to abandon this practice over time. Nevertheless, the 30% of the people who still support its continuation, and who are primarily newly arrived immigrants, require a targeted intervention that is implemented in the early phase of the immigrants' arrival.

  3. When female circumcision comes to the West: Attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female circumcision (FC has lifelong adverse social and health consequences for women, and its abolition will not only enhance the health of children and women, but also promote gender equality. Like many other Western countries, Norway hosts a large proportion of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, though primarily from Somalia, which is the country with the highest prevalence of FC in the world. A behavioral change by the practicing communities has the best chance to successfully and sustainably eliminate this practice. However, FC prevention programs require a behavioral surveillance that monitors the process of change, with this being the first quantitative study since the major migration of the Somali community to Norway began in 1991 to investigate whether or not Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice has improved in favor of its abandonment. Methods A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS was conducted in Oslo from April to June of 2011. A sample of 214 persons was interviewed, using structured questionnaires. Results The results show that 70% of Somalis in Oslo support the discontinuation of all forms of FC compared to 30% who support its continuation, with the latter group more likely to be people who lived in Norway ≤ 4 years. Of the 10 girls who came to Norway at the age of ≤ 7 years, only one was circumcised, though whether the circumcision occurred before or after the girl’s arrival in Norway remains unclear. The perception that FC is required by religion was the sole factor to be significantly associated with an ongoing support of FC. Conclusion The study reveals that Somalis in Oslo demonstrate a trend to abandon this practice over time. Nevertheless, the 30% of the people who still support its continuation, and who are primarily newly arrived immigrants, require a targeted intervention that is implemented in the early phase of the immigrants’ arrival.

  4. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  5. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rask

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. Methods We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29–64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing. The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 % and Kurdish origin men (32 % and women (57 % compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5–12 %. In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7–17 % was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish, were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07–6.29, Kurds

  6. Women's lived experiences of learning to live with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna A; Abrahamsen, Bo; Konradsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    qualitative interviews were conducted with fifteen recently diagnosed Danish women. A longitudinal design was chosen since this allows an investigation of the perspective over time. The interviews were conducted in the period of March 2011 to August 2012. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological......BACKGROUND: A vast amount of literature exists concerning pharmaceutical adherence in osteoporosis. However, the process of learning to live with osteoporosis over time remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the continued process of how women learn...... to live with osteoporosis. Our objective was to explore what characterizes women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first year after diagnosis, when patients are prescribed anti-osteoporotic treatment, without having experienced an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: Forty-two narrative...

  7. Knowledge translation in Africa for 21st century integrative biology: the "know-do gap" in family planning with contraceptive use among Somali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abdullahi A; Guled, Ibrahim A; Elamin, Hayfa M; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H

    2014-11-01

    An emerging dimension of 21(st) century integrative biology is knowledge translation in global health. The maternal mortality rate in Somalia is amongst the highest in the world. We set out to study the "know-do" gap in family planning measures in Somalia, with a view to inform future interventions for knowledge integration between theory and practice. We interviewed 360 Somali females of reproductive age and compared university-educated females to women with less or no education, using structured interviews, with a validated questionnaire. The mean age of marriage was 18 years, with 4.5 pregnancies per marriage. The mean for the desired family size was 9.3 and 10.5 children for the university-educated group and the less-educated group, respectively. Importantly, nearly 90% of the university-educated group knew about family planning, compared to 45.6% of the less-educated group. All of the less-educated group indicated that they would never use contraceptives, as compared to 43.5% of the university-educated group. Prevalence of contraceptive use among ever-married women was 4.3%. In the less-educated group, 80.6% indicated that they would not recommend contraceptives to other women as compared to 66.0% of the university-educated group. There is a huge gap between knowledge and practice regarding family planning in Somalia. The attendant reasons for this gap, such as level of education, expressed personal religious beliefs and others, are examined here. For primary health care to gain traction in Africa, we need to address the existing "know-do" gaps that are endemic and adversely impacting on global health. This is the first independent research study examining the knowledge gaps for family planning in Somalia in the last 20 years, with a view to understanding knowledge integration in a global world. The results shall guide policy makers, donors, and implementers to develop a sound family planning policy and program to improve maternal and child health in 21(st

  8. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  9. ‘You are labelled by your children’s disability’:A community-based, participatory study of stigma among Somali parents of children with autism living in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, Lucy; Fox, Fiona; Aabe, Nura; Turner, Katrina; Rai, Dheeraj; Redwood, Sabi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Social stigma is commonly experienced by parents of children with autism. Our aim was to understand the nature of stigma experienced by Somali parents of children with autism in the United Kingdom (UK), and to consider how they coped with or resisted such stigma. Design: We used a community-based participatory research approach, collaborating with a community organisation of Somali parents. In-depth interviews with simultaneous translation were conducted with 15 Somali parents of ...

  10. The Total Somali Clan Genealogy (second edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an updated genealogy of all Somali 'clans'. Somali kinship is based on patrilineal descent or 'tol', but there are no equivalents in the Somali language for the words 'clan' and 'lineage'. The Somali terminology for the levels of social segmentation is complex, amongst others

  11. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Fellin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 individual interviews with Somali mothers and participant- observation in two parenting education classes in Canada.

  12. The Wellbeing of Somali Refugees in Kampala: Perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is substantial research on the psychological wellbeing of refugees in psychology, especially in acculturation research, there is very little research assessing refugees' objective conditions of living. This study aims to bridge this gap by assessing the perceived satisfaction of Somali refugees' objective elements ...

  13. Health Information in Somali (Af-Soomaali )

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Wound Healing - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Fasting Blood Sugar Test - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) - Af-Soomaali ( ...

  14. MEAT-GOAT MARKET ANALYSIS: A PILOT STUDY OF THE SOMALI MARKET IN COLUMBUS, OH

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, C. Thomas; Ellerman, John; Mangione, Dave; West, Travis; Yang, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This case study focuses on meat goat marketing involving one distinct immigrant group residing in one area of Columbus, Ohio: the Somalis. There are about 20,000-25,000 Somalis living in Columbus, the second largest concentration of Somalian immigrants in the U.S. after Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. It is estimated that Columbus Somalis consume the meat from about 14,000 goats each year. The objective of this pilot study is to analyze the meat goat marketing and consumption patterns of the...

  15. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...

  16. Views of Science Teaching and Learning by Immigrant Somali Elders: Perceptions of Conflict and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Nancy Jean

    The gap between a student's home culture and that of classroom science may create challenges for students and families, especially those from recent immigrant cultures, including refugees. As a result, science learning in schools may require a form of cultural border crossing between home cultures and the culture of classroom science. Given this, as educators, how do we make these borders more porous for better science learning experiences? Using the frameworks of funds of knowledge, culturally relevant pedagogy, and socio-constructivism, this study focuses on the perspectives of Somali-American elders and parents about school science. Designed as an in-depth interview study, five purposefully selected participants were interviewed over a period of two years. The guiding questions for the study included: 1) What are the perceptions of Somali elders about school science? and 2) How do Somali elders believe science teaching and learning can facilitate Somali students' engagement in science?. Analysis of the interview data revealed that Somali-American adults have complicated perceptions of school science that include both conflicts and acceptance with current pedagogy and content. For example, science education was highly valued by both individuals and the Somali community, both as a way for individuals to attain economic prosperity and respect, but also as a way to lift up the Somali diaspora, both here and in their native homeland. On the other hand, science was also viewed as an abstract discipline with little connection to students' and families' everyday home lives. Moreover, due to the intrinsic role that Islam plays in traditional and contemporary Somali culture, several areas of science education, including geology, evolution and sex education, were viewed as problematic and unresolvable. Various potential areas of funds of knowledge and culturally relevant pedagogy were discussed including nutrition, food preparation and storage, health education, and

  17. Somalis giving birth in Sweden: a challenge to culture and gender specific values and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, H; Aden, A S; Högberg, U; Wikman, M; Dahlgren, L

    2000-06-01

    Giving birth in a foreign country implies going through a life event with little or no access to your own traditions and social support. The aim of this study was to study the childbirth experiences of Somali women and men in Sweden. Qualitative. Nine women and seven men were interviewed. Data collection was characterised by an openness to new ideas during the interview and the interviews were analysed according to the grounded theory technique. The meeting of Somalis with Swedish antenatal and delivery care was a multicultural event. It revealed social, medical, cultural and gender factors advocating space in the arena of childbirth. The Somalis constituted a homogeneous group with regard to their cultural belonging and motives for exile. The subjects were heterogeneous in that they represented a great variety in social and demographic background as well as in experiences, feelings and modes of expression. One striking finding was the Somali man's dramatic entrance into childbirth, which seemed to have a strong impact on the Somali woman's well-being during delivery. The study showed difficulties in getting used to the Swedish model of parenthood and in finding new role divisions in the couple relationship. Some of the subjects had experienced a strengthening of their marriage and an increased understanding of each other. Others commented that various aspects of traditional womanhood and manhood were lost as a result of the unfamiliar gender structures in Sweden. The Somalis' experiences of childbirth in Sweden can be understood by using the theoretical concept of gender, rather than culture. Our own and other studies show that women and men may have different frames of reference in childbirth, where the women mainly focus on biological circumstances and the men on the social and cultural aspects of birth. The Somali couple were found to be vulnerably positioned, with the professionals having the important role of supporting and empowering Somali parents.

  18. [The life of elderly women living alone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunmi; Ko, Moon Hee; Kim, Moon Jeong; Kim, Joohyun; Kim, Hee Ja; Moon, Jin Ha; Baek, Kyoung Seon; Son, Haeng-Mi; Oh, SangEun; Lee, YoungAe; Choi, Jung-Sook

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to uncover the fundamental nature of living alone in female elderly. The phenomenological research approach developed by van Manen was adopted. The theme was 'taking a firm stand alone on the edges of life'. The composition elements of living alone experienced by elderly women were as follows: 1) Corporeality: participants perceived their bodies by their health status. Unhealthy participants were suffering with diseases and dependant on other persons, while healthy participants were free from family responsibility and kept on moving. 2) Spatiality: participants felt both freedom and loneliness while they stayed home. 3) Relationality: participants felt pity and yearning for their bereaved husband and sometimes talked to his picture. According to their children's filial piety, participants were pleased or displeased. However, they incessantly devoted themselves to their children. 4) Temporality: participants considered the rest of their life as extra-time which was proceeding to death, and tried to keep themselves busy before they died. A nurse should understand the multifarious aspects of elderly women's life, and then intervene to consolidate their strengths for self-supporting the final years of life.

  19. Women's experience of living with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, H

    1996-03-01

    This paper is drawn from a piece of empirical research which set out to give three women the opportunity to speak on their own behalf about how they experience having cancer in a sexual organ, using a feminist methodology to produce autobiographical stories. The stories describe the process of diagnosis and treatment and also convey the catastrophic nature of a diagnosis of cancer, which leads to a painful, existential crisis and feelings of bewilderment, powerlessness and isolation. The work was prompted by attendance at a workshop about cancer, body image and sexuality for sufferers and carers, which had indicated a depth of pain greater than is usually acknowledged. This pain suggested a fundamental link between body image and the posited concept of woman image; the existence of a common identity through the category woman as it is traditionally structured in society. This link is explored in relation to the evident changes in body image and the compromised sexualities of the women. The disabling consequences of female sexual stereotyping are elaborated and discussed as synergistic with the more fundamental stigma shadow cast by the prospect of dying. The paper discusses possible reasons for this in the context of a transformative rather than restorative model of living with cancer. It suggests that being thrown into self-conscious living could be a source of energy for renegotiation for women especially. The inadequacy of the medical model of disease is exposed and a more holistic approach is shown to be essential to address the needs of cancer patients, as is a critical appraisal and adjustment of existing social attitudes and relations.

  20. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). Materials and Methods: One‑hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full‑term and single ...

  1. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  2. Prognosis for live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2012-01-01

    To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic.......To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic....

  3. Current and future contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-01-01

    Among women living with HIV, half of the pregnancies are unintended. Effective contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal mortality and perinatal transmission of HIV. While contraceptive options available for all women also apply to women living with HIV, specific considerations exist to the use of contraception by women living with HIV. Areas covered: First, general principles guiding the use of contraception among women living with HIV are discussed, such as choice, method mix, relative effectiveness, and drug-drug interactions. Second, a detailed discussion of each contraceptive method and issues surrounding the use of that method, such as drug-drug interactions, follows. Third, future contraceptive options in advanced development for use by women or men are briefly discussed. Expert opinion: Contraceptive methods available to all women should also be accessible to women living with HIV. When the relative effectiveness of a contraceptive method is reduced, for example due to drug-drug interactions with antiretrovirals, the method should still be made available to women living with HIV with the appropriate information sharing and counseling. Greater research on various aspects of contraceptive use by women living with HIV and more comprehensive testing of co-administration of hormonal contraceptives and common medications used by these women are warranted.

  4. Lifetime induced abortion: a comparison between women living and not living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecco, Flávia Bulegon; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Vigo, Alvaro; Dewey, Michael E; Knauth, Daniela Riva

    2014-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the association between induced abortion and HIV are scarce and differ on the direction of the association. This paper aims to show the prevalence of induced abortion in a sample of pregnancies of women living and not living with HIV/Aids, determining variables associated with pregnancy termination and linked to the life course of women and to the specific context of the pregnancy. Data came from a cross-sectional study, using interviewer-administered questionnaire, developed with women that attended public health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A generalized estimating equation model with logit link measured the association between determinants and abortion. The final sample was composed of 684 women living with HIV/Aids (2,039 pregnancies) and 639 women not living with HIV/Aids (1,539 pregnancies). The prevalence of induced abortion among pregnancies in women living with HIV/Aids was 6.5%, while in women not living with HIV/Aids was 2.9%. Among women living with HIV/Aids, the following were associated with induced abortion in the multivariable analysis: being older, having a higher education level, having had more sexual partners (i.e., variables linked to the life course of women), having had children prior to the index pregnancy and living with a sexual partner during pregnancy (i.e., variables linked to the context of each pregnancy). On the other hand, among women not living with HIV/Aids, only having a higher education level and having had more sexual partners (i.e., determinants linked to the life course of women) were associated with voluntary pregnancy termination in multivariable analysis. Although determinants are similar between women living and not living with HIV/Aids, prevalence of induced abortion is higher among pregnancies in women living with HIV/Aids, pointing to their greater social vulnerability and to the need for public policy to address prevention and treatment of HIV associated with reproductive issues.

  5. Somali Families in Norway: : A Critical Review of The Changing Socio-structural Situation and it's Consequence for the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Gabowduale, Kassim Gabowduale

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of Somali families have been flashed out of their homes and forced to migrate as a result of the ongoing conflict in Somalia. With the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia in the late eighties and early nineties, a large exodus of refugees fled the country. There are almost twenty three thousand Somalis living in Norway today; the majority of them settled in and around Oslo according to Statistics Norway (Henriksen 2008). Upon arrival, Somalis, still suffering from the tr...

  6. The total Somali clan genealogy : a preliminary sketch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary genealogy of all Somali 'clans'. Somali kinship is based on patrilineal descent, but there are no equivalents in the Somali language for the words 'clan' and 'lineage'. The Somali terminology for the levels of social segmentation is complex, amongst others because

  7. Living Well? Strategies Used by Women Living With Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Yee, Jasmine; Kilbreath, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of changing status-once an imminent death sentence, now a chronic (albeit incurable) disease. Medical intervention advances mean women with metastatic breast cancer now have symptoms alleviated and, potentially, life extended. Living with this disease, however, requires more than a medical approach to symptoms. We were interested to know whether women manage, and if so, how, to "live well" with metastatic cancer. We conducted interviews with 18 women. Women differed in the approaches they used. Most common was the attempt to reestablish a sense of normality in their lives. However, a second group reevaluated and reprioritized their lives; and a third group was restricted in their capacity to live well because of symptoms. The findings provide the foundation for future research exploring normalization of experiences of metastatic cancer, and other chronic illnesses, where people are living with knowledge that they have contracted time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  9. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  10. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC has supported poor women in developing countries in their efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making. University degrees and decent jobs make it easier ... Two Palestinian women sit in classroom. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women ...

  11. Improving activities of daily living ability in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; Bandak, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT...

  12. Consumption of healthy foods and associated socio-demographic factors among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.

  13. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and ...

  14. Childbearing and family planning choices of women living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on ART in the urban health centres within Lusaka. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six HIV-positive women receiving care in the zoned health centres were randomly sampled and 12 health care workers who were ...

  15. Envisioning Women-Centered HIV Care: Perspectives from Women Living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nadia; Greene, Saara; Carter, Allison; Lewis, Johanna; Nicholson, Valerie; Kwaramba, Gladys; Ménard, Brigitte; Kaufman, Elaina; Ennabil, Nourane; Andersson, Neil; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Kaida, Angela

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77 women living with HIV across Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, Canada. Women envisioned three central characteristics of women-centered HIV care, including i) coordinated and integrated services that address both HIV and women's health care priorities, and protect against exclusion from care due to HIV-related stigma, ii) care that recognizes and responds to structural barriers that limit women's access to care, such as violence, poverty, motherhood, HIV-related stigma, and challenges to safe disclosure, and iii) care that fosters peer support and peer leadership in its design and delivery to honor the diversity of women's experiences, overcome women's isolation, and prioritize women's ownership over the decisions that affect their lives. Despite advances in HIV treatment and care, the current care landscape is inadequate to meet women's comprehensive care needs. A women-centered approach to HIV care, as envisioned by women living with HIV, is central to guiding policy and practice to improve care and outcomes for women living with HIV in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Looking Islam in the Teeth: The Social Life of a Somali Toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Lance D; Barnes, Linda L; Hunter-Adams, Jo; Cochran, Jennifer; Geltman, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    The Arabic miswak (Somali, adayge) is a tooth-cleaning stick from the Salvadora persica plant. In this article, we trace the social life of a "thing," examining meanings inscribed in the stick brush, drawing on interviews with 82 Somali refugees in Massachusetts and an analysis of local and transnational science and marketing. The miswak toothbrush symbolizes relationships to nature, homeland culture, global Islam, globalizing dental medicine, and the divine as it intersects with the lives of producers, marketers, distributors, and users, creating hybrid cultural forms in new contexts. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. At Hesitant Doors: The lived experience of women in STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Romina B. da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social s...

  18. Beyond the playing field: experiences of sport, social capital and integration among Somalis in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of recreational sport as a means and marker of social integration by analysing the lived experiences of Somali people from refugee backgrounds with sport. Drawing on a three-year multi-sided ethnography, the paper examines the extent to and ways in which participation in

  19. Somali refugees' experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, C.T.; Bensing, J.M.; Ruijter, A. de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  20. Somali refugees’ experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titia Feldmann, C.; Bensing, J.; Ruijter, Arie de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  1. Engendering independence while living with purpose: women's lives after leaving abusive intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Penelope W; Dickerson, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common meanings a history of violence has for women out of abusive and violent relationships with an intimate male partner for 5 or more years. To describe the common meanings and shared practices of women who left violent and abusive heterosexual intimate relationships 5 or more years ago, the challenges they face in their current lives, and the resources they use to meet those challenges. An additional aim is to elucidate practical advice they have for others who want to be supportive of the efforts of women recovering from intimate partner violence. An interpretive phenomenological approach using Heideggerian hermeneutics was utilized. Approval of the University Social Sciences Institutional Review Board was obtained. Participants were recruited by means of fliers distributed through a domestic violence listserv and through postings in health clinics in western New York. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A hermeneutic team approach was used for analysis and interpretation of texts. Twenty-one women of various ages, ethnicities, and backgrounds, who self-identified as being out of abusive relationships for 5 or more years, were interviewed. Six themes were identified: developing and maintaining self reliance; negotiating relationships; creating a safe and supportive environment; challenging societal roles and expectations; nurturing the self; and protecting the children. Engendering independence while living with purpose was the constitutive pattern that unified the themes. Women can successfully establish productive, meaningful lives after violence and will fiercely protect and maintain their independence as they negotiate relationships and developmental challenges throughout their lives. A need for control of their lives and difficulty trusting others remain a lasting legacy of living with a history of violence. This is the first study that examines women's lives 5 or more years after leaving violent and

  2. Somalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    Contemporary scholarship characterizes Somalia as a nation in search of statehood. The approach presupposes a homogenous cohesive nation and society- with considerable traditional democratic pastoralism. This book portrays a complex nation with multiple heterogeneous characteristics. This alterna...

  3. Living Day by Day: The Meaning of Living With HIV/AIDS Among Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R S; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being "sick" and feeling "normal": Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country.

  4. The Role of Women's/Gender Studies in the Changing Lives of British Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Gill; Whitelegg, Liz; Rowbotham, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by part-time Women's/Gender Studies (WGS) courses in women's lives in the UK through interviews with 35 women who were among 8000 students who studied one of the UK Open University's undergraduate interdisciplinary WGS courses between 1983 and 1999. A thematic analysis of these interviews shows how these mainly…

  5. Women, Sex and Modern Society : The Sex Lives of Readers of a Dutch Women's Magazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency to which heterosexual women engage in a range of sexual activities, such as sexual fantasizing and engaging in cybersex, and to examine women's level of satisfaction with their sex lives. In addition, we explored the role of age in women's

  6. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-12-01

    From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  7. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Baguso, Glenda N.; Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...

  8. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1 feeling inferior and worthless (2 feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3 fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4 feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Keywords: alcoholism, alcohol drinking, gender identity, violence

  10. The health of the poor: women living in informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, G; Arku, R; Montana, L

    2012-06-01

    A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or "slums" today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Health data collected as part of the Women's Health Study of Accra round II (WHSA-II) was combined with data from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to compare the health of female slum dwellers to the health of female non-slum dwellers living in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Group means were calculated and multivariate linear regression models were estimated to compare eight domains of health as measured by the short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Women living in informal settlements were found to display consistently better health. Conditional on all observable characteristics, women living in informal settlements scored higher on all self-reported health outcomes than women living in non-slum areas. The differences appear largest for general health as well as for the physical role functioning domains, and appear smallest for the social role functioning and bodily pain domains. The results presented suggest that slum residence does not have a negative effect on self-reported health among women in Accra. Three factors may contribute to the generally positive association between slum residence and observed outcomes: i) self-selection of individuals with strong health into informal settlements and an accordingly small impact of environmental factors on health ii) self-selection of more driven and ambitious individuals into slum neighborhoods who may have a generally more positive view of their health and iii) the geographic placement of slum neighborhoods in central neighborhoods with relatively easy access to health facilities.

  11. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  12. Women's Rights and Living Customary Law | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This action-research project focuses on the interface between custom and rights in the context of a constitution that recognizes and protects both customary law and the Bill of Rights. It will explore how this interplay affects the rights - particularly land rights - of black women living in former "homeland areas" of South Africa.

  13. 18. Childbearing and Family Planning Choices of Women Living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on. ART in the urban health ... sampled using a review register as a sampling frame. Health care workers were .... level of 0.05, the p value was 0.000 and we were able to reject the null ...

  14. Clan and Islamic Identities in Somali Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    les déductions les plus intéressantes, y compris des comparaisons avec les histoires de la Pologne et de l’Ingouchie. Malgré la richesse de ces...Christian (1999). Le sang et le lait: Brève histoire des clans somali. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose. [22] Bakonyi, Jutta (2009). Moral economies of...Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika, 6:24, 115-143. [67] Diriye Abdullahi, Mohamed (2000). Le Somali: Dialectes et histoire . Unpublished PhD

  15. More than re-establishing the partner relationship: Intimate aftercare for Somali parents in diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-08-01

    to explore the sexual relationship and couples' perceptions about intimate partner support following childbirth. a hermeneutic design using a naturalistic inquiry framework as a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were collected using a fictional and culturally-specific narrative during focus group discussions (FGDs) in early 2011. Analysis was conducted by 'functional narrative analysis' and interpreted for conceptual constructions. Recruitment was by snowball and purposive sampling. a diasporic context among participants living in six urban centres across Sweden. successful recruitment included 16 Somali-Swedish fathers and 27 mothers. Three FDGs were conducted with fathers (3-7 participants) and seven with mothers (3-6 participants). within day 40 post partum, parents learn to rely on each other in the absence of traditional support networks. After the first 40 days, the re-introduction of sexual intimacy is likely to occur. Of the fathers experiencing postpartum sexual aversion, these seemed to experience 'existential angst' resulting from a combination of profound remorse over having put the partner into what they perceived as a life-threatening situation during childbirth and their perceived moral and ethical obligations to provide support in this setting. Mothers in general did not directly discuss their own sexuality. Women could imagine men's sexual aversion after witnessing childbirth. However, they seemed unaware of men's potential for angst. Mothers are situated between the loss of traditional postpartum support networks, comprised of close female kin, and their own newly-defined responsibilities in the host setting. Fathers embrace their new role. Both partners articulated the mother's new role as enhancing autonomy and independence in the host setting. However, women held mixed attitudes about fathers replacing traditional kin support. to date, late postpartum aftercare for immigrant African parents is anecdotally linked to evidence

  16. Decolonised Sexualities : The Lived Experiences of Black Township Women Who Love Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbasalaki, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405560

    2018-01-01

    This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against

  17. At Hesitant Doors: The lived experience of women in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. da Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social sciences. The author attempts to gain some new insights and understanding of the issue of women in STEM, engaging in two in-depth phenomenological conversations with a female engineering student in a large public university of US Mid-Atlantic region.

  18. The lived experience of pregnancy complications in single older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of single older women (35 years or older at time of birth) who experienced complications in their planned pregnancy. Phenomenology, using semistructured interviews with 11 women between the ages of 35 to 48 years. Six themes emerged: (a) motherhood now or never, (b) the known and unknown, (c) importance of support, (d) the stigma of single motherhood, (e) changing priorities, and (f) long-term concerns for themselves and child/children. Nurses who work with pregnant women should understand as much as possible about the issues affecting older single women who choose pregnancy; this offers the best opportunity to provide comprehensive care. These women can be at increased risk for many pregnancy complications, and should receive counseling about their risks for both fetal and maternal complications. Nurses should also conduct a thorough psychosocial assessment to determine what support systems are in place and what resources are available if complications arise. In the intrapartum and postpartum settings, nurses can offer not only appropriate physical caregiving but also a supportive and caring attitude with women in this circumstance. Helping women maintain a sense of control by helping them to participate in their care planning is essential.

  19. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  20. Emergency within an emergency: Somali IDP s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Noor

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available International media report that over 300,000 Somalis have been newly displaced by fighting in Mogadishu. Conflict-related displacement hits the headlines but the numbers displaced by environmental change are also colossal. The international response remains woefully inadequate.

  1. Decreased live births among women of Middle Eastern/North African ethnicity compared to Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, W H; Abdullah, A; Abuzeid, O; Bendikson, K; Sharara, F I; Abuzeid, M

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if IVF outcome disparities exist among MENA women in the USA in comparison to a control group of Caucasian women. A retrospective cohort study comparing MENA (N = 190) and Caucasian (N = 200) women undergoing their first IVF cycle between 5/2006 and 5/2014 was carried out at an academically affiliated fertility practice. All MENA cycles during that time period undergoing IVF/ICSI using autologous embryos and blastocyst transfers were compared to a control group of Caucasian women. MENA women were significantly younger (32.9 vs 34.5, P Middle Eastern/North African women have worse IVF outcomes with decreased live birth rates per blastocyst transfer and increased miscarriage rates compared to Caucasian women.

  2. Lived experience of women with gestational diabetes mellitus living in China: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Wikby, Kerstin; Rask, Mikael

    2017-11-28

    To explore the lived experience of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) living in China in order to add knowledge about how the Chinese women suffer from GDM. A qualitative interpretive interview study. Data were collected with a snowball sampling technique. Phenomenological hermeneutics was used as the analysis method based on Ricoeur's phenomenological hermeneutical interpretation theory. The study was performed at the participants' work places, or at the obstetric clinics or wards at two provincial hospitals and one municipal hospital in the southeast of China. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, diagnosis of GDM without other pregnancy complications, in 34th gestational weeks-postpartum 4th weeks and speaking Mandarin Chinese without speech impediment. 62 women, who met the inclusion criteria, took part in the study. The lived experience of the women with GDM living in China was formulated into a main theme: 'longing for caring care'. The main theme was derived from four themes: being stricken by GDM, wishing to receive caring GDM care, being left alone to struggle with GDM and trying to adjust and adapt to life with GDM. The eagerness for caring care in China was highlighted. The lack of caring care could be one of the possible reasons why the professional-patient relations were deteriorating in China. It could be useful for health providers and health policymakers to receive education and training about caring care. Using the health metaphor of balance and 'patient participation' and 'patient-centred' approaches may benefit women with GDM and thus improve the quality of care in China. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Women living with facial hair: the psychological and behavioral burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Michelle G; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan; Rustin, Malcolm H A; Clayton, William J

    2006-08-01

    While unwanted facial hair is clearly distressing for women, relatively little is known about its psychological impact. This study reports on the psychological and behavioral burden of facial hair in women with suspected polycystic ovary syndrome. Eighty-eight women (90% participation rate) completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning hair removal practices; the impact of facial hair on social and emotional domains; relationships and daily life; anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale); and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Women spent considerable time on the management of their facial hair (mean, 104 min/week). Two thirds (67%) reported continually checking in mirrors and 76% by touch. Forty percent felt uncomfortable in social situations. High levels of emotional distress and psychological morbidity were detected; 30% had levels of depression above the clinical cut off point, while 75% reported clinical levels of anxiety; 29% reported both. Although overall quality of life was good, scores were low in social and relationship domains--reflecting the impact of unwanted facial hair. Unwanted facial hair carries a high psychological burden for women and represents a significant intrusion into their daily lives. Psychological support is a neglected element of care for these women.

  4. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. PMID:27697368

  5. Women waste pickers: living conditions, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Fernandes, Marcelo Nunes da Silva; Freitas, Natiellen Quatrin; Prestes, Francine Cassol; Tonel, Juliana Zancan

    2016-09-29

    To know the elements of work, health, and living conditions of women who pick recyclable waste and are members of a waste cooperative in a town of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with seven subjects. Data were collected through participative observation, semi structured interview, and a focus group from July to August of 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis. The following thematic categories emerged: Women's work, informality and precariousness; Experiences of job satisfaction; and Working conditions and health: experiences with accidents, illness and health services. It was concluded that the women who collect recyclable material are exposed to precarious work conditions and potential health risks, such as work overload, accidents, illness, and social insecurity, and that nurses are responsible for promoting actions that ensure the health and inclusion of these workers.

  6. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM ... Medicine Division. Photo Courtesy of Lisa Helfert Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives is on display in the ...

  7. A qualitative study of women's lived experience after deinfibulation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Faezeh

    2013-02-01

    to explore women's experiences of deinfibulation and its aftermath. a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with data collection via audio-recording and field notes. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method for qualitative data analysis. recruitment for the study was carried out in an African Well Women Clinic in London, United Kingdom. there were nine women participants of Somali and Eritrean origin who had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) type III previously and underwent deinfibulation between January 2008 and September 2009. key themes identified were the cultural meaning and social acceptability of deinfibulation; the consequences of deinfibulation within marital relationships; feelings about the appearance of genitalia post deinfibulation and thoughts on reinfibulation. marital factors and stability of the relationship influence the experience of deinfibulation. Those women who said they had discussed deinfibulation with their husband in advance, and that he had agreed to the procedure, reported less problems afterwards. Single women who had deinfibulation before marriage may face more difficulties in terms of social acceptability within their community. sensitivity to social consequences of deinfibulation is important as well as recognition that these consequences vary. When deinfibulation is carried out for medical purposes some women may appreciate the offer of an official letter from a health-care practitioner confirming the medical nature of the procedure. The data suggests that deinfibulated women may dislike the new appearance of their genitalia; therefore, the practicality of performing a concurrent minor cosmetic surgery with deinfibulation procedure may need to be examined. The need for further research conducted in women's primary language is pressing and should explore issues such as the situation of single women, men's knowledge of the complications

  8. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  9. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  10. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-03-01

    The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  12. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  13. Perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning...... these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. METHODS: WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark...... Finland) or from a national HIV cohort (in Denmark). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA, version 11. RESULTS: In total, 560 women were included in the study. The median age was 44 years. The majority were of white European origin, with fully suppressed HIV viral load, CD4 cell count >350 µ...

  14. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total so...

  15. Mental and somatic health and pre- and post-migration factors among older Somali refugees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Mulki; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Saarni, Samuli I; Tiilikainen, Marja; Kuittinen, Saija; Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2014-08-01

    Mental and somatic health was compared between older Somali refugees and their pair-matched Finnish natives, and the role of pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors among the refugees. One hundred and twenty-eight Somalis between 50-80 years of age were selected from the Somali older adult population living in the Helsinki area (N = 307). Participants were matched with native Finns by gender, age, education, and civic status. The BDI-21 was used for depressive symptoms, the GHQ-12 for psychological distress, and the HRQoL was used for health-related quality of life. Standard instruments were used for sleeping difficulties, somatic symptoms and somatization, hypochondria, and self-rated health. Clinically significant differences in psychological distress, depressive symptoms, sleeping difficulties, self-rated health status, subjective quality of life, and functional capacity were found between the Somali and Finnish groups. In each case, the Somalis fared worse than the Finns. No significant differences in somatization were found between the two groups. Exposure to traumatic events prior to immigrating to Finland was associated with higher levels of mental distress, as well as poorer health status, health-related quality of life, and subjective quality of life among Somalis. Refugee-related traumatic experiences may constitute a long lasting mental health burden among older adults. Health care professionals in host countries must take into account these realities while planning for the care of refugee populations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for improving the lives of US women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS: an evidence map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gaelen P; Di, Mengyang; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Halladay, Christopher; Smith, Bryant T; Iyer, Suchitra; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2018-02-02

    While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays, the population living with HIV/AIDS is approximately 24% women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many of the older women who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging. This work aims to identify and characterize empirical studies of strategies for the comprehensive management of women over 40, including transgender women, who live with HIV/AIDS. Forty was chosen as an operational age cutoff to identify premenopausal women who are less likely to bear children, as well as peri- and postmenopausal women. We conducted a literature search after discussions with a diverse panel of content experts and other stakeholders and developed an evidence map that identified 890 citations that address questions having to do with programs and barriers to engaging with programs, as well as the role of insurance and comorbidities, and have enrolled older women who live with HIV/AIDS. Of these, only 37 (4%) reported results of interest for women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS, or examined interactions between gender and older age that would allow predictions in this subgroup. Few of the 37 eligible studies focused on women facing obvious challenges, such as immigrants, transgender, physically abused, or those recently released from prison. No studies focused on women caring for dependents, including children and grandchildren, or those diagnosed after age 40. The evidence base that is directly applicable to women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS in the USA is limited, and the research need is broad. We propose research prioritization strategies for this population.

