Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search
Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.
1999-01-01
A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.
Solving University Scheduling Problem Using Hybrid Approach
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Aftab Ahmed Shaikh
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In universities scheduling curriculum activity is an essential job. Primarily, scheduling is a distribution of limited resources under interrelated constraints. The set of hard constraints demand the highest priority and should not to be violated at any cost, while the maximum soft constraints satisfaction mounts the quality scale of solution. In this research paper, a novel bisected approach is introduced that is comprisesd of GA (Genetic Algorithm as well as Backtracking Recursive Search. The employed technique deals with both hard and soft constraints successively. The first phase decisively is focused over elimination of all the hard constraints bounded violations and eventually produces partial solution for subsequent step. The second phase is supposed to draw the best possible solution on the search space. Promising results are obtained by implementation on the real dataset. The key points of the research approach are to get assurance of hard constraints removal from the dataset and minimizing computational time for GA by initializing pre-processed set of chromosomes.
Solving cyclical nurse scheduling problem using preemptive goal programming
Sundari, V. E.; Mardiyati, S.
2017-07-01
Nurse scheduling system in a hospital is being modeled as a preemptive goal programming problem that is solved by using LINGO software with the objective function to minimize deviation variable at each goal. The scheduling is done cyclically, so every nurse is treated fairly since they have the same work shift portion with the other nurses. By paying attention to the hospital's rules regarding nursing work shift cyclically, it can be obtained that numbers of nurse needed in every ward are 18 nurses and the numbers of scheduling periods are 18 periods where every period consists of 21 days.
Solving project scheduling problems by minimum cut computations
Möhring, R.H.; Schulz, A.S.; Stork, F.; Uetz, Marc Jochen
In project scheduling, a set of precedence-constrained jobs has to be scheduled so as to minimize a given objective. In resource-constrained project scheduling, the jobs additionally compete for scarce resources. Due to its universality, the latter problem has a variety of applications in
Hybrid IP/CP Methods for Solving Sports Scheduling Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther
2006-01-01
The field of sports scheduling comprises a challenging research areawith a great variety of hard combinatorial optimization problems andchallenging practical applications. This dissertation gives acomprehensive survey of the area and a number of new contributionsare presented. First a general sol...
Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using metaheuristics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.
2010-01-01
We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take-off. Jobs (flights) must...
Solving Large Scale Crew Scheduling Problems in Practice
E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin); L. Albino; T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); J. Roussado; R.L. Saldanha
2010-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with large-scale crew scheduling problems arising at the Dutch railway operator, Netherlands Railways (NS). NS operates about 30,000 trains a week. All these trains need a driver and a certain number of guards. Some labor rules restrict the duties of a certain crew base
A meta-heuristic method for solving scheduling problem: crow search algorithm
Adhi, Antono; Santosa, Budi; Siswanto, Nurhadi
2018-04-01
Scheduling is one of the most important processes in an industry both in manufacturingand services. The scheduling process is the process of selecting resources to perform an operation on tasks. Resources can be machines, peoples, tasks, jobs or operations.. The selection of optimum sequence of jobs from a permutation is an essential issue in every research in scheduling problem. Optimum sequence becomes optimum solution to resolve scheduling problem. Scheduling problem becomes NP-hard problem since the number of job in the sequence is more than normal number can be processed by exact algorithm. In order to obtain optimum results, it needs a method with capability to solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable time. Meta-heuristic is a method usually used to solve scheduling problem. The recently published method called Crow Search Algorithm (CSA) is adopted in this research to solve scheduling problem. CSA is an evolutionary meta-heuristic method which is based on the behavior in flocks of crow. The calculation result of CSA for solving scheduling problem is compared with other algorithms. From the comparison, it is found that CSA has better performance in term of optimum solution and time calculation than other algorithms.
Resource-constrained project scheduling: computing lower bounds by solving minimum cut problems
Möhring, R.H.; Nesetril, J.; Schulz, A.S.; Stork, F.; Uetz, Marc Jochen
1999-01-01
We present a novel approach to compute Lagrangian lower bounds on the objective function value of a wide class of resource-constrained project scheduling problems. The basis is a polynomial-time algorithm to solve the following scheduling problem: Given a set of activities with start-time dependent
SOLVING FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS USING A DISCRETE AFRICAN WILD DOG ALGORITHM
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M. K. Marichelvam
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The problem of m-machine permutation flowshop scheduling is considered in this paper. The objective is to minimize the makespan. The flowshop scheduling problem is a typical combinatorial optimization problem and has been proved to be strongly NP-hard. Hence, several heuristics and meta-heuristics were addressed by the researchers. In this paper, a discrete African wild dog algorithm is applied for solving the flowshop scheduling problems. Computational results using benchmark problems show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many other algorithms addressed in the literature.
A review on application of neural networks and fuzzy logic to solve hydrothermal scheduling problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroon, S.; Malik, T.N.; Zafar, S.
2014-01-01
Electrical power system is highly complicated having hydro and thermal mix with large number of machines. To reduce power production cost, hydro and thermal resources are mixed. Hydrothermal scheduling is the optimal coordination of hydro and thermal plants to meet the system load demand at minimum possible operational cost while satisfying the system constraints. Hydrothermal scheduling is dynamic, large scale, non-linear and non-convex optimization problem. The classical techniques have failed in solving such problem. Artificial Intelligence Tools based techniques are used now a day to solve this complex optimization problem because of their no requirements on the nature of the problem. The aim of this research paper is to provide a comprehensive survey of literature related to both Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) as effective optimization algorithms for the hydrothermal scheduling problem. The outcomes along with the merits and demerits of individual techniques are also discussed. (author)
A matheuristic approach for solving the Integrated Timetabling and Vehicle Scheduling Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien
between different trips. We consider transfers between bus trips scheduled by the model, but also transfers to other fixed lines that intersect the lines considered in the IT-VSP. We present a MIP formulation of the IT-VSP able to solve small instances of the problem, and a matheuristic approach that uses...... the compact MIP to solve larger instances of the problem. The idea is to iteratively solve restricted versions of the MIP selecting at each step a subset of trips where modifications are allowed, while all other trips remain fixed. The performance of the proposed matheuristic is shown on a case study...
Solving a large-scale precedence constrained scheduling problem with elastic jobs using tabu search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, C.R.; Rasmussen, R.V.; Andersen, Kim Allan
2007-01-01
exploitation of the elastic jobs and solve the problem using a tabu search procedure. Finding an initial feasible solution is in general -complete, but the tabu search procedure includes a specialized heuristic for solving this problem. The solution method has proven to be very efficient and leads......This paper presents a solution method for minimizing makespan of a practical large-scale scheduling problem with elastic jobs. The jobs are processed on three servers and restricted by precedence constraints, time windows and capacity limitations. We derive a new method for approximating the server...... to a significant decrease in makespan compared to the strategy currently implemented....
Solving a large-scale precedence constrained scheduling problem with elastic jobs using tabu search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, C.R.; Rasmussen, R.V.; Andersen, Kim Allan
2007-01-01
This paper presents a solution method for minimizing makespan of a practical large-scale scheduling problem with elastic jobs. The jobs are processed on three servers and restricted by precedence constraints, time windows and capacity limitations. We derive a new method for approximating the server...... exploitation of the elastic jobs and solve the problem using a tabu search procedure. Finding an initial feasible solution is in general -complete, but the tabu search procedure includes a specialized heuristic for solving this problem. The solution method has proven to be very efficient and leads...
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Behnam Barzegar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Scheduled production system leads to avoiding stock accumulations, losses reduction, decreasing or even eliminating idol machines, and effort to better benefitting from machines for on time responding customer orders and supplying requested materials in suitable time. In flexible job-shop scheduling production systems, we could reduce time and costs by transferring and delivering operations on existing machines, that is, among NP-hard problems. The scheduling objective minimizes the maximal completion time of all the operations, which is denoted by Makespan. Different methods and algorithms have been presented for solving this problem. Having a reasonable scheduled production system has significant influence on improving effectiveness and attaining to organization goals. In this paper, new algorithm were proposed for flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems (FJSSP-GSPN that is based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA. In the proposed method, the flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems was modeled by color Petri net and CPN tool and then a scheduled job was programmed by GSA algorithm. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has reasonable performance in comparison with other algorithms.
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Yahong Zheng
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on a classic optimization problem in operations research, the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP, to discuss the method to deal with uncertainty in a manufacturing system.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, condition based maintenance (CBM, a kind of preventive maintenance, is suggested to reduce unavailability of machines. Different to the simultaneous scheduling algorithm (SSA used in the previous article (Neale & Cameron,1979, an inserting algorithm (IA is applied, in which firstly a pre-schedule is obtained through heuristic algorithm and then maintenance tasks are inserted into the pre-schedule scheme.Findings: It is encouraging that a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research. Moreover, factually SSA used in literature for solving normal FJSPPM (FJSP with PM is not suitable for the dynamic FJSPPM. Through application in the benchmark of normal FJSPPM, it is found that although IA obtains inferior results compared to SSA used in literature, it performs much better in executing speed.Originality/value: Different to traditional scheduling of FJSP, uncertainty of machines is taken into account, which increases the complexity of the problem. An inserting algorithm (IA is proposed to solve the dynamic scheduling problem. It is stated that the quality of the final result depends much on the quality of the pre-schedule obtained during the procedure of solving a normal FJSP. In order to find the best solution of FJSP, a comparative study of three heuristics is carried out, the integrated GA, ACO and ABC. In the comparative study, we find that GA performs best in the three heuristic algorithms. Meanwhile, a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research.
A tabu-search heuristic for solving the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem
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Gilmar D'Agostini Oliveira Casalinho
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Currently the logistical problems are relying quite significantly on Operational Research in order to achieve greater efficiency in their operations. Among the problems related to the vehicles scheduling in a logistics system, the Multiple Depot Vehicle Scheduling Problem (MDVSP has been addressed in several studies. The MDVSP presupposes the existence of depots that affect the planning of sequences to which travel must be performed. Often, exact methods cannot solve large instances encountered in practice and in order to take them into account, several heuristic approaches are being developed. The aim of this study was thus to solve the MDVSP using a meta-heuristic based on tabu-search method. The main motivation for this work came from the indication that only recently the use of meta-heuristics is being applied to MDVSP context (Pepin et al. 2008 and, also, the limitations listed by Rohde (2008 in his study, which used the branch-and-bound in one of the steps of the heuristic presented to solve the problem, which has increased the time resolution. The research method for solving this problem was based on adaptations of traditional techniques of Operational Research, and provided resolutions presenting very competitive results for the MDVSP such as the cost of the objective function, number of vehicles used and computational time.
Solving and Interpreting Large-scale Harvest Scheduling Problems by Duality and Decomposition
Berck, Peter; Bible, Thomas
1982-01-01
This paper presents a solution to the forest planning problem that takes advantage of both the duality of linear programming formulations currently being used for harvest scheduling and the characteristics of decomposition inherent in the forest land class-relationship. The subproblems of decomposition, defined as the dual, can be solved in a simple, recursive fashion. In effect, such a technique reduces the computational burden in terms of time and computer storage as compared to the traditi...
Buddala, Raviteja; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar
2017-11-01
Flexible flow shop (or a hybrid flow shop) scheduling problem is an extension of classical flow shop scheduling problem. In a simple flow shop configuration, a job having `g' operations is performed on `g' operation centres (stages) with each stage having only one machine. If any stage contains more than one machine for providing alternate processing facility, then the problem becomes a flexible flow shop problem (FFSP). FFSP which contains all the complexities involved in a simple flow shop and parallel machine scheduling problems is a well-known NP-hard (Non-deterministic polynomial time) problem. Owing to high computational complexity involved in solving these problems, it is not always possible to obtain an optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. To obtain near-optimal solutions in a reasonable computation time, a large variety of meta-heuristics have been proposed in the past. However, tuning algorithm-specific parameters for solving FFSP is rather tricky and time consuming. To address this limitation, teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and JAYA algorithm are chosen for the study because these are not only recent meta-heuristics but they do not require tuning of algorithm-specific parameters. Although these algorithms seem to be elegant, they lose solution diversity after few iterations and get trapped at the local optima. To alleviate such drawback, a new local search procedure is proposed in this paper to improve the solution quality. Further, mutation strategy (inspired from genetic algorithm) is incorporated in the basic algorithm to maintain solution diversity in the population. Computational experiments have been conducted on standard benchmark problems to calculate makespan and computational time. It is found that the rate of convergence of TLBO is superior to JAYA. From the results, it is found that TLBO and JAYA outperform many algorithms reported in the literature and can be treated as efficient methods for solving the FFSP.
Solving multi-objective job shop scheduling problems using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
The efforts of finding optimal schedules for the job shop scheduling problems are highly important for many real-world industrial applications. In this paper, a multi-objective based job shop scheduling problem by simultaneously minimizing makespan and tardiness is taken into account. The problem is considered to be more complex due to the multiple business criteria that must be satisfied. To solve the problem more efficiently and to obtain a set of non-dominated solutions, a meta-heuristic based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is presented. In addition, task based representation is used for solution encoding, and tournament selection that is based on rank and crowding distance is applied for offspring selection. Swapping and insertion mutations are employed to increase diversity of population and to perform intensive search. To evaluate the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, a set of modified benchmarking job shop problems obtained from the OR-Library is used, and the results are considered based on the number of non-dominated solutions and quality of schedules obtained by the algorithm.
Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem
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S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.
A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PROJECT SCHEDULING PROBLEM (RCPSP
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Juan Carlos Rivera
Full Text Available The Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP is a problem of great interest for the scientific community because it belongs to the class of NP-Hard problems and no methods are known that can solve it accurately in polynomial processing times. For this reason heuristic methods are used to solve it in an efficient way though there is no guarantee that an optimal solution can be obtained. This research presents a hybrid heuristic search algorithm to solve the RCPSP efficiently, combining elements of the heuristic Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP, Scatter Search and Justification. The efficiency obtained is measured taking into account the presence of the new elements added to the GRASP algorithm taken as base: Justification and Scatter Search. The algorithms are evaluated using three data bases of instances of the problem: 480 instances of 30 activities, 480 of 60, and 600 of 120 activities respectively, taken from the library PSPLIB available online. The solutions obtained by the developed algorithm for the instances of 30, 60 and 120 are compared with results obtained by other researchers at international level, where a prominent place is obtained, according to Chen (2011.