  18. Clinical and hormonal features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Katulski

    2017-09-01

    The clinical and biochemical indices differed significantly between women diagnosed with PCOS living in cities and villages. In general in Poland, the PCOS phenotype is more severe in women living in rural areas. This study shows that different living conditions significantly affect the PCOS phenotype.

  19. SEXUALITY AND REPRODUCTION: PERCEPTIONS OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV / AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a disease that brings with it the need for changes in sexual and reproductive behavior. Family planning is a great ally in promoting sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. This sought to understand the perceptions experienced by HIV-positive women in the treatment and monitoring in the specialized care (SAE Sinop-MT with respect to their sexual and reproductive behavior after diagnosis of HIV / AIDS. This is a descriptive and exploratory qualitative approach, performed with seven women, data collection occurred from June to July, 2013, through interviews semi-structured data analysis were based on the method of Bardin, 1977. Inclusion criteria: be between 18 and 45 years, be aware of the diagnosis more than six months, does not have mental problems and agree to participate voluntarily in the study. The results were divided into four categories, namely: 1st characterize the participants; 2nd sexuality after infection with HIV / AIDS; Reproduction after HIV / AIDS; Knowledge about planning familar. Regarding cartcterização of participants, these were between 19 and 41 years, 57.1% had regular employment and 42.9% of the household chores performed only; Regarding marital status 57.1% had stable relationship, 28.6% were married and 14.3% separated; Regarding serology partner 42.9% had discordant relationship, 28.5% had a relationship soroconcordante, 14, 3% had no partner and 14.3% did not inform their partner's serology. As for contraception 14.3% used oral contraceptives and condoms, 71.4% used only condoms and 14.3% used sterilization and condoms. Regarding the number of child 14.28% had no children, 14.28% had children, 28.58% had two children, 14.28% had three children and 28.58% had four children. Regarding sexuality demonstrated changes as the use of condoms, abstinence, craving for soroconcordant relationship, fear of abandonment and rejection by the partner, primarily

  20. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  1. Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eWidmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms.Using privileged access sampling we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture.Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 hours without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and eighty-five percent reported functional khat-use, i.e. that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected.We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed.

  2. HIV disclosure and stigma among women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify disclosure, stigma and predictors of non-disclosure among women living with HIV in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire study of women living with HIV in Denmark was performed. The enrolment period was from February 2013 to March 2014. Logistic regression was used to estimate...... professionals to initiate a dialogue regarding stigma and disclosure with women living with HIV with a view to increasing disclosure and minimising stigmatisation in this vulnerable population....

  3. The Roots and Routes of Somali Transnational Clan Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2017-01-01

    In normal circumstances clan represents a real or imagined lineage people claim to belong. Among the Somalis such relations remain largely patriarchal. Clans also have both exclusionary and inclusionary mechanism to expand and restrict power relations in the community and in the society. The social...... and cultural rules and norms that govern such relationship depend on the context as well as the surrounding socio-political and cultural conditions. Due to the fragmentation of the Somali society since 1991 most Somalis are directly or indirectly linked to a clan for diverse motives- including the need...

  4. Coping Strategies Among Brazilian Pregnant Women Living With HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Rigoni de Faria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women living with HIV (PWLH face tremendous challenges in order to prevent their babies’ infection. Coping is a potential buffer against negative outcomes from these challenges. This study aims to describe coping strategies of PWLH. This cross-sectional survey involved 77 PWLH from a public health care center in Brazil. Coping was measured for three types of strategies: Problem-focused, Emotion-focused, and Relationship support. Multivariate analyses identified some coping predictors. Being employed, reporting religious practice and higher CD4/immunity were associated with Problem-focused coping. Lower educational level was associated with Emotion-focused strategies. Relationship support strategies were more likely to be reported by PWLH who had good social support, who had disclosed HIV status to the baby’s father, and who knew their infection before pregnancy. Findings underline the need for HIV interventions focused on social support and participation by the baby’s father, with particular attention to those PWLH who were recently diagnosed and economically vulnerable.

  5. Afghan and Somali (post-conflict migration to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are invisible drivers of migration for Afghans and Somalis to Europe, caused by decades of conflict. Although officially considered as ‘postconflict’, the reality is very different.

  6. Determinants of Poverty among Rural and Urban Women Who Live Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Cautley, Eleanor

    Using data from the 1980 Census Public Use Microdata Sample, this paper examines characteristics of women who live alone and incidence of poverty in this group. Results show there are two distinct subgroups among women who live alone: the elderly, most of whom are widowed; and the young, many of whom are single or divorced. For both groups, about…

  7. Differential Disclosure Across Social Network Ties Among Women Living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Eric; Comulada, Scott; Green, Sara; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Women?s disclosure of their HIV serostatus across social network ties was examined in a sample of women living in Los Angeles (n?=?234), using multivariate random intercept logistic regressions. Women with disclosure-averse attitudes were less likely to disclose, while women with higher CD4+ counts were significantly more likely to disclose, regardless of relationship type. Relative to all other types of relationships, spouses/romantic partners were greater than four times more likely to be t...

  8. Enhancing the health of women living with HIV: the SMART/EST Women's Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Weiss

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen M Weiss1, Jonathan N Tobin2, Michael Antoni1, Gail Ironson1, Mary Ishii1, Anita Vaughn2, Andrea Cassells2, Deborah Jones1, Neil Schneiderman1, Elizabeth Brondolo3, Arthur LaPerriere1, Maria Lopez1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Joanne Camille2, Mahendra Kumar1, J Bryan Page1, SMART/EST Women's Project Team*1University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Clinical Directors Network, New York, NY, USA; 3St Johns University, Queens, NY, USA; *The SMART/EST Womens' Project Team: DeVieux J, Jean-Gilles M, Gousse Y, Alexander K, Bustamonte V, Lopez E, Casani J, Stanley H, Asthana D, Van Splunteren F, Goldstein A, Nasajon R, Wiesner Y, Zukerman M, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Romanowsky A, Masheb R, Coma C, Ubiera M, D'Andrea SM, Ittai N.Abstract: The principal objective of these multisite studies (Florida, New York, New Jersey: epicenters for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] among women was to develop and implement effective combinations of behavioral interventions to optimize the health status of the most neglected and understudied population affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS epidemic in the United States: poor women of color living with HIV. The two studies enrolled nearly 900 women randomly assigned to “high intensity” (cognitive–behavioral stress management training combined with expressive–supportive therapy [CBSM]+ group or “low intensity” (individual psychoeducational program treatment conditions over a period of 9 years. The initial study of the stress management and relaxation training/expressive–supportive therapy (SMART/EST Women's Project (SWP I focused on reducing depression and anxiety, as well as improving self-efficacy and overall quality of life for women with case-defined AIDS. Findings from this study demonstrated the utility of CBSM+ in reducing distress (depression, anxiety and denial, while improving social support, self-efficacy, coping skills, and quality of life. The second study (SWP II, which included all

  9. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  10. Barriers to outdoor physical activity in wintertime among Somali youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Elizabeth; Holt, Christina; Kuhn, Celine; McAteer, Timothy; Askari, Isabella; O'Meara, Mary; Sharif, Abdimajid; Dexter, William

    2010-10-01

    To identify barriers to outdoor physical activity in winter among Somali youth in Maine. Despite the many proven health benefits of physical activity among children, such as cardiovascular fitness and health status as an adult, there has been a decrease in physical activity among children in recent years. Specifically, children who are of low socio-economic status or are from communities where many immigrants are at increased risk for developing obesity. Immigrants are also less likely to be physically active. There are many potential barriers to wintertime physical activity among Somali youth in Maine, such as lack of financial resources, transportation, proper winter clothing, and appropriate knowledge of winter safety, and language and cultural barriers. For females, different attire required for outdoor activity may be a barrier. Somali parents and children were recruited from Portland, Maine to participate in focus groups led by a trained facilitator with a Somali translator and cultural broker. Transcripts were coded using NVIVO software to identify barriers to physical activity among Somali youth outside in winter. Eight focus groups were conducted. Sixty-one Somali community members were recruited. Participants felt outdoor physical activity is important, but note that it is decreased in winter. Barriers to outdoor activity in winter cited by focus group participants were lack of resources, health concerns, gender barriers for females, and knowledge barriers. Concern over lack of supervision while children play outside was also cited. This study revealed many of the underlying beliefs, barriers and cultural issues that impact Somali families' intention to be active and ability to be active outdoors in winter. These findings can be used to generate research hypotheses and public health interventions regarding outdoor physical activity among Somali youth.

  11. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community.

  12. The EU Comprehensive Approach on Somali Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caramerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.

  13. Highlight: Knowledge to Action: Improving Women's Lives | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-18

    Apr 18, 2016 ... ... quality childcare and women's enhanced decision-making, health, income, and ... improved if they attend daycare, and they exhibit fewer signs of cognitive delay. ... His research analyzes how the program impacts women's ...

  14. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Sagbakken, Mette; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC) is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda - both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway's approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants' support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence permit is granted. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of the abandonment of FC among immigrants in Western countries.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence: The Lived Experience of Single Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna

    2017-03-01

    Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.

  16. "I just cope from day to day": unpredictability and anxiety in the lives of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, V; Charles, N

    1997-12-01

    Data are presented from in-depth interviews with 35 women in an industrial town in South Wales, U.K., many of whom were from low income households. The research aimed to explore women's own concerns about their health and the ways in which health problems affected their lives. This paper focuses on one prominent theme in these interviews: unpredictability. In particular, women described how their lives had become less predictable and amenable to control as a result of health problems--epilepsy, asthma, ME, anxiety, nerves and panic attacks, for example. Women's accounts are used to show how they experienced these problems, how they influenced women's self-identity and the ways in which women struggled to cope with the dreadful uncertainty that characterized their days. They often hid these problems, and the privacy of this aspect of their lives is striking. The data are set within the context of class and gender relations which diminish women's control over their lives and erode their self-esteem and sense of autonomy. Class and gender combine with ill health to create the conditions for women's sense of unpredictability and powerlessness. They can aggravate and provoke the health problems women described: women spoke of the challenges they faced in their roles as wives and mothers, the problems associated with widowhood, the loss of their jobs, the impact of unemployment and their efforts to cope with severe financial problems. In part, these provided them with a framework for understanding the uncertainty, anxiety, nerves and panic they experienced.

  17. Many Lives of Women Rectors at Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Suzan; Gümüseli, Ali Ilker

    2017-01-01

    Women at Turkish Universities do not have the same level of representation as rectors as they have academics at the higher education. It is vital to have women, as one of the genders which comprises the community, at the higher education management as rectors to ensure the gender equality in Turkey. As well as the traditional roles assigned to…

  18. Taiwanese Married Women's Lived Experience of Zen Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hsin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Due to the impact of Confucianism on Taiwanese society, Taiwanese married women play multiple family roles including being a daughter-in-law, wife, mother, and working woman. Having to play multiple roles usually brings Taiwanese married women burdens and stress. It is reported that Zen meditation improves people's physical and mental wellbeing.…

  19. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Household food insecurity in Cambodia is high. The diet ... at 40% and anemia among women of reproductive age is over 50%. ... Over 70% of households ... Monthly monitoring has shown that the household ... agriculture and food production but earn 30% ... Figure 2: Percentage of women who have their own money and ...

  20. Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for…

  1. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-24

    Oct 24, 2017 ... Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ... lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. ... and public policies that promote and protect maternal and child health.

  2. Surviving Surveillance: How Pregnant Women and Mothers Living With HIV Respond to Medical and Social Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Kwaramba, Gladys; Lazarus, Lisa; Loutfy, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences. In response, women living with HIV find ways to manage their experiences of surveillance through engaging in acts of distancing, planning, and resisting at different points in time, and sometimes enacting all three practices at once. Positioning the narratives of pregnant women and mothers living with HIV in relation to their experiences of surveillance illuminates the relationship between the surveillance of mothers living with HIV and HIV-related stigma.

  3. "Our lives, our identity": women with disabilities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a world-wide trend towards women with disabilities attempting to establish their own identity in this complex society, their condition remains very different in the developing countries particularly, India. The plight of women with disabilities is very depressing as they face a triple handicap and discrimination due to their disability, besides the gender issues. Violence against women with disabilities can range from neglect to physical abuse to denying them even the traditional roles of marriage and childbearing. This article addresses the problem of sexual assault of women with disabilities in the Indian context, highlighting on some of the loopholes in the Indian legal system. The article has primarily been based on review of various books, articles and government and other related documents. Review of literature has revealed that in majority of the instances a significant portion of perpetrators have been found to be male caregivers followed by the male family members and strangers constitute only a miniscule of the percentage of the abusers. Adding to this legal system has further aggrieved the situation as the criminal law in India has also not adequately addressed the problem of sexual assault of women with disabilities. The article concludes by suggesting possible strategies to reinstall the position of women with disabilities in a community based rehabilitation setting. It advocates the need to create a supportive environment for disclosure of sexual assault and responses to it will be characterised by belief in the victim, dignity and respect. In India, women with disabilities need to be provided with adequate knowledge about sexuality which will equip them to understand that they have been sexually assaulted. There is the need for policy makers to ensure greater accessibility to complaint and redressal mechanisms for women with disabilities. Efforts need to be made to strengthen the legal system and necessary legal aid/help to bring

  4. Perceptions of intersectional stigma among diverse women living with HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Whitney S; Logie, Carmen H; Napoles, Tessa M; Walcott, Melonie; Batchelder, Abigail W; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Wingood, Gina M; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Turan, Bulent; Wilson, Tracey E; Johnson, Mallory O; Weiser, Sheri D; Turan, Janet M

    2018-05-04

    Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California. Interview guides facilitated discussions around stigma and discrimination involving multiple interrelated identities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic analysis. Interviewees shared perceptions of various forms of stigma and discrimination, most commonly related to their gender, race, and income level, but also incarceration histories and weight. Women perceived these interrelated forms of social marginalization as coming from multiple sources: their communities, interpersonal interactions, and within systems and structures. Our findings highlight the complexity of social processes of marginalization, which profoundly shape life experiences, opportunities, and healthcare access and uptake among women living with HIV. This study highlights the need for public health strategies to consider community, interpersonal, and structural dimensions across intersecting, interdependent identities to promote the wellbeing among women living with HIV and to reduce social structural and health disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Empowering women to tackle cattle lung disease | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... While Somali women play a key role in cattle rearing, only men tend to ... addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to ... to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, ... Solutions.

  6. No comfort in the rural South: women living depressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Emily J

    2003-02-01

    Despite the widespread notion of the bucolic life in the country, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common among impoverished women in the rural South. Women with MDD seldom get treated because of the paucity of treatment available, the inability to pay for services because of no insurance, and the distance they must travel to reach care. Even if treatment was available, impoverished rural Southern women are unlikely to seek services because of cultural and social prohibitions. These include incongruence between the biomedical model of MDD and sociocultural explanations for its causes and manifestations, stigma, and traditional viewpoints of women that keep them isolated and invisible. Innovative treatment strategies must be devised for these women that are based on local views of MDD and its treatment, and people and monetary resources available in poor rural economies. Needed research with this population include ethnographic studies to gain understanding of the cultural factors associated with MDD and its treatment and evaluation of outreach, and other novel paradigms of rural service delivery including the use of nonprofessional personnel. Although the problems of treatment and research with this population are daunting, there is an opportunity for imagination, innovation, and creativity in devising local solutions to local problems. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, LaTasha K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  8. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of programmes for people living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to explore ...

  9. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We inves...

  10. Living and Working in Two Worlds: Case Studies of Five American Indian Women Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brenda; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies of five American Indian women teachers, examining how these contemporary Indian women teachers view the importance of their own tribal and/or American Indian culture and how they have balanced it with the pervasive Euro-American society in their own lives and classrooms. (SR)

  11. Nobel prize women in science their lives, struggles, and momentous discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the lives of Nobel Prize-winning women scientists discusses the work of Marie Curie, Emmy Noether, Lisa Meitner, and others, and explains why more than four hundred men and only nine women have won this prestigious award.

  12. The health of the poor: Women living in informal settlements | Fink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or “slums” today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Methods: Health data collected as part of the Women's ...

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

  14. A qualitative investigation of Muslim and Christian women's views of religion and feminism in their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Mahmood, Amina; Moel, Joy; Hudson, Carolyn; Leathers, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored a relatively understudied aspect of cultural diversity: feminism and religion in the lives of religiously diverse women. More specifically, structured interviews were used to investigate views of religion, women's issues, gender roles, culture, and feminism for a small group of Muslim and Christian women living in the United States. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings indicated a complex relationship between feminism, gender roles, culture, and religion for these women with the majority of the Muslim women reporting that their religion supports feminist principles and identifying themselves as feminist. Christian women were less willing to endorse the feminist label. Implications for multicultural feminist practice are discussed. 2008 APA

  15. Social Stigma and Childbearing for Women Living With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2016-09-01

    As more women become infected with HIV, the issue of childbearing becomes increasingly salient. A more nuanced understanding of women's situations is needed to provide high-quality and relevant services and support. We examined reproductive decision making among 20 women living with HIV through in-depth interviews. These women made decisions within situations of chaos, instability, and trauma, which often limited their ability to make truly informed choices about their lives and childbearing. Despite their HIV, many of the women wanted children, but experienced stigmatization related both to their HIV and to their decisions to have children. This stigmatization came from multiple sources, including health care providers, some of whom encouraged their patients to abort pregnancies because of their HIV. Participants, however, demonstrated resistance to stigmatization, through building supportive communities and developing trusting relationships with HIV providers. These results support the need for specialized HIV care for women of childbearing age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Exploring the spatial wage penalty for women: Does it matter where you live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin E; Glauber, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Inequality between men and women has decreased over the past four decades in the US, but wage inequality among groups of women has increased. As metropolitan women's earnings grew by 25% over the past four decades, nonmetropolitan women's earnings only grew by 15%. In the current study we draw on data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the spatial wage gap among women. We explore differences in the spatial wage gap by education, occupation, and industry. Regression models that control for marriage, motherhood, race, education, region, age, and work hours indicate that metropolitan women earn 17% more per hour than nonmetropolitan women. Nonmetropolitan women earn less than metropolitan women who live in central cities and outside central cities. The gap in metropolitan-nonmetropolitan wages is higher for more educated women than for less educated women. The wage gap is only 5% for women without a high school degree, but it is 15% for women with a college degree and 26% for women with an advanced degree. Nonmetropolitan college graduates are overrepresented in lower-paying occupations and industries. Metropolitan college graduates, however, are overrepresented in higher-paying occupations and industries, such as professional services and finance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Ntshingila

    personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an ... problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly ... to experience negative interactions with mental health care ..... parents divorced and so my brother wanted to stay with my dad.

  18. Elderly women's experiences of living with fall risk in a fragile body: a reflective lifeworld approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin Hallrup, Leena; Albertsson, Daniel; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Dahlberg, Karin; Grahn, Birgitta

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of fall risk from a lifeworld perspective in elderly women with previous fragility fractures. Thirteen elderly women with a high risk of fall and fracture, aged 76-86, living in their own homes in rural areas, were recruited from a voluntary fracture prevention programme. All women had a history of fragility fractures and were interviewed in their homes from spring to autumn 2004. A phenomenological reflective lifeworld approach was chosen to analyse in-depth interview data. The study was conducted within an interdisciplinary research group inspired by dialogical research. Elderly women's life space has been narrowed due to advanced age, physical injury or by efforts to prevent new injuries leading to changes in self-perception. However, the women seek strategies to challenge limitations and insecurity, and strive to retain mobility and daily life routines. The four major constituents of the phenomenon 'elderly women's experiences of fall risk' emerged in this study: a changing body, living with precaution, ambiguous dependency and influence and need for understanding. Employing the women's thoughts and resources in trust-based dialogues with caregivers may strengthen their concord and the prospects to continue an active life. Elderly women seek strategies to challenge limitations and feelings of insecurity, and strive to maintain mobility and daily life routines. A trust-based care respecting the preferences of the women seemed to stimulate behavioural change in maintaining an active life.

  19. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; La Cour, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences...... in ability to perform activities of daily living. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Methods: Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence...

  20. Fertility intention and use of contraception among women living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kebogile Mokwena

    This study examined fertility intentions and contraception use among a sample of .... partner/spouse is associated with a lesser desire for children. Concerns ..... intentions among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. .... Uganda to integrate family planning into HIV care: what works and what doesn't.

  1. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-20

    Dec 20, 2015 ... different electrical impulse speeds in different ventricular ... the control were enrolled in this study. All women ..... disorders. J Hum Hypertens 2004;18:707‑12. 5. Voss A, Malberg H, Schumann A, Wessel N, Walther T, Stepan H, et al. Baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate, and blood pressure variability in normal.

  2. Science Lives: Women and Minorities in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. KUOM Radio.

    This pamphlet and accompanying brochure of the same title describe a radio series of 13 half hour programs on the participation of women and minorities in science in the United States. The series attempts to make the public aware of the crisis in the sciences and science education and provides role models for young people, particularly young women…

  3. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... during antenatal and postnatal care for HIV-positive pregnant women in South Africa .... The professional nurse who provided antenatal care at the clinic identified and approached the ..... cure HIV. Firstly I have to accept and ...

  4. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We...... investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men...

  5. Cultural expectations and reproductive desires: experiences of South African women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofolahan, Yewande A; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2013-01-01

    We explored factors influencing sexual and reproductive (SR) decisions related to childbearing for women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in South Africa. We conducted four focus group interviews with 35 women living with HIV/AIDS. Our results show that the SR health care needs of women were not being addressed by many health care workers (HCWs). Additionally, we found that health care decisions were influenced by partners and cultural expectations of motherhood. Given the importance of motherhood, it is necessary for HCWs to address the diverse sexual needs and reproductive desires of WLHA.

  6. Factors influencing the life satisfaction in the older Korean women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2013-04-01

    The population of Korea is aging rapidly. The older population varies in characteristics in accordance with a wide-range of circumstances; therefore, categorizing the overall older population as a homogeneous group, could misrepresent their issues. For that reason, the study of older people should be focused on the diversity of characteristics among the older population. The aims of this study were to examine and identify the factors related to life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone. This study was a cross-sectional survey design. The participants comprised of 243 older women over the age of 65, who met eligibility criteria. Measures were a demographic characteristics form, the Health Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and the Life Satisfaction Instrument. Degrees of the perceived health status, self-esteem, and depression were higher than the median. Life satisfaction was lower than the median. Predictors that determine life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone were depression, perceived health status, self-esteem, and monthly allowance. All these predictors, or factors, had an explanatory power of 48.2% for life satisfaction among older Korean women living alone. Of all these predictor factors, depression had the largest impact. The major factor influencing the life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone was depression. These findings suggest that there is a need to develop nursing strategies aimed at decreasing depression in order to increase life satisfaction in older women living alone.

  7. Self-caring of women with osteoarthritis living at different levels of independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Carol L; Schmeiser, Donna; Yehle, Karen T

    2003-08-01

    Successful management of chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA) may improve health and quality of life and foster independence. Health professionals need to understand what women do to manage their OA by self-caring in order to support the improvement of health in older adults. A descriptive study of difficulties of living with and self-caring of OA was conducted. Sixty women over 65 years old who lived in homes in the community, in assisted living (AL) apartments, and in long-term care (LTC) facilities participated in interviews. Data were the reports of symptoms and self-caring behaviors. Descriptive, Kendall tau-b and tau-c, and chi-square analyses revealed that there were similarities and differences among the women. All of the women used a variety of self-caring techniques. Differences included that community-residing women reported more often that they had pain, moved too slowly, and had sleep disturbances. Community-residing women reported more negative emotions, while reporting significantly more often that they used a wide range of positive coping methods. By anticipating severe physical and functional problems of living with OA and difficulties in self-caring, health care providers may help women maintain an independent lifestyle.

  8. La Somalie en mauvais État

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Gascon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Somalie a sombré depuis 1988 dans une guerre civile que rien ne semble pouvoir arrêter. Les chefs de guerre se disputent des portions du territoire en autant de repaires pour y organiser leurs trafics criminels. Expulsés de Mogadiscio par les milices des tribunaux islamiques, ils y sont revenus avec le gouvernement provisoire, réinstallé par l’Éthiopie. Toutefois, au Somaliland, au Nord, les autorités séparatistes ont rétabli la paix sur tout leur territoire, reconstruit les infrastructures et organisé des élections que personne n’a contestées, mais l’ONU, sous la pression conjuguée de la Ligue Arabe et de l’Union africaine, refuse de reconnaître l’indépendance de l’ex-colonie britannique. Après vingt ans d’indifférence à ce lointain conflit, l’État somalien est menacé de disparition.Since 1988 Somalia has sunk into an endless civil war. Warlords have been fighting over parts of the national territory in order to expand their criminal traffics. They were expelled from the capital by the Islamic court militias but they have returned to it when the Provisionnal Government of Somalia was restored by Ethiopia in Mogadisico. Under the pressures of the Arab League and of the African Union the United Nations have constantly refused to recognize the independence of Somaliland, a former British colony, despite its separatist government has brought peace on all their territory, rebuilt equipments and held fair elections. Twenty years of indifference to this remote conflict have threatened the Somalian state to death.

  9. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  10. Cost of fertility treatment and live birth outcome in women of different ages and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; McLernon, David J; Scotland, Graham; Mollison, Jill; Wordsworth, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2014-10-10

    What is the impact of different age and BMI groups on total investigation and treatment costs in women attending a secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic? Women in their early to mid-30s and women with normal BMI had higher cumulative investigation and treatment costs, but also higher probability of live birth. Female age and BMI have been used as criteria for rationing publically funded fertility treatments. Population-based data on the costs of investigating and treating infertility are lacking. A retrospective cohort study of 2463 women was conducted in a single secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1998 to 2008. Participants included all women living in a defined geographical area referred from primary care to a specialized fertility clinic over an 11-year period. Women were followed up for 5 years or until live birth if this occurred sooner. Mean discounted cumulative National Health Service costs (expressed in 2010/2011 GBP) of fertility investigations, treatments (including all types of assisted reproduction), and pregnancy (including delivery episode) and neonatal admissions were calculated and summarized by age (≤ 30, 31-35, 36-40, >40 years) and BMI groupings (years, with 694 (55.1%) of these being natural conceptions. The live birth rate was highest among women in the youngest age group (64.3%), and lowest in those aged >40 years (13.4%). Overall live birth rates were generally lower in women with BMI >30 kg/m(2). The total costs of investigations were generally highest among women younger than 30 years (£491 in those with normal BMI), whilst treatment costs tended to be higher in 31-35 year olds (£1,840 in those with normal BMI). Multivariate modelling predicted a cost increase associated with treatment which was highest among women in the lowest BMI group (across all ages), and also highest among women aged 31-35 years. The increase in the predicted probability of live birth with exposure to treatment was consistent

  11. Communication and US-Somali Immigrant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-09-01

    The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.

  12. Psychological suffering in the daily lives of women who have experienced sexual violence: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Herreira Trigueiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the daily actions of women who have experienced sexual violence. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with 11 women who suffered sexual violence in southern Brazil. Their testimonies were obtained through phenomenological interviews conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Results: The daily lives of women after suffering sexual violence were permeated by mental distress, translated into fear. This impacted their mental health by limiting their daily lives, especially social activities (work, school, sentimental, and sexual relations. To overcome the consequences of sexual violence, women sought support from family and friends and reintegration into the labor market and course of studies. Conclusion and implications for practice: Individual and group actions providing psychosocial and social support to women in situations of sexual violence are essential to help victims cope with the consequences of this experience.

  13. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  14. Influence of sociodemographic factors on quality of life in women living in Lublin Province in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life (QOL in 45-65-year-old women. Material and methods : The research by means of a survey method, postal questionnaire technique, comprised 2143 women – a representative sample of the female population living in Lublin Province. Three standardized questionnaires – WHOQOL-BREF, Women’s Health Questionnaire and SF-36 – as well as an original questionnaire were used as research tools. In statistical analysis Student’s t-test for two groups, an analysis of variance, Dunnett’s T3 test for multiple comparisons, a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA and a stepwise logistic regression analysis were used. Results : In the population of peri- and postmenopausal women a significantly better quality of life in comparison with the rest of the studied women was established in women aged 45-49 years, respondents living permanently in urban areas as well as better educated women, those with full-time employment, especially those doing intellectual work, women remaining in a long-lasting relationship, and women assessing their financial situation and living conditions as well. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strong predictors of poor quality of life were as follows: self-assessment of living conditions as poor, self-assessment of financial situation as poor, permanent place of residence in the country, lower education level (incomplete primary education, primary education. Conclusions : The group of women with worse quality of life should become the main addressee of preventive programmes and health policy programmes designed for peri- and postmenopausal women.

  15. Rainfall trends and variability in selected areas of Ethiopian Somali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, proper spatial distribution of meteorological stations together with early warning system are required to further support local adaptive and coping strategies that the community designed towards rainfall variability in particular and climate change/disaster and risk at large. Keywords: Ethiopian Somali Region, Gode, ...

  16. THE STORY OF AMISOM'S SUCCESSFUL WAR AGAINST SOMALI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dogmatic fundamentalism of Al Shabaab is at odds with the pragmatism demanded of Somali daily life. The decision to deploy a regional force into the Somalian imbroglio was something first mooted by Dr. Bashir Hamad Attalla, the Executive Secretary of the regional body the Intergovernmental Authority on Development ...

  17. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Thompson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of programmes for people living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the health literacy needs of women living with HIV. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual. After women living with HIV/AIDS were sampled purposively, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women and qualitative content analysis done. The findings revealed that the women expressed a need to increase their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge they needed ranged from basic pathophysiology about HIV/AIDS, to the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health, to an awareness of the modes of HIV transmission and methods of protecting others from being infected. Other important health literacy needs related to self-care and correct antiretroviral use. A need for psychosocial skills was also identified in order for women to build and maintain their relationships. Recommendations were made for nursing practice, education and further research, based on these findings.

  18. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  19. Targeting khat or targeting Somalis? A discourse analysis of project evaluations on khat abuse among Somali immigrants in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordgren Johan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the use of the psychoactive plant khat is widely seen as a social and health problem exclusively affecting the Somali immigrant population. Several projects by governmental and municipal bodies and agencies have been initiated to reduce khat use and abuse within this target population.

  20. Prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D in postmenopausal women living in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. THE SPATIALITY OF VEILING – MUSLIM WOMEN LIVING PRACTICES IN MINNESOTA HOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Vahaji

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although much controversy surrounds the Muslim veiling tradition, little has been studied about how immigrant Muslim veiled women navigate the practice of veiling while living in western-type houses. Through interviews with ten Muslim veiled women in Minnesota, this study explores the relationship between veiling and domestic environments. The findings point to both dress and interior spaces as being forms of enclosure, one being mobile (dress, that help women construct their cultural and religious identity while providing them with privacy, protection, and a sense of control. Residing in typical, suburban American homes however, the women we interviewed experienced difficulties being unveiled in one of the few places where the veil can come off. Designers who are cognizant of cultural differences in housing needs can create homes that support various ways of living, that is, culturally sensitive housing.

  2. A grounded theory of social participation among older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Jennifer S; Blenkhorn, Lisa; Wilkins, Seanne; O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia E

    2013-10-01

    As adults age with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the role for rehabilitation continues to emerge. Understanding how social participation is affected among women aging with HIV can inform occupational therapy assessment and treatment. Our purpose was to develop a theoretical model that describes the experiences of social participation from the perspective of older women living with HIV. A grounded theory methodological approach was utilized. We conducted interviews with 20 women living with HIV, age 50 or older, to explore various aspects of social participation, including self-care, relationships with others, and access to health and social services. Emergent themes informed the theoretical model. The theoretical model comprises four concepts related to social participation: social engagement, social isolation, contrasting perceptions about factors variably influencing participation, and contextual influences that may enhance or hinder social participation. Women aging with HIV experience social participation as a dynamic process involving social engagement and isolation. Contextual influences may promote and impede social participation.

  3. Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.

  4. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  5. Effects of reproductive morbidity on women's lives and costs of accessing treatment in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, Jocelyn; Bahubaishi, Najia; Attal, Bothaina

    2012-12-01

    Research on the consequences of reproductive morbidity for women's lives and their economic and social roles is relatively under-developed. There is also a lack of consensus on appropriate conceptual frameworks to understand the social determinants of reproductive morbidity as well as their social and economic implications. We report here on an exploratory study in Yemen using quantitative (n=72 women) and qualitative methods (n=35 women), in 2005 and 2007 respectively, with women suffering from uterine prolapse, infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It explored women's views on how reproductive morbidity affected their lives, marital security and their households, and the burden of paying for treatment. We also interviewed six health professionals about women's health care-seeking for these conditions. Sixty per cent of women reported that treatment was not affordable, and 43% had to sell assets or take out a loan to pay for care. Prolapse and PID interfered particularly in subsistence and household activities while infertility created social pressure. Reproductive morbidity is not a priority in Yemen, given its multiple public health needs and low resources, but by failing to provide comprehensive and affordable services for women, the country incurs developmental losses. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reality and Analysis: Personal and Technical Reflections on the Working Lives of Six Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M.; Jhabvala, R.; Kanbur, R.; Mirani, N.; Osner, Karl (Eds) WIEGO

    2004-01-01

    A group of development analysts had a dialogue about labor market, trade and poverty issues in 2004. They preceded the dialogue with exposure to the realities of the lives of six remarkable women from the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in Gujarat, India. The struggles faced by the authors provided the frame for the technical dialogue that followed. This is a Compendium of personal and technical reflections of the analysts involved in the exercise.

  7. We Left One War and Came to Another: Resource Loss, Acculturative Stress, and Caregiver-Child Relationships in Somali Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Abdi, Saida; Ito, Brandon; Lilienthal, Grace M.; Agalab, Naima; Ellis, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugee families often encounter a number of acculturative and resettlement stressors as they make lives for themselves in host countries. These difficulties may be compounded by past trauma and violence exposure posing increased risk for mental health problems. Greater knowledge is needed about protective processes contributing to positive development and adjustment in refugee families despite risk (e.g., resilience). The aims of this research were to identify and examine strengths and resources utilized by Somali refugee children and families in the Boston area to overcome resettlement and acculturative stressors. Methods We used maximum variation sampling to conduct a total of nine focus groups: five focus groups (total participants N=30) among Somali refugee adolescents and youth capturing gender and a range of ages (15-25 years) as well as four focus groups of Somali refugee mothers and fathers in groups (total participants N=32) stratified by gender. Results Drawing from Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), we identified five forms of resources comprising individual, family and collective/community strengths: religious faith; healthy family communication; support networks and peer support. “Community talk” was identified as a community dynamic having both negative and positive implications for family functioning. Conclusions Protective resources among Somali refugee children and families can help to offset acculturative and resettlement stressors. Many of these locally occurring protective resources have the potential to be leveraged by family and community-based interventions. These findings are being used to design preventative interventions that build on local strengths among Somali refugees in the Boston area. PMID:25090142

  8. Internal or infernal devices: experiences of contraception among Australian women living with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna; Banwell, Cathy; Dance, Phyll

    2009-06-01

    In this article we seek to delineate the experiences of contraceptive use by Australian women living with hepatitis C. Using semi-structured, in-depth interviews, 109 women with hepatitis C from two cities in Australia, Melbourne (Victoria) and Canberra (the Australian Capital Territory), were interviewed about their alcohol and other drug use, their contraceptive history, and their experiences of hepatitis C. We aimed to understand why such a high proportion of women living with hepatitis C (66%) had previously reported that they were not currently using contraception. Many women had used contraception at some stage of their lives but were no longer using it because they had experienced contraceptive failure or uncomfortable side effects. Others were concerned about the impact of contraception on their fertility, were planning to get pregnant or considered themselves to be celibate. Hepatitis C appeared to have little impact on their contraceptive practices, but some women's illicit drug use had an important influence. Illicit drug use was, for some, an encouragement to seek long-term forms of contraception that reduced their chances of pregnancy while for others drug taking hampered their contraceptive use. In compliance with health promotion campaigns of the last two decades, women were generally more concerned about preventing sexually transmissible infections than pregnancies, particularly with new or casual partners.

  9. Women's Subjective Experiences of Living with Vulvodynia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Rebekah; Dickson, Joanne M; Nunns, David; Mackenzie, Catharine; Kiemle, Gundi

    2018-04-01

    Vulvodynia, the experience of an idiopathic pain in the form of burning, soreness, or throbbing in the vulval area, affects around 4-16% of the population. The current review used systematic search strategies and meta-ethnography as a means of identifying, analyzing, and synthesizing the existing literature pertaining to women's subjective experiences of living with vulvodynia. Four key concepts were identified: (1) Social Constructions: Sex, Women, and Femininity: Women experienced negative consequences of social narratives around womanhood, sexuality, and femininity, including the prioritization of penetrative sex, the belief that it is the role of women to provide sex for men, and media portrayals of sex as easy and natural. (2) Seeking Help: Women experienced the healthcare system as dismissive, sometimes being prescribed treatments that exacerbated the experience of pain. (3) Psychological and Relational Impact of Vulvodynia: Women experienced feeling shame and guilt, which in turn led to the experience of psychological distress, low mood, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Moreover, women reported feeling silenced which in turn affected their heterosexual relationships and their peer relationships by feeling social isolated. (4) A Way Forward: Women found changing narratives, as well as group and individual multidisciplinary approaches, helpful in managing vulvodynia. The findings of the review conclude that interventions at the individual level, as well as interventions aimed at equipping women to challenge social narratives, may be helpful for the psychological well-being of women with vulvodynia.

  10. Living in a World with Eyeballs: How Women Make Meaning of Body Image in the College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Chrystal Ann

    2013-01-01

    Negative body image is pervasive among traditional, college-age women and takes a heavy toll on women's economic, personal, and political lives. Previous research has indicated that a large percentage of women hold negative views of their body. Women embarking on higher education are not exempt from these negative views. Conversely, college…

  11. Living with cat and dog increases vaginal colonization with E. coli in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. METHODS: The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC(2010 pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. RESULTS: Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27-3.80], p=0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08-2.12], p=0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02-2.43], p=0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy.

  12. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense...... University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age......, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economical situation, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Being single, aged 15-24 or 35 and above, having either no children or two or more children, and the experience of contraceptive failure were parameters which were associated...

  13. Domestic Violence among Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    10.7% (n=7) endured emotional violence. ... make up an estimated 57% of adults living with. HIV/AIDS, and ... including physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting ... the impact on them is more severe both in terms of ... shortened Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS).13 They ..... violence among women of child bearing age in a.

  14. Marital disruption : Determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiya, A; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, M; Khatun, M

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case

  15. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  16. The Role of Fathers in the Lives of Black Women of Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V.; Lane, Jolene A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated fathers' roles in the lives of successful black women using life history case studies. Fathers were proud of and confident in their daughters, and most performed the role of mentor. Fathers gave daughters a sense of security that helped them succeed because they were not afraid to risk failure. Most fathers were interested in…

  17. Long Term Benefits for Women in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Living-Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Christopher; Horton, Marjorie; Morgan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees provide opportunities for economic mobility. Yet women, underrepresented minority (URM), and first-generation college students remain disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. This study examined the effectiveness of a living-learning community (LLC) for URM and first-generation…

  18. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vag...

  19. A "domestic" history about the Danish-Somalis at a Museum in Århus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Interview piece with the project coordinator of the exhibition titled “Et somalisk hjem” (A Somali home), at Den Gamle By museum, Denmark. Published on WardheerNews on May 5, 2017. http://www.wardheernews.com/a-domestic-history-about-the-danish-somalis-at-a-museum-in-arhus/......Interview piece with the project coordinator of the exhibition titled “Et somalisk hjem” (A Somali home), at Den Gamle By museum, Denmark. Published on WardheerNews on May 5, 2017. http://www.wardheernews.com/a-domestic-history-about-the-danish-somalis-at-a-museum-in-arhus/...

  20. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  1. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human immunodeficiency virus in the antenatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fords, Genevieve Marion; Crowley, Talitha; van der Merwe, Anita S

    2017-12-01

    In South Africa, pregnant women are diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at antenatal clinics and simultaneously initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An HIV diagnosis together with the initiation of ART has an emotional impact that may influence how pregnant women cope with pregnancy and their adherence to a treatment plan. The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women diagnosed with HIV in the antenatal period in a rural area in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. A qualitative approach with a descriptive phenomenological design was utilised. The study applied purposive sampling to select participants from a local community clinic in the Eastern Cape. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework. Four themes formed the essential structure of the phenomenon being investigated: a reality that hits raw, a loneliness that hurts, hope for a fractured tomorrow and support of a few. Although the participants had to accept the harsh reality of being diagnosed with HIV and experienced loneliness and the support of only a few people, they had hope to live and see the future of their children. Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and support strategies need to be informed by exploring context-specific issues and involving the local community.

  2. Beyond risk factors to lived experiences: young women's experiences of health in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Rachael L; Earnest, Jaya

    2009-01-01

    The health of young women in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often examined using individual-based risk factors which are decontextualized from the social and cultural relationships within which women's lives are embedded. Understanding the health meanings and perceptions of rural PNG women is important for bridging the gap between current health program delivery and the real needs of women. The objective of this study was to explore the health perceptions of rural PNG young women and to identify points in the lifespan where support may be required. Thirty-three young women aged between 15 and 29 years were involved in the research. Multiple data collection methods were used within interpretive qualitative methodology and these included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, photo narrative and ranking exercises. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Wosera district of the East Sepik Province of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006. Following a community meeting and targeted awareness about the project to female youth, purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit young women aged 15-24 years. The mean age of participants was 21 years. Single and married participants, unmarried mothers, school leavers and current school attendees were represented. Informed consent was obtained prior to the sharing of women's narratives. Data were categorized and analysed for emerging themes and cross checked with participants for verification. Young women viewed their health in the context of their social and cultural world and in terms of their wider life experiences. The main theme uncovered young women's strong desires for independence. Young women depended on their parents for emotional support and material possessions, and positive parental support provided young women with the opportunity to move towards independence. Freedom from economic constraints was identified as important for autonomy, and having money was discussed as a requisite for good health

  3. Filipino women living in Canada: constructing meanings of body, food, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrales, L L; Chapman, G E

    1999-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the understandings of body size, food and eating, and health held by Filipino women living in Canada. Women (n = 11) aged 19 to 30 years old who were born in the Philippines and living in British Columbia participated in individual interviews where they discussed their beliefs and practices relating to their body, food, and health. Informants' comments reflected contrasting "Canadian" and "Filipino" meanings. Canadian beliefs emphasized the desirability of thinness, "watching" intake of fat, rice, and junk food, and minimizing disease risk. Filipino beliefs valued fatness, "just eating" fat and rice, and maximizing disease resistance. While most informants appeared to have adopted the Canadian values, Filipino beliefs continued to be of some significance in their lives. These findings demonstrate the socially constructed nature of health beliefs and illustrate how members of a minority ethnic group negotiate among conflicting cultural beliefs about body size, food and health.

  4. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women......, recruited from Danish HIV centres as part of a larger observational study on aspects of living with HIV as a woman (the SHADE study), were included. RESULTS: We tested cervical samples for M. genitalium by specific PCR. We found three samples positive (1.3%). The women were between 30 and 50 years old, all...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  5. A systematic review of the experience of older women living and coping with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiemin; Drury, Vicki; Taylor, Beverley

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review that sought to answer the research question: what is the experience of women living and coping with type 2 diabetes? A range of relevant terms were identified and electronic databases were searched. Only qualitative studies that explored the meaning of living and coping with type 2 diabetes and that included adult women aged ≥ 18 years were considered. We found evidence that women are challenged by their multi-caregiving roles and the complexities of managing their diabetes simultaneously. For female patients with diabetes, holistic care and individual psycho-education programmes appear to be facilitate more effective and successful diabetes management. In addition, carer programmes that provide information so that family and friends can support and assist the woman with diabetes are required. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Living in the epilepsy treatment gap in rural South India: A focused ethnography of women and problems associated with stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gaudecker, Jane R; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene W; Buelow, Janice M; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-07-01

    In India, women with epilepsy face unique challenges. A focused ethnography of six women within the epilepsy treatment gap was conducted in rural South India. Women were asked to describe their day-to-day lives. Data were collected through open-ended, semistructured interview questions, participant observation, and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The disease-related stigma contributed to the women's physical, psychological, and emotional struggles; the women and their family members made every effort to conceal the disease. Educational interventions to create awareness could help women seek effective treatments for their seizures, thereby reducing the stigma and improving the quality of their lives.

  7. The impact of social context on self-management in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The experience of African American women living with HIV: creating a prevention film for teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    The personal and social costs of HIV are well documented. What remains unknown is the effect of public disclosure of HIV status on the individual who is doing the disclosing. This study describes the experience of four African American women living with HIV who participated in the development of an intergenerational education intervention for African American adolescent girls. These women suggested that they be filmed discussing the "dark side" of HIV in an effort to create an intergenerational education intervention that would alter the risk-taking behavior that they observed in young women in their community. After a rough cut of the film was completed, these women viewed the film and participated in a focus group during which they discussed what it was like to reveal and revisit their own painful experiences associated with becoming infected and then living with HIV. Findings from content analysis of transcribed dialogue included the following positive themes: (a) self-acceptance by telling one's own story and hearing the stories of the other women, (b) a sense of liberation by disclosing publicly one's image and message and letting go of others' judgments, (c) feeling supported by meeting other women who share the same experience, (d) value of using the film to impact or save young people from the pain one has experienced. A negative theme emerged related to personal pain in reliving the individual's history with HIV.

  9. Stigma Associated with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Women's Sexual Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Khuri, Jananne; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2018-05-01

    The risk of intersex-related stigma often serves as social indication for "corrective" genital surgery, but has not been comprehensively documented. In preparation for the development of an intersex-specific stigma assessment tool, this qualitative project aimed to explore stigma in girls and women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. As part of a comprehensive follow-up project, 62 adult women with classical CAH (age range 18-51 years) took part in an open-ended retrospective interview focusing on the impact of CAH and its treatment on various aspects of girls' and women's lives. Deductive qualitative content analysis (Patton, 2014) of de-identified transcripts involved categorization of three types of stigma: experienced, anticipated, and internalized. Two-fifths of the participants reported CAH-related stigma in romantic/sexual situations. Stigma enactment by romantic partners occurred in reaction to both genital and non-genital sex-atypical features of CAH and sometimes included explicit questioning of the women's true gender. Stigma anticipation by the women and their related avoidance of nudity, genital exposure, and romantic involvement altogether were frequent. Internalization of stigma occurred as well. In conclusion, the data suggest that many women with CAH experience, anticipate, and/or internalize intersex-related stigma in the context of their romantic/sexual lives.

  10. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-06-14

    Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary "evil" for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk.

  11. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID

  12. "Robin Hook": The Developmental Effects of Somali Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Shortland, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ 2011 Brunel University Naval counter-piracy measures off Somalia have failed to change the incentives for pirates, raising calls for land-based approaches that may involve replacing piracy as a source of income. This paper evaluates the effects of piracy on the Somali economy to establish which (domestic) groups benefit from ransom monies. Given the paucity of economic data on Somalia, we evaluate province-level market data, nightlight emissions and high resolution satellite im...

  13. Fundamental concerns of women living with HIV around the implementation of Option B+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Rebecca; Moses-Burton, Suzette; Hsieh, Amy C; Dilmitis, Sophie; Happy, Margaret; Sinyemu, Eunice; Brion, Sophie O; Sharma, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive was launched to scale up efforts to comprehensively end vertical HIV transmission and support mothers living with HIV in remaining healthy. Amidst excitement around using treatment as prevention, Malawi's Ministry of Health conceived Option B+, a strategy used to prevent vertical transmission by initiating all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV on lifelong antiretroviral therapy, irrespective of CD4 count. In 2013, for programmatic and operational reasons, the WHO officially recommended Option B+ to countries with generalized epidemics, limited access to CD4 testing, limited partner testing, long breastfeeding duration or high fertility rates. While acknowledging the opportunity to increase treatment access globally and its potential, this commentary reviews the concerns of women living with HIV about human rights, community-based support and other barriers to service uptake and retention in the Option B+ context. Option B+ intensifies many of the pre-existing challenges of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. As women seek comprehensive services to prevent vertical transmission, they can experience various human rights violations, including lack of informed consent, involuntary or coercive HIV testing, limited treatment options, termination of pregnancy or coerced sterilization and pressure to start treatment. Yet, peer and community support strategies can promote treatment readiness, uptake, adherence and lifelong retention in care; reduce stigma and discrimination; and mitigate potential violence stemming from HIV disclosure. Ensuring available and accessible quality care, offering food support and improving linkages to care could increase service uptake and retention. With the heightened focus on interventions to reach pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV, a parallel increase in vigilance to secure their

  14. 'Normal' and 'failing' mothers: Women's constructions of maternal subjectivity while living with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Chloe; Katz, Terri; Ussher, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis causes physical and cognitive impairment that can impact women's experiences of motherhood. This study examined how women construct their maternal subjectivities, or sense of self as a mother, drawing on a framework of biographical disruption. A total of 20 mothers with a multiple sclerosis diagnosis took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analysed using thematic decomposition to identify subject positions that women adopted in relation to cultural discourses of gender, motherhood and illness. Three main subject positions were identified: 'The Failing Mother', 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' and 'The Normal Mother'. Women's sense of self as the 'Failing Mother' was attributed to the impact of multiple sclerosis, contributing to biographical disruption and reinforced through 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' within social interactions. In accounts of the 'Normal Mother', maternal subjectivity was renegotiated by adopting strategies to manage the limitations of multiple sclerosis on mothering practice. This allowed women to self-position as 'good' mothers. Health professionals can assist women by acknowledging the embodied impact of multiple sclerosis on maternal subjectivities, coping strategies that women employ to address potential biographical disruption, and the cultural context of mothering, which contributes to women's experience of subjectivity and well-being when living with multiple sclerosis.

  15. 'The child that tiire doesn't give you, God won't give you either.' The role of Rotheca myricoides in Somali fertility practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Sada

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces the Baanashada Dumarka, a Somali fertility therapy carried out by a spirit medium, known locally as 'Alaqad. Baanashada is aimed at women whose fertility issues are believed to be caused by spirits. The study also explores a component of the Baanashada, namely, the use of tiire (Rotheca myricoides), or the butterfly bush. Although Rotheca myricoides is known to possess a number of medicinal components as confirmed by studies of modern science, so far, there exist no studies on its potential (or lack of) fertility effects. Hence, the alleged fertility benefits of the butterfly bush need examining. In 2008 a British Somali woman died of herbs placed in her cervix by a traditional healer in Somaliland. This piece of information indicated not only the role of herbal medicine in fertility practices, but also the popularity of traditional reproductive medicine beyond border, class or educational background. Yet, current research into Somali women's health focuses mainly on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), examined often without the context of wider cultural practices. This paper, however, suggests that rituals, beliefs and material culture play a paramount role in women's practices. For example, as explored elsewhere, the wagar, a wooden and sacred object made of the African olive, is critical for fertility practices. The current paper illuminates further the significance of reproduction practices in Somali society and the potential continuity of traditions associated with the perpetuation of kinship. It concludes that fertility rituals are part of a wider context of interaction with sacred landscapes, objects and archaeological sites, often associated with past legends in the Horn of Africa.

  16. Characteristics of Transgender Women Living with HIV Receiving Medical Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Frazier, Emma L; Huang, Ping; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Little has been reported from population-based surveys on the characteristics of transgender persons living with HIV. Using Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) data, we describe the characteristics of HIV-infected transgender women and examine their care and treatment needs. We used combined data from the 2009 to 2011 cycles of MMP, an HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of the characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, to compare demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, and met and unmet needs for supportive services of transgender women with those of non-transgender persons using Rao-Scott chi-square tests. An estimated 1.3% of HIV-infected persons receiving care in the United States self-identified as transgender women. Transgender women were socioeconomically more marginalized than non-transgender men and women. We found no differences between transgender women and non-transgender men and women in the percentages prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a significantly lower percentage of transgender women compared to non-transgender men had 100% ART dose adherence (78.4% vs. 87.4%) and durable viral suppression (50.8% vs. 61.4%). Higher percentages of transgender women needed supportive services. No differences were observed in receipt of most of supportive services, but transgender women had higher unmet needs than non-transgender men for basic services such as food and housing. We found little difference between transgender women and non-transgender persons in regards to receipt of care, treatment, and most of supportive services. However, the noted disparities in durable viral suppression and unmet needs for basic services should be explored further.

  17. Marching toward reproductive justice: coalitional (re) framing of the March for Women's Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Zakiya T

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how coalition frames develop and what happens to that frame after the formal coalition ends. To that end, I analyze the frame shift around the 2004 March for Women's Lives (March). The March initially focused on established ideas of reproductive rights around which the four national mainstream co-sponsors previously organized. However, after a newer reproductive justice organization joined the coalition, material and organizing reflected a shift in framing to reproductive justice. How did this change happen? What are the impacts of this event for the women's movement? Through document analysis and interviews, I trace the negotiations that facilitated this framing shift. I argue that this new coalition frame translated into positive lasting changes in organizing for women's reproductive health even as the coalition dissolved and some of the tensions within the larger women's movement remain.

  18. Work Relations and Helping in the Lives of Amazon Rural Women Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Brandão Sampaio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in methods of agricultural production have impacted on the lives of those involved in this sector. New social relations, technologies, values and landscapes have been introduced as well as potential risks to health. Female workers have a specific experience that requires a closer analysis to understand their situation. The research addresses the interrelationship of health, work, and the environment of women agriculturalists in a rural Amazonian community. This focus allows the identification and understanding of relations between the women and the actors with whom they share daily activities and the implications for health, work, and self-image. Using qualitative methods the experiences of 47 women were captured through collective interviews, which were analysed by Nucleus of Meaning Analysis (NMA, adapted from Categorical Content Analysis. Work is central to the lives of the women workers but is attributed with different meanings depending on the context and the relationship. It was found that the relationship with employers increases the risk of workplace exploitation; with male partners work is characterised as ‘helping’. Work with female co-workers increases a sense of identity, strengthens social bonds and an ability to solve problems. In conclusion, in addition to issues related to production methods, the subjective relational universe of these workers is marked by a complexity that impacts on their lives and health. The authors suggest that research on the impact of daily life and workplace on health considers the different and complex relations and subjective demands, especially in contexts endowed with uniqueness.

  19. Social disparities in access to breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Rodrigues, I; Jiménez-García, R; Hernández-Barrera, V; Carrasco-Garrido, P; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; López de Andrés, A

    2015-07-01

    To describe uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain, analyse the possible associated social and health factors, and compare uptake rates with those obtained in previous surveys. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Spanish national health survey. Uptake of breast cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 40-69 years whether they had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Uptake of cervical cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 25-65 years whether they had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, and variables related to health status and lifestyle. Seventy-two percent of women had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Having private health insurance increased the probability of breast screening uptake four-fold [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-5.79], and being an immigrant was a negative predictor for breast screening uptake. Seventy percent of women had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Higher-educated women were more likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97-3.40), and obese women and women living in rural areas were less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening. There have been no relevant improvements in uptake rates of either breast or cervical cancer screening since 2006. Uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening could be improved in Spain, and uptake rates have stagnated over recent years. Social disparities have been detected with regard to access to these screening tests, indicating that it is necessary to continue researching and optimizing prevention programmes in order to improve uptake and reduce these disparities. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Educating Somali Immigrant and Refugee Students: A Review of Cultural-Historical Issues and Related Psychoeducational Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walick, Christopher M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Somali immigrants and refugees have entered the United States with increasing frequency due to civil war-induced violence and instability in their native country. The resultant increase of Somali students is of particular relevance to educators and school psychologists because Somali youth possess unique cultural backgrounds. In addition, refugee…

  1. Migraine--more than a headache: women's experiences of living with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutberg, Stina; Öhrling, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study the aim was to explore the meaning of living with migraine. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women about their experience of living with migraine. Halfway through the interview, the women drew a picture of what living with migraine is like, and the interview continued with the conversation being guided by the picture. The interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method inspired by van Manen. The analysis revealed an essence "Being obliged to endure a life accompanied by an unpredictable and invisible disorder" and three themes "Being besieged by an attack", "Struggling in a life characterized by uncertainty" and "Living with an invisible disorder." Migraine is a debilitating disorder which accompanies life in the sense that it or the threat of its return is always present, and yet invisible to others. The struggle of enduring life with migraine is worsened by the feeling of having an invisible disorder and of being doubted. There is a need to increase the knowledge among healthcare professionals about what it means to live with migraine, something this qualitative study offers.

  2. Migraine – more than a headache: Women's experiences of living with migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutberg, Stina; Öhrling, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this qualitative study the aim was to explore the meaning of living with migraine. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women about their experience of living with migraine. Halfway through the interview, the women drew a picture of what living with migraine is like, and the interview continued with the conversation being guided by the picture. The interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method inspired by van Manen. Results The analysis revealed an essence “Being obliged to endure a life accompanied by an unpredictable and invisible disorder" and three themes “Being besieged by an attack” “Struggling in a life characterized by uncertainty"and “Living with an invisible disorder." Conclusions Migraine is a debilitating disorder which accompanies life in the sense that it or the threat of its return is always present, and yet invisible to others. The struggle of enduring life with migraine is worsened by the feeling of having an invisible disorder and of being doubted. There is a need to increase the knowledge among healthcare professionals about what it means to live with migraine, something this qualitative study offers. PMID:21981545

  3. The Lived Experience of Domestic Violence in Iranian HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, “regretful past”, “disappointing future”, “loneliness”, and “no other option”, which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women. PMID:26156897

  4. Invisibility: the lived experience of women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Hilary; Clifford, Collette

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an exploration of the lived experience of 13 British women with cancer of the vulva who underwent surgical treatment. A review of the literature highlighted a paucity of knowledge as many studies were conducted during the 1980s and 1990s and investigated sexual functioning only. An interpretive phenomenological approach based on the work of Heidegger and van Manen was used to frame the study by posing the question, "What must it be like to be diagnosed with, and have surgery for a cancer of the vulva?" The women, younger than 50 years, were identified by purposive sampling and interviewed between 6 months and 5 years after surgery. The data were analyzed using framework analysis. The women's lived experience is described in its entirety by the concept of invisibility, characterized as something "no one can see," "heard of," and "talks about." The impact of this invisibility is discussed as the "invisibility of understanding" and "invisibility of support." Although many women may expect to be cured of their vulval cancer, the invisible nature of the condition and the resulting lack of understanding and support may continue for a considerable period, as every aspect of their everyday life and in their relationships may be affected. The challenge now is to raise awareness of this condition and provide greater informational and emotional support for these women.

  5. Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Molgaard, C.; Skovgaard, L. T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries. Design: A cross-sectional o......Objective: To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries. Design: A cross......-sectional observational study conducted in a standardised way during February-March. S-25OHD was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D and calcium intake was calculated using a standardised food composition database. Setting: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and Poland. Subjects: A total of 199 girls...... (mean (s.d.) age 12.6 (0.5) y) and 221 women (mean (s.d.) age 71.8 (1.4) y). Results: The median ( inter quartiles) concentration of S-25OHD was 29.4 (20.3, 38.3) nmol/l for the girls and 40.7 (28.0, 54.2) nmol/l for the women. S-25OHD below 25 nmol/l was found in 37% of the girls and 17% of the women...

  6. Post-diagnosis abortion in women living with HIV/Aids in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bulegon Pilecco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand how the HIV diagnosis combines with other factors that influence the decision to abort.Methodology: Data were collected during a crossover study of women aged between 18 and 49 years old and seen in public health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The life stories of 18 interviewees who had post-diagnosis abortion were reconstructed on a timeline, using information collected quantitatively.Results: The time between the diagnosis and abortion was 2 years or less for more than half of the women. For some, post-diagnosis abortion did not mean the end of reproductive life. The most frequent reason for terminating pregnancy was to be living with HIV; however, only some of the women who stated having this motivation did not have post-diagnosis children. Changing partners between pregnancies was a recurring finding; however, in most pregnancies that ended in abortion, the women lived with their partners.Discussion: The analysis of the reproductive trajectory of the women studied showed that there is no specific profile of the woman who aborts after receiving the HIV diagnosis. Although this diagnosis may be involved in the decision to terminate a pregnancy, it does not necessarily result in the end of a woman's reproductive trajectory. Thus, abortion should be understood within a diversity of decision-making processes and the specific moment of a woman's life story.

  7. Where do overweight women in Ghana live? Answers from exploratory spatial data analysis

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    Fidelia A.A. Dake

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Providers’ Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solís-Báez, Solymar S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines healthcare providers’ perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers’ accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living “beyond their strengths” attempting to reconcile the burden of the illness and keep adherent. Factors putting women beyond their strengths and influencing ...

  9. The recovery mosaic: older women's lived experiences after a myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Evelyn E; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, Frances

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experience of recovery in women 65 years of age and older during initial recovery from acute myocardial infarction. The study was designed with Heideggerian phenomenology, purposive sampling, and unstructured interactive interviews. Data were analyzed with interpretive processes of hermeneutics. The study was set in a Canadian metropolitan teaching hospital and in patient homes. Seven women who had had a first time myocardial infarction were recruited. Age ranged from 67 to 86 years (mean, 74 years). Analysis revealed that recovery for these women was highly contextual and consisted of life experience resembling a mosaic, in which the women described how they "created a new picture for themselves." The data were clustered into 4 substantive themes that included: life is scattered; trying to make sense of it; learning to live with it; and getting settled. The older women in this study underestimated their susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction, were avid planners and coordinators of their recovery, equated the loss of the homemaker role to job loss, used their ability to socialize as an indicator of the recovery progress, and lacked support to perform household duties, such as laundry, and those women with fewer symptoms "cheated" in relation to activity and diet. These findings may serve as a basis for the development of healthcare strategies reflective of older women's recovery.

  10. Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design. Recruitment was conducted through advertisement on the MissyUSA.com website, which is the largest online community for married Korean women who live in North America. A purposive sample of 15 Korean immigrant women who experienced childbirth in the United States within the past 5 years was recruited. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and were analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. During childbirth in the United States, participants faced multifaceted barriers in unfamiliar sociocultural contexts yet maintained their own cultural heritages. They navigated the unfamiliar health care system and developed their own strategies to overcome barriers to health care access. Korean immigrant women actively sought health information on the Internet and through social networking during childbirth. Korean immigrant women selectively accepted new cultural beliefs with some modifications from their own cultural contexts and developed their own distinct birth cultures. Understanding a particular culture and respecting women's traditions, beliefs, and practices about their childbirth could help nurses to provide culturally sensitive care. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Comparison of menopause healthcare considerations between Japanese and Filipino women living in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Rie; Senba, Naomi; Beltran, Ruth; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Blanco-Capito, Loudes

    2012-12-13

    To investigate the involvement of psychological/social factors in the condition of climacteric disturbance in Japan and the Philippines, we examined the menopausal symptoms and psychological/social factors in menopausal women living in local communities and compared among both countries whether differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. affected the condition of climacteric disturbance. High percentages of Japanese women reported mental symptoms, while relatively high percentages of Filipino women also experienced motor neurological symptoms in addition to psychoneurological symptoms. Japanese and Filipino women were found to have different stressors: a high percentage of the Japanese women had problems involving human relationships, such as providing nursing care, while a high percentage of the Filipino women had household problems, including husband's health and financial problems. Stress severity was associated with SMI scores in both countries. A poorer marital relationship in Japan than in the Philippines and an association between marital relationship and SMI scores were found. The present study suggests the association of differences in psychological/social factors between Japanese and Filipino women with differences in menopausal symptoms.

  12. Gli italo-somali dell’Amministrazione Fiduciaria Italiana della Somalia (AFIS: una memoria dimenticata tra le pagine dell’Italia postcoloniale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pandolfo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War the United Nations gave to Italy a special protectorate on the own former colony by the International Trusteeship System of Somalia, which concludes in 1960. During the Fifties there are many relationships between the italian men and the somali women: from these liaisons there are a lot of children which have different destinies and their history represents one of the heredity of the italian past in Africa. From this italo-somali métissage, rises an association who asks the recognition of all the pains suffered by a part of that community and in the same time it asks a collective reflections of the historic memories about the Trusteeship System.

  13. Women living in a drug (and violence context: the maternal role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Frari Galera

    Full Text Available Although the drug problem is more present among men, women are an increasing group and a vulnerable subgroup, since many of them are involved in motherhood. In this paper, the partial results of an ethnographic study on maternal role-related perceptions, beliefs and attitudes are presented, as well as the context in which women with small children and are undergoing or underwent treatment for alcohol or drug addiction live. Mothers undergoing treatment participated in interviews about their maternal role and how it developed in a family context marked by violence, affective experiences and drug use.

  14. Addressing gender inequalities to improve the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  15. They Bring Their Memories with Them: Somali Bantu Resettlement in a Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Yda Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Somali Bantu, arriving in the United States after many years in Kenyan refugee camps, face significant barriers to successful integration into American society. Those responsible for managing initial resettlement at the local level were not prepared to provide appropriate assistance to this group. The arrival of the Somali Bantu highlighted…

  16. HIV/AIDS knowledge and condom use among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Himedan, Himedan Mohammed; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use.......This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use....

  17. HIV disclosure and stigma among women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify disclosure, stigma and predictors of non-disclosure among women living with HIV in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire study of women living with HIV in Denmark was performed. The enrolment period was from February 2013 to March 2014. Logistic regression was used to estimate......%), friends (63%) and children (41%). The primary reason for non-disclosure was a feeling that it did not concern others (55%), although reactions upon disclosure were mainly positive in 53%. Predictors of non-disclosure were being of black or Asian ethnicity. Following their HIV diagnosis, 40% no longer...... diagnosis to fewer than three people and black or Asian ethnicity predicted non-disclosure. HIV-related stigma regarding sex and contact with others is still highly prevalent; however, reactions to disclosure were mainly positive and associated with secondary positive gains. We strongly urge healthcare...