Shao, Zhongshi; Pi, Dechang; Shao, Weishi
2017-11-01
This article proposes an extended continuous estimation of distribution algorithm (ECEDA) to solve the permutation flow-shop scheduling problem (PFSP). In ECEDA, to make a continuous estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) suitable for the PFSP, the largest order value rule is applied to convert continuous vectors to discrete job permutations. A probabilistic model based on a mixed Gaussian and Cauchy distribution is built to maintain the exploration ability of the EDA. Two effective local search methods, i.e. revolver-based variable neighbourhood search and Hénon chaotic-based local search, are designed and incorporated into the EDA to enhance the local exploitation. The parameters of the proposed ECEDA are calibrated by means of a design of experiments approach. Simulation results and comparisons based on some benchmark instances show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for solving the PFSP.
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Renata Melo e Silva de Oliveira
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Scheduling is a key factor for operations management as well as for business success. From industrial Job-shop Scheduling problems (JSSP, many optimization challenges have emerged since de 1960s when improvements have been continuously required such as bottlenecks allocation, lead-time reductions and reducing response time to requests. With this in perspective, this work aims to discuss 3 different optimization models for minimizing Makespan. Those 3 models were applied on 17 classical problems of examples JSSP and produced different outputs. The first model resorts on Mixed and Integer Programming (MIP and it resulted on optimizing 60% of the studied problems. The other models were based on Constraint Programming (CP and approached the problem in two different ways: a model CP1 is a standard IBM algorithm whereof restrictions have an interval structure that fail to solve 53% of the proposed instances, b Model CP-2 approaches the problem with disjunctive constraints and optimized 88% of the instances. In this work, each model is individually analyzed and then compared considering: i Optimization success performance, ii Computational processing time, iii Greatest Resource Utilization and, iv Minimum Work-in-process Inventory. Results demonstrated that CP-2 presented best results on criteria i and ii, but MIP was superior on criteria iii and iv and those findings are discussed at the final section of this work.
Genetic algorithm to solve the problems of lectures and practicums scheduling
Syahputra, M. F.; Apriani, R.; Sawaluddin; Abdullah, D.; Albra, W.; Heikal, M.; Abdurrahman, A.; Khaddafi, M.
2018-02-01
Generally, the scheduling process is done manually. However, this method has a low accuracy level, along with possibilities that a scheduled process collides with another scheduled process. When doing theory class and practicum timetable scheduling process, there are numerous problems, such as lecturer teaching schedule collision, schedule collision with another schedule, practicum lesson schedules that collides with theory class, and the number of classrooms available. In this research, genetic algorithm is implemented to perform theory class and practicum timetable scheduling process. The algorithm will be used to process the data containing lists of lecturers, courses, and class rooms, obtained from information technology department at University of Sumatera Utara. The result of scheduling process using genetic algorithm is the most optimal timetable that conforms to available time slots, class rooms, courses, and lecturer schedules.
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J. S. Sadaghiani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Flexible job shop scheduling problem is a key factor of using efficiently in production systems. This paper attempts to simultaneously optimize three objectives including minimization of the make span, total workload and maximum workload of jobs. Since the multi objective flexible job shop scheduling problem is strongly NP-Hard, an integrated heuristic approach has been used to solve it. The proposed approach was based on a floating search procedure that has used some heuristic algorithms. Within floating search procedure utilize local heuristic algorithms; it makes the considered problem into two sections including assigning and sequencing sub problem. First of all search is done upon assignment space achieving an acceptable solution and then search would continue on sequencing space based on a heuristic algorithm. This paper has used a multi-objective approach for producing Pareto solution. Thus proposed approach was adapted on NSGA II algorithm and evaluated Pareto-archives. The elements and parameters of the proposed algorithms were adjusted upon preliminary experiments. Finally, computational results were used to analyze efficiency of the proposed algorithm and this results showed that the proposed algorithm capable to produce efficient solutions.
Processing time tolerance-based ACO algorithm for solving job-shop scheduling problem
Luo, Yabo; Waden, Yongo P.
2017-06-01
Ordinarily, Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is known as NP-hard problem which has uncertainty and complexity that cannot be handled by a linear method. Thus, currently studies on JSSP are concentrated mainly on applying different methods of improving the heuristics for optimizing the JSSP. However, there still exist many problems for efficient optimization in the JSSP, namely, low efficiency and poor reliability, which can easily trap the optimization process of JSSP into local optima. Therefore, to solve this problem, a study on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm combined with constraint handling tactics is carried out in this paper. Further, the problem is subdivided into three parts: (1) Analysis of processing time tolerance-based constraint features in the JSSP which is performed by the constraint satisfying model; (2) Satisfying the constraints by considering the consistency technology and the constraint spreading algorithm in order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm. Hence, the JSSP model based on the improved ACO algorithm is constructed; (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method based on reliability and efficiency is shown through comparative experiments which are performed on benchmark problems. Consequently, the results obtained by the proposed method are better, and the applied technique can be used in optimizing JSSP.
The triangle scheduling problem
Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard
2017-01-01
This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to
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Alexandr Victorovich Budylskiy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This article considers the multicriteria optimization approach using the modified genetic algorithm to solve the project-scheduling problem under duration and cost constraints. The work contains the list of choices for solving this problem. The multicriteria optimization approach is justified here. The study describes the Pareto principles, which are used in the modified genetic algorithm. We identify the mathematical model of the project-scheduling problem. We introduced the modified genetic algorithm, the ranking strategies, the elitism approaches. The article includes the example.
A novel discrete PSO algorithm for solving job shop scheduling problem to minimize makespan
Rameshkumar, K.; Rajendran, C.
2018-02-01
In this work, a discrete version of PSO algorithm is proposed to minimize the makespan of a job-shop. A novel schedule builder has been utilized to generate active schedules. The discrete PSO is tested using well known benchmark problems available in the literature. The solution produced by the proposed algorithms is compared with best known solution published in the literature and also compared with hybrid particle swarm algorithm and variable neighborhood search PSO algorithm. The solution construction methodology adopted in this study is found to be effective in producing good quality solutions for the various benchmark job-shop scheduling problems.
A Column Generation Approach for Solving the Patient Admission Scheduling Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper
This paper addresses the Patient Admission Scheduling (PAS) problem. The PAS problem deals with assigning elective patients to beds, satisfying a number of soft and hard constraints. The problem can be seen as part of the functions of hospital management at an operational level. There exists a sm...... to produce new best solutions for ve out of six instances from a publicly available repository....
Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using tabu search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.
We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take off. Jobs (flights) must...
Using the method of ideal point to solve dual-objective problem for production scheduling
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Mariia Marko
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In practice, there are often problems, which must simultaneously optimize several criterias. This so-called multi-objective optimization problem. In the article we consider the use of the method ideal point to solve the two-objective optimization problem of production planning. The process of finding solution to the problem consists of a series of steps where using simplex method, we find the ideal point. After that for solving a scalar problems, we use the method of Lagrange multipliers
Solving scheduling problems by untimed model checking. The clinical chemical analyser case study
Margaria, T.; Wijs, Anton J.; Massink, M.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bortnik, Elena M.
2009-01-01
In this article, we show how scheduling problems can be modelled in untimed process algebra, by using special tick actions. A minimal-cost trace leading to a particular action, is one that minimises the number of tick steps. As a result, we can use any (timed or untimed) model checking tool to find
Santosa, B.; Siswanto, N.; Fiqihesa
2018-04-01
This paper proposes a discrete Particle Swam Optimization (PSO) to solve limited-wait hybrid flowshop scheduing problem with multi objectives. Flow shop schedulimg represents the condition when several machines are arranged in series and each job must be processed at each machine with same sequence. The objective functions are minimizing completion time (makespan), total tardiness time, and total machine idle time. Flow shop scheduling model always grows to cope with the real production system accurately. Since flow shop scheduling is a NP-Hard problem then the most suitable method to solve is metaheuristics. One of metaheuristics algorithm is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), an algorithm which is based on the behavior of a swarm. Originally, PSO was intended to solve continuous optimization problems. Since flow shop scheduling is a discrete optimization problem, then, we need to modify PSO to fit the problem. The modification is done by using probability transition matrix mechanism. While to handle multi objectives problem, we use Pareto Optimal (MPSO). The results of MPSO is better than the PSO because the MPSO solution set produced higher probability to find the optimal solution. Besides the MPSO solution set is closer to the optimal solution
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H Kazemipoor
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A multi-skilled project scheduling problem (MSPSP has been generally presented to schedule a project with staff members as resources. Each activity in project network requires different skills and also staff members have different skills, too. This causes the MSPSP becomes a special type of a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MM-RCPSP with a huge number of modes. Given the importance of this issue, in this paper, a mixed integer linear programming for the MSPSP is presented. Due to the complexity of the problem, a meta-heuristic algorithm is proposed in order to find near optimal solutions. To validate performance of the algorithm, results are compared against exact solutions solved by the LINGO solver. The results are promising and show that optimal or near-optimal solutions are derived for small instances and good solutions for larger instances in reasonable time.
Crane scheduling for a plate storage in a shipyard: Solving the problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper; Kristensen, Torben F.H.
2003-01-01
. These blocks are again welded together in the dock to produce a ship. Two gantry cranes move the plates into, around and out of the storage when needed in production. Different principles for organizing the storage and also different approaches for solving the problem are compared. Our results indicate...
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Hamed Piroozfard
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Scheduling is considered as an important topic in production management and combinatorial optimization in which it ubiquitously exists in most of the real-world applications. The attempts of finding optimal or near optimal solutions for the job shop scheduling problems are deemed important, because they are characterized as highly complex and NP-hard problems. This paper describes the development of a hybrid genetic algorithm for solving the nonpreemptive job shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing makespan. In order to solve the presented problem more effectively, an operation-based representation was used to enable the construction of feasible schedules. In addition, a new knowledge-based operator was designed based on the problem’s characteristics in order to use machines’ idle times to improve the solution quality, and it was developed in the context of function evaluation. A machine based precedence preserving order-based crossover was proposed to generate the offspring. Furthermore, a simulated annealing based neighborhood search technique was used to improve the local exploitation ability of the algorithm and to increase its population diversity. In order to prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, numerous benchmarked instances were collected from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness.
Solving Multi-Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem using Ant Colony Optimization
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Hsiang-Hsi Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper applied Ant Colony Optimization (ACO to develop a resource constraints scheduling model to achieve the resource allocation optimization and the shortest completion time of a project under resource constraints and the activities precedence requirement for projects. Resource leveling is also discussed and has to be achieved under the resource allocation optimization in this research. Testing cases and examples adopted from the international test bank were studied for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results showed that the solutions of different cases all have a better performance within a reasonable time. These can be obtained through ACO algorithm under the same constrained conditions. A program was written for the proposed model that is able to automatically produce the project resource requirement figure after the project duration is solved.
A column generation approach for solving the patient admission scheduling problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper
2014-01-01
, different variants of this problem. In this paper we consider one such variant and propose an optimization-based heuristic building on branch-and-bound, column generation, and dynamic constraint aggregation to solve it. We achieve tighter lower bounds than previously reported in the literature and......, in addition, we are able to produce new best known solutions for five out of twelve instances from a publicly available repository. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
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Julien Maheut
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm that solves the supply network configuration and operations scheduling problem in a mass customization company that faces alternative operations for one specific tool machine order in a multiplant context. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, the supply chain network configuration and operations scheduling problem is presented. A model based on stroke graphs allows the design of an algorithm that enumerates all the feasible solutions. The algorithm considers the arrival of a new customized order proposal which has to be inserted into a scheduled program. A selection function is then used to choose the solutions to be simulated in a specific simulation tool implemented in a Decision Support System. Findings and Originality/value: The algorithm itself proves efficient to find all feasible solutions when alternative operations must be considered. The stroke structure is successfully used to schedule operations when considering more than one manufacturing and supply option in each step. Research limitations/implications: This paper includes only the algorithm structure for a one-by-one, sequenced introduction of new products into the list of units to be manufactured. Therefore, the lotsizing process is done on a lot-per-lot basis. Moreover, the validation analysis is done through a case study and no generalization can be done without risk. Practical implications: The result of this research would help stakeholders to determine all the feasible and practical solutions for their problem. It would also allow to assessing the total costs and delivery times of each solution. Moreover, the Decision Support System proves useful to assess alternative solutions. Originality/value: This research offers a simple algorithm that helps solve the supply network configuration problem and, simultaneously, the scheduling problem by considering alternative operations. The proposed system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamal Abdul Nasir
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Development of an efficient and effective home health care (HHC service system is a quite recent and challenging task for the HHC firms. This paper aims to develop an HHC service system in the perspective of long-term economic sustainability as well as operational efficiency. A more flexible mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model is formulated by incorporating the dynamic arrival and departure of patients along with the selection of new patients and nursing staff. An integrated model is proposed that jointly addresses: (i patient selection; (ii nurse hiring; (iii nurse to patient assignment; and (iv scheduling and routing decisions in a daily HHC planning problem. The proposed model extends the HHC problem from conventional scheduling and routing issues to demand and capacity management aspects. It enables an HHC firm to solve the daily scheduling and routing problem considering existing patients and nursing staff in combination with the simultaneous selection of new patients and nurses, and optimizing the existing routes by including new patients and nurses. The model considers planning issues related to compatibility, time restrictions, contract durations, idle time and workload balance. Two heuristic methods are proposed to solve the model by exploiting the variable neighborhood search (VNS approach. Results obtained from the heuristic methods are compared with a CPLEX based solution. Numerical experiments performed on different data sets, show the efficiency and effectiveness of the solution methods to handle the considered problem.
An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laxmi A. Bewoor
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The no-wait flow shop is a flowshop in which the scheduling of jobs is continuous and simultaneous through all machines without waiting for any consecutive machines. The scheduling of a no-wait flow shop requires finding an appropriate sequence of jobs for scheduling, which in turn reduces total processing time. The classical brute force method for finding the probabilities of scheduling for improving the utilization of resources may become trapped in local optima, and this problem can hence be observed as a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding a near optimal solution with heuristic and metaheuristic techniques. This paper proposes an effective hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO metaheuristic algorithm for solving no-wait flow shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing the total flow time of jobs. This Proposed Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PHPSO algorithm presents a solution by the random key representation rule for converting the continuous position information values of particles to a discrete job permutation. The proposed algorithm initializes population efficiently with the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH heuristic technique and uses an evolutionary search guided by the mechanism of PSO, as well as simulated annealing based on a local neighborhood search to avoid getting stuck in local optima and to provide the appropriate balance of global exploration and local exploitation. Extensive computational experiments are carried out based on Taillard’s benchmark suite. Computational results and comparisons with existing metaheuristics show that the PHPSO algorithm outperforms the existing methods in terms of quality search and robustness for the problem considered. The improvement in solution quality is confirmed by statistical tests of significance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrián A. Toncovich
2019-01-01
Full Text Available The competition manufacturing companies face has driven the development of novel and efficient methods that enhance the decision making process. In this work, a specific flow shop scheduling problem of practical interest in the industry is presented and formalized using a mathematical programming model. The problem considers a manufacturing system arranged as a work cell that takes into account the transport operations of raw material and final products between the manufacturing cell and warehouses. For solving this problem, we present a multiobjective metaheuristic strategy based on simulated annealing, the Pareto Archived Simulated Annealing (PASA. We tested this strategy on two kinds of benchmark problem sets proposed by the authors. The first group is composed by small-sized problems. On these tests, PASA was able to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions in significantly short computing times. In order to complete the analysis, we compared these results to the exact Pareto front of the instances obtained with augmented ε-constraint method. Then, we also tested the algorithm in a set of larger problems to evaluate its performance in more extensive search spaces. We performed this assessment through an analysis of the hypervolume metric. Both sets of tests showed the competitiveness of the Pareto Archived Simulated Annealing to efficiently solve this problem and obtain good quality solutions while using reasonable computational resources.
Cram, Ana Catalina
As worldwide environmental awareness grow, alternative sources of energy have become important to mitigate climate change. Biogas in particular reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming and has the potential of providing 25% of the annual demand for natural gas in the U.S. In 2011, 55,000 metric tons of methane emissions were reduced and 301 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions were avoided through the use of biogas alone. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion through the fermentation of organic material. It is mainly composed of methane with a rage of 50 to 80% in its concentration. Carbon dioxide covers 20 to 50% and small amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen. The biogas production systems are anaerobic digestion facilities and the optimal operation of an anaerobic digester requires the scheduling of all batches from multiple feedstocks during a specific time horizon. The availability times, biomass quantities, biogas production rates and storage decay rates must all be taken into account for maximal biogas production to be achieved during the planning horizon. Little work has been done to optimize the scheduling of different types of feedstock in anaerobic digestion facilities to maximize the total biogas produced by these systems. Therefore, in the present thesis, a new genetic algorithm is developed with the main objective of obtaining the optimal sequence in which different feedstocks will be processed and the optimal time to allocate to each feedstock in the digester with the main objective of maximizing the production of biogas considering different types of feedstocks, arrival times and decay rates. Moreover, all batches need to be processed in the digester in a specified time with the restriction that only one batch can be processed at a time. The developed algorithm is applied to 3 different examples and a comparison with results obtained in previous studies is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imen Chaieb Memmi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: We aim to examine the capacitated multi-item lot sizing problem which is a typical example of a large bucket model, where many different items can be produced on the same machine in one time period. We propose a new approach to determine the production sequence and lot sizes that minimize the sum of start up and setup costs, inventory and production costs over all periods.Design/methodology/approach: The approach is composed of three steps. First, we compute a lower bound on total cost. Then we propose a three sub-steps iteration procedure. We solve optimally the lot sizing problem without considering products sequencing and their cost. Then, we determine products quantities to produce each period while minimizing the storage and variable production costs. Given the products to manufacture each period, we determine its correspondent optimal products sequencing, by using a Branch and Bound algorithm. Given the sequences of products within each period, we evaluate the total start up and setup cost. We compare then the total cost obtained to the lower bound of the total cost. If this value riches a prefixed value, we stop. Otherwise, we modify the results of lot sizing problem.Findings and Originality/value: We show using an illustrative example, that the difference between the total cost and its lower bound is only 10%. This gap depends on the significance of the inventory and production costs and the machine’s capacity. Comparing the approach we develop with a traditional one, we show that we manage to reduce the total cost by 30%.Research limitations/implications: Our model fits better to real-world situations where production systems run continuously. This model is applied for limited number of part types and periods.Practical implications: Our approach determines the products to manufacture each time period, their economic amounts, and their scheduling within each period. This outcome should help decision makers bearing expensive
Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems
Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim
2001-01-01
Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...
Rapine , Christophe
2013-01-01
International audience; In Allaoui H., Artiba A, ''Johnson's algorithm : A key to solve optimally or approximately flowshop scheduling problems with unavailability periods'' [International Journal of Production Economics 121 (2009)] the authors propose optimality conditions for the Johnson sequence in presence of one unavailability period on the first machine and pretend for a performance guarantee of 2 when several unavailability periods may occur. We establish in this note that these condit...
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Teaching Creative Problem Solving.
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
1992-01-01
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...
Solving Environmental Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
2017-01-01
for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework
Roesler, Rebecca A.
2016-01-01
Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…
Introspection in Problem Solving
Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell
2013-01-01
Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…
Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia
2017-01-01
Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…
Pei, Jun; Liu, Xinbao; Pardalos, Panos M.; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shanlin
2016-03-01
Motivated by applications in manufacturing industry, we consider a supply chain scheduling problem, where each job is characterised by non-identical sizes, different release times and unequal processing times. The objective is to minimise the makespan by making batching and sequencing decisions. The problem is formalised as a mixed integer programming model and proved to be strongly NP-hard. Some structural properties are presented for both the general case and a special case. Based on these properties, a lower bound is derived, and a novel two-phase heuristic (TP-H) is developed to solve the problem, which guarantees to obtain a worst case performance ratio of ?. Computational experiments with a set of different sizes of random instances are conducted to evaluate the proposed approach TP-H, which is superior to another two heuristics proposed in the literature. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that TP-H can effectively and efficiently solve large-size problems in a reasonable time.
Solved problems in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piron, D.L.
2004-01-01
This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Jens; Ju, S.
2006-01-01
The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e., the time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This includes the d...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ju, Suquan; Clausen, Jens
2004-01-01
The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This incl......The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit....... This includes the determination of the production sequence of the component types within each cycle. We investigate the computational behavior of two published algorithms, a heuristic and an optimal algorithm. With large number of component types, the optimal algorithm has long running times. We devise a hybrid...
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an ad hoc Floyd-A∗ algorithm to determine the a priori least-time itinerary from an origin to a destination given an initial time in an urban scheduled public transport (USPT network. The network is bimodal (i.e., USPT lines and walking and time dependent. The modified USPT network model results in more reasonable itinerary results. An itinerary is connected through a sequence of time-label arcs. The proposed Floyd-A∗ algorithm is composed of two procedures designated as Itinerary Finder and Cost Estimator. The A∗-based Itinerary Finder determines the time-dependent, least-time itinerary in real time, aided by the heuristic information precomputed by the Floyd-based Cost Estimator, where a strategy is formed to preestimate the time-dependent arc travel time as an associated static lower bound. The Floyd-A∗ algorithm is proven to guarantee optimality in theory and, demonstrated through a real-world example in Shenyang City USPT network to be more efficient than previous procedures. The computational experiments also reveal the time-dependent nature of the least-time itinerary. In the premise that lines run punctually, “just boarding” and “just missing” cases are identified.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Routing and scheduling problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander
couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...
van Hoorn, Jelke J.; Nogueira, Agustín; Ojea, Ignacio; Gromicho Dos Santos, Joaquim Antonio
2017-01-01
In [1] an algorithm is proposed for solving the job-shop scheduling problem optimally using a dynamic programming strategy. This is, according to our knowledge, the first exact algorithm for the Job Shop problem which is not based on integer linear programming and branch and bound. Despite the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pongpan Nakkaew
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In manufacturing process where efficiency is crucial in order to remain competitive, flowshop is a common configuration in which machines are arranged in series and products are produced through the stages one by one. In certain production processes, the machines are frequently configured in the way that each production stage may contain multiple processing units in parallel or hybrid. Moreover, along with precedent conditions, the sequence dependent setup times may exist. Finally, in case there is no buffer, a machine is said to be blocked if the next stage to handle its output is being occupied. Such NP-Hard problem, referred as Blocking Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup/Changeover Times, is usually not possible to find the best exact solution to satisfy optimization objectives such as minimization of the overall production time. Thus, it is usually solved by approximate algorithms such as metaheuristics. In this paper, we investigate comparatively the effectiveness of the two approaches: a Genetic Algorithm (GA and an Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm. GA is inspired by the process of natural selection. ABC, in the same manner, resembles the way types of bees perform specific functions and work collectively to find their foods by means of division of labor. Additionally, we apply an algorithm to improve the GA and ABC algorithms so that they can take advantage of parallel processing resources of modern multiple core processors while eliminate the need for screening the optimal parameters of both algorithms in advance.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
Problem specific heuristics for group scheduling problems in cellular manufacturing
Neufeld, Janis Sebastian
2016-01-01
The group scheduling problem commonly arises in cellular manufacturing systems, where parts are grouped into part families. It is characterized by a sequencing task on two levels: on the one hand, a sequence of jobs within each part family has to be identified while, on the other hand, a family sequence has to be determined. In order to solve this NP-hard problem usually heuristic solution approaches are used. In this thesis different aspects of group scheduling are discussed and problem spec...
Amirghasemi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Reza
2014-01-01
This paper presents an effective procedure for solving the job shop problem. Synergistically combining small and large neighborhood schemes, the procedure consists of four components, namely (i) a construction method for generating semi-active schedules by a forward-backward mechanism, (ii) a local search for manipulating a small neighborhood structure guided by a tabu list, (iii) a feedback-based mechanism for perturbing the solutions generated, and (iv) a very large-neighborhood local search guided by a forward-backward shifting bottleneck method. The combination of shifting bottleneck mechanism and tabu list is used as a means of the manipulation of neighborhood structures, and the perturbation mechanism employed diversifies the search. A feedback mechanism, called repeat-check, detects consequent repeats and ignites a perturbation when the total number of consecutive repeats for two identical makespan values reaches a given threshold. The results of extensive computational experiments on the benchmark instances indicate that the combination of these four components is synergetic, in the sense that they collectively make the procedure fast and robust.
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Algorithms for Scheduling and Network Problems
1991-09-01
time. We already know, by Lemma 2.2.1, that WOPT = O(log( mpU )), so if we could solve this integer program optimally we would be done. However, the...Folydirat, 15:177-191, 1982. [6] I.S. Belov and Ya. N. Stolin. An algorithm in a single path operations scheduling problem. In Mathematical Economics and
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Problem Solving on a Monorail.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others
1994-01-01
This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)
2017-03-01
Borrajo and Raquel Fuentetaja, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on the meta-level search architecture for finding good combinations of representations and...heuristics on a problem-by-problem basis. The other is with Carlos Linares also from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on developing effective
Integrated network design and scheduling problems :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.
2014-01-01
We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyen, L.C.
1976-01-01
The combination of regulatory changes and increased waste volume has resulted in design changes in waste processing systems. Problems resulting from waste segregation as a basis for design philosophy are considered, and solutions to the problems are suggested. The importance of operator training, maintenance procedures, good housekeeping, water management, and offsite shipment of solids is discussed. Flowsheets for radioactive waste processing systems for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are included
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Frew Demeke Alemu
concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...
Solved problems in classical electromagnetism
Franklin, Jerrold
2018-01-01
This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.
Inference rule and problem solving
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, S
1982-04-01
Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali
2017-07-01
Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali
2017-01-01
Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo
Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...
Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.
Xia, J; Li, Chunbo
2007-04-18
The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Funke, Joachim
2013-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…
Error Patterns in Problem Solving.
Babbitt, Beatrice C.
Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…
A DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION ALGORITHM DEVELOPED FOR A NURSE SCHEDULING PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahnazari-Shahrezaei, P.
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Nurse scheduling is a type of manpower allocation problem that tries to satisfy hospital managers objectives and nurses preferences as much as possible by generating fair shift schedules. This paper presents a nurse scheduling problem based on a real case study, and proposes two meta-heuristics a differential evolution algorithm (DE and a greedy randomised adaptive search procedure (GRASP to solve it. To investigate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms, two problems are solved. Furthermore, some comparison metrics are applied to examine the reliability of the proposed algorithms. The computational results in this paper show that the proposed DE outperforms the GRASP.
Genetics problem solving and worldview
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor
In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem (HCCSP) a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits, such that the total number of assigned visits is maximised. The visits have different locations and positions in time, and travelling time and time windows must be respected. The challenge...... when assigning visits to caretakers lies in the existence of soft constraints and indeed also in temporal dependencies between the starting times of visits. Most former approaches to solving the HCCSP involve the use of heuristic methods. Here we develop an exact branch-and-price algorithm that uses...... clustering of the visits based on the problem structure. The algorithm is tested on real-life problem instances and we obtain solutions that are better than current practice in all cases....
Problem solving and inference mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A
1982-01-01
The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.
Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab
Xue, Dingyu
2008-01-01
Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.
Cooperated Bayesian algorithm for distributed scheduling problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIANG Lei; XIAO Tian-yuan
2006-01-01
This paper presents a new distributed Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) to overcome the efficiency problem when solving NP scheduling problems.The proposed approach integrates BOA into the co-evolutionary schema,which builds up a concurrent computing environment.A new search strategy is also introduced for local optimization process.It integrates the reinforcement learning(RL) mechanism into the BOA search processes,and then uses the mixed probability information from BOA (post-probability) and RL (pre-probability) to enhance the cooperation between different local controllers,which improves the optimization ability of the algorithm.The experiment shows that the new algorithm does better in both optimization (2.2%) and convergence (11.7%),compared with classic BOA.
Optimization of the solution of the problem of scheduling theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article describes the genetic algorithm used to solve the problem related to the scheduling theory. A large number of different methods is described in the scientific literature. The main issue that faced the problem in question is that it is necessary to search the optimal solution in a large search space for the set of ...
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pisan, Yusuf
1998-01-01
.... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...
Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving
Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze
2015-01-01
Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem
Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.
Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-03-01
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Solving a robust airline crew pairing problem with column generation
Muter, I.; Birbil, S.I.; Bülbül, K.; Sahin, G.; Yenigün, H.; Tas, D.; Tüzün, D.
2013-01-01
In this study, we solve a robust version of the airline crew pairing problem. Our concept of robustness was partially shaped during our discussions with small local airlines in Turkey which may have to add a set of extra flights into their schedule at short notice during operation. Thus, robustness
Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving
Herold-Blasius, Raja
2017-01-01
Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…
Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns
Warren, Louis L.