  18. Attitudes Toward Restricting the Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women Living With HIV Infection in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badahdah, Abdallah M

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has demonstrated the pervasive and destructive power of discrimination against people living with HIV, which limits their full and equal participation in society. This study surveyed 613 young adults from Yemen about their attitudes toward the sexual and reproductive rights of women living with HIV (WLWH). Among survey respondents, 80% believed that WLWH should be sterilized and not allowed to get married. Furthermore, 62% thought that WLWH should be forced to have abortions if they became pregnant. Men were more likely than women to impose restrictions on the sexual and reproductive rights of WLWH. HIV stigma predicted respondent attitudes toward WLWH, but religiosity and knowledge about HIV did not. The results of the study have implications for developing programs to protect and promote the rights of WLWH in Yemen. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Experience of Pregnancy in Women Living With HIV: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Piscoya-Angeles, Patricia N; Edwards, Joan E; Palmieri, Patrick A

    The lived experience of pregnancy from the perspectives of women living with HIV (WLWH) is not well understood. We aimed to understand the meaning of pregnancy for WLWH. A meta-synthesis was conducted to review and integrate qualitative studies about the phenomena; 12 databases were used to perform the search in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Articles using qualitative methods published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Data were analyzed using the meta-synthesis method. We found that, for pregnant WLWH, pregnancy evolved as a mediated experience of commitment and dedication. The vital life experience of pregnancy was defined as an interplay of emotions, coping strategies, and feelings of satisfaction. Pregnancy in WLWH was experienced and impacted by societal beliefs, as the women focused all their efforts to take care of themselves and their babies. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers to communication between HIV care providers (HCPs) and women living with HIV about child bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ddumba-Nyanzi, Ismael; Kaawa-Mafigiri, David; Johannessen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of HIV clinical care, open discussion regarding sexual health and reproductive plans has become increasingly relevant. The aim of this paper is to explore barriers to communication between providers and women living with HIV regarding childbearing. Methods: In-depth int......Objectives: In the context of HIV clinical care, open discussion regarding sexual health and reproductive plans has become increasingly relevant. The aim of this paper is to explore barriers to communication between providers and women living with HIV regarding childbearing. Methods: In....... Results: Four themes emerged describing barriers to communication, from the HIV-positive women’s point of view: (i) provider indifference or opposition to childbearing post HIV diagnosis, (ii) anticipation of negative response from provider, (iii) provider’s emphasis on ‘scientific’ facts, (iv...

  1. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOPHER R. PARUNGAO; LOWELL P. BAUTISTA; ROSLYN MARIANO; VILMA M. BONIFACIO; MARJORIE V. AGUINALDO

    2014-01-01

    Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent fe...

  2. A painful, never ending story: older women's experiences of living with an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H K; Olofsson, E H; Karlsson, J; Hansson, T; Olsson, L-E

    2016-05-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCF) cause pain and decreased physical ability, with no known well-established treatment. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experience of living with a VCF. The results show that fear and concerns are a major part of daily life. The women's initial contact with health-care providers should focus on making them feel acknowledged by offering person-centered and tailored support. In the past decade, osteoporotic-related fractures have become an increasingly common and costly public health problem worldwide. Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is the second most common osteoporotic fracture, and patients with VCF describe an abrupt descent into disability, with a subsequent desire to regain independence in everyday life; however, little is known of their situation. The aim of this study was to illuminate the lived experience of women with an osteoporotic VCF. Ten women were interviewed during 2012-2013, starting with an open-ended question: could you tell me what it is like to live with a vertebral compression fracture? The verbatim transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. The narrative provided descriptions of living in turmoil and chaos, unable to find stability in their life with little improvement regarding pain and physical function. Shifts from periods of constant pain to periods of fear of constant pain created a loss of confidence and an increased sense of confinement. The structural analysis revealed fear and concerns as the most prominent experience building on five themes: struggling to understand a deceiving body, breakthrough pain fueling fear, fearing a trajectory into isolation, concerns of dependency, and fearing an uncertain future. Until researchers find a successful prevention or medical/surgical treatment for osteoporotic VCFs, health-care providers and society abandon these women to remain in a painful and never ending story.

  3. The peak bone mass of Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and white women living in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J W; Novotny, R; Ross, P D; Wasnich, R D

    1994-10-01

    Our study compares the bone mass of Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and white women living in Oahu, Hawaii. Eligible women ranged in age from 25 to 34; all had bone mass measurements at the spine, calcaneus, and proximal and distal radius. Their average bone mineral density (BMD) remained stable with age at all four bone sites, indicating that the age range 25-34 may represent the peak bone mass. Bone mass varied, however, between ethnicities; differences in BMD up to 11% were observed. The Hawaiian women had the greatest BMD, and whites had the second greatest BMD at the spine and calcaneus. The Japanese most frequently had the lowest BMD. Differences in body size partly explained the differences; most ethnic differences were reduced or eliminated after adjusting for height and weight. At the spine, the ethnic differences for BMD were also apparent with BMC and with vertebral area. Hawaiian and white women had greater values than Japanese or Filipino women. Differences at the proximal radius resembled the spine, except that whites had the widest proximal widths. The results were more complex for the distal radius. At the distal radius whites had the lowest BMD of the four ethic groups. The difference between whites and Hawaiians derived from the greater bone mineral content (BMC) of the Hawaiian women. By contrast, the difference between whites and the Japanese and Filipinos derived from the wider distal widths of the white women. Compared with the Japanese and Filipino women, the white women appeared to disperse their BMC at the distal radius across a wider bone width.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. "In our stories": The perspectives of women living with HIV on an evidence-based group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Grimes, Tiffany; Miller, Lauren; Ursillo, Alyssa; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-07-01

    A qualitative study among women living with HIV assessed the aspects of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV transmission risk reduction (Women Involved in Life Learning from Other Women [WiLLOW]) that women valued and how their lives were impacted. Thirty-one women (80.6% African American) completed interviews. Women valued the personal stories and positive group dynamics (i.e. safety, trust, openness, getting feedback, bonding, and socializing). As a result of WiLLOW, women embraced a strong woman image, joined groups, changed behaviors, accepted their HIV status, became optimistic, and spoke up/advocated in their relationships and communities. Interventions for HIV-positive women may benefit from incorporating the sharing of stories in their curricula and factors that build positive group dynamics.

  5. Returning to life, the Lived Experiences of Pregnancy in Women with HIV: A Phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khalajinia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pregnancy is every woman's stage of life. During this period, women experience physical, mental and social changes. It is very sensitive, challenging and therefore a critical period for every woman particularly in HIV-positive women. During pregnancy, an HIV-positive mother is facing a psychological crisis which includes fear of transmission to children, death, leaving children to the family or a guardian, adverse effects during pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy on their health. Therefore, HIV-positive pregnant women are vulnerable and require supportive interventions.  Care for pregnant women with HIV negative women are unique and different. However, no more information about experience of pregnancy in HIV positive women exists. Therfore, the aim of the present study was to explore the lived experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women. Methods: The present qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach included 12 HIV-infected pregnant women who referred to the counseling center for behavioral diseases at Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences who were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data saturation was achieved after 16 interviews, each 40 to 90 min of duration with participants and then was analyzed by the method proposed by Diekelmann (1989. Results: The participants in the present study were of 22- 39 years of age. After data analysis, the main themes and 3 sub-themes emerged. These themes included: “return to life” with the three sub-themes of experience of motherhood, stability and protection, and gratification. Conclusion: The results revealed that although the experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women was associated with a deep sense of fear of transmission of the disease and having children was viewed as a way of hope. Motherhood gave their lives meaning and provided for them to return to life

  6. Single living predicts a higher mortality in both women and men with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the impact of single living on all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and determined if this association was modified by gender. METHODS: This historical cohort study included 637 patients who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Herlev Hosp......, the risk of death did not differ among single-living women and men. CONCLUSION: Single living is a prognostic determinant of all-cause mortality in men and women with chronic heart failure. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: We examined the impact of single living on all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and determined if this association was modified by gender. METHODS: This historical cohort study included 637 patients who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Herlev...... for confounding factors. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 2.8 years. A total of 323 (50.7%) patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for confounding factors, risk of death was associated with being single (HR = 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.96)). In a gender-stratified analysis...

  7. Making the invisible visible: a Photovoice exploration of homeless women's health and lives in central Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Kate; Buetow, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Women and the concept of homelessness are weakly connected in the international discourses on health and housing. This PhotoVoice study gave a sample of homeless women in central Auckland a camera with which to photograph their lives in order to voice their felt health needs as advocates and agents for positive change. Interviews explored the meanings given to street lives captured in the photographs and reveal threats to the women's mental health and worsening addictions. Their tight-knit, resilient community, including dogs, was seen as 'family' who provide support and protection. The women perceived social services as helping them survive and support their health, but not ending their homelessness. Barriers to them getting and staying off the street included a shortage of affordable, secure housing, which has also tended to become overcrowded. They identified their own leaders who could link with state housing services to implement and evaluate new homelessness programmes, such as Housing First. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2018-01-23

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. “Sex and the Island”: Lives of Single Women in Prince Edward Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Collins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the significance attributed to Prince Edward Island in managing a marginalized single female identity, as presented by accounts of thirty never-married and previously-married Island women, aged twenty-seven through sixty-five. As popular media and social narratives overwhelmingly position contemporary single women against an urban backdrop, the question arises as to whether unmarried Island women feel “marooned” in ways their urban counterparts may not. In accordance with feminist aims to produce research for, rather than about, women’s lives, the paper focuses on two themes from fieldwork interviews that were of particular interest to participants. The first theme relates to negotiating female singleness within the Island’s family-centered culture, and the second theme presents participants’ talk around advantages and disadvantages of living in Prince Edward Island, Canada, as single women. The paper concludes with a summary of other findings from the study and suggestions for future research on female singleness and island locales.

  10. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. PMID:29311321

  11. Re-working biographies: Women's narratives of pregnancy whilst living with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, Annalise; Denny, Elaine

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores the multiple ways experiences of pregnancy and early motherhood come to 'rework' the biographies of women living with epilepsy. Pregnancy is explored as a temporarily concurrent status alongside the long-term condition of epilepsy. Narrative interviews were conducted with 32 women from across the UK. Analysis of these narratives suggests that biographical disruption and continuity are both useful in the conceptualisation of women's diverse experiences of pregnancy and epilepsy. Such findings challenge the notion that the presence of a condition over a long period of time leads to the normalisation of illness. Participants' narratives demonstrate that, for some, pregnancy and early motherhood may be disruptive and can raise concerns regarding an ever present condition that may previously have been taken for granted. Findings also indicate the need for a greater consideration of gender and care responsibilities, as well explorations of concomitant conditions, in the theorising of biographies and chronic illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fear of stigma: The lived experiences of Iranian women after suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizpour, Maryam; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2018-04-01

    Suicide attempt is the most important predictor of completed suicide. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women after suicide attempts. This was an interpretative phenomenological study carried out through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 13 interviews. Data were analyzed using Van Manen method. Women of this study experienced fears of stigma. Their fears were not only related to labels of being "unbelief and mentally illness but also being involved in illicit sexual affairs." On the other hand, they were afraid of labeling "mental illness" and also "doing an unacceptable action." The women tried to hide their suicide attempts because they fear of being labeled by others. It is recommended that societies and families progress toward becoming free of stigma of suicide and suicide attempt. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marie Veisegaard

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women in the town of Christiansted, St. Croix, the Danish-Norwegian West Indies, were affected by discourses of race and gender during the period c. 1780–1820. To further the understanding of the conditions...... of the free Afro-Caribbean women in Christiansted, the article relates to the situation in other Caribbean colonies, especially the British West Indies, based on the assumption that it was the same discourses of race and gender that swept through all the Caribbean slave societies. In its approach, the article...... is inspired by concepts of race and gender in postcolonial studies. The investigation shows the prevalence in the Danish-Norwegian West Indies of discourses of Afro-Caribbean women as, on the one hand, unwomanly and physically strong and, on the other hand, promiscuous and of easy virtue. On this basis...

  14. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  15. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Inger; Ek, Anna-Christina; Toss, Göran; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta

    2010-04-16

    Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  16. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = .397 (.204-.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI) = 2.531 (1.689-9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI) = 3.616(1.869-6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  17. Disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanzania: are women living with HIV more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, David; Kendall, Tamil; Lyatuu, Goodluck; Ratcliffe, Hannah; McDonald, Kathleen; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Emil, Faida; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana

    2014-12-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination and disrespect and abuse during childbirth are barriers to use of essential maternal and HIV health services. Greater understanding of the relationship between HIV status and disrespect and abuse during childbirth is required to design interventions to promote women's rights and to increase uptake of and retention in health services; however, few comparative studies of women living with HIV (WLWH) and HIV-negative women exist. Mixed methods included interviews with postpartum women (n = 2000), direct observation during childbirth (n = 208), structured questionnaires (n = 50), and in-depth interviews (n = 18) with health care providers. Bivariate and multivariate regressions analyzed associations between HIV status and disrespect and abuse, whereas questionnaires and in-depth interviews provided insight into how provider attitudes and workplace culture influence practice. Of the WLWH and HIV-negative women, 12.2% and 15.0% reported experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (P = 0.37), respectively. In adjusted analyses, no significant differences between WLWH and HIV-negative women's experiences of different types of disrespect and abuse were identified, with the exception of WLWH having greater odds of reporting non-consented care (P = 0.03). None of the WLWH reported violations of HIV confidentiality or attributed disrespect and abuse to their HIV status. Provider interviews indicated that training and supervision focused on prevention of vertical HIV transmission had contributed to changing the institutional culture and reducing HIV-related violations. In general, WLWH were not more likely to report disrespect and abuse during childbirth than HIV-negative women. However, the high overall prevalence of disrespect and abuse measured indicates a serious problem. Similar institutional priority as has been given to training and supervision to reduce HIV-related discrimination during childbirth should be focused on

  18. Depression and key associated factors in female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).

  19. Navigating Multiple Worlds: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Hmong Women Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Moua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a narrative study that examined the leadership development and pathways of nine prominent Hmong American women leaders from Minnesota and California. Each of these women was able to break through the cultural and gender glass ceiling to become positional and influential leaders in mainstream American society. The study focused on the factors that contributed to the participants leadership development; strategies used in attaining and maintaining leadership roles; and barriers each participant encountered on her path to becoming a leader. Important findings included the impact of poverty, the prominent role of education, inner strength the women possessed, importance of networking and support systems, and strong role models. Other factors included familial responsibilities, gender disparities, racism and ageism. The conceptual frameworks of Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule (1986, and Alon and Higgins (2005, were utilized to guide the analysis and presentation of each participants life journey, and show the intersections between culture and feminist epistemology. The narrative case study approach included in-depth interviews, collective story mapping and re-narration techniques to explore the lives of these women leaders. One overarching goal of the study and this article is to create a greater understanding of complex issues and impediments associated with leadership development, with the hope of beginning a dialog that will help facilitate policy changes regarding developing and supporting minority women in leadership roles.

  20. Navigating Multiple Worlds: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Hmong Women Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Moua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a narrative study that examined the leadership development and pathways of nine prominent Hmong American women leaders from Minnesota and California. Each of these women was able to break through the cultural and gender glass ceiling to become positional and influential leaders in mainstream American society. The study focused on the factors that contributed to the participants’ leadership development; strategies used in attaining and maintaining leadership roles; and barriers each participant encountered on her path to becoming a leader. Important findings included the impact of poverty, the prominent role of education, inner strength the women possessed, importance of networking and support systems, and strong role models. Other factors included familial responsibilities, gender disparities, racism and ageism. The conceptual frameworks of Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule (1986, and Alon and Higgins (2005, were utilized to guide the analysis and presentation of each participant’s life journey, and show the intersections between culture and feminist epistemology. The narrative case study approach included in-depth interviews, collective story mapping and re-narration techniques to explore the lives of these women leaders. One overarching goal of the study and this article is to create a greater understanding of complex issues and impediments associated with leadership development, with the hope of beginning a dialog that will help facilitate policy changes regarding developing and supporting minority women in leadership roles.

  1. Psychosocial Characteristics Associated with Both Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Risk Behaviors in Women Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Spangler, Sydney; Higgins, Melinda; Dalmida, Safiya George; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key psychosocial characteristics of HIV-infected women who exhibit different levels of both ART adherence and risk behaviors. We analyzed baseline data from 193 predominately African American HIV-infected women participating in a behavioral clinical trial. Women were categorized into high/low groups based on levels of adherence and risky behaviors. There was a significant interaction effect for internal motivation for adherence. Women at high risk for poor health and transmitting HIV (low adherence/high risk group) had the lowest levels of internal motivation and also reported more difficult life circumstances. Gender roles, caretaking and reliance on men for economic and other support may promote external versus internal motivation as well as riskier behaviors in this group. The highest levels of internal motivation were found in those with High Adherence/High Risk behaviors. This group was highly knowledgeable about HIV and had the lowest VL. Compared to others, this group seems to tolerate risky behaviors given their high level of adherence. Adherence and risk reduction behaviors are key to individual and public health. Motivation and risk compensation should be addressed when providing interventions to women living with HIV.

  2. A cross-sectional study of contraceptive use among married women living in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Ning; Zhou, You; Mao, Qunxia; Cheng, Yimin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of contraceptive use in rural China and to determine factors that influence choice of contraceptive method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling to identify married women aged 20-49 years residing in Shaanxi Province, China. Data on demographics and contraceptive use were collected via detailed questionnaire. The prevalence of contraceptive use in the study population was 93.9% (19 599/20 878 eligible women). Among the women using contraceptives, 10 408 (53.1%) used sterilization (female and male) and 6947 (35.4%) chose an intrauterine device. In total, 2244 (11.4%) women used short-acting contraceptive (SAC) methods: condoms and pills accounted for 8.7% (n=1712) and 1.0% (n=216), respectively. Young age; high level of education; low parity; increased number of abortions; low frequency of sexual intercourse; long duration between marriage and delivery; and marriage after 1994 were all associated with SAC usage. Although contraceptive use was high in rural China, the participants' awareness of free selection of contraceptive method and the rate of SAC use were both low. Appropriate and diverse family-planning services should be provided to meet the needs of women living in rural areas. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The meaning and use of spirituality among African American women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Access to employment among African migrant women living with HIV in France: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences.

  5. Attitudes toward Female Circumcision among Men and Women in Two Districts in Somalia: Is It Time to Rethink Our Eradication Strategy in Somalia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi A. Gele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has the highest global prevalence (98% of female circumcision (FC, and, despite a long history of abandonment efforts, it is not clear as to whether or not these programmes have changed people’s positive attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Hargeisa and Galkayo districts to the practice of FC. Methods. A purposive sampling of 24 Somalis, including activists and practitioners, men and women, was conducted in Somalia. Unstructured interviews were employed to explore the participants' knowledge of FC, their attitudes toward the continuation/discontinuation of the practice, and the type they want to continue or not to continue. Result. The findings of this qualitative study indicate that there is a strong resistance towards the abandonment of the practice in Somalia. The support for the continuation of Sunna circumcision is widespread, while there is a quite large rejection of Pharaonic circumcision. Conclusion. Therefore, since the “zero tolerance policy” has failed to change people’s support for the continuation of the practice in Somalia, programmes that promote the pinch of the clitoral skin and verbal alteration of status, with the goal of leading to total abandonment of FC, should be considered for the Somali context.

  6. Single living predicts a higher mortality in both women and men with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2016-09-01

    We examined the impact of single living on all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and determined if this association was modified by gender. This historical cohort study included 637 patients who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Herlev Hospital, Denmark, between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2007. Baseline clinical data were obtained from patient records. Data on survival rates were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality, controlling for confounding factors. The median follow-up time was 2.8 years. A total of 323 (50.7%) patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for confounding factors, risk of death was associated with being single (HR = 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.96)). In a gender-stratified analysis, the risk of death did not differ among single-living women and men. Single living is a prognostic determinant of all-cause mortality in men and women with chronic heart failure. none. not relevant.

  7. The Experience of Young Women Living in a Prostitution Area in Maintaining Their Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Vonyca; Setyowati; Kurniawati, Wiwit

    Young women face a difficult situation when they live in a prostitution area or red light district. A phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences in maintaining reproductive health of 10 young women living in the prostitution area in Lampung, one of the provinces in Sumatra. Thematic content analysis found 7 themes including: (1) The participants' perception of prostitution as a place of naughty women and free sexual activity that can transmit STDs and influence adolescent psychology; (2) The ways the participants kept their reproductive organs healthy were through maintaining friendships, maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding free sexual activity, eating healthy food, and having routine medical checkups; (3) Information support was gained from family, health workers, media, and teachers; (4) Emotional support from family and friends; (5) Barriers to maintaining good health were inaccessible health facilities and an underfunded health service; (6) The needs of the participants were reproductive health services and clean environment; (7) The participants hoped for health education and intensive health services with friendly nurses. The results of this research illustrate that there is a need for socializing intensive ways to maintain reproductive health, especially in a risky environment.

  8. Searching: the lived experience of women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Hilary; Clifford, Collette

    2009-01-01

    Although the physical adverse effects following surgery for vulval cancer may readily be described, little is known about the psychological, emotional, and social impact. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of studies, as this condition is rare. To explore the lived experiences of women in the United Kingdom with vulval cancer, a qualitative research study was undertaken using the research methodology of interpretive phenomenology, based on the work of Heidegger (The Essence of Human Freedom. London: Continuum; 2005) and van Manen (Researching Lived Experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press; 1990). Thirteen women younger than 50 years were interviewed between 6 months and 5 years after their surgery, and the data were analyzed using framework analysis (Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In: Analysing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge; 1994:173-194). This article describes how the concept of searching emerged from the data. It also describes the manner in which the women searched to control their symptoms by their own efforts and by undergoing surgery. The search to understand the truth about their condition and their access to information in the search for meaning and the time element in which this was undertaken was also raised. An underlying consideration is the need for health professionals to help provide the information and support needed to manage this condition.

  9. Women Living with HIV over Age of 65: Cervical Cancer Screening in a Unique and Growing Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aserlind

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and other risk factors were evaluated. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear. Results. The mean age of the cohort was 66.5 and at HIV diagnosis was 56. The majority of women were immunocompetent. 80% had serial Pap smears. Of these, 86% of 238 were negative or ASCUS. No women progressed to HSIL. 92% of colposcopies had negative or CIN I results. Three women were treated successfully for high-grade dysplasia. More than half of women had other STIs. 72% were screened for HPV; 50% were positive. Conclusion. The majority of women had negative and low-grade Pap smears. Questions remain regarding the utility of continued Pap screening and the added value of HPV testing in this unique population of older women living with HIV.

  10. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violenc...

  11. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  12. Vitamin D status and intake of lactating Inuit women living in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A

    2018-02-13

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of healthy vitamin D status in lactating Inuit women living in remote regions of the Arctic. Cross-sectional. Households were selected randomly in thirty-six communities of Nunavut, Nunatsiavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall and an FFQ. Anthropometric measurements, household living conditions, supplement use and health status were assessed. In fasting samples, serum 25-hydroxyvitaimn D (25(OH)D) was measured using a chemiluminescent assay (LIAISON; Diasorin Inc.). Lactating Inuit women participating in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey conducted in the months of August to October. Among participants (n 34), 8·8, 26·5 and 50·0 % had 25(OH)D concentrations at or above 75, 50 and 40 nmol/l, respectively. More than one-third of participants did not consume traditional foods during the previous day and only 11·3 % of total energy intake was derived from traditional foods. Only 14·7 % of the sample consumed the daily number of milk servings recommended by Canada's Food Guide (two servings) for First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Using multivariable logistic regression to examine 25(OH)D≥40 nmol/l, only higher body fat was inversely correlated with 25(OH)D concentration. The present study is the first to assess simultaneously vitamin D status and other known factors that affect it among lactating Inuit women living in remote communities in the Arctic. Healthy maternal vitamin D status was observed in 25 % of participants during the late summer and early autumn. This requires further assessment in a larger sample spanning more seasons.

  13. Epidemiologic screening of pregnant women living in the territories of Ryazan region contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaginskaya, A.M.; Osipov, V.A.; Karelina, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic survey of the reproductive function of women living in polluted regions of the Ryazan district was carried out before and after the accident. Six years after the accident the dose loading of the thyroid did not surpass 10.3 to 15.0 cGy and total exposure dose was no more than 0.2 to 0.8 cGy. The study revealed a deterioration of the reproductive health of females living in contaminated territories of the Ryazan district in 1980-1993, a reduction of birth rate by 1.12-1.47 times, an increase of the number of medical abortions from 34 to 42% and of spontaneous abortions from 5 to 10), an increased incidence of diseases of pregnancy. Refs. 5, tabs. 4

  14. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-01

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  15. Women and political struggles: achievements and limitations lived in the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Carvalhaes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century was a period marked by important achievements and setbacks in the struggle for women's rights field. This study mapped out and described part of speeches, images and movements undertaken in that historical period and its effects on people's lives. Adopting a perspective of historical and theoretical analysis, the description looked up, first, the struggles carried out in some countries of Europe and the United States, highlighting its main challenges and difficulties. Then, the struggles undertaken are mapped in Brazil, with the analysis axis facing women inequality. Finally, it is considered that the political struggles carried out in the analyzed period had as greatest merits the disruption and exploitation of gender boundaries.

  16. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. METHODS......: We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance....... CONCLUSIONS: The majority of WLWH do not follow the HIV guidelines for cervical screening. We support the idea of cytology as part of an annual review and integration of HIV care and cervical screening in a single clinic setting....

  17. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further......Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental...

  18. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does......OBJECTIVE: Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown a strong association between M. genitalium and HIV infection, therefore screening and treatment for M. genitalium...

  19. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women living in the Greater Romagna Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Billi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.

  20. Sexual objectification in women's daily lives: A smartphone ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Elise; Koval, Peter; Stratemeyer, Michelle; Thomson, Fiona; Haslam, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Sexual objectification, particularly of young women, is highly prevalent in modern industrialized societies. Although there is plenty of experimental and cross-sectional research on objectification, prospective studies investigating the prevalence and psychological impact of objectifying events in daily life are scarce. We used ecological momentary assessment to track the occurrence of objectifying events over 1 week in the daily lives of young women (N = 81). Participants reported being targeted by a sexually objectifying event - most often the objectifying gaze - approximately once every 2 days and reported witnessing sexual objectification of others approximately 1.35 times per day. Further, multilevel linear regression analyses showed that being targeted by sexual objectification was associated with a substantial increase in state self-objectification. Overall, individual differences had little impact in moderating these effects. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN......INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  2. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2016-01-01

    , which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were......OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  3. Postpartum Depression and its Correlates among Women Living in Zabol (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohrehsadat Hashemi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available                 Objectivet:   To determine the prevalence and risk factors of postpartum depression among women living in Zabol, a city in South-East of Iran. Method:   2 to 8 weeks after delivery, 408 women were assessed for depression and some of its risk factors. Results:   The prevalence of postpartum depression was (40.4 %. Risk factors for the onset of post-partum depression included younger age, low income families, unemployment, history of depression, lack of family support, formula feeding, relationship difficulties with spouse, parents or parents-in-law. Type of delivery, number of pregnancy, number of delivery, satisfaction with sex of the baby, and number of children, were not associated with occurrence of PPD. Conclusion:   Depression occurs frequently after childbirth. The findings have implications for policies concerning maternal and childcare programs.

  4. Facilitation of self-empowerment of women living with borderline personality disorder: A concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: : The objective is to define the central concept of “facilitation of self empowerment”. Method: Analysis and synthesis reasoning methods as indicated by Walker and Avant (2011 were used to define the central concept. Results: A definition of the concept “facilitation of self-empowerment” was formulated from the dictionary and subject definitions. Conclusion: The central concept is important for developing a model as a frame of reference to assist psychiatric nurse practitioners in facilitating the mental health of women living with borderline personality disorder.

  5. The Meaning of Giving Birth: Voices of Hmong Women Living in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cheryl A; Callister, Lynn Clark; Gettys, Jamie Peterson; Hickman, Jacob R

    Increasing knowledge about the sociocultural context of birth is essential to promote culturally sensitive nursing care. This qualitative study provides an ethnographic view of the perspectives on birthing of Hmong mothers living in the highlands of Vietnam. Unique cultural beliefs exist in Hmong culture about the spiritual and physical world as well as ritual practices associated with childbearing. This includes variations of ancestor worship, reincarnation, and healing practices by shamans. Traditionally, Hmong families take an active role in childbirth with birth frequently occurring in the home. Situated within a large collaborative anthropology project, a convenience sample of 8 Hmong women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed regarding the perinatal experience. In addition, ethnic traditional birth attendants (midwives) and other village women contributed perspectives providing richly descriptive data. This ethnographic study was conducted during 6 weeks of immersed participant observation with primary data collection carried out through fieldwork. Data were analyzed to derive cultural themes from interviews and observations. Significant themes included (1) valuing motherhood, (2) laboring and giving birth silently, (3) giving birth within the comfort of home and family, (4) feeling capable of birthing well, (5) feeling anxiety to provide for another child, and (6) embracing cultural traditions. Listening to the voices of Hmong women enhances understanding of the meaning of childbirth. Gaining greater understanding of Hmong cultural beliefs and practices can ensure childbearing women receive respectful, safe, and quality care.

  6. Aloneness: the lived experience of women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, H; Clifford, C

    2011-11-01

    Cancer of the vulva is a rare condition that has been subject to limited research with a paucity of studies into the impact of this disease. Although the physical effects may readily be described, little is known about the psychological, emotional and social impact of this condition. To increase insights, a qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the experiences of women with vulval cancer living in the UK. An interpretive phenomenological approach based on the work of Heidegger and Van Manen was used to frame the study in which 13 women under 50 years of age were interviewed between 6 months and 5 years after their surgery. Data were analysed using framework analysis described by Ritchie and Spencer. This article describes the concept of aloneness which emerged from the data. This includes consideration of the women's sense of isolation due to the geographical distance between the woman's home and the hospital, and a sense of separation as they described their loss of sexual function and ability to enjoy the sexual relationship they had previously, following the onset of their symptoms of vulval cancer and subsequent treatment. The women's sense of aloneness was also manifest in their perception that there was a lack of knowledge and understanding about this condition both in their social world and the healthcare system in which they received treatment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawdzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer (CC is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I, workers (doctors, nurses and midwives of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II and patients of the same clinics (Group III. Results : According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36% and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%. It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions : It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer.

  8. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in women with mental illness living in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Elsa; Jordaan, Esme; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Leppanen, Jukka

    2018-06-01

    Pregnant women in general are at an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of mental illness, and those living in a developing country are even more vulnerable. Research points towards a causal relationship between unplanned pregnancy and perinatal mental illness and suggests that pregnancy planning can aid in reducing the negative impact of mental illness on a woman, her unborn baby, and the rest of the family. In this quantitative, descriptive study, we investigated both socio-demographic factors and variables relating to mental illness itself that may place women at an increased risk of experiencing unplanned pregnancy. Data was gathered at two maternal mental health clinics in Cape Town by means of semi-structured interviews. Univariate analyses of the data revealed five independent key risk factors for unplanned pregnancy: lower levels of education, unmarried status, belonging to the Colored ethnic population, substance use, and having a history of two or more suicide attempts. Some of these factors overlap with findings of similar studies, but others are unique to the specific population (women with mental illness within a developing country). Screening of women based on these risk predictors may pave the way for early interventions and reduce the incidence of unplanned pregnancy and the negative consequences thereof in the South African population.

  9. Negative attitudes related to violence against women: gender and ethnic differences among youth living in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Stamenkovic, Željka; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to identify to what extent negative attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women are present among young women and men living in Serbia, in Roma and non-Roma settlements. We used the data from the 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Serbia, for the respondents who were 15-24 years old. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between judgmental attitudes, socio-demographic factors and life satisfaction. In Roma settlements, 34.8% of men and 23.6% of women believed that under certain circumstances men are justified to be violent towards wives, while among non-Roma it was 5.6 and 4.0%, respectively. These negative attitudes were significantly associated with lower educational level, lower socio-economic status and being married. In multivariate model, in both Roma and non-Roma population women who were not married were less judgmental, while the richest Roma men were least judgmental (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.87). Violence prevention activities have to be focused on promoting gender equality among youth in vulnerable population groups such as Roma, especially through social support, strengthening their education and employment.

  10. Women's experiences of living with neurogenic bladder and bowel after spinal cord injury: life controlled by bladder and bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevedal, Andrea; Kratz, Anna L; Tate, Denise G

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB) is a chronic condition hindering the functioning and quality of life (QOL) of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). NBB research has focused on men with SCI leaving unanswered questions about women's experiences of living with NBB. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe women's experiences of living with SCI and NBB. Secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews from a larger qualitative study of women with SCI (N = 50) was carried out. Transcripts were coded for bowel and bladder content. Pile-sorting techniques were used to identify emergent themes related to NBB. Meta-themes were categorized under the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Bladder and bowel topics were spontaneously discussed by 46 out of 50 study participants suggesting the salience of this issue for women with SCI. We identified 6 meta-themes: life controlled by bladder and bowel, bladder and bowel accidents, women's specific challenges, life course disruption, bladder and bowel medical management, and finding independence. Findings describe concerns, strategies, and the detrimental impact of NBB in the lives of women with SCI. Findings inform policy makers, health care and rehabilitation professionals to improve accessibility and quality of life for women with NBB. Women with spinal cord injury (SCI) reported gender specific challenges to living with neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB). Interventions designed for women with SCI can address these problems and provide recommendations for prevention and treatment. Women described the detrimental impact of NBB on life course expectations, emotional, social, physical health, and quality of life domains. Psychosocial and educational programs can be developed to address these challenges and improve overall quality of life. Recommendations for special treatment and policy considerations are needed to maximize women's independence and health while living with NBB

  11. A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines healthcare providers' perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers' accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living…

  12. "An exaggerated type of many lives": Ouida, women writers, and the critical reception of the representation of childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The current objective is to consider the ways in which women writers were considering the physicality of female subjects—the lives of women, and specifically their health and bodily processes. Its ability to collapse or transcend conventional boundaries is particularly interesting; the difficulty of

  13. [Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in women living in the South Priaralye region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibullaev, A A; Iskandarova, G T; Abdurizaev, A A

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence and types of urinary incontinence (UI) among women living in the South Priaralye region, and to analyze risk factors associated with UI. The population-based study was conducted by nested-typological method. Analysis was carried out on the data of 1487 women collected by a standard ICIQ-SF questionnaire, an assessment tool for female urinary incontinence recommended by the European Association of Urology. The study showed that the prevalence of UI among women aged 18 years and older in the South Priaralye region was 27%. The predominant type of the disease was stress UI since in 44.8% of women, the uncontrolled urine loss occurred during exercise. In 16.1% of women urgent type UI was observed, and in 38.6% mixed type of UI was found. The most significant risk factors for UI were recurrent urinary tract infection (odds ratio (OR) of 5.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.12-8.38), gynecological disease (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.99-3.59), enuresis in childhood (OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.21-4.88), constipation (OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.45-2.93) the number of births (OR = 1.2 (95% CI 1,05-1.28), and occupation, namely work involving physical strain (odds ratio of 1.2 (95% CI 1.04-1.43). In the area of the South Priaralye, more than a fourth of adult females were found to have a UI. Understanding the nature and risk factors for UI will allow planning the resources required to provide treatment and preventive measures in the future.