2005-01-01
This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Extended precedence preservative crossover for job shop scheduling problems
Ong, Chung Sin; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd
2013-04-01
Job shop scheduling problems (JSSP) is one of difficult combinatorial scheduling problems. A wide range of genetic algorithms based on the two parents crossover have been applied to solve the problem but multi parents (more than two parents) crossover in solving the JSSP is still lacking. This paper proposes the extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX) which uses multi parents for recombination in the genetic algorithms. EPPX is a variation of the precedence preservative crossover (PPX) which is one of the crossovers that perform well to find the solutions for the JSSP. EPPX is based on a vector to determine the gene selected in recombination for the next generation. Legalization of children (offspring) can be eliminated due to the JSSP representation encoded by using permutation with repetition that guarantees the feasibility of chromosomes. The simulations are performed on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared to ensure the sustainability of multi parents recombination in solving the JSSP.
Performance comparison of some evolutionary algorithms on job shop scheduling problems
Mishra, S. K.; Rao, C. S. P.
2016-09-01
Job Shop Scheduling as a state space search problem belonging to NP-hard category due to its complexity and combinational explosion of states. Several naturally inspire evolutionary methods have been developed to solve Job Shop Scheduling Problems. In this paper the evolutionary methods namely Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Intelligence, Invasive Weed Optimization, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Music Based Harmony Search Algorithms are applied and find tuned to model and solve Job Shop Scheduling Problems. To compare about 250 Bench Mark instances have been used to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. The capabilities of each these algorithms in solving Job Shop Scheduling Problems are outlined.
Periodic Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem With Driver Scheduling
Mardiana Panggabean, Ellis; Mawengkang, Herman; Azis, Zainal; Filia Sari, Rina
2018-01-01
The paper develops a model for the optimal management of logistic delivery of a given commodity. The company has different type of vehicles with different capacity to deliver the commodity for customers. The problem is then called Periodic Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem (PHVRP). The goal is to schedule the deliveries according to feasible combinations of delivery days and to determine the scheduling of fleet and driver and routing policies of the vehicles. The objective is to minimize the sum of the costs of all routes over the planning horizon. We propose a combined approach of heuristic algorithm and exact method to solve the problem.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.
modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...
Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.
Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu
2012-01-01
Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.
Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry
In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...
Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool
Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-06-08
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers
Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Readiness for Solving Story Problems.
Dunlap, William F.
1982-01-01
Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.
Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R
2017-06-01
The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.
2013-01-01
, by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...
The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems
Johnston, Mark D.
1992-01-01
Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike
Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper
In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...
Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztina Barczi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alper DÖYEN
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The n-job, m-machine flow shop scheduling problem is one of the most general job scheduling problems. This study deals with the criteria of makespan minimization for the flow shop scheduling problem. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS are new intelligent problem solving techniques that are being used in scheduling problems. AIS can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. In this research, a computational method based on clonal selection principle and affinity maturation mechanisms of the immune response is used. The operation parameters of meta-heuristics have an important role on the quality of the solution. Thus, a generic systematic procedure which bases on a multi-step experimental design approach for determining the efficient system parameters for AIS is presented. Experimental results show that, the artificial immune system algorithm is more efficient than both the classical heuristic flow shop scheduling algorithms and simulated annealing.
Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors
Miller, Alan
1982-11-01
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
Algorithms for classical and modern scheduling problems
Ott, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Subject of this thesis is the design and the analysis of algorithms for scheduling problems. In the first part, we focus on energy-efficient scheduling, where one seeks to minimize the energy needed for processing certain jobs via dynamic adjustments of the processing speed (speed scaling). We consider variations and extensions of the standard model introduced by Yao, Demers, and Shenker in 1995 [79], including the addition of a sleep state, the avoidance of preemption, and variable speed lim...
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....
Solving complex problems a handbook
Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin
2014-01-01
When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications
Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.
2010-01-01
The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Solving computationally expensive engineering problems
Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer L. Docktor
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Three-M in Word Problem Solving
Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria
2018-01-01
We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
Molecular science solving global problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.
1995-01-01
From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public
Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems
Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling
2008-10-01
In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna
2010-08-01
The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.
Gaussian variable neighborhood search for the file transfer scheduling problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dražić Zorica
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents new modifications of Variable Neighborhood Search approach for solving the file transfer scheduling problem. To obtain better solutions in a small neighborhood of a current solution, we implement two new local search procedures. As Gaussian Variable Neighborhood Search showed promising results when solving continuous optimization problems, its implementation in solving the discrete file transfer scheduling problem is also presented. In order to apply this continuous optimization method to solve the discrete problem, mapping of uncountable set of feasible solutions into a finite set is performed. Both local search modifications gave better results for the large size instances, as well as better average performance for medium and large size instances. One local search modification achieved significant acceleration of the algorithm. The numerical experiments showed that the results obtained by Gaussian modifications are comparable with the results obtained by standard VNS based algorithms, developed for combinatorial optimization. In some cases Gaussian modifications gave even better results. [Projekat Ministarstava nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174010
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved
Approximating multi-objective scheduling problems
Dabia, S.; Talbi, El-Ghazali; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.
2013-01-01
In many practical situations, decisions are multi-objective by nature. In this paper, we propose a generic approach to deal with multi-objective scheduling problems (MOSPs). The aim is to determine the set of Pareto solutions that represent the interactions between the different objectives. Due to
Flexible job shop scheduling problem in manufacturing
Curralo, Ana; Pereira, Ana I.; Barbosa, José; Leitão, Paulo
2013-01-01
This paper addresses a real assembly cell: the AIP-PRIMECA cell at the Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, in France. This system can be viewed as a Flexible Job Shop, leading to the formulation of a Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP).
A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving
Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven
2008-01-01
An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…
Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"
Benson, Dave
2011-01-01
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Using Computer Simulations in Chemistry Problem Solving
Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios
2013-01-01
This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
A reflexive perspective in problem solving
Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita
2013-01-01
The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.
Bernardo, Allan B I
2002-05-01
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
New method for solving multidimensional scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melezhik, V.S.
1991-01-01
A new method is developed for solving the quantum mechanical problem of scattering of a particle with internal structure. The multichannel scattering problem is formulated as a system of nonlinear functional equations for the wave function and reaction matrix. The method is successfully tested for the scattering from a nonspherical potential well and a long-range nonspherical scatterer. The method is also applicable to solving the multidimensional Schroedinger equation with a discrete spectrum. As an example the known problem of a hydrogen atom in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed
Dreams and creative problem-solving.
Barrett, Deirdre
2017-10-01
Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems
Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Processes involved in solving mathematical problems
Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra
2018-04-01
This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.
Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veyis Turut
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.
Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro A. Castillo Castillo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor; Dohn, Anders
In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits to patients' homes, such that the overall service level is maximised. The problem is a generalisation of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. Required travel time between visits and time...... preference constraints. The algorithm is tested both on real-life problem instances and on generated test instances inspired by realistic settings. The use of the specialised branching scheme on real-life problems is novel. The visit clustering decreases run times significantly, and only gives a loss...... windows of the visits must be respected. The challenge when assigning visits to caretakers lies in the existence of soft preference constraints and in temporal dependencies between the start times of visits. We model the problem as a set partitioning problem with side constraints and develop an exact...
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
2017-01-01
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Problem Solving Model for Science Learning
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
2018-04-01
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Solving the SAT problem using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arunava Bhattacharjee
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.
What is physics problem solving competency?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2018-01-01
on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...
Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving
Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.
1973-01-01
Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…
Problem Solving in the Early Years
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2018-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
2016-01-01
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective
Tao, Terence
2006-01-01
Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.
Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.
McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.
1982-07-01
G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications
Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.
2008-01-01
Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving
Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.
2017-01-01
In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…
[Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].
Kriegelewicz, Olga
2006-01-01
This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF.MIREKU
10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).
Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bennis, Warren G
1958-01-01
The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...
A canned food scheduling problem with batch due date
Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Smith, Milton
2014-09-01
This article considers a canned food scheduling problem where jobs are grouped into several batches. Jobs can be sent to the next operation only when all the jobs in the same batch have finished their processing, i.e. jobs in a batch, have a common due date. This batch due date problem is quite common in canned food factories, but there is no efficient heuristic to solve the problem. The problem can be formulated as an identical parallel machine problem with batch due date to minimize the total tardiness. Since the problem is NP hard, two heuristics are proposed to find the near-optimal solution. Computational results comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of the two proposed heuristics with an existing heuristic are reported and discussed.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna eFedor
2015-08-01
Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.
Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving
Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.
2018-01-01
Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.
USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Öznur İŞÇİ
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.
Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems
Zaslavski, Alexander J
2018-01-01
This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...
Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems
Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.
2018-01-01
Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.
Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amirreza Nickkar
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.
impact of the curriculum reform on problem solving ability in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unesco
that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.
Learning via problem solving in mathematics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piet Human
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning
Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.
2017-09-01
This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.
Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition
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Glebkin V.V.,
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems
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Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.
Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.
1987-01-01
The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de
Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems
Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana
2018-03-01
A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
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Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN
2012-01-01
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Discrete bat algorithm for optimal problem of permutation flow shop scheduling.
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem.
Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
A literature review of expert problem solving using analogy
Mair, C; Martincova, M; Shepperd, MJ
2009-01-01
We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature review of empirical studies of expert problem solving of non-trivial pr...
Data completion problems solved as Nash games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habbal, A; Kallel, M
2012-01-01
The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.
A review of scheduling problem and resolution methods in flexible flow shop
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian-Soon Lee
2019-01-01
Full Text Available The Flexible flow shop (FFS is defined as a multi-stage flow shops with multiple parallel machines. FFS scheduling problem is a complex combinatorial problem which has been intensively studied in many real world industries. This review paper gives a comprehensive exploration review on the FFS scheduling problem and guides the reader by considering and understanding different environmental assumptions, system constraints and objective functions for future research works. The published papers are classified into two categories. First is the FFS system characteristics and constraints including the problem differences and limitation defined by different studies. Second, the scheduling performances evaluation are elaborated and categorized into time, job and multi related objectives. In addition, the resolution approaches that have been used to solve FFS scheduling problems are discussed. This paper gives a comprehensive guide for the reader with respect to future research work on the FFS scheduling problem.
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
Integrated Production-Distribution Scheduling Problem with Multiple Independent Manufacturers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong Hao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the nonstandard parts supply chain with a public service platform for machinery integration in China. The platform assigns orders placed by a machinery enterprise to multiple independent manufacturers who produce nonstandard parts and makes production schedule and batch delivery schedule for each manufacturer in a coordinate manner. Each manufacturer has only one plant with parallel machines and is located at a location far away from other manufacturers. Orders are first processed at the plants and then directly shipped from the plants to the enterprise in order to be finished before a given deadline. We study the above integrated production-distribution scheduling problem with multiple manufacturers to maximize a weight sum of the profit of each manufacturer under the constraints that all orders are finished before the deadline and the profit of each manufacturer is not negative. According to the optimal condition analysis, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model and use CPLEX to solve it.
Exploring mathematics problem-solving and proof
Grieser, Daniel
2018-01-01
Have you ever faced a mathematical problem and had no idea how to approach it? Or perhaps you had an idea but got stuck halfway through? This book guides you in developing your creativity, as it takes you on a voyage of discovery into mathematics. Readers will not only learn strategies for solving problems and logical reasoning, but they will also learn about the importance of proofs and various proof techniques. Other topics covered include recursion, mathematical induction, graphs, counting, elementary number theory, and the pigeonhole, extremal and invariance principles. Designed to help students make the transition from secondary school to university level, this book provides readers with a refreshing look at mathematics and deep insights into universal principles that are valuable far beyond the scope of this book. Aimed especially at undergraduate and secondary school students as well as teachers, this book will appeal to anyone interested in mathematics. Only basic secondary school mathematics is requi...
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry
Aleksandrov, D; Hille, P T; Polichtchouk, B; Kharlov, Y; Sukhorukov, M; Wang, D; Shabratova, G; Demanov, V; Wang, Y; Tveter, T; Faltys, M; Mao, Y; Larsen, D T; Zaporozhets, S; Sibiryak, I; Lovhoiden, G; Potcheptsov, T; Kucheryaev, Y; Basmanov, V; Mares, J; Yanovsky, V; Qvigstad, H; Zenin, A; Nikolaev, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Yuan, X; Cai, X; Redlich, K; Pavlinov, A; Roehrich, D; Manko, V; Deloff, A; Ma, K; Maruyama, Y; Dobrowolski, T; Shigaki, K; Nikulin, S; Wan, R; Mizoguchi, K; Petrov, V; Mueller, H; Ippolitov, M; Liu, L; Sadovsky, S; Stolpovsky, P; Kurashvili, P; Nomokonov, P; Xu, C; Torii, H; Il'kaev, R; Zhang, X; Peresunko, D; Soloviev, A; Vodopyanov, A; Sugitate, T; Ullaland, K; Huang, M; Zhou, D; Nystrand, J; Punin, V; Yin, Z; Batyunya, B; Karadzhev, K; Nazarov, G; Fil'chagin, S; Nazarenko, S; Buskenes, J I; Horaguchi, T; Djuvsland, O; Chuman, F; Senko, V; Alme, J; Wilk, G; Fehlker, D; Vinogradov, Y; Budilov, V; Iwasaki, T; Ilkiv, I; Budnikov, D; Vinogradov, A; Kazantsev, A; Bogolyubsky, M; Lindal, S; Polak, K; Skaali, B; Mamonov, A; Kuryakin, A; Wikne, J; Skjerdal, K
2010-01-01
We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the it decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN {[}1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasileios Kolonias
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
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Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Distributing Flexibility to Enhance Robustness in Task Scheduling Problems
Wilmer, D.; Klos, T.B.; Wilson, M.
2013-01-01
Temporal scheduling problems occur naturally in many diverse application domains such as manufacturing, transportation, health and education. A scheduling problem arises if we have a set of temporal events (or variables) and some constraints on those events, and we have to find a schedule, which is
Some extensions of the discrete lotsizing and scheduling problem
M. Salomon (Marc); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R. Kuik (Roelof); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)
1991-01-01
textabstractIn this paper the Discrete Lotsizing and Scheduling Problem (DLSP) is considered. DLSP relates to capacitated lotsizing as well as to job scheduling problems and is concerned with determining a feasible production schedule with minimal total costs in a single-stage manufacturing process.
Heuristics for no-wait flow shop scheduling problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kewal Krishan Nailwal
2016-09-01
Full Text Available No-wait flow shop scheduling refers to continuous flow of jobs through different machines. The job once started should have the continuous processing through the machines without wait. This situation occurs when there is a lack of an intermediate storage between the processing of jobs on two consecutive machines. The problem of no-wait with the objective of minimizing makespan in flow shop scheduling is NP-hard; therefore the heuristic algorithms are the key to solve the problem with optimal solution or to approach nearer to optimal solution in simple manner. The paper describes two heuristics, one constructive and an improvement heuristic algorithm obtained by modifying the constructive one for sequencing n-jobs through m-machines in a flow shop under no-wait constraint with the objective of minimizing makespan. The efficiency of the proposed heuristic algorithms is tested on 120 Taillard’s benchmark problems found in the literature against the NEH under no-wait and the MNEH heuristic for no-wait flow shop problem. The improvement heuristic outperforms all heuristics on the Taillard’s instances by improving the results of NEH by 27.85%, MNEH by 22.56% and that of the proposed constructive heuristic algorithm by 24.68%. To explain the computational process of the proposed algorithm, numerical illustrations are also given in the paper. Statistical tests of significance are done in order to draw the conclusions.
Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.
1996-12-01
We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…
The Place of Problem Solving in Contemporary Mathematics Curriculum Documents
Stacey, Kaye
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers' support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often…
Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rolando V. Obiedo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuen-Yih Chen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.
A Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization Zlgorithmfor Flexible Job-hop Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LIU Sheng--hui
2017-06-01
Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the Flexible job shop scheduling problem the minimum makespan as measures we proposed a distributed particle swarm optimization algorithm aiming to solve flexible job shop scheduling problem. The algorithm adopts the method of distributed ideas to solve problems and we are established for two multi agent particle swarm optimization model in this algorithm it can solve the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm when making decisions in real time according to the emergencies. Finally some benthmark problems were experimented and the results are compared with the traditional algorithm. Experimental results proved that the developed distributed PSO is enough effective and efficient to solve the FJSP and it also verified the reasonableness of the multi}gent particle swarm optimization model.
Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...
Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro
2011-09-01
Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
The Automatic Generation of Knowledge Spaces From Problem Solving Strategies
Milovanovic, Ivica; Jeuring, Johan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explore theoretical and practical aspects of the automatic generation of knowledge spaces from problem solving strategies. We show how the generated spaces can be used for adapting strategy-based problem solving learning environments (PSLEs).
Effects of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Instructional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
(iii). lack of organizational skill in solving quantitative problems. (Onwu, 1982, Onwu ... improved in terms of conceptual thinking, intuitive knowledge and insightful ... Problem Solving: This is a cognitive learning strategy which has to do with ...
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout their B.Sc. Course. ... there is a need for explicitly identifying important cognitive skills and strategies and ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' ...
de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees
2003-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongyi Shou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A multiagent evolutionary algorithm is proposed to solve the resource-constrained project portfolio selection and scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm has a dual level structure. In the upper level a set of agents make decisions to select appropriate project portfolios. Each agent selects its project portfolio independently. The neighborhood competition operator and self-learning operator are designed to improve the agent’s energy, that is, the portfolio profit. In the lower level the selected projects are scheduled simultaneously and completion times are computed to estimate the expected portfolio profit. A priority rule-based heuristic is used by each agent to solve the multiproject scheduling problem. A set of instances were generated systematically from the widely used Patterson set. Computational experiments confirmed that the proposed evolutionary algorithm is effective for the resource-constrained project portfolio selection and scheduling problem.
An empirical study on collective intelligence algorithms for video games problem-solving
González-Pardo, Antonio; Palero, Fernando; Camacho, David
2015-01-01
Computational intelligence (CI), such as evolutionary computation or swarm intelligence methods, is a set of bio-inspired algorithms that have been widely used to solve problems in areas like planning, scheduling or constraint satisfaction problems. Constrained satisfaction problems (CSP) have taken an important attention from the research community due to their applicability to real problems. Any CSP problem is usually modelled as a constrained graph where the edges represent a set of restri...
Decomposition principles applied to the dynamic production and work-force scheduling problem
Aardal, K.I.; Ari, A.
1987-01-01
One of the most important problems in the production and inventory planning field, is the scheduling of production and work force in a dynamic environment. Although this problem can be formulated as a linear program, it is often quite difficult to solve directly, due to its large scale. Instead, it
A duty-period-based formulation of the airline crew scheduling problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffman, K.
1994-12-31
We present a new formulation of the airline crew scheduling problem that explicitly considers the duty periods. We suggest an algorithm for solving the formulation by a column generation approach with branch-and-bound. Computational results are reported for a number of test problems.
Projective geometry solved problems and theory review
Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita
2016-01-01
This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...
Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chien Sing
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...
The Role of Expository Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving
Craig, Tracy S.
2016-01-01
Mathematical problem-solving is notoriously difficult to teach in a standard university mathematics classroom. The project on which this article reports aimed to investigate the effect of the writing of explanatory strategies in the context of mathematical problem solving on problem-solving behaviour. This article serves to describe the…
Using Digital Mapping Tool in Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Bai, Hua
2013-01-01
Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Systematic Problem Solving in Production: The NAX Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsdottir, Aslaug; Nygaard, Martin; Edwards, Kasper
2017-01-01
This paper outlines the NAX problem solving approach developed by a group of problem solving experts at a large Danish Producer of medical equipment. The company, “Medicmeter” is one of Denmark’s leading companies when it comes to lean and it has developed a strong problem solving culture. The ma...
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
Unit-time scheduling problems with time dependent resources
Tautenhahn, T.; Woeginger, G.
1997-01-01
We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling problems, where the operations consume certain amounts of renewable resources which are available in time-dependent quantities. In particular, we consider unit-time open shop problems and unit-time scheduling problems with identical parallel
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
Genetic algorithm parameters tuning for resource-constrained project scheduling problem
Tian, Xingke; Yuan, Shengrui
2018-04-01
Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) is a kind of important scheduling problem. To achieve a certain optimal goal such as the shortest duration, the smallest cost, the resource balance and so on, it is required to arrange the start and finish of all tasks under the condition of satisfying project timing constraints and resource constraints. In theory, the problem belongs to the NP-hard problem, and the model is abundant. Many combinatorial optimization problems are special cases of RCPSP, such as job shop scheduling, flow shop scheduling and so on. At present, the genetic algorithm (GA) has been used to deal with the classical RCPSP problem and achieved remarkable results. Vast scholars have also studied the improved genetic algorithm for the RCPSP problem, which makes it to solve the RCPSP problem more efficiently and accurately. However, for the selection of the main parameters of the genetic algorithm, there is no parameter optimization in these studies. Generally, we used the empirical method, but it cannot ensure to meet the optimal parameters. In this paper, the problem was carried out, which is the blind selection of parameters in the process of solving the RCPSP problem. We made sampling analysis, the establishment of proxy model and ultimately solved the optimal parameters.
Find the Dimensions: Students Solving a Tiling Problem
Obara, Samuel
2018-01-01
Students learn mathematics by solving problems. Mathematics textbooks are full of problems, and mathematics teachers use these problems to test students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper discusses how problem-solving skills can be fostered with a geometric tiling problem.
A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving
Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.
1989-03-01
This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.
Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?
Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.
2017-03-01
Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.
Solved Problems in Quantum and Statistical Mechanics
Cini, Michele; Sbragaglia, Mauro
2012-01-01
This work arises from our teaching this subject during many years. The vast majority of these exercises are the exams we gave to our students in this period. We carefully selected the subjects of the exercises to cover all the material which is most needed and which is treated in the most well known texts on these subjects. Each exercise is carefully solved in full details, explaining the theory behind the solution with particular care for those issues that, from our experience, are found most difficult from the average student. Indeed, several exercises are designed to throw light on aspects of the theory that, for one reason or another, are usually neglected with the result to make the students feel uneasy about them. In fact most students get acquainted just with the more common manipulations, which are illustrated by many examples in textbooks. Our exercises never require extensive calculations but tend to be somewhat unusual and force the solver to think about the problem starting from the ...
Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient
Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah
2018-01-01
Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.
Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media
Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.
Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.
2016-08-01
In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.
Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.
Von Kuster, Lee N.
1984-01-01
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos
2017-01-01
This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some...
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
A United Framework for Solving Multiagent Task Assignment Problems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cousin, Kevin
2007-01-01
.... The CMTS descriptor represents a wide range of classical and modern problems, such as job shop scheduling, the traveling salesman problem, vehicle routing, and cooperative multi-object tracking...
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Multiparents Crossover for Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Hasnah Moin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The job shop scheduling problem (JSSP is one of the well-known hard combinatorial scheduling problems. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm with multiparents crossover for JSSP. The multiparents crossover operator known as extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX is able to recombine more than two parents to generate a single new offspring distinguished from common crossover operators that recombine only two parents. This algorithm also embeds a schedule generation procedure to generate full-active schedule that satisfies precedence constraints in order to reduce the search space. Once a schedule is obtained, a neighborhood search is applied to exploit the search space for better solutions and to enhance the GA. This hybrid genetic algorithm is simulated on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared with other approaches to ensure the sustainability of this algorithm in solving JSSP. The results suggest that the implementation of multiparents crossover produces competitive results.
Problem solving therapy - use and effectiveness in general practice.
Pierce, David
2012-09-01
Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Mathematical models for a batch scheduling problem to minimize earliness and tardiness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basar Ogun
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Today’s manufacturing facilities are challenged by highly customized products and just in time manufacturing and delivery of these products. In this study, a batch scheduling problem is addressed to provide on-time completion of customer orders in the environment of lean manufacturing. The problem is to optimize partitioning of product components into batches and scheduling of the resulting batches where each customer order is received as a set of products made of various components. Design/methodology/approach: Three different mathematical models for minimization of total earliness and tardiness of customer orders are developed to provide on-time completion of customer orders and also, to avoid from inventory of final products. The first model is a non-linear integer programming model while the second is a linearized version of the first. Finally, to solve larger sized instances of the problem, an alternative linear integer model is presented. Findings: Computational study using a suit set of test instances showed that the alternative linear integer model is able to solve all test instances in varying sizes within quite shorter computer times comparing to the other two models. It was also showed that the alternative model can solve moderate sized real-world problems. Originality/value: The problem under study differentiates from existing batch scheduling problems in the literature since it includes new circumstances which may arise in real-world applications. This research, also, contributes the literature of batch scheduling problem by presenting new optimization models.
Ontology Design for Solving Computationally-Intensive Problems on Heterogeneous Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossam M. Faheem
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Viewing a computationally-intensive problem as a self-contained challenge with its own hardware, software and scheduling strategies is an approach that should be investigated. We might suggest assigning heterogeneous hardware architectures to solve a problem, while parallel computing paradigms may play an important role in writing efficient code to solve the problem; moreover, the scheduling strategies may be examined as a possible solution. Depending on the problem complexity, finding the best possible solution using an integrated infrastructure of hardware, software and scheduling strategy can be a complex job. Developing and using ontologies and reasoning techniques play a significant role in reducing the complexity of identifying the components of such integrated infrastructures. Undertaking reasoning and inferencing regarding the domain concepts can help to find the best possible solution through a combination of hardware, software and scheduling strategies. In this paper, we present an ontology and show how we can use it to solve computationally-intensive problems from various domains. As a potential use for the idea, we present examples from the bioinformatics domain. Validation by using problems from the Elastic Optical Network domain has demonstrated the flexibility of the suggested ontology and its suitability for use with any other computationally-intensive problem domain.
A model for solving the prescribed burn planning problem.
Rachmawati, Ramya; Ozlen, Melih; Reinke, Karin J; Hearne, John W
2015-01-01
The increasing frequency of destructive wildfires, with a consequent loss of life and property, has led to fire and land management agencies initiating extensive fuel management programs. This involves long-term planning of fuel reduction activities such as prescribed burning or mechanical clearing. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) model that determines when and where fuel reduction activities should take place. The model takes into account multiple vegetation types in the landscape, their tolerance to frequency of fire events, and keeps track of the age of each vegetation class in each treatment unit. The objective is to minimise fuel load over the planning horizon. The complexity of scheduling fuel reduction activities has led to the introduction of sophisticated mathematical optimisation methods. While these approaches can provide optimum solutions, they can be computationally expensive, particularly for fuel management planning which extends across the landscape and spans long term planning horizons. This raises the question of how much better do exact modelling approaches compare to simpler heuristic approaches in their solutions. To answer this question, the proposed model is run using an exact MIP (using commercial MIP solver) and two heuristic approaches that decompose the problem into multiple single-period sub problems. The Knapsack Problem (KP), which is the first heuristic approach, solves the single period problems, using an exact MIP approach. The second heuristic approach solves the single period sub problem using a greedy heuristic approach. The three methods are compared in term of model tractability, computational time and the objective values. The model was tested using randomised data from 711 treatment units in the Barwon-Otway district of Victoria, Australia. Solutions for the exact MIP could be obtained for up to a 15-year planning only using a standard implementation of CPLEX. Both heuristic approaches can solve
An Algorithm for the Weighted Earliness-Tardiness Unconstrained Project Scheduling Problem
Afshar Nadjafi, Behrouz; Shadrokh, Shahram
This research considers a project scheduling problem with the object of minimizing weighted earliness-tardiness penalty costs, taking into account a deadline for the project and precedence relations among the activities. An exact recursive method has been proposed for solving the basic form of this problem. We present a new depth-first branch and bound algorithm for extended form of the problem, which time value of money is taken into account by discounting the cash flows. The algorithm is extended with two bounding rules in order to reduce the size of the branch and bound tree. Finally, some test problems are solved and computational results are reported.
The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.
Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng
2018-02-01
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.
Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim
2018-01-01
While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics
Devine, Matthew T.
2013-01-01
In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.
Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S
2010-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability
Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.
2012-01-01
The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
Problem solving and Program design using the TI-92
Ir.ing. Ton Marée; ir Martijn van Dongen
2000-01-01
This textbook is intended for a basic course in problem solving and program design needed by scientists and engineers using the TI-92. The TI-92 is an extremely powerful problem solving tool that can help you manage complicated problems quickly. We assume no prior knowledge of computers or
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
2008-07-01
Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.
Using heuristics to solve the dedicated aircraft recovery problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Larsen, Jesper
2001-01-01
schedules through a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article describes an effective method to solve DARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of good quality in less than 10 seconds when...... applied to real flight schedules with disruptions from British Airways. The heuristic is able to consider delays, cancellations and reassignments simultaneously and balance the trade-off between these options. It is also demonstrated that different strategies can be applied to prioritize these options...
Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry
Huhtala, Nina
2013-01-01
The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...
Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
2017-01-01
Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...
The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML
Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob
2003-01-01
Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...
Flow-shop scheduling problem under uncertainties: Review and trends
Eliana María González-Neira; Jairo R. Montoya-Torres; David Barrera
2017-01-01
Among the different tasks in production logistics, job scheduling is one of the most important at the operational decision-making level to enable organizations to achieve competiveness. Scheduling consists in the allocation of limited resources to activities over time in order to achieve one or more optimization objectives. Flow-shop (FS) scheduling problems encompass the sequencing processes in environments in which the activities or operations are performed in a serial flow. This type of co...