  14. Examining the Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior (TDIB) model for fertility planning in women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne C; Ivanova, Elena L; Hart, Trevor A; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of fertility behavior (i.e., trying to become pregnant) in a large representative sample of women living with HIV of reproductive age in Ontario, Canada. The Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior model was used to examine the key predictors of reproductive decision making and behavior. A total of 320 women living with HIV were included in the current analysis. The women living with HIV were between the ages of 18 and 52 (mean=37.23, SD=7.53), 56.4% had at least one child living in the home, over 40% identified as being of African ethnicity, and the average time since HIV diagnosis was 10.49 years (SD=5.71). In hierarchical multilevel analysis, perceived family support for trying to become pregnant, living in a large metropolitan city (i.e., Toronto), women's fertility desires, and fertility intentions were associated with fertility behavior (χ(2)9=59.97, pfertility-related behavior, while 57.5% intended a pregnancy in the future, identifying barriers to fertility and discrepancies between intentions and behaviors can support policy programs and assist health care providers to better facilitate the fertility goals of women living with HIV.

  15. Psychosocial challenges facing women living with HIV during the perinatal period in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholastic Ashaba

    Full Text Available The complexities of navigating pregnancy while living with HIV predispose women to additional stress. Finding ways to minimize psychosocial challenges during the perinatal period may maximize the well-being of mothers living with HIV and their children. The goal of this study was to explore psychosocial challenges experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH during pregnancy and the postpartum. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH recruited from an HIV treatment cohort study in Mbarara, Uganda as part of a larger study exploring perinatal depression. We conducted content analyses to identify themes related to challenges of WLWH during pregnancy and the postpartum. Participants had a median age of 33 years [IQR: 28-35], a median of 3 living children [IQR: 2-5], and 95% had achieved HIV-RNA suppression. Challenges were organized around the following themes: HIV -related stigma from health professionals, HIV status disclosure dilemma, unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence, HIV and environmental structural barriers and distress and fear related to maternal and child health. Stigma centered on discrimination by health care professionals and personal shame associated with being pregnant as a WLWH. This led to difficulty engaging in HIV care, particularly when coupled with structural barriers, such as lack of transportation to clinic. Participants experienced intimate partner violence and lacked support from their partners and family members. Distress and fear about the health and uncertainty about the future of the unborn baby due to maternal deteriorating physical health was common. The perinatal period is a time of stress for WLWH. Challenges experienced by WLWH may compromise successful engagement in HIV care and may reduce quality of life for women and their children. Strategies aimed at alleviating the challenges of WLWH should involve the larger structural environment including partners, family and community member

  16. Psychosocial challenges facing women living with HIV during the perinatal period in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaba, Scholastic; Kaida, Angela; Coleman, Jessica N; Burns, Bridget F; Dunkley, Emma; O'Neil, Kasey; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Bangsberg, David R; Matthews, Lynn T; Psaros, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The complexities of navigating pregnancy while living with HIV predispose women to additional stress. Finding ways to minimize psychosocial challenges during the perinatal period may maximize the well-being of mothers living with HIV and their children. The goal of this study was to explore psychosocial challenges experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy and the postpartum. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH recruited from an HIV treatment cohort study in Mbarara, Uganda as part of a larger study exploring perinatal depression. We conducted content analyses to identify themes related to challenges of WLWH during pregnancy and the postpartum. Participants had a median age of 33 years [IQR: 28-35], a median of 3 living children [IQR: 2-5], and 95% had achieved HIV-RNA suppression. Challenges were organized around the following themes: HIV -related stigma from health professionals, HIV status disclosure dilemma, unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence, HIV and environmental structural barriers and distress and fear related to maternal and child health. Stigma centered on discrimination by health care professionals and personal shame associated with being pregnant as a WLWH. This led to difficulty engaging in HIV care, particularly when coupled with structural barriers, such as lack of transportation to clinic. Participants experienced intimate partner violence and lacked support from their partners and family members. Distress and fear about the health and uncertainty about the future of the unborn baby due to maternal deteriorating physical health was common. The perinatal period is a time of stress for WLWH. Challenges experienced by WLWH may compromise successful engagement in HIV care and may reduce quality of life for women and their children. Strategies aimed at alleviating the challenges of WLWH should involve the larger structural environment including partners, family and community member as well as policy

  17. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  18. Urinary incontinence and quality of life of women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göral Türkcü, Sinem; Kukulu, Kamile

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of urinary incontinence (UI) on the quality of life of women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study was conducted on 95 women living in nursing homes in the Mediterranean region. Data were collected from a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, the Index of Activities of Daily Living, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form. The quality of life of women who did not consider UI a health problem was significantly higher than that of those who considered otherwise. Mixed UI was the most common UI type among the women living in nursing homes, with a rate of 31.7%. According to the overall mean scores on the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, quality of life was the most affected among women who had nocturnal incontinence. Quality of life was affected from most to least by the mixed type, stress type, and urge type of incontinence. Early diagnosis and treatment of UI could be improved if health professionals, who have a unique role in changing the perception of society, offered training to women experiencing incontinence. Identifying this problem and determining and preventing the risk factors are important for enhancing women's quality of life. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Somali Immigrant Perceptions of Mental Health and Illness: An Ethnonursing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kimberly M; Zoucha, Rich; McFarland, Marilyn; Salman, Khlood; Dagne, Ahmed; Hashi, Naimo

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of Somali immigrants' mental health care beliefs and practices is needed so that nurses can promote culturally congruent care. The purpose of this study was to explore, discover, and understand mental health meanings, beliefs, and practices from the perspective of immigrant Somalis. Leininger's qualitative ethnonursing research method was used. Thirty informants (9 key and 21 general) were interviewed in community settings. Leininger's ethnonursing enablers and four phases of analysis for qualitative data were used. Analysis of the interviews revealed 21 categories and nine patterns from which two main themes emerged. The themes are the following: (a) Our religion significantly influences our mental health and (b) Our tribe connectedness, cultural history, and khat usage are significant in mental health. Somali cultural and religious beliefs and practices influence their health care choices. The findings will improve care by promoting culturally congruent care for the Somali immigrant population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Lincoln, Alisa; Strunin, Lee; Cabral, Howard J

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role of social identity (acculturation and gender) in moderating the association between discrimination and Somali adolescent refugees' mental health. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135). Perceived discrimination, trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and behavioral acculturation were assessed in structured interviews. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups were also conducted. Results indicated that discrimination was common and associated with worse mental health. For girls, greater Somali acculturation was associated with better mental health. Also, the association between discrimination and PTSD was less strong for girls who showed higher levels of Somali acculturation. For boys, greater American acculturation was associated with better mental health, and the association between discrimination and depression was less strong for boys with higher levels of American acculturation. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  1. Drivers of dietary behaviours in women living in urban Africa: a systematic mapping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissing, Stefanie C; Pradeilles, Rebecca; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah A; Cohen, Emmanuel; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    To (i) systematically review the literature to determine the factors influencing diet and dietary behaviour in women living in urban Africa; (ii) present these in a visual map; and (iii) utilize this to identify potentially important areas for future research. Systematic mapping review. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration number CRD42015017749). Six databases were systematically searched, followed by reference and citation searching. Eligibility criteria included women aged 18-70 years living in urban Africa, any design/methodology, exploring any driver, using any measure of dietary behaviour. Quality appraisal occurred parallel with data extraction. Twelve predominantly cross-sectional quantitative studies were included; reported in seventeen publications. Determinants were synthesized narratively and compiled into a map adapted from an existing ecological model based on research in high-income countries. Urban Africa. African women aged 18-70 years. Determinants significantly associated with unhealthy dietary behaviour ranged from the individual to macro level, comprising negative body image perception, perceptions of insufficient food quantity and poorer quality, poorer food knowledge, skipping meals, snacking less, higher alcohol consumption, unhealthy overall lifestyle, older age, higher socio-economic status, having an education, lower household food expenditure, frequent eating outside the home and media influence. Marital status and strong cultural and religious beliefs were also identified as possible determinants. Few studies have investigated drivers of dietary behaviours in urban African settings. Predominantly individual-level factors were reported. Gaps in the literature identified a need for research into the neglected areas: social, physical and macro-level drivers of food choice.

  2. Women of low socioeconomic status living with diabetes: Becoming adept at handling a disease

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    Wimonrut Boonsatean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how Thai women of low socioeconomic status handle their type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative interpretative method was used to study 19 women with type 2 diabetes in a suburban community in Thailand. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analysed using inductive and constructive processes. Results: Participants’ lives underwent many changes between their initial diagnoses and later stages when they became adept at handling diabetes. Two themes emerged, which involved (1 the transition to handling diabetes and (2 the influences of the social environment. The first theme encompassed confronting the disease, reaching a turning point in the process of adaptation and developing expertise in handling diabetes. The second theme involved threats of loss of status and empowerment by families. These findings showed that becoming adept at handling diabetes required significant changes in women’s behaviours and required taking advantage of influences from the social environment. Conclusion: The process of developing expertise in handling diabetes was influenced by both inner and outer factors that required adjustment to learn to live with diabetes. Furthermore, the reductions found in women’s social statuses when they become patients in the healthcare system might pose a barrier to women of low socioeconomic status becoming adept at handling diabetes. However, the experiences of empowerment received from the women’s families acted as a powerful strategy to strengthen their handling of the disease. To develop accessible and sensitive health care for this population, it is important to pay attention to these findings.

  3. Operative vaginal delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Helen; Francis, Kate; Harding, Kate; Tookey, Pat A; Thorne, Claire

    2017-03-01

    To describe the use and outcomes of operative delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy amongst women living with HIV. The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive population-based surveillance study in the UK and Ireland. The NSHPC has collected data on operative delivery since 2008, and invasive procedures in pregnancy (amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling) from 2012. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 278 pregnancies expected to deliver from 1 January 2008 with outcome reported to the NSHPC by 31 March 2016. Among 9372 pregnancies in 2008-2016, there were 9072 livebirths with 251 operative deliveries and 27 invasive procedures in pregnancy reported. Information was available for 3023/3490 vaginal deliveries, and use of forceps or vacuum reported in 251deliveries (8.2%), increasing over calendar time to almost 10% by 2014-16. Forceps were used twice as often as vacuum delivery, and forceps use increased over time. One infant delivered operatively is known to have acquired HIV. From 2012 there were 4063 pregnancies resulting in 3952 livebirths, 83 terminations and 28 stillbirths. 2163/4063 had information on use (or not) of invasive procedures in pregnancy. Amniocentesis was reported in 25/2163 pregnancies, there was one report of chorionic villus sampling and one of cordocentesis. There were no reported transmissions following invasive procedures in pregnancy. This is the largest study to date to report on operative delivery in women living with HIV on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and provides an up-to-date picture of invasive procedures during pregnancy in this group. Findings from this comprehensive national study are reassuring but numbers are currently low; on-going monitoring is crucial as obstetric care of women with HIV becomes normalised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

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    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With great interest, we have read the article by Abad et al. entitled “Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran” that is published in International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine Vol. 14. No. 5. pp: 347-354, May 2016. In this article, the authors evaluated the possible associations between electromagnetic waves exposure level and the rate of miscarriage in pregnant women. The electromagnetic radiation, in this study, had a significant association with the increased abortion in women who were exposed to these radiations. These findings were based on the measurements of electromagnetic waves within the residential locations of the 413 samples, very close to the entrance door of their home, according to the standard instructions of ICNIRP. Over the past several years, our laboratories at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC have expanded their focus on studying the health effects of exposure to some common and/or occupational sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as cellular phones (1-9, mobile base stations (10, mobile phone jammers (11, 12, laptop computers (13, radars (2, dentistry cavitrons (14 and MRI (15, 16. Although the paper authored by Abad et al. is a well-structured article and addresses a very challenging issue, it has some major shortcomings. The first shortcoming of this paper comes from this cardinal point that the authors have simply ignored the role of exposure to extremely low frequency EMFs (e.g. exposure of the pregnant women living in houses close to power lines. It is worth noting that the NARDA SRM-3000 used in their study operates in the frequency range of 27MHz-3GHz and cannot measure extremely low frequency EMFs. It is also worth mentioning that previous studies conducted in Iran indicated that the exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields is probably related to early spontaneous abortions (17

  5. High-risk papillomavirus infection among women living with human Immunodeficiency virus: Brazilian multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica E; Silveira, Mariangela F; Travassos, Ana G; Tenório, Teresinha; Val, Isabel C C; Lannoy, Leonor; Mattos Junior, Hortensio S; Carvalho, Newton S

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer is an important health issue in Latin America. Although HPV infections can have spontaneous clearance, persistence of high-risk (HR) HPV is a risk factor for cervical cancer among women and it is even higher in HIV-infected women. To determine the prevalence of HR-HPV and risk factors among HIV-infected women attending reference services for HIV/AIDS in different regions of Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted among HIV-infected women attended at referral care centers for HIV/AIDS in nine states of Brazil. Women from 18 to 49 years that accept to participate and were not pregnant at the time of the approach were recruited for the study. The HPV screening was realized using qPCR in closed system, in vitro Diagnostic, COBAS ® -HPV Roche. The cytology results were available by the Bethesda System. A total of 802(89.1%) from the selected women agreed to participate in the study. Median age was 39(Inter quartile range [IQR34-46]) years and median education was 9(IQR6-11) years. General prevalence of HR-HPV was 28.4%(228/802). HPV-16 prevalence rate was 8.1%(65/802), HPV-18 was 3.7%(30/802) and other types of HR-HPV were 23.6% (189/802). Risk factors for HR-HPV infection in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were: age ranging from 18 to 34 years (OR = 1.43[95%CI:1.18-1.75]), illicit drugs use (OR = 1.61[95%CI:1.10-2.42]) and abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 1.56[95%CI:1.34-1.81]). Results showed a prevalence rate of 28.4% of HR-HPV infection in women living with HIV in Brazil. These infections were significantly associated with having less than 35 years old, illicit drug use and abnormal cervical cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  7. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p=0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378 and microcredit membership (p=0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386. Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p<0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460 were more likely to be anemic.

  8. All change: the lived experience of younger women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Hilary; Clifford, Collette

    2012-08-01

    To generate an understanding of the women's own perspectives of their care and address a gap in knowledge in relation to the broader impact of vulval cancer. Few people go though life without experiencing events that can change their perspective on how they see themselves, their role in society and their relationship with those around them. People are multi-dimensional, so a person with has a physical illness is also affected psychologically and sociologically. Qualitative. Based on the work of Heidegger and van Manen, an interpretative phenomenological research study was undertaken to explore the experiences of thirteen women under 50 years of age with vulval cancer living in the UK. Data were analysed using framework analysis and showed that a diagnosis of cancer of the vulva and the subsequent treatment has an effect on physical, psychological and sexual functioning. The concept of 'All Change' expressed the sentiment that following the diagnosis and surgery, everything has changed; life is not the same as it was before diagnosis. This included both physical and psychological changes and impacts on perceptions of body image. The challenge is to raise awareness of vulval cancer among health care professions and society in general and determine the most effective interventions in facilitating pre and post operative support for these women. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  10. Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

  11. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic.

  12. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend pay less attention to health (P-trend lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  13. Invited commentary: co-occurring health conditions among women living with profound life challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2011-09-01

    People challenged by homelessness are living with several losses including the loss of a home, employment, economic security, health or well-being, and personal security. Assistance programs for people who are homeless consist of housing, emergency shelter, food services, employment assistance, peer support, medical care, and mental health services. An article by Riley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;175(5):515-522) appearing in this issue of the Journal examines the relation between basic subsistence needs and health outcomes in a cohort of 129 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women who were recruited from a probability sample of low-income hotels, homeless shelters, and free food programs in San Francisco, California. The results of their study underscore the importance of addressing subsistence needs and providing access to medical and psychological treatment for homeless and unstably housed women. In addition to subsistence needs, more attention should be given to comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions that occur among homeless women, including trauma-related disorders.

  14. Knowledge and the Experience of Women Living Underground During the Portuguese Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Nogueira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes that formative processes are not limited to the school context or model but that other life contexts and experiences, even if not intentionally, have educational effects. These informal formative contexts and experiences can play a key role individual´s development, resulting not only in superficial changes, but also in deep changes in terms of subjectivity and identity. Our research involves clandestine militants of the Portuguese Communist Party during the dictatorship, and explores the type of knowledge acquired during their hiding experience (1940-1974 that allowed them to resist and survive over long periods. As our focus is the experience of women, based on narrative discourses of women (or about them we will consider the role and status of women in hiding. The discourses were collected through several published autobiographical narratives and mainly interviews where we tried to identify the learning processes, the people seen as significant for knowledge acquisition, and also how knowing, knowing how to do and knowing how to be were constructed during living in hiding.

  15. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity , and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  16. Community influences on intimate partner violence in India: Women's education, attitudes towards mistreatment and standards of living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Cullen, John; Racine, Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) directed towards women is a serious public health problem. Women's education may offer protection against IPV, but uncertainty exists over how it might reduce risk for IPV at the community and individual levels. The objectives of this study are to: (1) disentangle community from individual-level influences of women's education on risk for IPV; (2) quantify the moderating influence of communities on individual-level associations between women's education and IPV; (3) determine if women's attitudes towards mistreatment and living standards at the community and individual levels account for the protective influence of women's education; and (4) determine if the protective influence of education against IPV is muted among women living in communities exhibiting attitudes more accepting of mistreatment. Study information came from 68,466 married female participants in the National Family Health Survey conducted throughout India in 1998-1999. Multilevel logistic regression was used to address the study objectives. IPV showed substantial clustering at both the state (10.2%) and community levels (11.5%). At the individual level, there was a strong non-linear association between women's education and IPV, partially accounted for by household living standards. The strength of association between women's education and IPV varied from one community to the next with evidence that the acceptance of mistreatment at the community level mutes the protective influence of higher education. Furthermore, women's attitudes towards mistreatment and their standards of living accounted for community-level associations between women's education and IPV. Place of residence accounted for substantial variation in risk of IPV and also modified individual-level associations between IPV and women's education. At the community level, women's education appeared to exert much of its protective influence by altering population attitudes towards the acceptability of

  17. Diabetes Health Literacy Among Somali Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in a US Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, Jane W; Hagi-Salaad, Misbil F; Haji, Habibo; Cha, Stephen S; Wieland, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe diabetes literacy among Somali immigrants with diabetes and its association with diabetes outcomes. Among Somali immigrants in North America, the prevalence of diabetes exceeds that of the general population, and their measures of diabetes control are suboptimal when compared with non-Somali patients. Diabetes literacy is an important mediator of diabetes outcomes in general populations that has not been previously described among Somali immigrants and refugees. Diabetes literacy was measured using a translated version of the spoken knowledge in low literacy in diabetes (SKILLD) scale among Somali immigrants and refugees with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes outcome measures, including hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure, were obtained for each patient. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Among 50 Somali patients with diabetes who completed the survey, the mean SKILLD score was low (42.2 %). The diabetes outcome measures showed a mean hemoglobin A1C of 8 %, LDL cholesterol of 99.17 mg/dL (2.57 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure of 130.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure of 70.2 mmHg. There was no association between diabetes literacy scores and diabetes outcome measures. Somali patients with diabetes mellitus had low diabetes literacy and suboptimal measures of diabetes disease control. However, we found no association between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Future work aimed at reduction of diabetes-related health disparities among Somali immigrants and refugees to high-income countries should go beyond traditional means of patient education for low-literacy populations.

  18. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J

    2016-01-01

    , the OR of preterm birth was 5.29 (95% CI 2.41 to 11.63) in analyses including singletons and multiple births; restricted to singletons the OR was 1.80, 95% CI 0.49 to 6.62. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that women with UC and CD receiving ART treatments cannot expect the same success for each embryo transfer......OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide...... cohort study based on Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 January 1994 through 2013. The cohorts comprised 1360 ART treatments in 432 women with UC, 554 ART treatments in 182 women with CD and 148 540 treatments in 52 489 women without IBD. Our primary outcome...

  19. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  20. Associations between immune function and air pollution among postmenopausal women living in the Puget Sound airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lori A.

    Air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes, and changes in the immune system may be intermediate steps between exposure and a clinically relevant adverse health outcome. We analyzed the associations between three different types of measures of air pollution exposure and five biomarkers of immune function among 115 overweight and obese postmenopausal women whose immunity was assessed as part of a year-long moderate exercise intervention trial. For air pollution metrics, we assessed: (1) residential proximity to major roads (freeways, major arterials and truck routes), (2) fine particulate matter(PM2.5) at the nearest monitor to the residence averaged over three time windows (3-days, 30-days and 60-days), and (3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) modeled based on land use characteristics. Our immune biomarkers included three measures of inflammation---C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6---and two measures of cellular immunity---natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that living near a major road, increased exposure to PM2.5 and increased exposure to NO2 would each be independently associated with increased inflammation and decreased immune function. We observed a 21% lower average natural killer cell cytotoxicity among women living within 150 meters of a major arterial road compared to other women. For PM2.5 , we observed changes in 3 of 4 indicators of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3---an antibody to the T cell receptor associated with increases in 3-day averaged PM2.5. For 30-day averaged PM 2.5 and 60-day averaged PM2.5 we did not observe any statistically significant associations. We observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation index stimulated by the plant protein phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 1 of 2 PHA concentrations in association with modeled NO2. For the three inflammatory markers, we observed no notable associations with any of our measures of air pollution. If confirmed, our

  1. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  2. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Sabina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on

  3. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  4. Air-Sea Interaction in the Somali Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T. G.; Rydbeck, A.

    2017-12-01

    The western Indian Ocean is an area of high eddy-kinetic energy generated by local wind-stress curl, instability of boundary currents as well as Rossby waves from the west coast of India and the equatorial wave guide as they reflect off the African coast. The presence of meso-scale eddies and coastal upwelling during the Southwest Monsoon affects the air-sea interaction on those scales. The U.S. Navy's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to understand and quantify the surface flux, effects on surface waves and the role of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies on ocean-atmosphere coupling in that area. The COAMPS atmosphere model component with 9 km resolution is fully coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) with 3.5 km resolution and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model with 10 km resolution. Data assimilation using a 3D-variational approach is included in hindcast runs performed daily since June 1, 2015. An interesting result is that a westward jet associated with downwelling equatorial Rossy waves initiated the reversal from the southward Somali Current found during the northeast monsoon to a northward flow in March 2016 more than a month before the beginning of the southwest monsoon. It is also found that warm SST anomalies in the Somali Current eddies, locally increase surface wind speed due to an increase in the atmospheric boundary layer height. This results in an increase in significant wave height and also an increase in heat flux to the atmosphere. Cold SST anomalies over upwelling filaments have the opposite impacts on air-sea fluxes.

  5. Pregnancy incidence and intention after HIV diagnosis among women living with HIV in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Salters

    Full Text Available Pregnancy incidence rates among women living with HIV (WLWH have increased over time due to longer life expectancy, improved health status, and improved access to and HIV prevention benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. However, it is unclear whether intended or unintended pregnancies are contributing to observed increases.We analyzed retrospective data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS. Kaplan-Meier methods and GEE Poisson models were used to measure cumulative incidence and incidence rate of pregnancy after HIV diagnosis overall, and by pregnancy intention. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine independent correlates of unintended pregnancy among the most recent/current pregnancy.Of 1,165 WLWH included in this analysis, 278 (23.9% women reported 492 pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, 60.8% of which were unintended. Unintended pregnancy incidence (24.6 per 1,000 Women-Years (WYs; 95% CI: 21.0, 28.7 was higher than intended pregnancy incidence (16.6 per 1,000 WYs; 95% CI: 13.8, 20.1 (Rate Ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8. Pregnancy incidence among WLWH who initiated cART before or during pregnancy (29.1 per 1000 WYs with 95% CI: 25.1, 33.8 was higher than among WLWH not on cART during pregnancy (11.9 per 1000 WYs; 95% CI: 9.5, 14.9 (Rate Ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-3.0. Women with current or recent unintended pregnancy (vs. intended pregnancy had higher adjusted odds of being single (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.42, younger at time of conception (AOR: 0.95 per year increase, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99, and being born in Canada (AOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.92.Nearly one-quarter of women reported pregnancy after HIV diagnosis, with 61% of all pregnancies reported as unintended. Integrated HIV and reproductive health care programming is required to better support WLWH to optimize pregnancy planning and outcomes and to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  6. Pregnancy incidence and intention after HIV diagnosis among women living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters, Kate; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Money, Deborah; Pick, Neora; Wang, Lu; Jabbari, Shahab; Carter, Allison; Webster, Kath; Conway, Tracey; Dubuc, Daniele; O'Brien, Nadia; Proulx-Boucher, Karene; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy incidence rates among women living with HIV (WLWH) have increased over time due to longer life expectancy, improved health status, and improved access to and HIV prevention benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unclear whether intended or unintended pregnancies are contributing to observed increases. We analyzed retrospective data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS). Kaplan-Meier methods and GEE Poisson models were used to measure cumulative incidence and incidence rate of pregnancy after HIV diagnosis overall, and by pregnancy intention. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine independent correlates of unintended pregnancy among the most recent/current pregnancy. Of 1,165 WLWH included in this analysis, 278 (23.9%) women reported 492 pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, 60.8% of which were unintended. Unintended pregnancy incidence (24.6 per 1,000 Women-Years (WYs); 95% CI: 21.0, 28.7) was higher than intended pregnancy incidence (16.6 per 1,000 WYs; 95% CI: 13.8, 20.1) (Rate Ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8). Pregnancy incidence among WLWH who initiated cART before or during pregnancy (29.1 per 1000 WYs with 95% CI: 25.1, 33.8) was higher than among WLWH not on cART during pregnancy (11.9 per 1000 WYs; 95% CI: 9.5, 14.9) (Rate Ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-3.0). Women with current or recent unintended pregnancy (vs. intended pregnancy) had higher adjusted odds of being single (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.42), younger at time of conception (AOR: 0.95 per year increase, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), and being born in Canada (AOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.92). Nearly one-quarter of women reported pregnancy after HIV diagnosis, with 61% of all pregnancies reported as unintended. Integrated HIV and reproductive health care programming is required to better support WLWH to optimize pregnancy planning and outcomes and to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  7. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Ejlersen, Eva Wæhrens

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in ability to perform activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence cut-offs were used to divide the participants into 4 subgroups. Clinically relevant differences between subgroups were investigated based on the AMPS, FIQ PF and SF-36 PF. Participants in the 4 AMPS-derived subgroups demon-strated clinically relevant differences in observed activities of daily living motor and process ability. Neither the FIQ PF nor the SF-36 PF could differentiate between subgroups with clinically relevant differences in AMPS activities of daily living process ability. Activities of daily living process skills reflect underlying organizational and adaptive capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observations-based assessment of activities of daily living ability in order to individualize interventions offered.

  8. Modern contraceptive use among women living with HIV/AIDS at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba, Ali; Mumuni, Kareem; Adu, Joseph A; Sefogah, Promise E; Kudzi, William; Nartey, Edmund T

    2018-04-01

    To examine factors influencing contraceptive use among women living with HIV/AIDS. The present cross-sectional study included a randomly selected sample of sexually active females aged 15-60 years who were living with HIV/AIDS and receiving care at the HIV Clinic, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between September 1 and November 31, 2016. Data were collected via a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 202 women who completed the survey, 50 (24.7%) were using contraceptives. Of the women using contraception, 39 (78%) were married and 6 (12%) were cohabiting. Twenty-eight (56%) reported that their primary sexual partners were HIV-positive, 14 (28%) had HIV-negative partners, and 8 (16%) did not know their partner's HIV status. Condoms were used by 42 (84%) women and the majority (41 [82%]) wanted to have more children; almost all (47 [94%]) had received counseling on contraceptive use. Overall, 133 (65.8%) and 45 (22.3%) women reported that they would prefer to share their family planning concerns with a doctor and nurse, respectively, at the HIV clinic. Women living with HIV/AIDS desired more children but preferred to share their family planning concerns with their clinician at the HIV clinic. Integrating HIV care and reproductive health services could help these women achieve childbearing goals safely. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of Quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Côté, José; Cara, Chantal

    2012-10-18

    In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one's decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and intersectoral levels. Mobilization of actors from

  10. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and

  11. Sexually transmitted infections and use of contraceptives in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-01-01

    , and herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2). At follow-up, predictors of condom use were estimated in sexually active WLWH. RESULTS: In total, 334 of the 1,392 eligible WLWH in Denmark were included (median age and HIV duration: 42.5 and 11.3 years). Chlamydia trachomatis was present in four individuals (1......BACKGROUND: No Danish guidelines for screening of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women living with HIV (WLWH) exist, except for annual syphilis testing. Drug-drug interaction between hormonal contraceptives and some types of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) occurs. We...... criteria were HIV-1 infection and ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, alcohol- or drug abuse impeding adherence to the protocol. At entry, participants were tested (and where appropriate, treated according to guidelines) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis...

  12. Sexual harassment: everyday violence in the lives of girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, H; McKenna, K; Arnold, C T; Taylor, G; MacQuarrie, B

    2000-06-01

    Sexual harassment is one of the most insidious, yet pervasive, forms of violence that affects all girls, not merely those traditionally thought to be vulnerable or at risk. Although harassment in the workplace has been the focus of considerable attention during the last decade, there is a growing recognition that girls experience varied forms of sexual harassment, and that this behavior begins at a surprisingly early age. This article examines the plight of the "girl child" and presents findings from the first phase of a national action research project currently being conducted by the Canadian Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence. A major objective of this project is to examine how violence becomes "normalized" in the lives of girls and young women. Implications for nurses, including strategies aimed at encouraging resistance among this population, are addressed.

  13. The safety of hormonal contraceptives for women living with HIV and their sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Polis, Chelsea B; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are important for the health and well-being of some women living with HIV, so evaluation of evidence regarding their safety vis-à-vis HIV-related risks is important. We updated two prior systematic reviews on the impact of hormonal contraception (HC) on HIV disease progression and female-to-male HIV transmission. One new study finds no increased risk for HIV disease progression or death associated with oral contraceptive use [adjusted (adj) hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.44] or injectables (adj HR 0.72, CI 0.53-0.98). Three new studies did not find significantly increased risks for measures of female-to-male HIV transmission with HC use. Hormonal contraceptive methods do not appear to accelerate HIV disease progression. More research is needed to clarify whether HC impacts HIV transmissibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Correlates of Adherence among Rural Indian Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Ernst, E J; Keenan, Colleen; Suresh, P; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Liu, Yihang

    2012-01-01

    In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion, and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having ten or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program which will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA.

  15. Obesity prevalence and nutritional habits among Indian women: a comparison between Punjabi women living in India and Punjabi migrants in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maryam; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Indian women living in Punjab, India and in Vienna, Austria. A series of 115 women ageing between 17 and 80 years (x = 38.7 yrs; +/- 14.5) was enrolled in the present study. 65 women lived in the district of Jalandhar in Punjab, 50 Punjabi women lived in as migrants in Vienna Austria. Data collection comprised an anthropometric analysis including stature height, body weight and the body mass index (BMI). For classification of the weight status the Indian BMI cutoffs defined by the WHO for Asian Indians were used. Data concerning dietary patterns and lifestyle parameters were collected by structured interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Among both subgroups overweight and obesity were highly prevalent. Underweight (18.5%) was significantly more prevalent in Punjab than in Vienna (6.0 %), while overweight and obesity were more frequently found among Punjabi women in Vienna (26.0%; 54.0%) than among Punjabi women in India (9.2%; 24.6 %). Analysing lifestyle and dietary patterns it turned out that energy dense meals were preferred and fat and sugar were used frequently among both subsamples. A statistically significant relationship between dietary habits and weight status could not be proved.

  16. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  17. Severe vitamin D deficiency in Arab-American women living in Dearborn, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond D; Habib, Zeina; Alromaihi, Dalal; Idi, Leila; Parikh, Nayana; Blocki, Frank; Rao, D Sudhaker

    2009-01-01

    deficiency, as assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, is endemic in a sample of Arab-American women living in Dearborn, Michigan. These findings potentially identify an important health problem in the largest, most-concentrated Arab-American population in the United States.

  18. Predicting the chance of live birth for women undergoing IVF: a novel pretreatment counselling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, R K; McLernon, D J; Smith, P P; Fishel, S; Dowell, K; Deeks, J J; Bhattacharya, S; Coomarasamy, A

    2016-01-01

    Which pretreatment patient variables have an effect on live birth rates following assisted conception? The predictors in the final multivariate logistic regression model found to be significantly associated with reduced chances of IVF/ICSI success were increasing age (particularly above 36 years), tubal factor infertility, unexplained infertility and Asian or Black ethnicity. The two most widely recognized prediction models for live birth following IVF were developed on data from 1991 to 2007; pre-dating significant changes in clinical practice. These existing IVF outcome prediction models do not incorporate key pretreatment predictors, such as BMI, ethnicity and ovarian reserve, which are readily available now. In this cohort study a model to predict live birth was derived using data collected from 9915 women who underwent IVF/ICSI treatment at any CARE (Centres for Assisted Reproduction) clinic from 2008 to 2012. Model validation was performed on data collected from 2723 women who underwent treatment in 2013. The primary outcome for the model was live birth, which was defined as any birth event in which at least one baby was born alive and survived for more than 1 month. Data were collected from 12 fertility clinics within the CARE consortium in the UK. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the model. Discriminatory ability was assessed using the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and calibration was assessed using calibration-in-the-large and the calibration slope test. The predictors in the final model were female age, BMI, ethnicity, antral follicle count (AFC), previous live birth, previous miscarriage, cause and duration of infertility. Upon assessing predictive ability, the AUROC curve for the final model and validation cohort was (0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.63) and (0.62; 95% CI 0.60-0.64) respectively. Calibration-in-the-large showed a systematic over-estimation of the predicted probability of live

  19. Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefsson Kristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1 sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2 Impacts of RA, and 3 Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA.

  20. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  1. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A; Beyer, Nina; Klenk, Jochen; Zscheile, Julia; Becker, Clemens

    2014-07-01

    the effects of cold on older persons' body and mind are not well documented, but with an increased number of older people with decreasing physical performance, these possible effects need to be understood. to investigate the effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women. cross-sectional experimental study with two test conditions. movement laboratory in a climate chamber. eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). participants were exposed to moderately cold (15°C) and warm/normal (25°C) temperature in a climate chamber in random order with an interval of 1 week. The assessment protocol included leg extensor power (Nottingham Power Rig), sit-to-stand performance velocity (linear encoder), gait speed, walk-ratio (i.e. step length/cadence on an instrumented walk way), maximal quadriceps and hand grip strength. physical performance was lower in 15°C room temperature compared with 25°C room temperature for leg extensor power (P environment decreased important physical performance measures necessary for independent living. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

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    Sarah Bandali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs.

  3. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  4. Contemplating what I would do if someone got in my house: intentions of older homebound women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J

    2008-01-01

    There is little research guiding interventions to help old homebound women prepare to manage an intrusion event. During a phenomenological study of the experience of reaching help quickly, I compared intentions during a possible intrusion event for 9 women subscribing to a personal emergency response system and 5 nonsubscribers. The phenomenon of contemplating what I would do if an intruder got in my home had 4 components. Only 2 personal emergency response system subscribers voiced the definitive intention to use the personal emergency response system. Findings underpin a new empirical perspective of competence grounded in situations relevant to living alone at home rather than specific tasks of daily living.

  5. To tell or not to tell: disclosure to children and family amongst Thai women living with HIV/AIDS.

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    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2016-03-01

    HIV disclosure is a complex phenomenon. The choice of disclosure or non-disclosure is a reflection of how each HIV-positive person experiences and deals with HIV/AIDS in their everyday life. In this study, we qualitatively explore the experiences of disclosing HIV status to family members and children among HIV-positive women living in Thailand. Due to fear of stigma and discrimination, the women decided to tell only a few people, usually their significant others including parents and children. Although most women received good support from their family members, some were rejected and discriminated against by their family members. This stems from lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among family members. Women found disclosure to their children a difficult decision to make. Only some women told their children about their HIV status. They wished to protect their children from emotional burden. This protection also appeared in their attempts to prepare their children for dealing with HIV/AIDS. Support from family members played a major role in the lives of HIV-positive women. Although disclosure has been promoted as a means of ending stigma and discrimination, our data suggested that disclosure may not be positive for some women. This has implications for health promotion in HIV health care. Healthcare providers need to appreciate the ramifications of promoting disclosure to HIV-positive women who are mothers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: does living in more deprived neighbourhoods increase women's risk of intimate partner violence?

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    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Heise, Lori; Zimmerman, Cathy; Gouveia, Nelson; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions on women's likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data from 940 women who were interviewed as part of the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women, and census data for Sao Paulo City, were analyzed using multilevel regression techniques. A neighbourhood socioeconomic-level scale was created, and proxies for the socioeconomic positions of the couple were included. Other individual level variables included factors related to partner's behaviour and women's experiences and attitudes. Women's risk of IPV did not vary across neighbourhoods in Sao Paulo nor was it influenced by her individual socioeconomic characteristics. However, women in the middle range of the socioeconomic scale were significantly more likely to report having experienced violence by a partner. Partner behaviours such as excessive alcohol use, controlling behaviour and multiple sexual partnerships were important predictors of IPV. A women's likelihood of IPV also increased if either her mother had experienced IPV or if she used alcohol excessively. These findings suggest that although the characteristics of people living in deprived neighbourhoods may influence the probability that a woman will experience IPV, higher-order contextual dynamics do not seem to affect this risk. While poverty reduction will improve the lives of individuals in many ways, strategies to reduce IPV should prioritize shifting norms that reinforce certain negative male behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The lives of the women teachers La vida de las maestras en España

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    Consuelo FLECHA GARCÍA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research we get close to the lives of the women teachers who worked in Spain until three decades ago. A wide and complex period during which they got integrated in socil life with a remunerated job, contributed either to the changes or to the duration of the events that accompanied their lives. A profession that they exercised above all in villages due to the mainly rural character of the Spanish society until the second half of the 20th century. In schools that had few material resources and in general with numerous pupils. With an education that prepared them to teach according to the assigned genre and having to suffer the image of them that was spread. Many of them were involved in the different politic circunstances that Spain lived during those years. For a women the primary teaching implied the most accepted possibility by the social environment to incorporate themselves to a qualified job that allowed them to have an economic and personal autonomy, that helped them to get conscious of their necessary presence in public environments.En este trabajo nos acercamos a la vida de las maestras que ejercieron en España hasta hace poco más de tres décadas. Un período amplio y complejo en el que se integraron en la vida social con un trabajo remunerado, y contribuyeron bien a los cambios, bien a la permanencia de los acontecimientos que acompañaron sus vidas. Una profesión que ejercieron, sobre todo en pueblos, por el carácter fundamentalmente rural de la sociedad española hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En escuelas que disponían de pocos medios materiales y generalmente con numerosos alumnos. Con una formación que las preparaba para educar de acuerdo con el género asignado y teniendo que sufrir la imagen que de ellas se difundía. Muchas se vieron involucradas en las diferentes circunstancias políticas que España vivió en esos años. Para las mujeres, el magisterio supuso la posibilidad mejor aceptada por el medio

  8. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  9. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in women living with depression

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    Morres Ioannis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Aim To compare the effect of exercise of preferred intensity with exercise of prescribed intensity in thirty-eight women living with depression. Methods A Pragmatic RCT of 12 sessions of exercise at preferred intensity compared with 12 sessions at prescribed intensity. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12, heart rate (HR, Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE, Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS, SF12 Health Survey and exercise participation rates were compared between groups. Results Intervention participants had statistically better BDI (t = 2.638, df = 36, p = 0.006, 95% mean (SD 26.5 (10.7, CI-20.4 to -2.7, d = 0.86, GHQ-12 (t = 3.284, df = 36, p = 0.001, mean (SD 8.3 (3.7 95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, d = 1.08, RSES (t = 2.045, df = 36, p = 0.024, mean (SD 11.3 (5.8, 95% CI 0.3 -6.4, d = 0.25, QLDS (t = 1.902, df = 36, p = 0.0325, mean (SD 15.5 (7.9, 95% CI -12.2 -0.4, d = 0.27 RPE scores (t = 1.755, df = 36, p = 0.0475, mean (SD 9.2 (3.2, 95% CI -.5 - 5.2, d = 0.77 and attended more exercise sessions (t = 1.781, df = 36, p = 0.0415, number of sessions 8 (65%, 95% CI-0.3 -4.8, d = 0.58. SF-12, MSPSS and HR did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Exercise of preferred intensity improves psychological, physiological and social outcomes, and exercise participation rates in women living with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00546221

  10. The impact of African ethnicity and migration on pregnancy in women living with HIV in the UK: design and methods

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    Tariq Shema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pregnancies in women with diagnosed HIV in the UK increased from 80 in 1990 to over 1400 in 2010; the majority were among women born in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of research on how social adversity impacts upon pregnancy in HIV positive women in the UK; furthermore, little is known about important outcomes such as treatment uptake and return for follow-up after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. Methods and design This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first phase involved analysis of data on approximately 12,000 pregnancies occurring between 2000 and 2010 reported to the UK’s National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. The second phase was based in London and comprised: (i semi-structured interviews with 23 pregnant African women living with HIV, 4 health care professionals and 2 voluntary sector workers; (ii approximately 90 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV charity; and (iii approximately 40 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in a Pentecostal church. Discussion We have developed an innovative methodology utilising epidemiological and anthropological methods to explore pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. The data collected in this mixed methods study are currently being analysed and will facilitate the development of appropriate services for this group.

  11. The effect of sympathy on discriminatory attitudes toward persons living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico: a hierarchical analysis of women living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Lisa R; Abreu, Silkha; Candelaria, Erika; Sala, Ana

    2009-02-01

    As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continues to increase in Puerto Rico, it becomes increasingly important to address the issues of stigma and other discriminatory attitudes. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to examine the attitudes toward PLWHA of a large sample of women living in public housing in Puerto Rico, including sympathy and support for PLWHA in the workplace and in school. A total of 1138 women completed a self-administered 218-item survey made up of questions that measured HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Levels of sympathy varied depending upon the target group, with HIV-infected drug users receiving the least sympathy. Most women reported that HIV-positive teachers should be allowed to teach and that HIV-positive children should be allowed to attend school. However, a significantly lower percentage reported that HIV-infected nurses should be allowed to continue working. Women who were more sympathetic toward PLWHA were more tolerant of PLWHA in the workplace and school, while those with inaccurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission were less tolerant. Also, those who knew a PLWHA were more tolerant. Levels of discriminatory attitudes in Puerto Rico are high and warrant both individual- and societal-level interventions.

  12. Pain in amaXhosa women living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study of ambulant outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Romy; Jelsma, Jennifer; Stein, Dan J

    2017-04-13

    Pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS, whether or not they are receiving anti-retroviral therapy. A recent systematic review identified a paucity of studies exploring pain in women in low and middle income countries. The prevalence and characteristics of pain in women living with HIV/AIDS may differ from that of men as many chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women. The aims of this study were to establish pain prevalence, characteristics and management in amaXhosa women living with HIV/AIDS. In addition, we aimed to identify whether there were associations between pain in this population and the psychosocial factors of employment, education, self-efficacy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, health related quality of life and childhood trauma. A cross-sectional study of 229 women who had undergone HIV testing and were registered patients at a community health centre was conducted. Data were collected by interview with a demographic questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory-Xhosa, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Xhosa, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Xhosa for PTSD, Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale-Xhosa; the EQ-5D health related quality of life instrument, and the Beck Depression Inventory. 170 of the women had pain, a prevalence rate of 74.24% (95%CI 68.2 - 79.47%). The women reported significant pain with pain severity of 5.06 ± 1.57 and pain interference of 6.39 ± 1.96 out of 10. Only two women were receiving adequate pain management according to the pain management index. Participants reported a mean of 2.42 ± 1.21 different anatomical sites of pain. There were more unemployed participants in the group with pain and they had significantly fewer years of schooling. Those with pain had lower self-efficacy; health related quality of life and increased depression and PTSD symptom severity. This study highlights that pain is a common problem for amaXhosa women living with

  13. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

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    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  14. Mapping the role of structural and interpersonal violence in the lives of women: implications for public health interventions and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie Rose; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2015-11-11

    Research on interpersonal violence towards women has commonly focused on individual or proximate-level determinants associated with violent acts ignores the roles of larger structural systems that shape interpersonal violence. Though this research has contributed to an understanding of the prevalence and consequences of violence towards women, it ignores how patterns of violence are connected to social systems and social institutions. In this paper, we discuss the findings from a scoping review that examined: 1) how structural and symbolic violence contributes to interpersonal violence against women; and 2) the relationships between the social determinants of health and interpersonal violence against women. We used concept mapping to identify what was reported on the relationships among individual-level characteristics and population-level influence on gender-based violence against women and the consequences for women's health. Institutional ethics review was not required for this scoping review since there was no involvement or contact with human subjects. The different forms of violence-symbolic, structural and interpersonal-are not mutually exclusive, rather they relate to one another as they manifest in the lives of women. Structural violence is marked by deeply unequal access to the determinants of health (e.g., housing, good quality health care, and unemployment), which then create conditions where interpersonal violence can happen and which shape gendered forms of violence for women in vulnerable social positions. Our web of causation illustrates how structural factors can have negative impacts on the social determinants of health and increases the risk for interpersonal violence among women. Public health policy responses to violence against women should move beyond individual-level approaches to violence, to consider how structural and interpersonal level violence and power relations shape the 'lived experiences' of violence for women.

  15. What women want: social characteristics, gender-based violence and social support preferences in a cohort of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    A total of 229 women attend Chalmers Centre (a city-centre integrated sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland) for their HIV care and treatment. Local third-sector agencies provide peer support, but anecdotally, it is not well utilised and some demographic groups are under-represented. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the background social characteristics of these women, to ascertain what issues they are affected by, and to better identify what support is required and how it should be provided/facilitated. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was developed, and all women attending HIV clinics between July and November 2015 were given the opportunity to participate. Additional data were accessed from the National Sexual Health database on cohort size and gender-based violence enquiries. Forty-four women living with HIV completed the questionnaire. 25% are unemployed. 84.6% had a combined household income of less than £30,000 per annum. 16.7% do not know anyone else, and 59.5% know only one other person, who is living with HIV. 32.6% would like to meet other/more women living with HIV, and 25.5% were unsure if they did or not. Of those who would, 42.9% would prefer a one-to-one setting, 42.9% would prefer a group setting, and 14.3% did not mind. 64.3% would prefer to meet off NHS premises. 26.8% were interested in discussion groups on women's issues, and 31.7% were unsure. The most popular suggestions for discussion group topics were stress/anxiety (nine women), HIV disclosure (eight women), diet and nutrition (seven women), and pregnancy and childbirth (six women). 26.8% were interested in attending a "women clinic" staffed by female staff, the same number were unsure if they would utilise this service or not. 50% of women had, at some point, experienced gender-based violence, 13.5% were currently experiencing gender-based violence, and four of these women have children living with them. From National Sexual Health records, only

  16. The relationship between living environment, well-being and lifestyle behaviours in young women in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Sebar, Bernadette; Coyne, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the influence of the living environment on individual and population health. While our understanding of the connection is growing, there has been limited published research focusing on socially and economically transitioning countries such as Iran or specific populations such as young women. This study explores the relationship between the physical and social living environment with well-being outcomes and lifestyle behaviours of young women in Shiraz, Iran, in 2013. Using a cluster convenience sampling technique, 391 young Iranian women with the mean age of 27.3 (SD: 4.8) participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate 93%). A scale adapted from the British General Household Social Capital scale was used to assess living environment characteristics. The International Health and Behaviour survey, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SwL) and WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure lifestyle behaviours and well-being. The findings showed a moderate level of satisfaction with participants' living environment, with a mean score of 38.5 (SD: 7.7; score range: 11-45). There were correlations between physical and social neighbourhood environment, lifestyle behaviours and well-being outcomes (P psychological, social and environmental QoL, as well as SwL (P < 0.05). Perceptions of individuals about their living environment issues were associated with demographic variables including ethnicity, income, level of education and occupation status. The current study shows how characteristics of the physical and social living environments play a significant role in shaping well-being and lifestyle behaviours among young Iranian women. Hence, there is a need for more focused attention to the meaning, measurement and building of neighbourhood livability, including both physical and social aspects of neighbourhood, in order to support QoL and SwL among young Iranian women, and enhance their healthy

  17. Women in prison in Serbia: Living conditions for female prisoners in the correctional institution for women in Požarevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Correctional Institution for Women in Požarevac is the only institution in Serbia for serving prison sentence by female persons. In order to find out what the living conditions in this institution are, Victimology Society of Serbia conducted an action research in 2011 and 2012. The data was collected through observation of the conditions in the female prison and through interviews with female prisoners and the prison staff. The data was analyzed by the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The aim f this paper is to present the results of the research in regard to the living conditions for female prisoners. The data is analyzed in the light of the Law on the execution of the criminal sanctions of the Republic of Serbia and the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules.

  18. HIV Stigma and Its Relation to Mental, Physical and Social Health Among Black Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Letitia E; Himelhoch, Seth S; Fang, Li Juan

    2018-02-07

    Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma was significantly related to poorer mental health status, greater discrimination, and greater use of negative coping strategies. Stigma was not related to physical health, perceived social support or use of positive coping strategies. This study lends support to the need for psychosocial interventions that reduce anticipated stigma among individuals LWHA, particularly Black women LWHA.

  19. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  20. Severity of work in opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Halina; Petkowicz, Beata; Maniak, Barbara; Kuna-Broniowska, Izabela; Petkowicz, Jacek; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Maksym, Piotr; Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Gawda, Piotr

    2018-03-14

    The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland, concerning their perception of the degree of severity of work. The study was conducted among the inhabitants of the Cisna commune. The basic research instrument was a questionnaire form containing 15 items. The study covered 101 women living in the Cisna commune in the Bieszczady. The self-reported degree of work load on a farm was analyzed among women who were occupationally active, and those who were not occupationally active. The effect of assistance from family members on the severity of work perceived by women was considered. The women in the study focused on agro-tourism, a few of them were engaged in agricultural work and the majority worked in household gardens. The study showed that occupationally active women work considerably longer, on average, and are the most loaded, compared to those not engaged in occupational activity. The mean daily time devoted to duties on a farm did not significantly differ between occupationally active and non-active women, and amounted to 380 and 320 minutes, respectively. The majority of women who were non-active occupationally evaluated their household chores as the highest work load. In turn, the women who undertook occupational activity assessed them as most burdensome, despite great help from their family. The body positions assumed while performing field work were: standing, standing-bent-over, and walking. The mean evaluations of work load while standing and standing-bent-over did not significantly differ, but affected the work load among women who, however, could not assess the severity of their work resulting from the body position assumed.

  1. Access to microcredit for women living with, or vulnerable to, HIV in Haïti

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    C. Longuet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Haïti is the poorest country on the American continent. It is also the Caribbean nation where HIV prevalence is the highest: 2.2% of the adults carry the virus.In 2005, GHESKIO, a centre for the care of people living with HIV/AIDS; ACME, Association for Cooperation with Micro Enterprise; and Fondation Mérieux launched a microcredit programme to help women living with HIV/AIDS. The programme was subsequently extended to vulnerable women who had consulted at GHESKIO.In 2006, an impact assessment of the programme among the first 66 women benefiting from a loan showed better living conditions compared to a control group of 30 women with similar initial medical and socioeconomic status but no loan. By mid-2008, 1061 women were the beneficiaries of 1538 loans totalling 11 373 000 gourdes, i.e. approximately 216 000€. Of these, 247 received several loans (up to seven loans to date.Although the women are very poorly educated and live in arduous economic circumstances, the loan repayment records are excellent – around 94% as of mid 2008. There is no difference between HIV-negative women and those living with HIV. Combined with antiretroviral treatment, micro-financing is certainly one of the major instruments for reducing the impact of HIV on the infected populations in countries with limited resources. This programme in Haiti is a demonstration of the feasibility of microcredit in a difficult environment. The great professionalism of the institutions implementing the programme is a key factor in its success.Haïti est le pays le plus pauvre du continent américain. C’est également la région des Caraïbes qui affiche la plus forte prévalence de VIH : 2,2 % des adultes sont porteurs du virus.En 2005, GHESKIO, un centre de soins pour les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, ACME (Association for Cooperation with Micro Enterprise et la Fondation Mérieux ont lancé un programme de microcrédit pour aider les femmes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Le

  2. Cultural translation of refugee trauma: Cultural idioms of distress among Somali refugees in displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyojin; Ferguson, Aidan; Hunter, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Westernized approaches to mental health care often place limited emphasis on refugees' own experiences and cultural explanations of symptoms and distress. In order to effectively assess community mental health needs and develop interventions grounded in local needs, mental health programs need to be informed by an understanding of cultural features of mental health, including cultural idioms of distress (CIDs). The current study aims to explore CIDs among Somali refugees displaced in Kenya to understand mental health needs in cultural context and serve the community in a culturally responsive and sensitive manner. This research was conducted as a two-phase qualitative study. First, key informant interviews with Somali mental health stakeholders generated a list of 7 common Somali CIDs: buufis, buqsanaan, welwel, murug, qaracan, jinn, and waali. Typologies of each CID were further explored through four focus group interviews with Somali community members. The findings from a template analysis revealed Somali lay beliefs on how trauma and daily stressors are experienced and discussed in the form of CIDs and how each term is utilized and understood in attributing symptoms to associated causes. This study highlights the need to incorporate colloquial terms in mental health assessment and to adopt a culturally relevant framework to encourage wider utilization of services and religious/spiritual support systems.

  3. The relationship between social roles and self-management behavior in women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webel, Allison R; Higgins, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The social roles that women perform can be complicated and may affect their health. While there is some evidence describing traditional social roles of women, there is little evidence exploring the impact of those roles on how a woman manages a chronic condition. The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine the main social roles of 48 HIV infected women, and to explore how these roles relate to their self-management of HIV/AIDS. Forty-eight HIV infected, adult women were recruited from HIV clinics and AIDS service organizations in Northeast Ohio. All participants participated in one of 12 digitially recorded focus groups. All data were analyzed using qualitative description methodology. The participants were predominantly middle-aged (mean = 42 years), African American (69%), and single (58%). Analysis revealed six social roles that these women experience and which affect their self-management. These social roles are: Mother/Grandmother, Believer, Advocate, Stigmatized Patient, Pet Owner, and Employee. These roles had both a positive and negative effect on a woman's self-management of her HIV disease and varied by age and time living with HIV. Women living with HIV/AIDS struggle to manage the many daily tasks required to live well with this disease. The social context in which this self-management happens is important, and the various social roles that women perform can facilitate or hinder them from completing these tasks. Healthcare and social service providers should learn about these roles in their individual patients, particularly how these roles can be developed to increase HIV/AIDS self-management. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The development and evaluation of alternative communication strategies to facilitate interactions with Somali refugees in primary care: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Johnson

    2006-09-01

    Each task was timed and scored for level of correctness; feedback was gained from Somalis and experimenters' observations were noted. Participants clearly found the computerised devices with Somali speech output easier to use and more acceptable than the simpler paper-based device.

  5. Living on the streets in Canada: a feminist narrative study of girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shyanne; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Homelessness affects thousands of girls and young women in Canada. Terms that are commonly used to describe the homeless include lazy, mentally ill, middle aged, and male. The reality is that homelessness is not limited to a particular age, gender, or ethnocultural group, or to individuals of any single intellectual ranking. As a result of the prevailing stereotypes, little research has been conducted on homelessness among adolescent females, making it difficult to capture an accurate and comprehensive picture of the full scope of the problem. The purposes of this feminist narrative study were to (1) explore the intersections between homelessness and health among adolescent girls, with particular attention to the influence of contextual factors such as violence, gender, and poverty; and (2) to examine how these young women access health care, barriers they encounter, and factors that contribute to their health promotion. The sample consisted of ten females, ages 16-21, who were interviewed either individually or in small groups. Consistent with feminist research approaches, the interviews were conducted in an interactive manner in order to encourage critical reflection and dialogue. Data analysis consisted of a thematic analysis of the participants' experiences. Findings revealed that most girls had fled from difficult, and at times dangerous, situations at home to lives on the street that brought a new set of challenges, including a multitude of health problems and exposure to violence, chronic poverty, and discrimination. Many barriers to effective health care were described. In this article, the findings of the research will be presented and implications for health and social service providers will be addressed, including recommendations for programming and policy.

  6. "Do grandmas have husbands?" Generational memory and twentieth-century women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This essay uses memory in the ancient and modern sense of the "inner life of thought" to describe the formation of generational memory in a modern professional family whose twentieth-century history has been fractured by migration, war, education, and divorce. It is about the power of feeling and law, which framed the practical freedoms of twentieth-century women's lives and introduced the modern citizen in the aftermath of universal suffrage and world war. The first part of the essay emphasizes the psychic dimension of bodily feeling and drive in the formation of memory; a dimension overlooked by oral history and social movements, yet confirmed by autobiography and memoir. My granddaughter's questions provoked resistance as well as family stories, and let me observe the thought process in a child. Social history, autobiography, and personal memory confirm the common experience of everyday life reaching back through generations of London families; folklore, commerce, and family story make narratives of dreams, hopes, terrors, and events; a child's comprehension of the outside world is grasped through curiosity, imagination, and play in which bodily feeling is as powerful as speech and prohibition to make meanings that flow between inner world and external reality. The second half of the essay reflects on Joan Riviere's description of the self. Leading British psychoanalyst, translator of Freud, writing in the 1950s, Riviere's language of the inner world resonates with the liberal social ethics -- empathy, public service, common good -- which underpinned women's and human rights mid-twentieth century and the egalitarian and reproduction reforms whose universalism has been challenged since the 1970s. Negative feeling is striking in Riviere's description of the self -- fear, shame, shock, and trauma, which are confirmed in memoir and autobiography. In contrast, liberal social democratic accounts of the time idealized English character. Today, the future uncertain

  7. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTOPHER R. PARUNGAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent female aged 12-19 years old who were pregnant with their first child agreed to participate. A qualitative inquiry, specifically Husserlian descriptive phenomenology was employed. Semi-structured in depth face-to-face interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. The richness of the experiences shared by the selections provided the necessary information to understand and describe the essence of the phenomenon understudy. Cool and warm analyses captured the following emergent themes of Trends toward issues, Fortified faith, and Optimistic outlook. For the selections in this study, being pregnant at a young age did not mean that their life and future were all over. The women were optimistic about their futures. The findings of the study have vital implications in offering specific programs and services and in developing educational materials that focus on preventing teen pregnancy. While health nurse practitioners primarily provide services and education to teens and parents in various health care facilities, they also can be significant participants in prevention activities and coalitions that are based in a community. The outcomes of the study have possible contributions to the nursing practice, to policies that facilitate the promotion of the health of the teenage mothers and the prevention of teenage pregnancies, and in building future researches especially in the education of the teens about the consequences of

  8. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  9. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  10. Women-specific HIV/AIDS services: identifying and defining the components of holistic service delivery for women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-01-11

    The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women "where they are"; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately assess the effectiveness of women-specific services on HIV

  11. Women-specific HIV/AIDS services: identifying and defining the components of holistic service delivery for women living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. Methods A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. Results and discussion The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women “where they are”; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. Conclusions This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately

  12. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m 2 , respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm 3 ), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  13. The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Szu; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    To critically explore how Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma impacts on the lives of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women through an integrative review of the literature. Throughout history Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection has been associated with sex trade, injecting drug use and other deviant behaviours within society. These historical associations can lead to the generation of negative perceptions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women. As such, women who contract Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection can be susceptible to societal stigma. An integrative literature review. To identify the publications on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma among women, a search was performed using the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstract covering the period from 2000-2014. The following key words were included in the search: 'women', 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus', and 'stigma'. Twenty-six articles were retrieved and reviewed. From the results, four key themes merged in relation to the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women's lives: the individual, relationships, work and the community. Despite great advances in the management and treatment of those who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive, it appears the lives of many women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus remain greatly affected by their Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection with gender-specific stigma and stereotypes. Having a holistic understanding of this impact offers the potential for those responsible for the funding and draws the attention of researchers and policy makers on promoting medical services specifically for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women, minimising social stigmatisation towards this client group, and optimising their health outcomes. In an attempt to amplify Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women

  14. Impact of estradiol valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Law, Amy; Jeddi, Mark; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the change in work productivity and activities of daily living in North American women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) treated with estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) compared to placebo. Women in the United States and Canada, aged 20-53 years with an objective diagnosis of HMB and no recognizable anatomical pathology, were treated with E2V/DNG or placebo for seven cycles (196 days). Main outcome measures included work productivity (i.e., productivity while at work) and activities of daily living measured using a modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (mWPAI) on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (higher values denote higher impairment levels). In both countries, significant improvement was observed between baseline and end of treatment in work productivity and activities of daily living impairment. The improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living with E2V/DNG treatment relative to placebo ranged from 37.2% to 39.2% across both countries. Monthly gains due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) associated with improvement in work productivity were estimated to be US$80.2 and Can$70.8 (US$58.5) and those associated with improvement in activities of daily living were estimated to be US$84.9 and Can$73.5 (US$60.7). E2V/DNG was shown to have a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in U.S. and Canadian women with HMB. In addition, these improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living were associated with a reduction in HMB-related monetary burden compared to the placebo group.

  15. Factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpinar, Saliha; Dinç Horasan, Gönül; Baydur, Hakan; Canbay, Tülin

    2016-11-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n=873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.

  16. Relationships Between English Language Proficiency, Health Literacy, and Health Outcomes in Somali Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jessica E; Smock, Laura; Hunter-Adams, Jo; Xuan, Ziming; Cochran, Jennifer; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Geltman, Paul L

    2018-06-15

    Little is known about the impacts of health literacy and English proficiency on the health status of Somali refugees. Data came from interviews in 2009-2011 of 411 adult Somali refugees recently resettled in Massachusetts. English proficiency, health literacy, and physical and mental health were measured using the Basic English Skills Test Plus, the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults, and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Short Form-12. Associations were analyzed using multiple linear regression. In adjusted analyses, higher English proficiency was associated with worse mental health in males. English proficiency was not associated with physical health. Health literacy was associated with neither physical nor mental health. Language proficiency may adversely affect the mental health of male Somali refugees, contrary to findings in other immigrant groups. Research on underlying mechanisms and opportunities to understand this relationship are needed.

  17. [Cytochemical parameters of myeloperoxidase activity and catecholamine level in blood of postpartum women living in areas near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabaeva, A E; Bazeliuk, L T

    2002-01-01

    The activity of neitrophil myeloperoxidase and content of blood etyrhrocyte cathecholamines in the blood of women in early postpartum period in dependence on distance of their living area from Semipalatinsk nuclear testing were studied. It was found that women who live closer to Semipalatinsk were characterised by significantly lower neitrophil myeloperoxidase activity and content of cathecholamines in erythrocytes than in control.

  18. Women Who Have Sex with Women Living in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Sexual Health and Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Tat, Susana A.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Women who have sex with women (WSW) have long been considered at low risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, limited research has been conducted on WSW, especially those living in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We reviewed available research on sexual health and risk behaviors of WSW in LMICs. We searched CINAHL, Embase, and PubMed for studies of WSW in LMICs published between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2013. Studies o...

  19. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Geneviève

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12. They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1 Respecting for self and confidants; 2 Feeling apprehension; 3 Exercising control to ensure protection; 4 Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5 Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6 Suffering internally; and 7 Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter

  20. Super-diversity and the art of living in ethnically concentrated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimienti, M.; van Liempt, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how local diversity is being experienced by Somali immigrants who have previously lived in the Netherlands and are now residing in London. It explores the various challenges and potential advantages of living in homogenous urban areas within a super-diverse city and focuses on

  1. Preconceptional antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, are associated with decreased live birth rates in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seungdamrong, Aimee; Steiner, Anne Z; Gracia, Clarisa R; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Robinson, Randal D; Huang, Hao; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Jin, Susan; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-10-25

    To study whether preconceptual thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies are associated with poor reproductive outcomes in infertile women. Secondary analysis of data from two multicenter, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Reproductive Medicine Network of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between preconceptual TSH levels and anti-TPO antibodies. Not applicable. Serum samples from 1,468 infertile women were utilized. None. Cumulative conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates were calculated. Conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates did not differ between patients with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L vs. TSH < 2.5 mIU/L. Women with anti-TPO antibodies had similar conception rates (33.3% vs. 36.3%) but higher miscarriage rates (43.9% vs. 25.3%) and lower live birth rates (17.1% vs. 25.4%) than those without anti-TPO antibodies. Adjusted, multivariable logistic regression models confirmed elevated odds of miscarriage (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.22) and lower odds of live birth (oddr ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96) in patients with anti-TPO antibodies. In infertile women, preconceptional TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L is not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes; however, anti-TPO antibodies are associated with increased risk of miscarriage and decreased probability of live birth. PPCOS II NCT00719186; AMIGOS NCT01044862. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Depression and social support among women living with the substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS syndemic: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA "syndemic" among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with these SAVA factors and although social support is potentially protective for depression, little is understood about its impact on depression associated with the SAVA syndemic. This paper investigates how women living with SAVA experience and describe depressive symptoms, and examines how the types of social support they access impact their experiences of SAVA and depressive symptoms. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive, low-income, urban women who experienced IPV and used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime. Interviews were analyzed based on study aims, principles of thematic content analysis, and grounded theory. Women identified multiple SAVA factors as catalysts for depression and noted their synergistic effect on depressive symptoms, which were both a trigger for and a result of drug use. Women accessed varying sources of social support to address their SAVA factors and associated symptoms of depression, relying on informal sources for instrumental support related to IPV and formal sources for support related to HIV, drug use, and depression. These findings have important implications for health providers who serve SAVA-affected women, and suggest that comprehensively addressing all SAVA factors (and IPV in particular) and improving their access to quality social support at critical times is essential to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy planning, timing, happiness and depressive symptoms among low-income women living with and without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Marcia; Singh, Hardeep; Gao, Yang; Aaron, Erika

    2018-03-21

    This study assessed associations of sociodemographic factors and pregnancy intent and wantedness with pregnancy happiness and prenatal depressive symptoms and the relationship between prenatal depressive symptoms and pregnancy happiness. Depression is the leading cause of disability world-wide and more so for women. Women are most likely to experience depression in their child bearing years, including during pregnancy. Untreated prenatal depression, associated with unwanted pregnancies endangers the health and wellbeing of the mother and her child. Research on the association of prenatal depression with pregnancy happiness among women with low incomes in the U.S.A. is limited. For women living with HIV, associations among family planning factors, pregnancy feelings and prenatal depression have been understudied. Sixty-four women living with HIV and 194 HIV-negative low-income pregnant women receiving care in a public university-based ob-gyn clinic with integrated HIV-care in Philadelphia between 2009 and 2012 participated in the study. The women completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic and pregnancy factors and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The independent associations of sociodemographic and pregnancy factors with pregnancy happiness and associations of these factors and pregnancy happiness with the CES-D were assessed using multivariable linear regressions. Women who felt the pregnancy was too soon were less happy being pregnant (p < 0.01). Prenatal depressive symptoms were inversely associated with happiness with being pregnant and completing high school (p < 0.001 for both). Health care professionals need to provide reproductive counselling and mental health for prenatal depression should explore feelings about being pregnant and being a mother.

  4. Traditional Methods which are Known and Applied in order to Achieve Voluntary Abortion by Married Women Living in Elazig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza (Nazik Sevindik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study have been performed in order to describe traditional methods which are known and applied for achieving voluntary abortion by married women living in downtown of Elazig. 426 women have been selected rely on the fifteen years old and married by the represantive 67500 living women in the downtown Elazig. It has been reached to 417 women at repetetive visits. Mean age of women is 36,39±10,26, first pregnancy years are 19,96±4,99, first birth age is 20,02±6,05. Numbers of avarage pregnancy are 3,61±0,12, numbers of voluntary abortion is 0,32±0,04. Voluntary abortion rate is %18,2. %93 of women have stated that they know at least one traditional abortion method, and %19,7 of women declared that they used traditional abortion methods. %14,9 of them stated that they lift a heavy furniture or goods, while %8,2 drink flu drug and asprin, %11,3 jump rope and jump by shaking from high where, %4,8 put a poultry quill, matchstick and knitting needle into uterus, %3,6 put a mallow or aubergine root into uterus servicks, %2,6 drink a boiled quinine henna and mallow, %3,1 sit into vapour of boiled straw or parsley by milk during stomacache, and %10,8 shake a carpet. As education level of women decrase, usage of traditional abortion methods increase (p=0,001. In order to decrease the use of these unsafe methods, public education, increasing usage of family planning services, and prevention of unwanted pregnancies should be obtained. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 321-324

  5. Traditional Methods which are Known and Applied in order to Achieve Voluntary Abortion by Married Women Living in Elazig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza (Nazik Sevindik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study have been performed in order to describe traditional methods which are known and applied for achieving voluntary abortion by married women living in downtown of Elazig. 426 women have been selected rely on the fifteen years old and married by the represantive 67500 living women in the downtown Elazig. It has been reached to 417 women at repetetive visits. Mean age of women is 36,39±10,26, first pregnancy years are 19,96±4,99, first birth age is 20,02±6,05. Numbers of avarage pregnancy are 3,61±0,12, numbers of voluntary abortion is 0,32±0,04. Voluntary abortion rate is %18,2. %93 of women have stated that they know at least one traditional abortion method, and %19,7 of women declared that they used traditional abortion methods. %14,9 of them stated that they lift a heavy furniture or goods, while %8,2 drink flu drug and asprin, %11,3 jump rope and jump by shaking from high where, %4,8 put a poultry quill, matchstick and knitting needle into uterus, %3,6 put a mallow or aubergine root into uterus servicks, %2,6 drink a boiled quinine henna and mallow, %3,1 sit into vapour of boiled straw or parsley by milk during stomacache, and %10,8 shake a carpet. As education level of women decrase, usage of traditional abortion methods increase (p=0,001. In order to decrease the use of these unsafe methods, public education, increasing usage of family planning services, and prevention of unwanted pregnancies should be obtained. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 321-324

  6. Declining prevalence of cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix among women living with well-controlled HIV - Most women living with HIV do not need annual PAP smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Inka; Kivelä, Pia; Haukka, Jari; Sutinen, Jussi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2017-11-01

    Cervical screening by means of annual Papanicolaou (PAP) smears has been recommended for all women living with HIV. We analysed the results of our annual PAP smear screening program to identify low-risk subgroups for less rigorous screening. The study comprised 369 women followed at the Helsinki University Hospital 2002-2013, with a total of 2033 PAP smear results. We analyzed the temporal changes in PAP smear findings. Logistic regression analysis for binominal dependent variables was used for assessing risk factors for ever having cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions (hereafter referred as SIL) using generalized estimating equations taking into account multiple observations of each patient. Most women had well-controlled HIV, especially towards the end of the study. PAP smear results improved substantially. At the time of each individual's last PAP smear, 90.0% of the findings displayed normal results. Conversely, the rate of SIL decreased from 16.8% to 4.6% from 2002 to 2013. In multivariate analysis the risk of SIL was significantly lower in women with consecutive normal PAP smear findings during the first two years of follow up [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.45, p 500 cells/μL (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.26, p < 0.001). Widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and systematic cervical screening has reduced the rate of abnormal PAP smears. It seems feasible to identify low-risk women by combining HIV-related information and PAP smear results. Screening low-risk women living with HIV at three-year intervals similar to HIV-negative women appears justified. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Women in prison in Serbia: Living conditions for female prisoners in the correctional institution for women in Požarevac

    OpenAIRE

    Ćopić Sanja; Šaćiri Bejan

    2012-01-01

    The Correctional Institution for Women in Požarevac is the only institution in Serbia for serving prison sentence by female persons. In order to find out what the living conditions in this institution are, Victimology Society of Serbia conducted an action research in 2011 and 2012. The data was collected through observation of the conditions in the female prison and through interviews with female prisoners and the prison staff. The data was analyzed by the use of both qualitative and qu...

  8. Barriers to communication between HIV care providers (HCPs) and women living with HIV about child bearing: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ddumba-Nyanzi, Ismael; Kaawa-Mafigiri, David; Johannessen, Helle

    2016-05-01

    In the context of HIV clinical care, open discussion regarding sexual health and reproductive plans has become increasingly relevant. The aim of this paper is to explore barriers to communication between providers and women living with HIV regarding childbearing. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 48 HIV infected women receiving ART at 7 different HIV clinics providing comprehensive HIV care services in four districts in Uganda, between July and August 2012. All women were aware of their HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy or had given birth while living with HIV. Four themes emerged describing barriers to communication, from the HIV-positive women's point of view: (i) provider indifference or opposition to childbearing post HIV diagnosis, (ii) anticipation of negative response from provider, (iii) provider's emphasis on 'scientific' facts, (iv) 'accidental pregnancy'. Existing evidence regarding effective provider-patient communication should be considered for its application for reproductive counseling among HIV infected women. These data demonstrate the need for current counseling guidelines to explore approaches that encourage open, non-judgmental, non-directive discussions with HIV positive individuals around their reproductive desires and intentions in a health care setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with low neighborhood cohesion among women living with HIV impacted by social-structural inequities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Palmer, Alexis K; Collins, Alexandra B; Salters, Kate; Zhang, Wendy; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Parashar, Surita

    2018-03-01

    Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular, social cohesion within the neighborhood they reside in may have a greater influence on health outcomes compared to their male counterparts. We sought to examine perception of neighborhood cohesion (validated scale with a range 0-100, with higher scores indicating higher perceived neighborhood cohesion) among women living with HIV, impacted by social-structural inequities, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, and enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive Ancillary health services (LISA) study in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-sectional data on neighborhood cohesion and socio-demographic data were collected in an interviewer-administered survey. Of the 1,000 LISA participants interviewed, 908 (including 249 women and 659 men) had complete data for the variables of interest. At the bivariate level, women had worse perceived neighborhood cohesion scores compared to men (median: 56 [95% CI: 44-66] vs. 60 [95% CI: 47-71]). Multivariable model results indicated that for women living with HIV in our sample, greater neighborhood cohesion scores were positively associated with stable housing (β coefficient = 7.85; 95% CI: 3.61, 12.10, p perceptions of neighborhood cohesion.

  10. Strategies for Recruiting Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Community-Based Research: Lessons from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kath; Carter, Allison; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Dubuc, Danièle; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Gasingirwa, Claudine; Ménard, Brigitte; O'Brien, Nadia; Mitchell, Kayla; Bajard, Micaela Pereira; Ding, Erin; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to describe the recruitment of women living with HIV (WLWH) into the community-based Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), because women are under-represented in HIV research. There were 1,424 WLWH were enrolled from British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec, who completed detailed questionnaires administered by peer research associates (PRAs; WLWH with research training). During screening, participants were asked: "How did you hear about the study?" We describe recruitment strategies by subpopulation and offer reflections on challenges and successes. Of 1,131 participants with complete data, 40% identified as White, 33% African/Caribbean/Black, and 19% Indigenous. The median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 37-51) and 4% identified as trans women. Overall, 35% were recruited through PRAs/peers, 34% clinics, and 19% AIDS service organizations (ASOs). PRAs/peers were the predominant recruitment method in Ontario (49%), compared with clinics in British Columbia (40%), and Québec (43%). Nationally, PRAs/peers were more successful in recruiting WLWH commonly considered to be "harder to reach" (e.g., women identifying as trans, using drugs, not receiving HIV care). Clinics were more effective in recruiting younger women (16-29 years) and women not using ASOs. Recruitment challenges centered on engaging these harder to reach women. Successes included hiring PRAs who built participant trust, linking with clinics to reach women isolated from HIV communities, involving outreach workers to engage street-involved women, and disseminating study information to diverse stakeholders. Having multiple approaches, engaging a diverse team of PRAs, ensuring flexibility, and cultivating reciprocal relationships with community stakeholders were key to recruiting a diverse and representative sample of WLWH.

  11. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use - among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  12. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Christiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design: We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results: Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005. Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions: Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  13. Career, Family, and Institutional Variables in the Work Lives of Academic Women in the Chemical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine

    This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.

  14. Attitudes of women and men living with HIV and their healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, pronatalist attitudes remain in place in the face of HIV infection. Keywords: attitudes towards childbearing and abortion, stigma scales against HIV-positive women's pregnancies, stigma scales against HIV-positive women having abortions, healthcare providers' attitudes about HIV-positive women's reproduction, ...

  15. Evaluation of habitual behavior related to genital hygiene in women living in a health care center area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine E. Ocaktan; Emine Baran; Recep Akdur

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate that habitual behaviors related to genital hygiene in women living in a Health Care Center Area. In this cross-sectional study, 400 women were sampled to represent women in reproductive ages (15-49 ages) living in the Park Health Care Center Area, Ankara, Turkey between June and September 2008. Three hundred and eighty-six (96.5%) women were interviewed for evaluation of habitual behaviors related to genital hygiene. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the study group was 32.19+/-9.54 (15-49) years. Of the study group, 21.5% had daily baths, 77.2% used cotton underwear, and 71.8% wiped front to back after using the toilet. Of those who menstruated, 83.4% used hygienic pads during menstrual periods, and 42.1% of the 321 married women confirmed practicing vaginal douching. The education level p=0.001, p=0.000, income level p=0.034, p=0.005, employment p=0.022, p=0.000, and house type p=0.005, p=0.006 were found as factors affecting general frequency of bathing and type of pad used during the menstrual period. Frequency of vaginal douching was higher in housewives than employed women p=0.000. The rate of women who had appropriate behaviors related to genital hygiene among the study group was found to be low, particularly within groups with a low socioeconomic level. Thus, it will be useful for health care employers to emphasize this issue at every opportunity (Author).

  16. Gaining perspective on own illness - the lived experiences of a patient education programme for women with treated coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring Jacobsson, Lisa; Milberg, Anna; Hjelm, Katarina; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    To explore the lived experiences of women with coeliac disease after attending a patient education programme, to gain a broader perspective of its influence. Adults, particularly women, with coeliac disease report suffering from poor well-being and reduced quality of life in terms of health. Patient education programmes might support and encourage them in the search for possible improvements in lifestyle and in their approach to the disease. A qualitative phenomenological study. Personal narrative interviews with 14 women suffering from coeliac disease who had participated in an educational programme. Data analysis in accordance with Giorgi was performed. The essential structure of women's lived experiences following their participation in the patient education programme was found to be an interaction with others with the same disease, which left the women feeling individually strengthened. The interaction enabled the participants to acquire a broader view of their life with coeliac disease. As a result, this realigned their sense of self in relation to their own disease. In coping with coeliac disease, it seems that women need interaction with others with the disease to experience togetherness within a group, get the opportunity to compare themselves with others and to exchange knowledge. The interaction appears to result in that women acquire an overview of life with the disease, develop a greater confidence and dare to try new things in life. When designing a patient education programme it seems important to consider the needs of persons to meet others with the same disease, and to ask them about their need for knowledge, rather than simply assuming that health care professionals know what they need. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipy Adhikari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  18. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  19. "We would never forget who we are": resettlement, cultural negotiation, and family relationships among Somali Bantu refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Assefa, Mehret T; Smith, Emily; Hussein, Aweis; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-11-01

    Somali refugees are resettling in large numbers in the US, but little is known about the Somali Bantu, an ethnic minority within this population. Refugee youth mental health is linked to the functioning of the larger family unit. Understanding how the process of culturally adjusting to life after resettlement relates to family functioning can help identify what kind of interventions might strengthen families and lead to better mental health outcomes for youth. This paper seeks to address the following research questions: (1) How do different groups of Somali Bantu refugees describe their experiences of culturally adapting to life in the US?; and (2) How, if at all, do processes of cultural adaptation in a new country affect Somali Bantu family functioning? We conducted 14 focus groups with a total of 81 Somali Bantu refugees in New England. Authors analyzed focus groups using principles of thematic analysis to develop codes and an overarching theoretical model about the relationship between cultural adaptation, parent-child relationships, and family functioning. Views and expectations of parent-child relationships were compared between Somali Bantu youth and adults. Cultural negotiation was dependent upon broader sociocultural contexts in the United States that were most salient to the experience of the individual. Adult and youth participants had conflicting views around negotiating Somali Bantu culture, which often led to strained parent-child relationships. In contrast, youth sibling relationships were strengthened, as they turned to each other for support in navigating the process of cultural adaptation.

  20. The Role of HIV Stigma in ART Adherence and Quality of Life Among Rural Women Living with HIV in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Maria L; Heylen, Elsa; Mazur, Amanda; Steward, Wayne T; Carpenter, Catherine; Yadav, Kartik; Sinha, Sanjeev; Nyamathi, Adey

    2018-05-22

    HIV stigma continues to be a barrier to physical and mental health among people living with HIV globally, especially in vulnerable populations. We examined how stigma is associated with health outcomes and quality of life among rural women living with HIV in South India (N = 600). Interviewer-administered measures assessed multiple dimensions of stigma, as well as loneliness, social support, ART adherence, time since diagnosis, and quality of life. Internalized stigma and a lack of social support were associated with a lower quality of life, while the association between internalized stigma and adherence was mediated by the use of stigma-avoidant coping strategies, suggesting that keeping one's diagnosis a secret may make it more difficult to take one's medications. These findings suggest that these women constitute a vulnerable population who need additional services to optimize their health and who might benefit from peer support interventions and stigma-reduction programs for family and community members.

  1. Comparing the meanings of living with advanced breast cancer between women resilient to distress and women with persistent distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W W T; Yoon, S W; Sze, W K; Ng, A W Y; Soong, I; Kwong, A; Suen, D; Tsang, J; Yeo, W; Wong, K Y; Fielding, R

    2017-02-01

    Most women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) show little distress, but about one in ten show persistent distress over time. It remains unclear if meanings ascribed by patients to ABC differentiate these distress trajectories. This qualitative study (a) compared illness meanings of ABC between women with persistent psychological distress and those with low/transient distress, and (b) examined how illness meanings might influence coping strategies. The sample was drawn from a prior quantitative study exploring psychological distress trajectories following ABC diagnosis. Overall, 42 Cantonese- or Mandarin-speaking Chinese women diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ABC were recruited based on their distress trajectory status (low-stable, transient, or persistent distress). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed following grounded theory approach using simultaneous analysis. Women with persistent distress viewed their diagnosis as another blow in life, the illness was global, permeating every aspect of their life. Maladaptive rumination and thought suppression were common responses to illness demands. These women had poor social support. A sense of demoralization stood out in their narratives. In contrast, women with transient/low-stable distress encapsulated the illness, with minimum impacts of their life. They did not evidence dysfunctional repetitive thoughts. Living in a supportive environment, they were able to accept and/or live in the present-moment. Rumination, thought suppression, social constraints, and pre-existing exposure to life stress may be potential risks for chronic distress in response to advanced breast cancer. Persistent and transient distress responses to cancer may have different underpinnings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubha; Gruskin, Sofia; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Even as the number of women living with HIV around the globe continues to grow, realization of their sexual and reproductive health and human rights remains compromised. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge on the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV to assess evidence and gaps. Relevant databases were searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature. Search terms included a combination of MeSH terms and keywords representing women, HIV/AIDS, ART, human rights, sexual and reproductive health. We included both qualitative and quantitative literature published in English, French, or Spanish between July 2011 and December 2014. The search yielded 2228 peer-reviewed articles, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria in the final review. The grey literature search yielded 2186 documents of which seven met the inclusion criteria in the final review. Of the articles and documents reviewed, not a single peer-reviewed article described the explicit implementation of rights in programming, and only two documents from the grey literature did so. With one possible exception, no articles or documents were found which addressed rights comprehensively, or addressed the majority of relevant rights (i.e. equality; non-discrimination; participation; privacy and confidentiality; informed decision making; availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (3AQ) of services individually or in their totality; and accountability). Additional findings indicate that the language of rights is used most often to describe the apparent neglect or violation of human rights and what does exist only addresses a few rights in the context of a few areas within sexual and reproductive health. Findings from this review suggest the need to better integrate rights into interventions, particularly with attention to provider training, service delivery, raising awareness and capacity building among the community of women living with

  3. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV – a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubha; Gruskin, Sofia; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Even as the number of women living with HIV around the globe continues to grow, realization of their sexual and reproductive health and human rights remains compromised. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge on the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV to assess evidence and gaps. Methods Relevant databases were searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature. Search terms included a combination of MeSH terms and keywords representing women, HIV/AIDS, ART, human rights, sexual and reproductive health. We included both qualitative and quantitative literature published in English, French, or Spanish between July 2011 and December 2014. Results and discussion The search yielded 2228 peer-reviewed articles, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria in the final review. The grey literature search yielded 2186 documents of which seven met the inclusion criteria in the final review. Of the articles and documents reviewed, not a single peer-reviewed article described the explicit implementation of rights in programming, and only two documents from the grey literature did so. With one possible exception, no articles or documents were found which addressed rights comprehensively, or addressed the majority of relevant rights (i.e. equality; non-discrimination; participation; privacy and confidentiality; informed decision making; availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (3AQ) of services individually or in their totality; and accountability). Additional findings indicate that the language of rights is used most often to describe the apparent neglect or violation of human rights and what does exist only addresses a few rights in the context of a few areas within sexual and reproductive health. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest the need to better integrate rights into interventions, particularly with attention to provider training, service delivery, raising awareness and

  4. Single, Divorced, or Separated? Factors That Impact the Lives of Women Who Are Heads of Household in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Alvarado; Rosa del Carmen Vilchez

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of a conjugal relationship has both a positive and negative impact on the lives of immediate family members. Although for many women terminating marriage may signal freedom from an oppressive, even violent conjugal relationship, it is undeniable that this separation also results in strong social pressure and discrimination in certain contexts, a situation which limits the woman’s freedom of action in and ou...

  5. Effectiveness of community-based support for pregnant women living with HIV: a cohort study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains inadequate, and there is a severe shortage of professional healthcare workers in the region. The effectiveness of community support programmes for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants in SSA is unclear. This study compared initiation of maternal antiretrovirals and infant outcomes amongst HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants who received and did not receive community-based support (CBS) in a high HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa. A cohort study, including HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, was conducted at three sentinel surveillance facilities between January 2009 and June 2012, utilising enhanced routine clinical data. Through home visits, CBS workers encouraged uptake of interventions in the ART cascade, provided HIV-related education, ART initiation counselling and psychosocial support. Outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox and log-binomial regression. Amongst 1105 mother-infant pairs included, 264 (23.9%) received CBS. Amongst women eligible to start ART antenatally, women who received CBS had a reduced risk of not initiating antenatal ART, 5.4% vs. 30.3%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P Pregnant women living with HIV who received CBS had improved antenatal triple ART initiation in eligible women, women initiated ART and ZDV with shorter delays, and had a lower risk of stillbirth. CBS is an intervention that shows promise in improving maternal and infant health in high HIV-prevalence settings.

  6. Understanding coping strategies during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a qualitative study of women living with HIV in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaba, Scholastic; Kaida, Angela; Burns, Bridget Frances; O'Neil, Kasey; Dunkley, Emma; Psaros, Christina; Kastner, Jasmine; Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Matthews, Lynn T

    2017-05-08

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 58% of adults living with HIV are women. In Uganda, HIV prevalence is 8.3% for women compared to 6.1% for men. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have enabled women living with HIV (WLWH) to have children with minimal risk of perinatal transmission. Nevertheless, pregnant WLWH face many challenges. We explored women's perceptions of how they cope with the challenges of pregnancy and the postpartum period as HIV-infected women. We conducted semi-structured interviews with postpartum WLWH accessing ART who had a pregnancy within 2 years prior to recruitment between February-August, 2014. Childbearing associated stressors and coping strategies were discussed. We used content analysis to identify major themes and NVivo 10 software facilitated data analysis. Twenty women were interviewed with median age 33 (IQR: 28-35) years, CD4 cell count 677 cells/mm 3 (IQR: 440-767), number of live births 4 (IQR: 2-6), and number of living children 3 (IQR: 2-4.3). We summarize five identified coping strategies within a socio-ecological framework according to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model. Coping strategies on the individual level included acceptance of self and HIV status, and self-reliance. On the interpersonal level, participants reported coping through support from partners, family, and friends. On the organizational level, participants reported coping through HIV-related healthcare delivery and system supports. At the community level, women reported coping through support from church and spirituality. The results highlight coping strategies used by WLWH to manage the myriad challenges faced during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Intervention programs for WLWH must emphasize psychosocial care and incorporate strategies that address psychosocial challenges in the HIV care package in order to optimize well-being. Additionally policies that support networks of WLWH should be put in

  7. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D.; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ramón; Farías, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Background Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. Methods We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. Results Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. Conclusions Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce

  8. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P Derose

    Full Text Available Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity.We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV in the Dominican Republic (DR. Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes.Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress.Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to

  9. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn P; Payán, Denise D; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ramón; Farías, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to protect the

  10. Social position, gender role, and treatment adherence among Colombian women living with HIV/AIDS: social determinants of health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Ross, Michael; Useche, Bernardo; Alzate, Martha Lucia; Correa, Diego

    2009-12-01

    To assess and analyze the associations between adherence to treatment and social position in women living with HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study among 269 Colombian women was conducted. Participants completed three questionnaires: a socio-demographic and clinical characteristics survey, a treatment adherence scale, and a social position survey. Women of low social position had a significantly higher probability of low treatment adherence (OR = 5.651, P effect on adherence. A general model considering the variables 'type of national health care plan' ('contributive,' 'subsidized,' or, in the case of vinculadas or the uninsured, 'none'); 'having HIV-positive children'; and 'level of viral load' was statistically reliable in predicting study participants' treatment adherence. Membership in the subsidized plan or being uninsured had a greater effect on the probability of low adherence than membership in the contributive plan (OR = 3.478, P 400 copies/ml were more likely to have low adherence than women without those characteristics (OR = 2.395, P = 0.0274 and OR = 2.178, P = 0.0050, respectively). Improving women's adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment in Colombia would require eliminating barriers to national health care system and comprehensive health care services and implementing programs that take into account women's role as maternal caregivers The findings underscore the need to integrate variables related to gender inequality and social position in treatment adherence analysis, as advocated in the social determinants of health approach.

  11. Perceptions and experiences of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Más-Pons, Rosa; Fullana-Montoro, Ana; Giner-Monfort, Jordi; Grau-Muñoz, Arantxa; Bisbal-Sanz, Josep

    2013-04-01

    to explore the experiences and perceptions of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain. an exploratory qualitative research using focus groups and thematic analysis of the discussion. three focus groups with 26 women from Bolivia and Ecuador and three focus groups with 24 midwives were performed in three towns in the Valencian Community receiving a large influx of immigrants. the women interpreted motherhood as the role through which they achieve fulfilment and assumed that they were the ones who could best take care of their children. They perceived that men usually make decisions about sex and pregnancy and recognised a poor or inadequate use of contraceptive methods in planning their pregnancies. Women reported that it was not necessary to go as soon and as frequently for health examinations during pregnancy as the midwives suggested. The main barriers identified to health-care services were linked to insecure or illegal employment status, inflexible appointment timetables for prenatal checkups and sometimes to ignorance about how public services worked. empowering immigrant women is essential to having a long-term positive effect on their reproductive health. Antenatal care providers should be trained to build maternity care that is culturally sensitive and responds better to the health needs of different pregnant women and their newborns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Policy commitments vs. lived realities of young pregnant women and mothers in school, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive rights in South Africa continue to be undermined for young women who fall pregnant and become mothers while still at school. Before 1994, exclusionary practices were common and the majority of those who fell pregnant failed to resume their education. With the adoption of new policies in 2007, young pregnant women and mothers are supposed to be supported to complete school successfully. Notwithstanding these new policies, there are incongruities between policy implementation and young women's lived experience in school. This paper explores the experiences of pregnancy and parenting among a group of 15 young women who fell pregnant and became mothers while attending three high schools in Khayelitsha township, a working-class community in the Western Cape of South Africa. Qualitative, in-depth interviews, conducted between 2007 and 2008, highlighted two key areas of concern: continuing exclusionary practices on the part of schools, based on conservative interpretations of policy, and negative and moralistic responses from teachers and peers. Such practices resulted in secrecy and shame about being pregnant, affecting the young women's emotional and physical well-being and their decisions whether to remain in school during pregnancy and return after having the baby. Further attention is required to ensure appropriate implementation of policies aimed at supporting pregnant and parenting young women to complete their education successfully. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Norwegian-Somali Parents Who Send Their Children to Schools in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The perplexing numbers of Somali children withdrawn from schools in Norway and sent to Somalia is the concern of this study. These students are often brought back and re-enroll later as adolescents with concomitant educational challenges. The findings are critically analyzed employing John Ogbu's cultural ecology of minorities and a CHAT-based…

  14. Liminalities: expanding and constraining the options of Somali youth in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alitolppa-Niitamo Anne

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Somali youth, "the generation in-between", who arrived in Finland in their early teens or as teenagers in the 1990shave faced specific challenges in Somali diaspora in Finland. Their voice is often ambiguous in the processes of cultural construction and ethnic reconstruction. Dissonant acculturation and role reversal within the families and a family culture that emphasizes strong parental authority place these young people in a liminal position. Measures which balance the pace of the acculturation between the generations could alleviate the situation In addition, the diasporic consciousness and transnational activities among Somalis along with the ethos of 'integration' within the mainstream institutions challenge Somali youth. They may find themselves 'betwixt and between' various future orientations. This should be acknowledged in educational planning, for example. While liminal states may open up new opportunities, it is claimed that several simultaneous states of liminality may be confusing for a young person, and may create risks for becoming marginal from societal and cultural classifications, as well as limit a person from finding his/her own group of reference.

  15. "Where to Start": Learning from Somali Bantu Refugee Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Kevin; Roy, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research conducted with Somali Bantu refugee students in two contexts: Michigan and South Texas. We provide recommendations for outreach to refugee families and their families, for instruction in the classroom, for advising and support for these children, and for implementing school and district policy as it…

  16. Phenotypic Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Diverse Sample of Somali and Other Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Amy N.; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Hewitt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The potential for culture to impact diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high, yet remains largely unstudied. This study examined differences across racial/ethnic groups in ASD symptoms, cognitive and adaptive skills, and related behaviors in children with ASD that included a unique subgroup, children from the Somali diaspora. Somali…

  17. Rethinking migration in the digital age : Transglocalization and the Somali diaspora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, S.; Rogers, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examine the transnational networks of the Somali diaspora online. We explore the claims that the web signifies a shift towards a de-territorialized, transnational diaspora, which constructs its identity and engagement around a transnational imagined community. Based on a network

  18. Working Together in a Deficit Logic: Home-School Partnerships with Somali Diaspora Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology this article examines the understandings teachers and principals in Danish Public Schools have regarding Somali diaspora parenting practices. Furthermore, the article investigates what these understandings mean in interaction with children in the classrooms and with parents in home-school communication. It is…

  19. Factors associated with post-diagnosis pregnancies in women living with HIV in the south of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barcellos Teixeira

    Full Text Available To analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV.Cross-sectional study with women of a reproductive age living with HIV/AIDS cared for in the public services of the city of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil. The data was analyzed from a comparison between two groups: women with and women without pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the reasons of prevalence (RP.The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV is associated with a lower level of education (RP adjusted = 1.31; IC95%: 1.03-1.66, non-use of condoms in the first sexual intercourse (RP = 1.32; IC95%: 1.02-1.70, being 20 years old or less when diagnosed with HIV (RP = 3.48; IC95%: 2.02-6.01, and experience of violence related to the diagnosis of HIV (RP = 1.28; IC95%: 1.06-1.56.The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV does not indicate the exercise of the reproductive rights of the women living with HIV/AIDS because these pregnancies occurred in contexts of great vulnerability.

  20. Association between coping strategies, social support, and depression and anxiety symptoms among rural Ugandan women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffren, Victoria; Familiar, Itziar; Murray, Sarah M; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J; Nakasujja, Noeline; Opoka, Robert; Bass, Judith

    2018-02-22

    Poor mental health detrimentally affects quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. An improved understanding of how coping and social support relate to depression and anxiety in this population can facilitate the design and implementation of appropriate mental health treatment and support services. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data from 288 HIV-positive women enrolled in a parenting intervention in Uganda. Depression and anxiety symptoms, social support, and coping were assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and adapted versions of the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support and Ways of Coping Questionnaire. General linear regression models were used to estimate associations between coping and mental health. Based on report of elevated symptoms, approximately 10% of women were categorized as having clinically-relevant depression or anxiety. Emotion-focused (EF: p symptoms while greater family support (EF: p = .002; PF: p = .003) was associated with fewer depression symptoms. More anxiety symptoms were associated with reporting both coping strategies (EF: p symptoms among women living with HIV.

  1. Writing Indigenous women's lives in the Bay of Bengal: cultures of empire in the Andaman Islands, 1789-1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the lives of two Andamanese women, both of whom the British called “Tospy.” The first part of the article takes an indigenous and gendered perspective on early British colonization of the Andamans in the 1860s, and through the experiences of a woman called Topsy stresses the sexual violence that underpinned colonial settlement as well as the British reliance on women as cultural interlocutors. Second, the article discusses colonial naming practices, and the employment of Andamanese women and men as nursemaids and household servants during the 1890s–1910s. Using an extraordinary murder case in which a woman known as Topsy-ayah was a central witness, it argues that both reveal something of the enduring associations and legacies of slavery, as well as the cultural influence of the Atlantic in the Bay of Bengal. In sum, these women's lives present a kaleidoscope view of colonization, gender, networks of Empire, labor, and domesticity in the Bay of Bengal.

  2. Lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a phenomenological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant Thai women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential practice among pregnant women with diabetes to prevent complications in pregnancy and the newborn infant. Phenomenological research was employed to understand lived experiences in glycemic control. Thirty participants were approached and interviewed using a semistructured interview guides. Qualitative data were analysed following Colaizzi's method. The findings revealed three themes: being worried about diabetes and blood testing, trying to control it and being patient for the child. Their worry comprised three dimensions: (1) wondering about the impacts of diabetes on the child, (2) concern about maternal health and (3) being worried about doing blood test. Trying to control diabetes was composed of three dimensions: (1) learning to test blood glucose, (2) being afraid of elevated blood sugar and (3) being aware of what to eat. Being patient for the child was composed of three dimensions: (1) overcoming food desires, (2) tolerating the fingerprick pain and (3) satisfaction with the outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes experienced being worried and afraid regarding blood glucose self-monitoring; however, they could overcome and tolerate this with some difficulties. These findings can be used to guide nursing practice in assessment of perception and response towards blood glucose self-monitoring in order to improve achievement of a good glycaemic control among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. How Has Living with Intimate Partner Violence Affected the Work Situation? A Qualitative Study among Abused Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone

    A qualitative study was conducted among 18 abused women from different parts of Norway to explore what paid work means for women exposed to partner violence and how living with an abusive partner affected their working life. Based on systematic text condensation analyses of their experiences as described in individual and focus group interviews, the study's findings reveal two major themes. The first is about recovery and survival, and the other about the spillover of problems caused by a violent partner into paid work. Work was important to the women, as it represented time off from violence, contact with others who cared for them, and maintenance of self-esteem and self-confidence. Having their own money provided security and strengthened the belief that they could manage on their own. The spillover of intimate partner violence problems appeared through feelings of fear, shame and guilt at work.

  4. SINGLE AND AGGREGATE SALIVARY CORTISOL MEASURES IN WORKING WOMEN LIVING IN HIGH AND LOW STATUS NEIGHBORHOODS IN SWEDEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Petra; Riva, Roberto; Lundberg, Ulf

    2015-10-01

    Contextual factors including neighborhood status have consistently been associated with health disparities. This may relate to a poorer neighborhood status involving an exposure to chronic stressors, which dysregulates cortisol secretion. This study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures in 88 working women living in high and low status neighborhoods. Results showed significantly lower waking cortisol among women in low status neighborhoods. However, there were no group differences in aggregate cortisol measures. The lower morning cortisol among women in the low status neighborhoods follows previous research suggesting hypocortisolism as a pathway linking neighborhood status and health disparities, albeit a less consistent finding across cortisol measures in this sample. This may relate to the Swedish welfare state and its fostering of equality.

  5. Place of menstruation in the reproductive lives of women of rural North India

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    Singh A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.

  6. Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among married non-pregnant women living in a low-income suburb of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramia, Sami; Kobeissi, Loulou; El Kak, Faysal; Shamra, Sarah; Kreidieh, Khalil; Zurayk, Huda

    2012-09-17

    This study aimed to identify reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in married, non-pregnant women, aged 18 to 49 years, living in a low-income suburb of Beirut, and to investigate the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and these infections. Among 1,015 women recruited for the study, 502 were found eligible and 441 were medically examined. Appropriate specimens were collected for Nisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (28.2%). The prevalence rates of different agents were as follows: 22.9% of the women were positive for T. vaginalis, 8.8% for candidiasis, 4.5% for bacterial vaginosis, and 1% for N. gonorrhea; none of the women were positive for C. trachomatis. Regression analysis showed that women between the ages of 30 and 39 were twice more likely to have T. vaginalis as compared to younger women. Furthermore, women whose husbands were taxi drivers were at higher risk of acquiring T. vaginalis (OR = 2.2) as compared with women whose husbands occupation was listed as skilled/unskilled. This conclusion can be drawn for the odds of developing any RTI (OR = 2.15). Moreover, those participants with the lowest income were twice as likely to have any RTI compared to those with higher incomes. This study shows a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (T. vaginalis mainly). It urges further in-depth research on cultural practices and economic factors to understand the pattern of sexual behavior in this community.

  7. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  8. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  9. Tau Fifine Fiafia: the binge drinking behaviours of nine New Zealand born Niuean women living in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Josephine; Nosa, Vili

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the binge drinking behaviours and attitudes of nine New Zealand born Niuean women aged 18 to 45 plus years living in Auckland who are heavy binge drinkers. Taped interviews were conducted individually with nine Niuean participants, utilising a semi-structured interviewing schedule in both Niuean and English languages. This study argues that excessive drinking style of binge drinking commonly practised with the younger generation of Niuean women. The study highlighted the important role of supportive friends and women within a drinking circle compared to the cultural and gender restrictions when drinking with males. NZ born Niuean women outlined there were fewer limitations on alcohol use and behaviour associated with drunkenness; the reason for drinking was to reach a level of intoxication. Alcohol consumption was seen as a way of socialising, having fun, being happy and feeling safe primarily when drinking with other women, even though participants experienced negative behaviour when safety was threatened. The Niuean community needs to address alcohol related issues affecting Niuean women through education awareness within social and cultural gatherings. This study is not a representative study and it cannot be generalised to all New Zealand born Niuean women because the sampling size is too small. The aim of this paper is to look at the binge drinking behaviours of nine New Zealand born Niuean women living in Auckland. A qualitative research methodology offace to face interviews was used to interview NZ born Niuean women and their alcohol consumption. Participants were recruited by using a snow ball methodology. Participants were also approached throughout the community on the telephone and via email/internet about the research. Participants were also from Niuean gatherings such as Niuean cultural workshops, weaving groups, church groups, and sports groups, Niuean websites. A semi-structured interview format was used making it

  10. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  11. Injured bodies, damaged lives: experiences and narratives of Kenyan women with obstetric fistula and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanri, Lillian; Gatwiri, Glory Joy

    2017-03-14

    It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, psychological and sociocultural sequels. Over 200 million cases of FGM/C exist globally, and in Kenya alone, a total of 12,418,000 (28%) of women have undergone FGM/C, making the practice not only a significant national, but also a global health catastrophe. FGM/C is rooted in patriarchal and traditional cultures as a communal experience signifying a transition from girlhood to womanhood. The conversations surrounding FGM/C have been complicated by the involvement of women themselves in perpetuating the practice. A qualitative inquiry employing face-to-face, one-on-one, in-depth semi-structured interviews was used in a study that included 30 women living with obstetric fistulas in Kenya. Using the Social Network Framework and a feminist analysis we present stories of Kenyan women who had developed obstetric fistulas following prolonged and obstructed childbirth. Of the 30 participants, three women reported that health care workers informed them that FGM/C was one of the contributing factors to their prolonged and obstructed childbirth. They reported serious obstetric complications including: the development of obstetric fistulas, lowered libido, poor quality of life and maternal and child health outcomes, including death. Fistula and subsequent loss of bodily functionalities such as uncontrollable leakage of body wastes, was reported by the women to result in rejection by spouses, families, friends and communities. Rejection further led to depression, loss of work, increased sense of apathy, lowered self-esteem and image, as well as loss of identity and communal sociocultural cohesion. FGM/C is practised in traditional, patriarchal communities across Africa. Although the practice aims to bind community members and to celebrate a rite of passage; it may lead to harmful health and social consequences. Some women with fistula report their fistula was caused by FGM/C. Concerted

  12. Health Insurance Type and Control of Hypertension Among US Women Living With and Without HIV Infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Marge H; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; Kassaye, Seble; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Metsch, Lisa; Milam, Joel; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-06-01

    Health care access is an important determinant of health. We assessed the effect of health insurance status and type on blood pressure control among US women living with (WLWH) and without HIV. We used longitudinal cohort data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS participants were included at their first study visit since 2001 with incident uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) (i.e., BP ≥140/90 and at which BP at the prior visit was controlled (i.e., insured via Medicaid, were African-American, and had a yearly income ≤$12,000. Among participants living with HIV, comparing the uninsured to those with Medicaid yielded an 18-month BP control risk difference of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.23). This translates into a number-needed-to-treat (or insure) of 6; to reduce the caseload of WLWH with uncontrolled BP by one case, five individuals without insurance would need to be insured via Medicaid. Blood pressure control was similar among WLWH with private insurance and Medicaid. There were no differences observed by health insurance status on 18-month risk of BP control among the HIV-uninfected participants. These results underscore the importance of health insurance for hypertension control-especially for people living with HIV. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Gender, households and reintegration: everyday lives of returned migrant women in rural northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufuor, Theresa; Sato, Chizu; Niehof, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, migration of single women from the rural north to the urban south in Ghana has been making up a growing share of migrant streams. While the livelihood strategies of these migrant women in their southern destinations have been recently examined, the experience of

  14. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    performance of older women. DESIGN: cross-sectional experimental study with two test conditions. SETTING: movement laboratory in a climate chamber. SUBJECTS: eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). METHODS: participants were exposed to moderately cold (15°C...

  15. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…

  16. The impact of family planning on women's lives: expanding the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, P R; Hardee, K; Bailey, P; Williamson, N

    1994-01-01

    Women's reproductive health, quality of life, human rights, and status in society have become the focus for international development and public health programs in the 1990s. This reflects a growing awareness that population programs and policies have often failed to take women's needs into account and excluded women from programmatic decision making. Needed is a new research agenda aimed at documenting the impact of family planning programs on women beyond their physical health. Salient research questions include the influence of gender relations on women's ability to select and use family planning methods, men's views of women's contraceptive use, the circumstances under which contraceptive use contributes to a sense of self-worth and autonomy, and the extent to which family planning adoption enables women to achieve long-term goals. This research agenda will require an interdisciplinary approach that draws from sociology, social psychology, economics, and the health sciences. The incorporation of qualitative methods into research designs is recommended to clarify the nuances of women's experiences. Culture-specific measures to constructs such as self-esteem, autonomy, and satisfaction must be developed. Most important is creation of a dialogue between researchers and actual and potential users of family planning aimed at defining and examining central issues.

  17. Socio-demographic risk factors for HIV infection in women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in women in Mangaung. Design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mangaung, Bloemfontein. Subjects and methods: A representative group of 500 black women (25–44 years) was randomly selected to participate.

  18. African American Women Aspiring to the Superintendency: Lived Experiences and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…

  19. Changing Lives: the case for women-only vocational technology training revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.; Faulkner, W.; Slooten, I. van

    2005-01-01

    Women-only vocational courses in technology, which became popular across Western Europe during the 1980s, had fallen from fashion by 2000. Yet the need for such courses remains, at least in certain circumstances. Drawing on case studies of two women-only courses in information and communications

  20. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  1. A prospective study of social difficulties, acculturation and persistent depression in Pakistani women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, N; Husain, N; Tomenson, B; Creed, F

    2012-06-01

    The reasons for the high prevalence of depressive disorders in women of Pakistani origin living in the UK are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of life events, chronic social difficulties and acculturation in a population-based sample of British Pakistani women. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of 18- to 65-year-old Pakistani women in UK was carried out. The Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry for diagnosis, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule for social stress and an acculturation questionnaire were used. Depressive disorder at baseline was associated with older age, social isolation and marked difficulties involving health and close relationships. Depressive disorder at follow-up was associated with severity of depression at baseline, difficulties in close relationships and two aspects of acculturation, especially less acculturation in relation to use of the English language. Lack of acculturation, especially less familiarity with the English language, is an independent predictor of persistence of depression in Pakistani women in UK. This needs to be taken into consideration when planning treatment, which also needs to address the personal difficulties associated with persistent depression. The implication of this work is that women of Pakistani origin with depression should be encouraged to receive help in the use of English as one part of treatment that may prevent relapse.

  2. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  3. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  4. The Association between Compassionate Love and Spiritual Coping with Trauma in Men and Women Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidemarie Kremer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ten-year study examined the association between compassionate love (CL—other-centered love, as well as compassionate self-love, and spiritual coping (SC—the use of spirituality (connection to a Higher Presence or God as a means to cope with trauma, and gender differences in 177 people living with HIV (PLWH. In a secondary data analysis of six-monthly interviews/essays, we coded five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL giving, receiving and self for the recipient. Synergistically, we rated longitudinal SC based on coding of 18 coping strategies. Overall, mean CL towards self was very high, followed by CL receiving and giving, while mean SC was moderately high. Women, in comparison to men, perceived higher benefit from SC and giving CL to others. Overall, CL towards self had the strongest association with SC, more pronounced in women than in men. Beyond gender, only CL for the self was a significant predictor of SC. Although there was a moderate association between SC and the perceived benefit from giving CL, after controlling for gender, this association was present in men only. Conversely, receiving CL from others yields a stronger association with SC in women than in men. Women perceived to benefit significantly more from SC and giving CL to others compared to men, whereas no gender differences were found on perceiving benefit from receiving CL from others or oneself. In conclusion, although women perceive more benefit from giving CL to others than men, this does not explain the higher benefit from SC among women. Ultimately, both men and women perceive to benefit more from SC the more they exhibit CL towards self and thus spiritual counseling should keep the importance of the balance between CL towards self and others in mind.

  5. Paleogene magnetic isochrons and palaeo-propagators in the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Royer, J.-Y.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.

    A revised magnetic isochron map of the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins based on an up-to-date compilation of Indian, French, and other available sea-surface magnetic data are presented. The magnetic anomaly and the modulus...

  6. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  7. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among midlife Arab women living in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, L.M.; Mamtani, R.; Chiu, Y-L.; Bener, A.; Murphy, M.; Cheema, S.; Verjee, M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread and is growing worldwide. This cross-sectional study in Qatar examined the use of CAM and its correlates among Arab women in their midlife years. Women aged 40–60 years (n = 814) were recruited at primary health-care centres in Qatar and completed a specially designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 38.2% of midlife women in Qatar had used CAM in the previous 12 months. Nutritional remedies and herbal reme...

  9. Substance Use, Violence, and Antiretroviral Adherence: A Latent Class Analysis of Women Living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Roth, Eric Abella; Ding, Erin; Milloy, M-J; Kestler, Mary; Jabbari, Shahab; Webster, Kath; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2018-03-01

    We used latent class analysis to identify substance use patterns for 1363 women living with HIV in Canada and assessed associations with socio-economic marginalization, violence, and sub-optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A six-class model was identified consisting of: abstainers (26.3%), Tobacco Users (8.81%), Alcohol Users (31.9%), 'Socially Acceptable' Poly-substance Users (13.9%), Illicit Poly-substance Users (9.81%) and Illicit Poly-substance Users of All Types (9.27%). Multinomial logistic regression showed that women experiencing recent violence had significantly higher odds of membership in all substance use latent classes, relative to Abstainers, while those reporting sub-optimal cART adherence had higher odds of being members of the poly-substance use classes only. Factors significantly associated with Illicit Poly-substance Users of All Types were sexual minority status, lower income, and lower resiliency. Findings underline a need for increased social and structural supports for women who use substances to support them in leading safe and healthy lives with HIV.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea and associated factors among women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica E. Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The control of STI represents a unique opportunity to improve reproductive health of women living with HIV. STI diagnosis can change their behavior and reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and bacterial STI.

  11. Business-life balance and wellbeing: Exploring the lived experiences of women in a low-to-middle income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy I. Ugwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC. We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. Background: With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Design: Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Method: Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98 were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Result: Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles—a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and

  12. Business-life balance and wellbeing: Exploring the lived experiences of women in a low-to-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Dorothy I; Orjiakor, Charles T; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Onyedibe, Christiana C; Ugwu, Leonard I

    2016-01-01

    With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98) were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles-a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and prioritizing were some of the important measures of ensuring balance

  13. Business-life balance and wellbeing: Exploring the lived experiences of women in a low-to-middle income country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjiakor, Charles T.; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K.; Onyedibe, Christiana C.; Ugwu, Leonard I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. Background With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Design Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Method Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98) were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Result Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles—a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and prioritizing were some of the

  14. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  15. Knowledge of pre-eclampsia in women living in Makole Ward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This study surveyed 200 adult women randomly identified in the community. They were ... Statistically significant differences were identified between sub-topics of pre- ... were also carried out in a variety of socio-cultural settings.

  16. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among midlife Arab women living in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, L M; Mamtani, R; Chiu, Y-L; Bener, A; Murphy, M; Cheema, S; Verjee, M

    2014-10-12

    The prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread and is growing worldwide. This cross-sectional study in Qatar examined the use of CAM and its correlates among Arab women in their midlife years. Women aged 40-60 years (n = 814) were recruited at primary care centres in Qatar and completed a specially designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 38.2% of midlife women in Qatar had used CAM in the previous 12 months. Nutritional remedies and herbal remedies were the most commonly used CAM therapies, followed by physical methods. Qatari nationality and higher level of education were independently associated with CAM use. Menopause transition status was not independently associated with use of CAM. The prevalence of CAM use by women in Qatar was high, consistent with other reports worldwide. It is essential to educate and inform patients and health-care providers about the benefits and limitations associated with CAM.

  17. Social support and health behaviour in women living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The article explores the relationship between social support and health behaviour of rural and urban women who .... residential clinics and 3 mobile clinic teams attached to it. .... used traditional herbal medications, with the usage.

  18. Vasomotor symptoms among Japanese-American and European-American women living in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn; Brown, Daniel E; Reza, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    The Hilo Women's Health Survey was designed and administered to gather baseline data on women's health in Hilo, HI. This randomized, cross-sectional study allowed for a focus on ethnic differences in symptom reporting. The results presented here focus on hot flash and night sweat experience among Japanese-American and European-American women. Survey packets were mailed to street addresses associated with parcel numbers pulled randomly from Hilo tax maps. Of the 6,401 survey packets delivered to households, 1,824 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results reported here are based on 869 women aged 40 to 60, of whom 249 described themselves to be 100% Japanese and 203 described themselves to be 100% European-American. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and vasomotor symptoms persisted after controlling for other variables. European-American participants were more likely to have ever experienced a hot flash as compared with Japanese-American participants (72% vs 53%, P<0.01). During the 2 weeks before the survey, European-American participants were more likely to have experienced hot flashes (P<0.05) and night sweats (P<0.01). In logistic regression analyses, after controlling for age, body mass index, menopause status, level of education, financial comfort, smoking habits, alcohol intake, exercise, use of hormone therapy, and soy intake, European-American women were still significantly more likely to have experienced hot flashes (odds ratio=1.858) and night sweats (odds ratio=2.672). The results, based on self-reporting of menopausal symptoms, indicate that Japanese-American women report fewer hot flashes and night sweats than European-American women. Japanese-American women reported a higher intake of soy, but soy intake was not associated with fewer vasomotor symptoms.

  19. Elderly women's experiences of support when living with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Karin; Bruce, Elisabeth; Barremo, Ann-Sofi

    2010-03-04

    Heart failure is a chronic syndrome that has physiological, psychological and social effects. The aim of the study was to illuminate the meanings of support as experienced by elderly women with chronic heart failure. Narrative interviews were conducted with five elderly women with chronic heart failure. A phenomenological hermeneutic method of interpretation was used. The meanings of support were experienced by the women out of two perspectives, that is, when support is present and when there is a lack of support. The findings were revealed in two themes: "Feeling confident means support" and "Feeling abandoned". The women do not wish to be a burden. They want to be independent as much as possible to defend their dignity. An important support to the women is that they are understood and confirmed in their illness. Supportive relations are most valuable, that is, a relationship that supports the women's independence. If there is no supportive relationship, they feel like a burden to others and they feel lonely; this loneliness creates suffering and counteracts wellbeing and health.

  20. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  1. The impact of appearance comparisons made through social media, traditional media, and in person in women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2017-03-01

    Appearance comparisons are an important sociocultural factor influencing women's body image. These comparisons can occur in different contexts (e.g., through magazines, social media, in person). However, little is known about the frequency and outcome of appearance comparisons made in different contexts in women's everyday lives. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods, female undergraduate students (n=146) completed a brief online survey at random times every day for 5 days. They reported the frequency, direction (upward, lateral, downward), and context of appearance comparisons, and also reported their appearance satisfaction, mood, and diet and exercise thoughts and behaviors. Upward appearance comparisons were the most common across all contexts. Upward comparisons through social media were associated with more negative outcomes on all measures (except diet and exercise behavior) than comparisons made in person, and with more negative mood than comparisons in any other context. These findings highlight the importance of the appearance comparison context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S; Katzenstein, T L; Johansen, I Somuncu; Pedersen, G; Junge, J; Helleberg, M; Storgaard, M; Obel, N; Lebech, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population. We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, when we compared subgroups of WLWH and controls where women in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme and with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  3. Purposeful exercise and lifestyle physical activity in the lives of young adult women: findings from a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Arikawa, Andrea; Kaufman, Beth C; Kurzer, Mindy S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-12-01

    It is important to know how physical activity is incorporated in women's lives to assess ways they can feasibly attain and maintain lifelong healthy practices. This study aimed to determine whether patterns of activity differed among young women whose physical activity met nationally recommended levels from those who did not. The sample was 42 women (aged 18-30 years) who had completed an exercise intervention (22 from the exercise group, 20 from the control group). Participants recorded pedometer steps and physical activities in diaries including form, duration and perceived exertion during 12 randomly assigned weeks over 26 weeks. We divided the sample into quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity to examine the composition of physical activities per quartile. Walking and shopping comprised the majority of physical activity in the lowest quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity. In the second and third quartiles, walking and household/childcare together comprised more than two-thirds of all activities. Only in the highest quartile was cardio activity (not including walking, shopping and household/childcare) the largest proportion of activity; this category stood alone as varying significantly across quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity (p activity was not sufficient to meet recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The one-quarter who met recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity did so largely through purposeful physical activities directly associated with exercise. Further research is needed to refine means of more fully measuring physical activities that women frequently perform, with particular attention to household work, childcare and shopping and to differing combinations of activities and levels of exertion by which diverse women can meet the recommended levels. The findings of this small scale study reinforce the ongoing benefit of recommending structured, planned physical

  4. Food insecurity, sexual risk behavior, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among women living with HIV: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chop, Elisabeth; Duggaraju, Avani; Malley, Angela; Burke, Virginia; Caldas, Stephanie; Yeh, Ping Teresa; Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Amin, Avni; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2017-09-01

    Gender inequalities shape the experience of food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We systematically reviewed the impact of food insecurity on sexual risk behaviors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among WLHIV. We included qualitative or quantitative peer-reviewed articles, extracted data in duplicate, and assessed rigor. Seven studies, from sub-Saharan Africa, North America, and Europe, met inclusion criteria. Food insecurity was associated with increased sexual risk through transactional sex and inability to negotiate safer sex. Hunger and food insecurity were barriers to ART initiation/adherence. Multidimensional programming and policies should simultaneously address poverty, gender inequality, food insecurity, and HIV.

  5. Business-life balance and wellbeing: Exploring the lived experiences of women in a low-to-middle income country

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu, Dorothy I.; Orjiakor, Charles T.; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K.; Onyedibe, Christiana C.; Ugwu, Leonard I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing.Background: With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in E...

  6. Creating new career pathways to reduce poverty, illiteracy and health risks, while transforming and empowering Cambodian women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen; Pollock, Gabe; Lubek, Ian; Niemi, Stacy; O'Brien, Katie; Green, Michelle; Bashir, Sabina; Braun, Ellyn; Kros, Sarath; Huot, Virakboth; Ma, Vanna; Griffiths, Neela; Dickson, Brett; Pring, Noeun; Sohkurt Huon-Ribeil, Kris; Lim, Natalie; Turner, Jasmin; Winkler, Chris; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Dy, Bun Cheem; Prem, Sophiap; Idema, Roel

    2010-10-01

    Community health psychology provides a framework for local citizens themselves to systematically affect change in health and social inequalities, particularly through Participatory Action Research (PAR). The Cambodian NGO SiRCHESI launched a 24-month Hotel Apprenticeship Program (HAP) in 2006 to provide literacy, English, social skills, health education, hotel skills-training, work experience and a living wage to women formerly selling beer in restaurants; there they had faced workplace risks including HIV/AIDS, alcohol overuse, violence and sexual coercion. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate changes in health-related knowledge, behaviour, self-image and empowerment, as HAP trainees were monitored and evaluated within their new career trajectories.

  7. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quality of Life of Post-Mastectomy Women Living in a Semi-Arid Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Neto, Emídio A; Alves, Beatriz C A; Gehrke, Flávia de S; Azzalis, Ligia A; Junqueira, Virginia C B; Sousa, Luiz Vinicius de A; Adami, Fernando; Fonseca, Fernando L A

    2017-06-05

    Health is the major reference regarding quality of life; when it comes to breast cancer in particular, the loss of a breast traumatically affects a woman's life, reflecting on her quality of life. Recognizing this problem, our aim was to investigate the quality of life of women who live in a semi-arid region of Brazil after breast cancer mastectomy. In this exploratory, transversal and observational study, a Brazilian variantof the shorter version of the original instrument from the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), applied in the study population, was analyzed and their socio-demographic profile was obtained. The sample was composed of 50 mastectomized women. The 50 included patients comprised women at a mean age of 54 years. Most of them had finished elementary school, and their average income was one Brazilian minimum monthly wage. Regarding the data related to quality of life, the highest score was found in the social relationships domain (4.29) followed by the psychological (4.09) and environmental (3.88) domains. The lowest score observed was for the physical domain (3.48). With these findings we can say that social and psychological parameters are driving factors of the quality of life in post-mastectomy women. Therefore, these results are useful to establish strategies to improve the quality of life of breast cancer mastectomy patients.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire Among Women of Indian Ethnicity Living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Pillay, Rona; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Indian women have been consistently reported as having low participation in breast cancer screening practices. A valid and reliable instrument to explore their breast cancer beliefs is essential for development of interventions to promote breast cancer screening practices. The aim of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) in an Indian community in Australia. A convenience sample of 242 Indian Australian women was recruited from Indian community organizations and personal networking. Explanatory factor analysis was conducted to study the factor structure. Clinical validity was examined by Cuzick's nonparametric test, and Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis showed a similar fit to the hypothesized 3-factor structure. The frequency of breast cancer screening practices was significantly associated with attitudes toward general health check-up. Knowledge and perceptions about the breast cancer scale were not significantly associated with clinical breast examinations and mammography. Perceived barriers to mammography were much less evident among women who engaged in breast awareness and clinical breast examination. Results indicated that the BCSBQ had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's α of the 3 subscales ranged from .81 to .91. The BCSBQ is a culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing the beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes about breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices among women of Indian ethnic extraction living in Australia. The BCSBQ can be used to provide nurses with information relevant for the development of culturally sensitive breast health education programs.

  10. Being in limbo: Women's lived experiences of pregnancy at 41 weeks of gestation and beyond - A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessberg, Anna; Lundgren, Ingela; Elden, Helen

    2017-06-02

    Globally, the prevalence of post term pregnancy (PTP) is about 5-10%, but the rate varies considerably between and within countries. PTP is defined as a pregnancy ≥294 days, but the definition is arbitrary. Many studies focusing on the prevalence, risks and management of PTP include pregnancies ≥41 gestational weeks (GW). However, qualitative interview studies concerning women's experiences of PTP are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe women's lived experiences of a pregnancy ≥41 GW. The study has a lifeworld research approach. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted from August 2013 to September 2014 with 10 healthy women with an expected normal pregnancy at GW 41 + 1-6 days in Gothenburg, Sweden. Interviews were conducted at the antenatal clinic or in the woman's home, depending on her preference. Data were analysed with a phenomenological reflective lifeworld approach. The essence of women's experiences of a pregnancy at GW ≥ 41 was described as being in limbo, a void characterised by contradictions related to time, giving birth and the condition. Exceeding the estimated date of childbirth implied a period of up to 2 weeks that was not expected. The contradictory aspect was the notion that time passed both slowly and quickly. Negative feelings dominated and increased over time. The women experienced difficulty due to not being in complete control, while at the same time finding it a beneficial experience. Health care professionals focused solely on the due date, while the women felt neither seen nor acknowledged. Lack of information led to searches in social media. Previously, they had trusted the body's ability to give birth, but this trust diminished after GW 41 + 0. In this state of limbo, the women became more easily influenced by people around them, while in turn influencing others. Being in limbo represents a contradictory state related to time and process of giving birth, when women need to be listened to by

  11. Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women living in the Mbouda health district, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Nchinda, Emmanuel Choffor; Katte, Jean-Claude; Nchagnouot, Fatima M; Nguetsa, Guylaine D

    2015-10-09

    Promotion of family planning has been shown to reduce poverty, hunger, maternal and infant mortality, and contribute to women's empowerment. But many resource-limited countries still have very low rates of contraceptive use. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women living in a resource-poor rural setting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in January 2010 in the Mbouda Health District, Cameroon. After a multistage random selection, 120 households were selected. Participants were women aged at least 15 years old, sexually active, and who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected during an anonymous interview using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. A total of 101 women were enrolled, their ages ranging from 18-58 years with a mean of 31.7 ± 8.8 years. Ninety-six percent of these women had already heard about family planning. Almost all respondents (98 %) were aware of at least one contraceptive method, the most cited being the male condom (96 %), the safe period (86.1 %), injectables (76.2 %) and oral pills (75.2 %), Sixty-six women (65.3 %) were currently practicing at least one contraceptive method, and the three prevailing methods used were: the safe period (50 %), the male condom (34.8 %), and injectables (12.1 %). The main reasons precluding women from practicing contraception were lack of knowledge (31.4 %), uselessness (31.4 %) and unbearable side effects (8.6 %). Fourteen of these women (42.4 %) expressed the willingness to start practicing contraception if they received more information about the subject. Decision on the number of children to have was made by both the man and the woman in 59.5 % of cases. The practice of contraception had been decided by the couple in 39.6 % of cases, and 9.4 % of men were not aware that their wives were currently practicing contraception. Although the level of awareness about family planning and contraceptive methods is quite

  12. Overweight and obesity doubled over a 6-year period in young women living in poverty in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Fernald, Lia C; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2008-03-01

    To document the changes in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young women living in poverty in a semi-urban community in Mexico. Women who had previously participated in a longitudinal research study (1997-2000) were re-assessed in 2005. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures, and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered. Total and annual rate of change in BMI and change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 and > or =30.0) were estimated. Mean age in 2005 was 30.0 +/- 5.7 years (n = 683) and time between recruitment and follow-up was 6.4 +/- 1.0 years. Mean change in BMI was +3.6 +/- 2.7 (range -8.2 to +14.6). In 2005, 500 (73.2%) women were overweight, up from 263 (38.5%) in the original assessment. The prevalence of obesity tripled over the follow-up period (from 9.8% to 30.3%). The mean annual rate of change in BMI was +0.6 (+/-0.4). After adjustment for age and parity at baseline, an annual rate of change of BMI above the sample median (>0.5) was associated with lower levels of formal education. The annual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample is double that which was reported at a national level in Mexico. An understanding of the determinants of this rapid increase among the women living in poverty in Mexico is urgently needed.

  13. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-07-10

    To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and culture might influence the experiences of chronic pain. Published by the BMJ

  14. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new approaches and rigorous evaluation of safe

  15. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; García-Carral, Cristina; Manzano, Susana; McGuire, Michelle K.; Meehan, Courtney L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Williams, Janet E.; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W.; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W.; Kamundia, Egidioh W.; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E.; Kvist, Linda J.; Otoo, Gloria E.; Lackey, Kimberly A.; Flores, Katherine; Pareja, Rossina G.; Bode, Lars; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278. PMID:28713365

  16. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα, acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17, chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β, growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278.

  17. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.

  18. The meaning of home for ageing women living alone: An evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arro; Heale, Roberta; Pilon, Roger; Lavoie, Anne Marise

    2018-05-01

    The concept of home to women ageing should be visited in the light of ongoing cultural, political, temporal and disciplinary evolutions. In part, to compliment policies increasing focus on supporting older adults to age in place and a growing attention on the home as a place where healthcare is designed and provided. The following concept analysis utilises Rodgers' evolutionary method to inductively analyse literature in order to elicit the meaning and experience of home among older women who are ageing at home. Literature was collected over an 18-month period during 2014-2015 and the sample was made up of 49 articles. The analysis led to the concept of home among women ageing in communities to be defined by four attributes. These attributes are home as (i) a resource, (ii) an attachment, (iii) the precariousness of maintaining and sustaining home and (iv) a cultural expectation. This analysis of the meaning and experience of home among women ageing at home has shed light on the needs for this group of women, while highlighting the need to continue to further clarify and define the concept through research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Living with a `women's disease': risk appraisal and management among men with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimeo, Samantha L

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that men suffer from osteoporosis (OP) in increasing numbers, but that men commonly remain underdiagnosed, undertreated and experience poorer outcomes than do women. The widespread sociocultural association of OP with postmenopausal women reflects their greater risk for developing the disorder, but the sexing of OP as a women's disease disadvantages at-risk men. METHODS: This paper reports on qualitative data gathered from 23 community-residing men who have an OP diagnosis. RESULTS: Interviews with men reveal that the sexing of OP as a female disease may affect men's risk appraisal. Men clearly associate OP risk factors with women and accordingly may feel protected from the disorder. Subsequent to diagnosis, men's OP-related risk management strategies reveal that men's gender identity constrains their ability to enact risk-reducing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Men may internalize the association of OP with women and incorporate it into a sense of perceived invulnerability to the condition, which, in turn, contributes to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Limited male-specific treatment and support options as well as social expectations of male gender performance play roles in men's health behavior.

  20. Living large: the experiences of large-bodied women when accessing general practice services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.

  1. The Lives and Politics of Latinas in the United States: A Selective Bibliography [and] Women and Politics in Latin America: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Catherine, Comp.; Searing, Susan, Comp.

    Two bibliographies list over 200 sources of information on Latin American women living in the United States and in Latin America. The first bibliography cites books, chapters from books, journal articles, pamphlets, dissertations, and theses dealing with the lives and politics of Mexican-American, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Central and South…

  2. The Influence of Lived Experience with Addiction and Recovery on Practice-Related Decisions among Professionals Working in Addiction Agencies Serving Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan M.; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Brooks, Sandy; Henderson, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study objectives were to: (1) understand the value attributed to the lived experience of addiction and recovery among professionals working in addiction agencies serving women in Canada and (2) describe how lived experience influence practice-related decision-making. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with a…

  3. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared with women from the general population (WGP). We assessed the prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk (hr) HPV infection and...

  4. Contesting Institutional Discourse to Create New Possibilities for Understanding Lived Experience: Life-Stories of Young Women in Detention, Rehabilitation, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suniti

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study…

  5. Replacing single frozen-thawed euploid embryos in a natural cycle in ovulatory women may increase live birth rates compared to medicated cycles in anovulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alexis P; Setton, Robert; Stone, Logan D; Pereira, Nigel; Xu, Kangpu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in ovulatory women and programmed FET cycles in anovulatory women after undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF-PGS). This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing single FET IVF-PGS cycles between October 2011 and December 2014 were included. Patients were stratified by type of endometrial replacement: programmed cycles with estrogen/progesterone replacement and natural cycles. IVF-PGS with 24-chromosome screening was performed on all included patients. Those patients with euploid embryos had single embryo transfer in a subsequent FET. The primary study outcome was live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included implantation, biochemical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. One hundred thirteen cycles met inclusion criteria: 65 natural cycles and 48 programmed cycles. The programmed FET group was younger (35.9 ± 4.5 vs. 37.5 ± 3.7, P = 0.03) and had a higher AMH (3.95 ± 4.2 vs. 2.37 ± 2.4, P = 0.045). The groups were similar for BMI, gravidity, parity, history of uterine surgery, and incidence of Asherman's syndrome. There was also no difference in embryo grade at biopsy or transfer, and proportion of day 5 and day 6 transfers. Implantation rates were higher in the natural FET group (0.66 ± 0.48 vs. 0.44 ± 0.50, P = 0.02). There was no difference in the rates of biochemical pregnancy or miscarriage. After controlling for age, live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate was higher in natural FETs with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.68 (95% CI 1.22-5.87). Natural FET in ovulatory women after IVF-PGS is associated with increased implantation and live birth rates compared to programmed FET in anovulatory women. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these findings hold true in other patient cohorts.

  6. Reproductive health of women after abdominal delivery living in different regions of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Samigullina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Study of somatic and obstetric and gynecologic morbidity of women of the Kyrgyz Republic after Cesarean section. Methods. Retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2016 in Kyrgyz state medical institute of retraining and advanced training. Three regions of the Kyrgyz Republic were selected: Bishkek, Jalal-Abad and Issyk-Kul regions. 908 pregnant women after abdominal delivery were chosen as the subject of the study and divided into three groups: group 1 (Bishkek - 305 pregnant women, group 2 (Jalal-Abad region - 300 females, group 3 (Issyk-Kul region - 303 females. The age was 15 to 49 years. The incidence of gynecologic and extragenital pathology and complications during previous pregnancies w