Dynamic Scheduling for Cloud Reliability using Transportation Problem
P. Balasubramanie; S. K. Senthil Kumar
2012-01-01
Problem statement: Cloud is purely a dynamic environment and the existing task scheduling algorithms are mostly static and considered various parameters like time, cost, make span, speed, scalability, throughput, resource utilization, scheduling success rate and so on. Available scheduling algorithms are mostly heuristic in nature and more complex, time consuming and does not consider reliability and availability of the cloud computing environment. Therefore there is a need to implement a sch...
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving Dynamic Battlespace Movement Problems Using Dynamic Distributed Computer Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bradford, Robert
2000-01-01
.... The thesis designs a system using this architecture that invokes operations research network optimization algorithms to solve problems involving movement of people and equipment over dynamic road networks...
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Student’s scheme in solving mathematics problems
Setyaningsih, Nining; Juniati, Dwi; Suwarsono
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ scheme in solving mathematics problems. Scheme are data structures for representing the concepts stored in memory. In this study, we used it in solving mathematics problems, especially ratio and proportion topics. Scheme is related to problem solving that assumes that a system is developed in the human mind by acquiring a structure in which problem solving procedures are integrated with some concepts. The data were collected by interview and students’ written works. The results of this study revealed are students’ scheme in solving the problem of ratio and proportion as follows: (1) the content scheme, where students can describe the selected components of the problem according to their prior knowledge, (2) the formal scheme, where students can explain in construct a mental model based on components that have been selected from the problem and can use existing schemes to build planning steps, create something that will be used to solve problems and (3) the language scheme, where students can identify terms, or symbols of the components of the problem.Therefore, by using the different strategies to solve the problems, the students’ scheme in solving the ratio and proportion problems will also differ.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, M.
2014-01-01
problem. The methods are computationally evaluated on test instances arising from telecommunications with up to 500 jobs and 500 machines. Results show that solving the integrated job scheduling and constrained network routing problem to optimality is very difficult. The exact solution approach performs......This paper examines the problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job has a certain demand, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. A job cannot start before all its demands have...... arrived at the machine. Furthermore, two resource demand transmissions cannot use the same edge in the same time period. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number of geographically distributed machines work together for solving large problems. The machines are connected through...
A modified genetic algorithm with fuzzy roulette wheel selection for job-shop scheduling problems
Thammano, Arit; Teekeng, Wannaporn
2015-05-01
The job-shop scheduling problem is one of the most difficult production planning problems. Since it is in the NP-hard class, a recent trend in solving the job-shop scheduling problem is shifting towards the use of heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms. This paper proposes a novel metaheuristic algorithm, which is a modification of the genetic algorithm. This proposed algorithm introduces two new concepts to the standard genetic algorithm: (1) fuzzy roulette wheel selection and (2) the mutation operation with tabu list. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated and compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature. The experimental results on 53 JSSPs show that the proposed algorithm is very effective in solving the combinatorial optimization problems. It outperforms all state-of-the-art algorithms on all benchmark problems in terms of the ability to achieve the optimal solution and the computational time.
Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher
undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...
de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.
2012-01-01
The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…
Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective.
Flink, Ida K; Boersma, Katja; MacDonald, Shane; Linton, Steven J
2012-05-01
The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
The process model of problem solving difficulty
Pala, O.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.
2002-01-01
Groups and organizations, or in general multi-actor decision-making groups, frequently come across complex problems in which neither the problem definition nor the interrelations of parts that make up the problem are well defined. In these kinds of situations, members of a decision-making group
An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chandramouli Anandaraman
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Farhan Ausaf
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Process planning and scheduling are two important components of a manufacturing setup. It is important to integrate them to achieve better global optimality and improved system performance. To find optimal solutions for integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS problem, numerous algorithm-based approaches exist. Most of these approaches try to use existing meta-heuristic algorithms for solving the IPPS problem. Although these approaches have been shown to be effective in optimizing the IPPS problem, there is still room for improvement in terms of quality of solution and algorithm efficiency, especially for more complicated problems. Dispatching rules have been successfully utilized for solving complicated scheduling problems, but haven’t been considered extensively for the IPPS problem. This approach incorporates dispatching rules with the concept of prioritizing jobs, in an algorithm called priority-based heuristic algorithm (PBHA. PBHA tries to establish job and machine priority for selecting operations. Priority assignment and a set of dispatching rules are simultaneously used to generate both the process plans and schedules for all jobs and machines. The algorithm was tested for a series of benchmark problems. The proposed algorithm was able to achieve superior results for most complex problems presented in recent literature while utilizing lesser computational resources.
Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics
Koleci, Carolann
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.
Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C
2017-01-01
An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Leenen, L
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...
An approach to solve replacement problems under intuitionistic fuzzy nature
Balaganesan, M.; Ganesan, K.
2018-04-01
Due to impreciseness to solve the day to day problems the researchers use fuzzy sets in their discussions of the replacement problems. The aim of this paper is to solve the replacement theory problems with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. An effective methodology based on fuzziness index and location index is proposed to determine the optimal solution of the replacement problem. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed method.
Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving
Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2017-01-01
Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…
Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups
Sun, Jingjng; Anderson, Richard C.; Perry, Michelle; Lin, Tzu-Jung
2017-01-01
Social skills involved in leadership were examined in a problem-solving activity in which 252 Chinese 5th-graders worked in small groups on a spatial-reasoning puzzle. Results showed that students who engaged in peer-managed small-group discussions of stories prior to problem solving produced significantly better solutions and initiated…
Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies
Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya
2016-01-01
The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…
Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.
Lash, Fredrick B.
This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…
Schema Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Story Problems: Some Affective Components.
Marshall, Sandra P.
This report discusses the role of affect in cognitive processing. The importance of affect in processing mathematical information is described in the context of solving arithmetic story problems. Some ideas are offered about the way affective responses to mathematical problem solving situations influence the development, maintenance, and retrieval…
A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies
Shour, Robert
2009-01-01
A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.
Visual Attention Modulates Insight versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems
Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark
2012-01-01
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals,…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet
Teppaitoon, Wittaya
2016-01-01
This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Teachers Beliefs in Problem Solving in Rural Malaysian Secondary Schools
Palraj, Shalini; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah
2017-01-01
Problem solving is the highest level of cognitive skill. However, this skill seems to be lacking among secondary school students. Teachers' beliefs influence the instructional strategies used for students' learning. Hence, it is important to understand teachers' beliefs so as to improve the processes for teaching problem solving. The purpose of…
Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?
Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles
1987-01-01
Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)
The Relationship between Students' Problem Solving Frames and Epistemological Beliefs
Wampler, Wendi N.
2013-01-01
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. "Matter and Interactions"…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy
Erdemir, Naki
2009-01-01
In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.
Swan, Karen; Black, John B.
The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…
Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.
McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others
1987-01-01
Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…
Decision-Making Styles and Problem-Solving Appraisal.
Phillips, Susan D.; And Others
1984-01-01
Compared decision-making style and problem-solving appraisal in 243 undergraduates. Results suggested that individuals who employ rational decision-making strategies approach problematic situations, while individuals who endorse dependent decisional strategies approach problematic situations without confidence in their problem-solving abilities.…
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebraically using the concept of duality ...
Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.
Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.
2003-01-01
Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…
A problem solving model for regulatory policy making
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for
Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills
Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…
Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
2014-12-15
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.
Logan, Corina J
2016-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.
Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving
Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn
2017-08-01
This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.
Analysis of problem solving in terms of cognitive style
Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.
Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-11-01
The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.
ÖÇAL, Mehmet Fatih; ŞİMŞEK, Mertkan
2016-01-01
Problem solving skill is the core of mathematics education and its importance cannot be denied. This study specifically examined 56 freshmen pre-service mathematics teachers’ problem solving processes on a specific problem with the help of Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP). They were grouped into two-person teams to solve a problem called "the mirror problem". They were expected to solve it by means of GSP. According to their works on GSP and related reflections, there appeared two differe...
Discrete Optimization Model for Vehicle Routing Problem with Scheduling Side Cosntraints
Juliandri, Dedy; Mawengkang, Herman; Bu'ulolo, F.
2018-01-01
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important element of many logistic systems which involve routing and scheduling of vehicles from a depot to a set of customers node. This is a hard combinatorial optimization problem with the objective to find an optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve the demands a set of customers It is required that these vehicles return to the depot after serving customers’ demand. The problem incorporates time windows, fleet and driver scheduling, pick-up and delivery in the planning horizon. The goal is to determine the scheduling of fleet and driver and routing policies of the vehicles. The objective is to minimize the overall costs of all routes over the planning horizon. We model the problem as a linear mixed integer program. We develop a combination of heuristics and exact method for solving the model.
A new genetic algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Driss, Imen; Mouss, Kinza Nadia; Laggoun, Assia
2015-01-01
Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), which is proved to be NP-hard, is an extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problem. In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm (NGA) to solve FJSP to minimize makespan. This new algorithm uses a new chromosome representation and adopts different strategies for crossover and mutation. The proposed algorithm is validated on a series of benchmark data sets and tested on data from a drug manufacturing company. Experimental results prove that the NGA is more efficient and competitive than some other existing algorithms.
A new genetic algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Driss, Imen; Mouss, Kinza Nadia; Laggoun, Assia [University of Batna, Batna (Algeria)
2015-03-15
Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), which is proved to be NP-hard, is an extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problem. In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm (NGA) to solve FJSP to minimize makespan. This new algorithm uses a new chromosome representation and adopts different strategies for crossover and mutation. The proposed algorithm is validated on a series of benchmark data sets and tested on data from a drug manufacturing company. Experimental results prove that the NGA is more efficient and competitive than some other existing algorithms.
Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.
1983-01-01
The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.
ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adela NEMEŞ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.
Erdley-Kass, Shiloh D; Kass, Darrin S; Gellis, Zvi D; Bogner, Hillary A; Berger, Andrea; Perkins, Robert M
2017-08-24
To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment. In comparison to the control group, patients receiving PST intervention reported improved perceptions of mental health, were more likely to view their problems with a positive orientation and were more likely to use functional problem-solving methods. Furthermore, this group was also more likely to view their overall health, activity limits, social activities and ability to accomplish desired tasks with a more positive mindset. The results demonstrate that PST may positively impact mental health components of quality of life and problem-solving coping among older HD patients. PST is an effective, efficient, and easy to implement intervention that can benefit problem-solving abilities and mental health-related quality of life in older HD patients. In turn, this will help patients manage their daily living activities related to their medical condition and reduce daily stressors.
A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.
Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted
1994-01-01
Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)
Solved problems in dynamical systems and control
Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M
2016-01-01
This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shelly Wismath
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course. These changes can be posited to reveal three underlying threshold concepts in the evolution and establishment of students’ problem-solving skills.
Dimensional analysis and qualitative methods in problem solving: II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pescetti, D
2009-01-01
We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.
Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.
Volden, C M; Monnig, R
1993-01-01
A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.
Mills, Nadia Monrose
2015-01-01
The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
Flow-shop scheduling problem under uncertainties: Review and trends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana María González-Neira
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Among the different tasks in production logistics, job scheduling is one of the most important at the operational decision-making level to enable organizations to achieve competiveness. Scheduling consists in the allocation of limited resources to activities over time in order to achieve one or more optimization objectives. Flow-shop (FS scheduling problems encompass the sequencing processes in environments in which the activities or operations are performed in a serial flow. This type of configuration includes assembly lines and the chemical, electronic, food, and metallurgical industries, among others. Scheduling has been mostly investigated for the deterministic cases, in which all parameters are known in advance and do not vary over time. Nevertheless, in real-world situations, events are frequently subject to uncertainties that can affect the decision-making process. Thus, it is important to study scheduling and sequencing activities under uncertainties since they can cause infeasibilities and disturbances. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the FS scheduling problem under uncertainties and its role in production logistics and to draw up opportunities for further research. To this end, 100 papers about FS and flexible flow-shop scheduling problems published from 2001 to October 2016 were analyzed and classified. Trends in the reviewed literature are presented and finally some research opportunities in the field are proposed.
The Missing Curriculum in Physics Problem-Solving Education
Williams, Mobolaji
2018-05-01
Physics is often seen as an excellent introduction to science because it allows students to learn not only the laws governing the world around them, but also, through the problems students solve, a way of thinking which is conducive to solving problems outside of physics and even outside of science. In this article, we contest this latter idea and argue that in physics classes, students do not learn widely applicable problem-solving skills because physics education almost exclusively requires students to solve well-defined problems rather than the less-defined problems which better model problem solving outside of a formal class. Using personal, constructed, and the historical accounts of Schrödinger's development of the wave equation and Feynman's development of path integrals, we argue that what is missing in problem-solving education is practice in identifying gaps in knowledge and in framing these knowledge gaps as questions of the kind answerable using techniques students have learned. We discuss why these elements are typically not taught as part of the problem-solving curriculum and end with suggestions on how to incorporate these missing elements into physics classes.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Reachability problems in scheduling and planning
Eggermont, C.E.J.
2012-01-01
Reachability problems are fundamental in the context of many mathematical models and abstractions which describe various computational processes. Intuitively, when many objects move within a shared environment, objects may have to wait for others before moving and so slow down, or objects may even
Sociodrama: Group Creative Problem Solving in Action.
Riley, John F.
1990-01-01
Sociodrama is presented as a structured, yet flexible, method of encouraging the use of creative thinking to examine a difficult problem. An example illustrates the steps involved in putting sociodrama into action. Production techniques useful in sociodrama include the soliloquy, double, role reversal, magic shop, unity of opposites, and audience…
Writing Plays Using Creative Problem-Solving.
Raiser, Lynne; Hinson, Shirley
1995-01-01
This article describes a project which involved inner city elementary grade children with disabilities in writing and performing their own plays. A four-step playwriting process focuses on theme and character development, problem finding, and writing dialogue. The project has led to improved reading skills, attention, memory skills,…
Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table
An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems
Andrew Oyakhobo Odior
2012-01-01
Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills
Shelly Wismath; Doug Orr; Bruce MacKay
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course....
The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Astronomical Scheduling Problems
Johnston, Mark D.
1993-01-01
As artificial intelligence (AI) technology has moved from the research laboratory into more and more widespread use, one of the leading applications in astronomy has been to high-profile observation scheduling. The Spike scheduling system was developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) for the purpose of long-range scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spike has been in daily operational use at STScI since well before HST launch in April 1990. The system has also been adapted to schedule other missions: one of these missions (EUVE) is currently operational, while another (ASTRO-D) will be launched in February 1993. Some other future space astronomy missions (XTE, SWAS, and AXAF) are making tentative plans to use Spike. Spike has proven to be a powerful and flexible scheduling framework with applicability to a wide variety of problems.
Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm
Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan
Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.
Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
Interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems
Jayanti, W. E.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
2018-04-01
This research aims to describe interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems. Interference thinking in solving problems occurs when students have two concepts that interfere with each other’s concept. Construction of problem-solving can be traced using Piaget’s assimilation and accommodation framework, helping to know the students’ thinking structures in solving the problems. The method of this research was a qualitative method with case research strategy. The data in this research involving problem-solving result and transcripts of interviews about students’ errors in solving the problem. The results of this research focus only on the student who experience proactive interference, where student in solving a problem using old information to interfere with the ability to recall new information. The student who experience interference thinking in constructing their knowledge occurs when the students’ thinking structures in the assimilation and accommodation process are incomplete. However, after being given reflection to the student, then the students’ thinking process has reached equilibrium condition even though the result obtained remains wrong.
[Investigation of problem solving skills among psychiatric patients].
Póos, Judit; Annus, Rita; Perczel Forintos, Dóra
2008-01-01
According to our present knowledge depression and hopelessness play an important role in attempted suicide and the development of hopelessness seems to be closely associated with poor problem solving skills. In the present study we have used the internationally well-known MEPS (Means-Ends Problem Solving Test; a measure of social problem solving ability) in Hungary for the first time and combined with other tests. We intended to explore the cognitive risk factors that potentially play a role in the suicidal behavior in clinical population. In our study we compared a group of individuals who had attempted suicide to a nonsuicidal psychiatric control group and a normal control group (61 subjects in each group). Our results confirm the findings of others that psychiatric patients have difficulties in social problem solving compared to normal controls. Moreover, they generate less and poorer solutions. According to our data problem solving skills of the two clinical groups were similar. A strong positive correlation was found between poor problem solving skills, depression and hopelessness which may suggest that the development of problem solving skills could help to reduce negative mood.
Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoo Jia Sian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90
Solving the uncommon reactor core neutronics problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.
1980-01-01
The common reactor core neutronics problems have fundamental neutron space, energy spectrum solutions. Typically the most positive eigenvalue is associated with an all-positive flux for the pseudo-steady-state condition (k/sub eff/), or the critical state is to be effected by selective adjustment of some variable such as the fuel concentration. With sophistication in reactor analysis has come the demand for solutions of other, uncommon neutronics problems. Importance functionss are needed for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, as for ratios of intergral reaction rates such as the fuel conversion (breeding) ratio. The dominant higher harmonic solution is needed in stability analysis. Typically the desired neutronics solution must contain negative values to qualify as a higher harmonic or to satisfy a fixed source containing negative values. Both regular and adjoint solutions are of interest as are special integrals of the solutions to support analysis
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving
Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran
2015-11-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.
How to solve nuclear siting problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inhaber, H.
1992-01-01
In recent years, finding sites for nuclear facilities, both reactors and waste repositories, has become more of a problem. While all agree that the difficulties are more than technical, a technical solution is presently pursued. The reverse Dutch auction generates a solution to siting. It produces a volunteer community or state, at the same time retaining public safety and environmental standards. No coercion is required. Elements of the system already exist in a number of public policy areas. (orig.) [de
Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan
2015-01-01
Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...
Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…
A Study on the Enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for the Just-in-Time Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivashan Chetty
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Just-In-Time (JIT scheduling problem is an important subject of study. It essentially constitutes the problem of scheduling critical business resources in an attempt to optimize given business objectives. This problem is NP-Hard in nature, hence requiring efficient solution techniques. To solve the JIT scheduling problem presented in this study, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm, namely, the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA, is introduced. This is part of the initial study of the algorithm for scheduling problems. The current problem setting is the allocation of a large number of jobs required to be scheduled on multiple and identical machines which run in parallel. The due date of a job is characterized by a window frame of time, rather than a specific point in time. The performance of the eBPA is compared against Tabu Search (TS and Simulated Annealing (SA. SA and TS are well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms. The results show the potential of the eBPA as a metaheuristic algorithm.
1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics
Kamal, Ahmad A
2010-01-01
This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area of modern physics, specially particle and nuclear physics. Lecturers/tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas, tables and line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
ITOUGH2: Solving TOUGH inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
ITOUGH2 is a program that provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 code. While the main purpose of ITOUGH2 is to estimate two-phase hydraulic properties of calibrating a TOUGH2 model to laboratory or field data, the information obtained by evaluating parameter sensitivities can also be used to optimize the design of an experiment, and to analyze the uncertainty of model predictions. ITOUGH2 has been applied to a number of laboratory and field experiments on different scales. Three examples are discussed in this paper, demonstrating the code`s capability to support test design, data analysis, and model predictions for a variety of TOUGH problems.
Decision-making and problem-solving methods in automation technology
Hankins, W. W.; Pennington, J. E.; Barker, L. K.
1983-01-01
The state of the art in the automation of decision making and problem solving is reviewed. The information upon which the report is based was derived from literature searches, visits to university and government laboratories performing basic research in the area, and a 1980 Langley Research Center sponsored conferences on the subject. It is the contention of the authors that the technology in this area is being generated by research primarily in the three disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Control Theory, and Operations Research. Under the assumption that the state of the art in decision making and problem solving is reflected in the problems being solved, specific problems and methods of their solution are often discussed to elucidate particular aspects of the subject. Synopses of the following major topic areas comprise most of the report: (1) detection and recognition; (2) planning; and scheduling; (3) learning; (4) theorem proving; (5) distributed systems; (6) knowledge bases; (7) search; (8) heuristics; and (9) evolutionary programming.
Flexible ship loading problem with transfer vehicle assignment and scheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Çağatay; Christensen, Jonas; Pacino, Dario
2018-01-01
This paper presents the flexible containership loading problem for seaport container terminals. The integrated management of loading operations, planning of the transport vehicles to use and their scheduling is what we define as the Flexible Ship Loading Problem (FSLP). The flexibility comes from...
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayyub, Bilal M.
2004-01-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayyub, Bilal M
2004-09-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.
Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving.
Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Griego, Jacqueline; Schmid, Ute
2007-03-01
Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience with the source problem is used to guide the search for the target solution by applying the same solution technique rather than by transferring the complete solution. We report an empirical study using the path finding problems presented in Novick and Hmelo (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1296-1321, 1994) as material. We show that both transformational and derivational analogy are problem-solving strategies realized by human problem solvers. Which strategy is evoked in a given problem-solving context depends on the constraints guiding object-to-object mapping between source and target problem. Specifically, if constraints facilitating mapping are available, subjects are more likely to employ a transformational strategy, otherwise they are more likely to use a derivational strategy.
Ancel, Gulsum
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach problem-solving skills. The present study, as a first study in Turkey, may provide valuable insight for nurse academicians employed at üniversities. Purpose of ...
An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Single-Machine Inverse Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhui Mou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of the scheduling is to arrange operations on suitable machines with optimal sequence for corresponding objectives. In order to meet market requirements, scheduling systems must own enough flexibility against uncertain events. These events can change production status or processing parameters, even causing the original schedule to no longer be optimal or even to be infeasible. Traditional scheduling strategies, however, cannot cope with these cases. Therefore, a new idea of scheduling called inverse scheduling has been proposed. In this paper, the inverse scheduling with weighted completion time (SMISP is considered in a single-machine shop environment. In this paper, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA with a local searching strategy is proposed. To improve the performance of IGA, efficient encoding scheme, fitness evaluation mechanism, feasible initialization methods, and a local search procedure have been employed in the paper. Because of the local improving method, the proposed IGA can balance its exploration ability and exploitation ability. We adopt 27 instances to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results illustrated that the proposed algorithm can generate satisfactory solutions. This approach also has been applied to solve the scheduling problem in the real Chinese shipyard and can bring some benefits.
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information
Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both...
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…
Information theory and coding solved problems
Ivaniš, Predrag
2017-01-01
This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...
Solving the decompactification problem in string theory
Kiritsis, Elias B; Petropoulos, P M; Rizos, J
1996-01-01
We investigate heterotic ground states in four dimensions in which N=4 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken to N=2. N=4 supersymmetry is restored at a decompactification limit corresponding to m_{3/2}\\to 0. We calculate the full moduli dependent threshold corrections and confirm that they are supressed in the decompactification limit m_{3/2}\\to 0 as expected from the restauration of N=4 supersymmetry. This should be contrasted with the behavior of the standard N=2 groundstates where the coupling blow up linearly with the volume of the decompactifying manifold. This mechanism provides a solution to the decompactification problem for the gauge coupling constants. We also discuss how the mechanism can be implemented in ground states with lower supersymmetry.
Neurogenetic Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Engineering Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jalali Varnamkhasti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Diversity of the population in a genetic algorithm plays an important role in impeding premature convergence. This paper proposes an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system genetic algorithm based on sexual selection. In this technique, for choosing the female chromosome during sexual selection, a bilinear allocation lifetime approach is used to label the chromosomes based on their fitness value which will then be used to characterize the diversity of the population. The motivation of this algorithm is to maintain the population diversity throughout the search procedure. To promote diversity, the proposed algorithm combines the concept of gender and age of individuals and the fuzzy logic during the selection of parents. In order to appraise the performance of the techniques used in this study, one of the chemistry problems and some nonlinear functions available in literature is used.
Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Ninck
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.
Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.
Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F
2002-05-01
This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.
Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.
2009-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
A Problem-Solving Model for Literacy Coaching Practice
Toll, Cathy A.
2017-01-01
Literacy coaches are more effective when they have a clear plan for their collaborations with teachers. This article provides details of such a plan, which involves identifying a problem, understanding the problem, deciding what to do differently, and trying something different. For each phase of the problem-solving model, there are key tasks for…
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.
2010-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin
2009-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Solving potential field problems in composite media with complicated geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, H.
1977-01-01
Recently, Yeh developed a method of solving potential field problems for complicated geometries and theorems of piecewise continuous eigenfunctions which can be used to solve boundary-value problems in composite media by the separation of variables. This paper shows that by a proper arrangement of matching conditions and boundary conditions, this method and these theorems can be applied simultaneously so that the problems in composite media with complicated geometries can be solved. To illustrate this, a heat-conduction problem in a composite cylinder with an abrupt change in cross-section area is solved. Also presented in this paper are the method of handling the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions for composite media and the extension of one of the above-mentioned theorems to include imperfect contact on material boundaries
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NICO
Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' difficulties with cognitive skills. 1. Introduction ... storage of information in memory, and the retrieval and use of ..... 18 P. Eggen and D. Kauchak, Educational Psychology, Windows on.
Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Ranjbar
2013-01-01
Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.
Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro
Yamin, Mohammad
2016-01-01
This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
Examining Multiscale Movement Coordination in Collaborative Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Steffensen, Sune Vork
2017-01-01
During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should, at least on some scales, play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration outcomes. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer...
The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.
Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan
2016-01-01
Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.
Spreadsheet-Enhanced Problem Solving in Context as Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei Abramovich
2003-07-01
development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001
Making Sure you Solve the Right Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Cartledge
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Macleod et al. have given us an admirable case study and argued that "... there is an urgent need to create stronger and more transparent, integrated, and adaptive linkages between opening-up and closing down mechanisms at the science-policy interface." Two questions must be addressed: what sorts of managerial reform would be required to achieve this? and Is this likely to happen? A natural subsidiarity makes large institutions more inclined to "closing down" (specification actions and smaller ones more inclined to open problems up. The method of boundary judgments developed in integrative research could be applied to the science-policy interface but there are political and sociological reasons why this is unlikely to happen. Receptiveness to opening up actions is a prerequisite of innovation. Innovations are suppressed in times of geopolitical and economic stress. The result is often an ill-structured, co-evolutionary dynamic in which the actions of one species or population reduce the fitness of another.
A Heuristic Approach to Solve Air Taxi Scheduling Problem
Chavan, Harish Dnyandeo
2003-01-01
All passengers travel at the hour most convenient to them. But it is not always possible to find a flight at the right time to fly them to their destination. In the case where service in any one time period is insufficient to meet air travel demanded, it may be expected that some unfilled demand passengers will either delay their flight or will advance it, thus adding to the effective demand of the adjoining time periods.The obvious alternate means of travel is a rental car. It takes a lot mo...
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Baesler
2008-12-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo introduce una variante de la metaheurística simulated annealing, para la resolución de problemas de optimización multiobjetivo. Este enfoque se demonina MultiObjective Simulated Annealing with Random Trajectory Search, MOSARTS. Esta técnica agrega al algoritmo Simulated Annealing elementos de memoria de corto y largo plazo para realizar una búsqueda que permita balancear el esfuerzo entre todos los objetivos involucrados en el problema. Los resultados obtenidos se compararon con otras tres metodologías en un problema real de programación de máquinas paralelas, compuesto por 24 trabajos y 2 máquinas idénticas. Este problema corresponde a un caso de estudio real de la industria regional del aserrío. En los experimentos realizados, MOSARTS se comportó de mejor manera que el resto de la herramientas de comparación, encontrando mejores soluciones en términos de dominancia y dispersión.This paper introduces a variant of the metaheuristic simulated annealing, oriented to solve multiobjective optimization problems. This technique is called MultiObjective Simulated Annealing with Random Trajectory Search (MOSARTS. This technique incorporates short an long term memory concepts to Simulated Annealing in order to balance the search effort among all the objectives involved in the problem. The algorithm was tested against three different techniques on a real life parallel machine scheduling problem, composed of 24 jobs and two identical machines. This problem represents a real life case study of the local sawmill industry. The results showed that MOSARTS behaved much better than the other methods utilized, because found better solutions in terms of dominance and frontier dispersion.
Directed Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Nurse Rostering Problem.
Rajeswari, M; Amudhavel, J; Pothula, Sujatha; Dhavachelvan, P
2017-01-01
The Nurse Rostering Problem is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization, scheduling problem for assigning a set of nurses to shifts per day by considering both hard and soft constraints. A novel metaheuristic technique is required for solving Nurse Rostering Problem (NRP). This work proposes a metaheuristic technique called Directed Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm using the Modified Nelder-Mead Method for solving the NRP. To solve the NRP, the authors used a multiobjective mathematical programming model and proposed a methodology for the adaptation of a Multiobjective Directed Bee Colony Optimization (MODBCO). MODBCO is used successfully for solving the multiobjective problem of optimizing the scheduling problems. This MODBCO is an integration of deterministic local search, multiagent particle system environment, and honey bee decision-making process. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using the standard dataset INRC2010, and it reflects many real-world cases which vary in size and complexity. The experimental analysis uses statistical tools to show the uniqueness of the algorithm on assessment criteria.
Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-08-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Omar Hernández
2011-12-01
Full Text Available La programación del tamaño del lote económico consiste en determinar la secuencia y la cantidad a fabricar de N productos en un equipo o máquina, la cual tiene una capacidad limitada. Se trata de un problema NP-duro y las propuestas de solución son diversas. En esta investigación se trabaja con el enfoque del ciclo básico planteado por Bomberger, para el cual existen varias propuestas, dentro de las cuales se pueden encontrar hasta el momento sólo algoritmos genéticos en lo que se refiere a la implementación de técnicas metaheurísticas para resolver el problema. En este trabajo se resuelve el problema de muestra de Bomberger mediante la metaheurística recocido simulado; las aportaciones de esta investigación consisten en la forma de obtener un espacio de búsqueda más restringido de las variables, y una estrategia para controlar la exploración del espacio de soluciones que realiza el algoritmo, de tal manera que se realice una búsqueda eficiente. Dado que es una primera implementación de recocido simulado se experimenta con varias combinaciones de parámetros. El algoritmo obtiene los mismos costos en casi todas las pruebas realizadas; sin embargo, en las pruebas donde la relación es alta, el algoritmo se desempeña mejor, mejorando la solución reportada anteriormente en algunos de los experimentos.The problem considered is that of scheduling the production of several different items over the same machine with restricted capacity and on a repetitive basis. The problem is NP-hard and there exist several methods for the problem. In this research we worked with Bomberger's basic cycle approach, for which there are reported several solution proposals, among which are found so far only genetic algorithms in regard to the implementation of metaheuristic techniques to solve the problem. We solved Bomberger's classical example problem, applying simulated annealing metaheuristic. The contributions of this research consist on how to
The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerny, V.
1998-01-01
The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)
ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework
2012-07-13
Gamification Summit 2012 Mensa Colloquium 2012.2: Social and Video Games Seattle Science Festival TED Salon Vancouver : http...From - To) 6/1/2012 – 6/30/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b...Popović ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework (Task 1 Month 4) Progress, Status and Management Report Monthly Progress
The art and science of participative problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Comparison of mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils
Wasilewská, Eliška
2016-01-01
The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pryor, R.J.
1990-01-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe
Problem solving teaching practices: Observer and teacher's view
Felmer , Patricio; Perdomo-Díaz , Josefa; Giaconi , Valentina; Espinoza , Carmen ,
2015-01-01
International audience; In this article, we report on an exploratory study on teaching practices related to problem solving of a group of 29 novel secondary mathematics teachers. For this purpose, two independent instruments were designed, the first one is based on lesson observations, and the second one is a questionnaire answered by teachers about their teaching practices while working on non-routine problem solving with their students. For each instrument, we perform a statistical analysis...
Emotion Oriented Programming: Computational Abstractions for AI Problem Solving
Darty , Kevin; Sabouret , Nicolas
2012-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we present a programming paradigm for AI problem solving based on computational concepts drawn from Affective Computing. It is believed that emotions participate in human adaptability and reactivity, in behaviour selection and in complex and dynamic environments. We propose to define a mechanism inspired from this observation for general AI problem solving. To this purpose, we synthesize emotions as programming abstractions that represent the perception ...
DESIGN AND EXAMINATION OF ALGORITHMS FOR SOLVING THE KNAPSACK PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kantsedal
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The use of methods of branches and boundaries as well as the methods of dynamic programming at solving the problem of «knapsack» is grounded. The main concepts are expounded. The methods and algorithms development for solving the above specified problem are described. Recommendations on practical application of constructed algorithms based on their experimental investigation and carrying out charactheristics comparison are presented.
Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-01-01
Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...
Solving the flexible job shop problem by hybrid metaheuristics-based multiagent model
Nouri, Houssem Eddine; Belkahla Driss, Olfa; Ghédira, Khaled
2018-03-01
The flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is a generalization of the classical job shop scheduling problem that allows to process operations on one machine out of a set of alternative machines. The FJSP is an NP-hard problem consisting of two sub-problems, which are the assignment and the scheduling problems. In this paper, we propose how to solve the FJSP by hybrid metaheuristics-based clustered holonic multiagent model. First, a neighborhood-based genetic algorithm (NGA) is applied by a scheduler agent for a global exploration of the search space. Second, a local search technique is used by a set of cluster agents to guide the research in promising regions of the search space and to improve the quality of the NGA final population. The efficiency of our approach is explained by the flexible selection of the promising parts of the search space by the clustering operator after the genetic algorithm process, and by applying the intensification technique of the tabu search allowing to restart the search from a set of elite solutions to attain new dominant scheduling solutions. Computational results are presented using four sets of well-known benchmark literature instances. New upper bounds are found, showing the effectiveness of the presented approach.
Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu
2015-12-01
For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.
A Hybrid Differential Evolution and Tree Search Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The job shop scheduling problem (JSSP is a notoriously difficult problem in combinatorial optimization. In terms of the objective function, most existing research has been focused on the makespan criterion. However, in contemporary manufacturing systems, due-date-related performances are more important because they are essential for maintaining a high service reputation. Therefore, in this study we aim at minimizing the total weighted tardiness in JSSP. Considering the high complexity, a hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm is proposed for the problem. To enhance the overall search efficiency, a neighborhood property of the problem is discovered, and then a tree search procedure is designed and embedded into the DE framework. According to the extensive computational experiments, the proposed approach is efficient in solving the job shop scheduling problem with total weighted tardiness objective.
Recent Research Trends in Genetic Algorithm Based Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Kamal Amjad
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP. The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA have gained the most popularity. Keeping in view this aspect, this article presents a comprehensive literature review of the FJSSPs solved using the GA. The survey is further extended by the inclusion of the hybrid GA (hGA techniques used in the solution of the problem. This review will give readers an insight into use of certain parameters in their future research along with future research directions.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James
2009-11-01
Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts.
Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waller, Edward
2008-01-01
Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto
A problem-solving routine for improving hospital operations.
Ghosh, Manimay; Sobek Ii, Durward K
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically why a systematic problem-solving routine can play an important role in the process improvement efforts of hospitals. Data on 18 process improvement cases were collected through semi-structured interviews, reports and other documents, and artifacts associated with the cases. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Adherence to all the steps of the problem-solving routine correlated to greater degrees of improvement across the sample. Analysis resulted in two models. The first partially explains why hospital workers tended to enact short-term solutions when faced with process-related problems; and tended not seek longer-term solutions that prevent problems from recurring. The second model highlights a set of self-reinforcing behaviors that are more likely to address problem recurrence and result in sustained process improvement. The study was conducted in one hospital setting. Hospital managers can improve patient care and increase operational efficiency by adopting and diffusing problem-solving routines that embody three key characteristics. This paper offers new insights on why caregivers adopt short-term approaches to problem solving. Three characteristics of an effective problem-solving routine in a healthcare setting are proposed.
Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen
In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta-heuristic...
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
2016-01-01
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalçın KANBAY
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and
Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study
Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.
2018-01-01
Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of
[Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
1984-01-01
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Psychosocial dimensions of solving an indoor air problem.
Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari
2002-03-01
This investigation focuses on the psychological and social dimensions of managing and solving indoor air problems. The data were collected in nine workplaces by interviews (n = 85) and questionnaires (n = 375). Indoor air problems in office environments have traditionally utilized industrial hygiene or technical expertise. However, indoor air problems at workplaces are often more complex issues to solve. Technical questions are inter-related with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the solving process are also put to the test. In the present study, the interviewees were very critical of the process of solving the indoor air problem. The responsibility for coordinating the problem-managing process was generally considered vague, as were the roles and functions of the various parties. Communication problems occurred and rumors about the indoor air problem circulated widely. Conflicts were common, complicating the process in several ways. The research focused on examining different ways of managing and resolving an indoor air problem. In addition, reference material on the causal factors of the indoor air problem was also acquired. The study supported the hypothesis that psychosocial factors play a significant role in indoor air problems.
Greedy and metaheuristics for the offline scheduling problem in grid computing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette
In grid computing a number of geographically distributed resources connected through a wide area network, are utilized as one computations unit. The NP-hard offline scheduling problem in grid computing consists of assigning jobs to resources in advance. In this paper, five greedy heuristics and two....... All heuristics solve instances with up to 2000 jobs and 1000 resources, thus the results are useful both with respect to running times and to solution values....
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
Problem-solving ability and repetition of deliberate self-harm: a multicentre study.
McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Arensman, Ella; Bille-Brahe, Unni; De Leo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Hawton, Keith; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kelleher, Margaret; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Michel, Konrad; Salander-Renberg, Ellinor; Schmidtke, Armin; Van Heeringen, Kees; Wasserman, Danuta
2006-01-01
While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated with repeated DSH. As part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, 836 medically treated DSH patients (59% repeaters) from 12 European regions were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS II) approximately 1 year after their index episode. The Utrecht Coping List (UCL) assessed habitual responses to problems. Factor analysis identified five dimensions--Active Handling, Passive-Avoidance, Problem Sharing, Palliative Reactions and Negative Expression. Passive-Avoidance--characterized by a pre-occupation with problems, feeling unable to do anything, worrying about the past and taking a gloomy view of the situation, a greater likelihood of giving in so as to avoid difficult situations, the tendency to resign oneself to the situation, and to try to avoid problems--was the problem-solving dimension most strongly associated with repetition, although this association was attenuated by self-esteem. The outcomes of the study indicate that treatments for DSH patients with repeated episodes should include problem-solving interventions. The observed passivity and avoidance of problems (coupled with low self-esteem) associated with repetition suggests that intensive therapeutic input and follow-up are required for those with repeated DSH.
Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon
name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...
Problem solving: How can we help students overcome cognitive difficulties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liberato Cardellini
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The traditional approach to teach problem solving usually consists in showing students the solutions of some example-problems and then in asking students to practice individually on solving a certain number of related problems. This approach does not ensure that students learn to solve problems and above all to think about the solution process in a consistent manner. Topics such as atoms, molecules, and the mole concept are fundamental in chemistry and instructors may think that, for our students, should be easy to learn these concepts and to use them in solving problems, but it is not always so. If teachers do not put emphasis on the logical process during solving problems, students are at risk to become more proficient at applying the formulas rather than to reason. This disappointing result is clear from the outcomes of questionnaires meant to measure the ability to calculate the mass of a sample from the number of atoms and vice versa. A suggestion from the cognitive load theory has proved a useful way to improve students’ skills for this type of problems: the use of worked out examples. The repetition after two weeks of the Friedel-Maloney test after the use of worked examples shows that students' skills significantly improve. Successful students in all questions jumped from 2 to 64%.
Development and validation of the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire.
Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Jaser, Sarah S; Rothman, Russell L; Russell, William E; Pittel, Eric J; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A
2014-10-01
Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13-17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Empirical elimination of items using principal components analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 56% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, pproblem solving in youth with T1D and is associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Izah Anuar, Nurul; Saptari, Adi
2016-02-01
This paper addresses the types of particle representation (encoding) procedures in a population-based stochastic optimization technique in solving scheduling problems known in the job-shop manufacturing environment. It intends to evaluate and compare the performance of different particle representation procedures in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the case of solving Job-shop Scheduling Problems (JSP). Particle representation procedures refer to the mapping between the particle position in PSO and the scheduling solution in JSP. It is an important step to be carried out so that each particle in PSO can represent a schedule in JSP. Three procedures such as Operation and Particle Position Sequence (OPPS), random keys representation and random-key encoding scheme are used in this study. These procedures have been tested on FT06 and FT10 benchmark problems available in the OR-Library, where the objective function is to minimize the makespan by the use of MATLAB software. Based on the experimental results, it is discovered that OPPS gives the best performance in solving both benchmark problems. The contribution of this paper is the fact that it demonstrates to the practitioners involved in complex scheduling problems that different particle representation procedures can have significant effects on the performance of PSO in solving JSP.
MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcia de Fatima Morais
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods, (v develop other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.
A hybrid genetic algorithm for the distributed permutation flowshop scheduling problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Gao
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Distributed Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problem (DPFSP is a newly proposed scheduling problem, which is a generalization of classical permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The DPFSP is NP-hard in general. It is in the early stages of studies on algorithms for solving this problem. In this paper, we propose a GA-based algorithm, denoted by GA_LS, for solving this problem with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. In the proposed GA_LS, crossover and mutation operators are designed to make it suitable for the representation of DPFSP solutions, where the set of partial job sequences is employed. Furthermore, GA_LS utilizes an efficient local search method to explore neighboring solutions. The local search method uses three proposed rules that move jobs within a factory or between two factories. Intensive experiments on the benchmark instances, extended from Taillard instances, are carried out. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than all the existing algorithms for the DPFSP, since it obtains better relative percentage deviation and differences of the results are also statistically significant. It is also seen that best-known solutions for most instances are updated by our algorithm. Moreover, we also show the efficiency of the GA_LS by comparing with similar genetic algorithms with the existing local search methods.
Personality and problem-solving in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis).
Lermite, Françoise; Peneaux, Chloé; Griffin, Andrea S
2017-01-01
Animals show consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and/or contexts. Recently, it has been suggested that proactive personality types might also exhibit fast cognitive styles. The speed with which individuals sample environmental cues is one way in which correlations between personality and cognition might arise. Here, we measured a collection of behavioural traits (competitiveness, neophobia, neophilia, task-directed motivation and exploration) in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) and measured their relationship with problem solving. We predicted that fast solving mynas would interact with (i.e. sample) the problem solving task at higher rates, but also be more competitive, less neophobic, more neophilic, and more exploratory. Mynas that were faster to solve a novel foraging problem were no more competitive around food and no more inclined to take risks. Unexpectedly, these fast-solving mynas had higher rates of interactions with the task, but also displayed lower levels of exploration. It is possible that a negative relation between problem solving and spatial exploration arose as a consequence of how inter-individual variation in exploration was quantified. We discuss the need for greater consensus on how to measure exploratory behaviour before we can advance our understanding of relationships between cognition and personality more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On the Integrated Job Scheduling and Constrained Network Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette
This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resources, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. Furthermore, two resource demand...
Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj
2011-01-01
This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...
Teaching science problem solving: an overview of experimental work
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-01-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the
Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study
Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent
2016-01-01
Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…
The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving
Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…
Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller
2015-01-01
We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...
Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?
Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing
2017-01-01
Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…
A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science
Parham, Jennifer R.
2009-01-01
According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…
Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...
Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes