DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2012-01-01
This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...
Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nannestad, Peter
2007-01-01
A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve colle...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avni YILDIZ
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Geometric constructions have already been of interest to mathematicians. However, studies on geometric construction are not adequate in the relevant literature. Moreover, these studies generally focus on how secondary school gifted students solve non-routine mathematical problems. The present study aims to examine the geometric construction abilities of ninth-grade (15 years old gifted students in solving real-world geometry problems; thus a case study was conducted. Six gifted students participated in the study. The data consisted of voice records, solutions, and models made by the students on the GeoGebra screen. Results indicate that gifted students use their previous knowledge effectively during the process of geometric construction. They modeled the situations available in the problems through using mathematical concepts and the software in coordination. Therefore, it is evident that gifted students think more creatively while solving problems using GeoGebra.
Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim
2015-03-01
Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.
Using Video Prompting to Teach Mathematical Problem Solving of Real-World Video-Simulation Problems
Saunders, Alicia F.; Spooner, Fred; Ley Davis, Luann
2018-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is necessary in many facets of everyday life, yet little research exists on how to teach students with more severe disabilities higher order mathematics like problem solving. Using a multiple probe across participants design, three middle school students with moderate intellectual disability (ID) were taught to solve…
Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers
Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens
2018-03-01
The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.
Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems
Akcay, Hakan
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.
Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Mogens Allan; Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria
2018-01-01
The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmenta...
Tuominen, Mark
2013-03-01
Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.
Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Carlos Olabe
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.
Root, Jenny Rose
2016-01-01
The current study evaluated the effects of modified schema-based instruction (SBI) on the algebra problem solving skills of three middle school students with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability (ASD/ID). Participants learned to solve two types of group word problems: missing-whole and missing-part. The themes of the word…
Bringing real-world problems into the classroom
Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.
2012-01-01
Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense
Stress and burnout in anaesthesia: a real world problem?
Rama-Maceiras, Pablo; Jokinen, Johanna; Kranke, Peter
2015-04-01
Stress and burnout have arisen as relevant problems to the healthcare workers and the health systems themselves. As anaesthesiologists work in stressful areas of the hospitals, we are exposed to these problems. In this review, we summarize recent studies regarding stress and burnout, exploring possible solutions. Almost 50% of anaesthesiologists scored positive for some of the burnout domains in different surveys, with one-third reporting high levels. The management of this problem not only needs an institutional but also an individual approach. Some recent randomized clinical trials and longitudinal studies suggest that there is some benefit of using several techniques to control stress, although benefits are still modest and most of the studies are based on transversal surveys and self-reported questionnaires. There is a lack of definitive evidence to guide the management of stress and burnout in medical professions in general and in anaesthesiology in particular. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to better determine ways of action. In the meantime, creating a positive work climate and institutional support as well as promoting control over one's job and the autonomy of employees are the most recommended strategies. Workers should also learn how to cope with stressors and practice personal strategies of wellness and resilience to fight against burnout.
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems ... because 1.3 billion people cannot read English, and only 163 million people (a fraction ... childhood obesity in urban areas, caused by increases in junk food and lack of exercise.
Rediscovering Learning: Acquiring Expertise in Real World Problem Solving Tasks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gott, Sherrie
1998-01-01
The importance of continuous learning in high-tech work settings is being rediscovered as industry and the military services react to external forces such as increasingly complex and rapidly changing...
Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Cherinka
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.
Parker, Tom
2012-01-01
As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…
The Relationship between Students' Problem Solving Frames and Epistemological Beliefs
Wampler, Wendi N.
2013-01-01
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. "Matter and Interactions"…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.
Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.
1986-01-01
Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)
Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search
Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.
1999-01-01
A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Teaching Creative Problem Solving.
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
1992-01-01
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
An ontological framework for model-based problem-solving
Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.
2012-01-01
Multidisciplinary projects to solve real world problems of increasing complexity are more and more plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds and bad modelling practices. To tackle these difficulties, a body of knowledge on problems, on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...
Solving Environmental Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
2017-01-01
for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework
Roesler, Rebecca A.
2016-01-01
Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…
Introspection in Problem Solving
Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell
2013-01-01
Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…
Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia
2017-01-01
Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…
Preparing Hispanic Students for the Real World: Benefits of Problem-Based Service Learning Projects
West, Jean Jaymes; Simmons, Donna
2012-01-01
Student learning is enriched by problem-based service learning (PBSL) projects. For Hispanic students, the learning that takes place in PBSL projects may be even more significant, although the research published in academic journals about client-based projects for Hispanic students is limited. This article begins to advance an understanding of how…
Solved problems in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piron, D.L.
2004-01-01
This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
Tanner, John Sears
1981-01-01
Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Numerical simulation of real-world flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)
2015-10-15
Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)
Solving Math and Science Problems in the Real World with a Computational Mind
Olabe, Juan Carlos; Basogain, Xabier; Olabe, Miguel Ángel; Maíz, Inmaculada; Castaño, Carlos
2014-01-01
This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n = 242) was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in…
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Problem Solving on a Monorail.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others
1994-01-01
This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)
2017-03-01
Borrajo and Raquel Fuentetaja, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on the meta-level search architecture for finding good combinations of representations and...heuristics on a problem-by-problem basis. The other is with Carlos Linares also from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on developing effective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyen, L.C.
1976-01-01
The combination of regulatory changes and increased waste volume has resulted in design changes in waste processing systems. Problems resulting from waste segregation as a basis for design philosophy are considered, and solutions to the problems are suggested. The importance of operator training, maintenance procedures, good housekeeping, water management, and offsite shipment of solids is discussed. Flowsheets for radioactive waste processing systems for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are included
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Frew Demeke Alemu
concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
-down model of feeding back research findings to subjects” (Roberts and Sarangi 2003, 340) although, arguably, making results applicable to a real-world context ought to be an essential goal of researcher-practitioner studies. This issue forms the background of the presentation, in which it will be discussed...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross...
ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adela NEMEŞ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.
Große, Cornelia S.
2015-01-01
The application of mathematics to real-world problems is moving more and more in the focus of attention of mathematics education; however, many learners experience huge difficulties in relating "pure" mathematics to everyday contents. In order to solve "modeling problems", it is first necessary to find a transition from a…
Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki
2016-01-01
Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…
Solved problems in classical electromagnetism
Franklin, Jerrold
2018-01-01
This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.
Inference rule and problem solving
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, S
1982-04-01
Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.
Xia, J; Li, Chunbo
2007-04-18
The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya
2015-01-01
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
Funke, Joachim
2013-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…
Error Patterns in Problem Solving.
Babbitt, Beatrice C.
Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…
Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.
2016-01-01
An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science…
Scholten, H.
2008-01-01
Mathematical models are more and more used to support to solve multidisciplinary, real world problems of increasing complexity. They are often plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds leading to a non-transparent modelling process. Other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunyun Niu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics operation to third-party logistics has attracted more attention in the past several years. However, very few papers analyzed fuel consumption model in the context of outsourcing logistics. This problem involves more complexity than traditional open vehicle routing problem (OVRP, because the calculation of fuel emissions depends on many factors, such as the speed of vehicles, the road angle, the total load, the engine friction, and the engine displacement. Our paper proposed a green open vehicle routing problem (GOVRP model with fuel consumption constraints for outsourcing logistics operations. Moreover, a hybrid tabu search algorithm was presented to deal with this problem. Experiments were conducted on instances based on realistic road data of Beijing, China, considering that outsourcing logistics plays an increasingly important role in China’s freight transportation. Open routes were compared with closed routes through statistical analysis of the cost components. Compared with closed routes, open routes reduce the total cost by 18.5% with the fuel emissions cost down by nearly 29.1% and the diver cost down by 13.8%. The effect of different vehicle types was also studied. Over all the 60- and 120-node instances, the mean total cost by using the light-duty vehicles is the lowest.
Solving fuzzy shortest path problem by genetic algorithm
Syarif, A.; Muludi, K.; Adrian, R.; Gen, M.
2018-03-01
Shortest Path Problem (SPP) is known as one of well-studied fields in the area Operations Research and Mathematical Optimization. It has been applied for many engineering and management designs. The objective is usually to determine path(s) in the network with minimum total cost or traveling time. In the past, the cost value for each arc was usually assigned or estimated as a deteministic value. For some specific real world applications, however, it is often difficult to determine the cost value properly. One way of handling such uncertainty in decision making is by introducing fuzzy approach. With this situation, it will become difficult to solve the problem optimally. This paper presents the investigations on the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to a new SPP model in which the cost values are represented as Triangular Fuzzy Number (TFN). We adopts the concept of ranking fuzzy numbers to determine how good the solutions. Here, by giving his/her degree value, the decision maker can determine the range of objective value. This would be very valuable for decision support system in the real world applications.Simulation experiments were carried out by modifying several test problems with 10-25 nodes. It is noted that the proposed approach is capable attaining a good solution with different degree of optimism for the tested problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria-Fernanda López-Pérez
2016-10-01
The principal purpose of this work is the students improvement using, as has been mentioned previously, MATLAB in a problem-based learning methodology. This methodology allows a more effective coordination in the degree. The present paper presents a real- world problem and the common elements of most problem-solving contexts and how is designed to function across all disciplines.
Problem solving and inference mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A
1982-01-01
The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.
Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning
Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.
2015-01-01
Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…
Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab
Xue, Dingyu
2008-01-01
Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.
Bernardo, Allan B I; Calleja, Marissa O
2005-03-01
Researchers have suggested that among bilinguals, solving word problems in mathematics is influenced by linguistic factors (K. Durkin & B. Shire, 1991; L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, & E. De Corte, 2000). Others have suggested that students exhibit a strong tendency to exclude real-world constraints in solving mathematics word problems (L. Verschaffel, E. De Corte, & S. Lasure, 1994). In the present study, the authors explored the effects of stating word problems in either Filipino or English on how Filipino-English bilingual students solved word problems in which the solution required the application of real-world knowledge. The authors asked bilingual students to solve word problems in either their first or second language. For some of the word problems, real-life constraints prevented straightforward application of mathematical procedures. The authors analyzed the students' solutions to determine whether the language of the word problems affected the tendency to apply real-life constraints in the solution. Results showed that the bilingual students (a) rarely considered real-life constraints in their solutions, (b) were more successful in understanding and solving word problems that were stated in their first language, and (c) were more likely to experience failure in finding a solution to problems stated in their second language. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between linguistic and mathematical problem-solving processes among bilinguals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousefi, Moslem; Darus, Amer Nordin; Yousefi, Milad; Hooshyar, Danial
2015-01-01
The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization
The Gas Transmission Problem Solved by an Extension of the Simplex Algorithm
Daniel De Wolf; Yves Smeers
2000-01-01
The problem of distributing gas through a network of pipelines is formulated as a cost minimization subject to nonlinear flow-pressure relations, material balances, and pressure bounds. The solution method is based on piecewise linear approximations of the nonlinear flow-pressure relations. The approximated problem is solved by an extension of the Simplex method. The solution method is tested on real-world data and compared with alternative solution methods.
A New Method for Solving Supervised Data Classification Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parvaneh Shabanzadeh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Supervised data classification is one of the techniques used to extract nontrivial information from data. Classification is a widely used technique in various fields, including data mining, industry, medicine, science, and law. This paper considers a new algorithm for supervised data classification problems associated with the cluster analysis. The mathematical formulations for this algorithm are based on nonsmooth, nonconvex optimization. A new algorithm for solving this optimization problem is utilized. The new algorithm uses a derivative-free technique, with robustness and efficiency. To improve classification performance and efficiency in generating classification model, a new feature selection algorithm based on techniques of convex programming is suggested. Proposed methods are tested on real-world datasets. Results of numerical experiments have been presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pisan, Yusuf
1998-01-01
.... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...
Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)
Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.
2016-01-01
Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…
Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-03-01
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar
2016-01-01
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
Solving the Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems Via the Neural Network Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalid Haddouch
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A wide variety of real world optimization problems can be modelled as Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problems (WCSPs. In this paper, we model this problem in terms of in original 0-1 quadratic programming subject to leaner constraints. View it performance, we use the continuous Hopfield network to solve the obtained model basing on original energy function. To validate our model, we solve several instance of benchmarking WCSP. In this regard, our approach recognizes the optimal solution of the said instances.
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Juozenaite, Ineta
2018-01-01
The concept of machine learning has been around for decades, but now it is becoming more and more popular not only in the business, but everywhere else as well. It is because of increased amount of data, cheaper data storage, more powerful and affordable computational processing. The complexity of business environment leads companies to use data-driven decision making to work more efficiently. The most common machine learning methods, like Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Artificial Neural...
Oliver, Carlos G.; Ricottone, Alessandro; Philippopoulos, Pericles
2017-01-01
We propose a proof-of-work algorithm that rewards blockchain miners for using computational resources to solve NP-complete puzzles. The resulting blockchain will publicly store and improve solutions to problems with real world applications while maintaining a secure and fully functional transaction ledger.
The Effects of 10 Communication Modes on the Behavior of Teams During Co-Operative Problem-Solving
Ochsman, Richard B.; Chapanis, Alphonse
1974-01-01
Sixty teams of two college students each solved credible "real world" problems co-operatively. Conversations were carried on in one of 10 modes of communication: (1) typewriting only, (2) handwriting only, (3) handwriting and typewriting, (4) typewriting and video, (5) handwriting and video, (6) voice only, (7) voice and typewriting, (8) voice and…
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving
Herold-Blasius, Raja
2017-01-01
Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…
Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns
Warren, Louis L.
2005-01-01
This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
2012-01-01
analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational...... collaboration. This way, we hope to demonstrate that the practical applicability of our findings becomes one of shedding light on potential problems and providing advice (which may be considered an important aim of discourse-based research) instead of making specific recommendations on issues of practice beyond...
Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.
Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu
2012-01-01
Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.
Excel 2016 for social work statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J
2017-01-01
This text is a step-by-step guide for students taking a first course in statistics for social work and for social work managers and practitioners who want to learn how to use Excel to solve practical statistics problems in in the workplace, whether or not they have taken a course in statistics. There is no other text for a first course in social work statistics that teaches students, step-by-step, how to use Excel to solve interesting social work statistics problems. Excel 2016 for Social Work Statistics explains statistical formulas and offers practical examples for how students can solve real-world social work statistics problems. This book leaves detailed explanations of statistical theory to other statistics textbooks and focuses entirely on practical, real-world problem solving. Each chapter briefly explains a topic and then demonstrates how to use Excel commands and formulas to solve specific social work statistics problems. This book gives practice in using Excel in two different ways: (1) writing ...
Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool
Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Hautmann, Christopher; Hoijtink, Herbert; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Plück, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred
2009-07-01
The long-term effectiveness of parent training for children with externalizing behaviour problems under routine care within the German health care system is unclear. We report the 1-year follow-up results of the parent training component of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behaviour (PEP) for 270 children aged 3-10 years with externalizing behaviour problems. Outcome measures included child behaviour problems (externalizing behaviour problems, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptoms) and parenting (self efficacy of parenting and perceived ability to solve difficult parenting situations). Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Comparison of the changes during the 3-month waiting and treatment periods revealed significantly stronger treatment effects on all outcome measures, indicating a substantial decrease in child behaviour problems and a significant increase in parenting due to treatment. At 1-year follow-up, initial treatment effects on child behaviour problems were maintained, while parenting continued to improve. Families whose children exhibited externalizing problem behaviour profit from PEP and improvements are maintained for at least one year.
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-06-08
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers
Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Readiness for Solving Story Problems.
Dunlap, William F.
1982-01-01
Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.
Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R
2017-06-01
The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Dornburg, Courtney C; Stevens, Susan M; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Davidson, George S
2009-08-01
An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming to address difficult, real-world challenges. Although industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges during the course of 4 days. Employees and contractors at a national laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a real-world problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p industrial reliance on electronic problem-solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups may be more appropriate corporate problem-solving vehicles.
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztina Barczi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.
2016-07-01
An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science disciplines. One of the problems used in this interdisciplinary course has been selected to evaluate if it affords students the opportunity to explicitly display problem-solving processes. While the benefits of implementing problem-based learning have been well reported, far less research has been devoted to methods of assessing student problem-solving solutions. A problem-solving theoretical framework was used as a tool to assess student written solutions to indicate if problem-solving processes were present. In two academic years, student problem-solving processes were satisfactory for exploring and understanding, representing and formulating, and planning and executing, indicating that student collaboration on problems is a good initiator of developing these processes. In both academic years, students displayed poor monitoring and reflecting (MR) processes at the intermediate level. A key impact of evaluating student work in this way is that it facilitated meaningful feedback about the students' problem-solving process rather than solely assessing the correctness of problem solutions.
Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors
Miller, Alan
1982-11-01
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Sets. Satish Kumar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 37-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/02/0037-0047 ...
Mathematics in the Real World.
Borenstein, Matt
1997-01-01
The abstract nature of algebra causes difficulties for many students. Describes "Real-World Data," an algebra course designed for students with low grades in algebra and provides multidisciplinary experiments (linear functions and variations; quadratic, square-root, and inverse relations; and exponential and periodic variation)…
Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.
2001-01-01
With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving
METHOD FOR SOLVING FUZZY ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM USING MAGNITUDE RANKING TECHNIQUE
D. Selvi; R. Queen Mary; G. Velammal
2017-01-01
Assignment problems have various applications in the real world because of their wide applicability in industry, commerce, management science, etc. Traditional classical assignment problems cannot be successfully used for real life problem, hence the use of fuzzy assignment problems is more appropriate. In this paper, the fuzzy assignment problem is formulated to crisp assignment problem using Magnitude Ranking technique and Hungarian method has been applied to find an optimal solution. The N...
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....
Solving complex problems a handbook
Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin
2014-01-01
When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Using Continuous Action Spaces to Solve Discrete Problems
van Hasselt, Hado; Wiering, Marco
2009-01-01
Real-world control problems are often modeled as Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) with discrete action spaces to facilitate the use of the many reinforcement learning algorithms that exist to find solutions for such MDPs. For many of these problems an underlying continuous action space can be
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Solving computationally expensive engineering problems
Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer L. Docktor
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Excel 2016 for advertising statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J
2017-01-01
This text is a step-by-step guide for students taking a first course in statistics for advertising and for advertising managers and practitioners who want to learn how to use Excel to solve practical statistics problems in in the workplace, whether or not they have taken a course in statistics. Excel 2016 for Advertising Statistics explains statistical formulas and offers practical examples for how students can solve real-world advertising statistics problems. This book leaves detailed explanations of statistical theory to other statistics textbooks and focuses entirely on practical, real-world problem solving. Each chapter briefly explains a topic and then demonstrates how to use Excel commands and formulas to solve specific advertising statistics problems. This book gives practice in using Excel in two different ways: (1) writing formulas (e.g., confidence interval about the mean, one-group t-test, two-group t-test, correlation) and (2) using Excel’s drop-down formula menus (e.g., simple linear regres...
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Three-M in Word Problem Solving
Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria
2018-01-01
We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
Teaching problem solving using non-routine tasks
Chong, Maureen Siew Fang; Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi
2018-04-01
Non-routine problems are related to real-life context and require some realistic considerations and real-world knowledge in order to resolve them. This study examines several activity tasks incorporated with non-routine problems through the use of an emerging mathematics framework, at two junior colleges in Brunei Darussalam. The three sampled teachers in this study assisted in selecting the topics and the lesson plan designs. They also recommended the development of the four activity tasks: incorporating the use of technology; simulation of a reality television show; designing real-life sized car park spaces for the school; and a classroom activity to design a real-life sized dustpan. Data collected from all four of the activity tasks were analyzed based on the students' group work. The findings revealed that the most effective activity task in teaching problem solving was to design a real-life sized car park. This was because the use of real data gave students the opportunity to explore, gather information and give or receive feedback on the effect of their reasons and proposed solutions. The second most effective activity task was incorporating the use of technology as it enhanced the students' understanding of the concepts learnt in the classroom. This was followed by the classroom activity that used real data as it allowed students to work and assess the results mathematically. The simulation of a television show was found to be the least effective since it was viewed as not sufficiently challenging to the students.
Molecular science solving global problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.
1995-01-01
From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved
A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving
Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven
2008-01-01
An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…
Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"
Benson, Dave
2011-01-01
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Using Computer Simulations in Chemistry Problem Solving
Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios
2013-01-01
This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
A reflexive perspective in problem solving
Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita
2013-01-01
The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.
Bernardo, Allan B I
2002-05-01
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
New method for solving multidimensional scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melezhik, V.S.
1991-01-01
A new method is developed for solving the quantum mechanical problem of scattering of a particle with internal structure. The multichannel scattering problem is formulated as a system of nonlinear functional equations for the wave function and reaction matrix. The method is successfully tested for the scattering from a nonspherical potential well and a long-range nonspherical scatterer. The method is also applicable to solving the multidimensional Schroedinger equation with a discrete spectrum. As an example the known problem of a hydrogen atom in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed
Dreams and creative problem-solving.
Barrett, Deirdre
2017-10-01
Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems
Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Processes involved in solving mathematical problems
Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra
2018-04-01
This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.
Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veyis Turut
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris
2017-12-01
Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne E. Leak
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems
AI tools in computer based problem solving
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
2017-01-01
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Problem Solving Model for Science Learning
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
2018-04-01
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Solving the SAT problem using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arunava Bhattacharjee
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.
What is physics problem solving competency?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2018-01-01
on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...
Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving
Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.
1973-01-01
Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…
Problem Solving in the Early Years
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2018-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
2016-01-01
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective
Tao, Terence
2006-01-01
Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.
Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.
McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.
1982-07-01
G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications
Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.
2008-01-01
Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving
Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.
2017-01-01
In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…
[Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].
Kriegelewicz, Olga
2006-01-01
This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF.MIREKU
10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).
Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bennis, Warren G
1958-01-01
The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna eFedor
2015-08-01
Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.
Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving
Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.
2018-01-01
Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.
Bass, Gideon; Tomlin, Casey; Kumar, Vaibhaw; Rihaczek, Pete; Dulny, Joseph, III
2018-04-01
NP-hard optimization problems scale very rapidly with problem size, becoming unsolvable with brute force methods, even with supercomputing resources. Typically, such problems have been approximated with heuristics. However, these methods still take a long time and are not guaranteed to find an optimal solution. Quantum computing offers the possibility of producing significant speed-up and improved solution quality. Current quantum annealing (QA) devices are designed to solve difficult optimization problems, but they are limited by hardware size and qubit connectivity restrictions. We present a novel heterogeneous computing stack that combines QA and classical machine learning, allowing the use of QA on problems larger than the hardware limits of the quantum device. These results represent experiments on a real-world problem represented by the weighted k-clique problem. Through this experiment, we provide insight into the state of quantum machine learning.
Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems
Zaslavski, Alexander J
2018-01-01
This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...
Huang, Neng-Tang Norman; Chiu, Li-Jia; Hong, Jon-Chao
2016-01-01
The strong humanistic and ethics-oriented philosophy of Confucianism tends to lead people influenced by these principles to undervalue the importance of hands-on practice and creativity in education. GreenMech, a science and technology contest, was implemented to encourage real-world, hands-on problem solving in an attempt to mitigate this effect.…
Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems
Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.
2018-01-01
Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delsika Pramata Sari
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability coefficient about the mathematical representation ability was 0.56. The most prominent errors of mathematical representation ability of students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning, was on indicator that solving problem involving arithmetic symbols (symbolic representation. In addition, errors were also experienced by many students with traditional learning on the indicator of making the image of a real world situation to clarify the problem and facilitate its completion (visual representation.
impact of the curriculum reform on problem solving ability in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unesco
that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.
Learning via problem solving in mathematics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piet Human
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning
Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.
2017-09-01
This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.
Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glebkin V.V.,
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.
Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.
1987-01-01
The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de
Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems
Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana
2018-03-01
A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.
Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.
Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Del Ser, J.; Landa-Torres, I.; Gil-López, S.; Portilla-Figueras, J. A.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN
2012-01-01
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration
Fairweather, Ian
2011-01-01
LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c
A literature review of expert problem solving using analogy
Mair, C; Martincova, M; Shepperd, MJ
2009-01-01
We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature review of empirical studies of expert problem solving of non-trivial pr...
Data completion problems solved as Nash games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habbal, A; Kallel, M
2012-01-01
The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.
Simulated annealing algorithm for solving chambering student-case assignment problem
Ghazali, Saadiah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza
2015-12-01
The problem related to project assignment problem is one of popular practical problem that appear nowadays. The challenge of solving the problem raise whenever the complexity related to preferences, the existence of real-world constraints and problem size increased. This study focuses on solving a chambering student-case assignment problem by using a simulated annealing algorithm where this problem is classified under project assignment problem. The project assignment problem is considered as hard combinatorial optimization problem and solving it using a metaheuristic approach is an advantage because it could return a good solution in a reasonable time. The problem of assigning chambering students to cases has never been addressed in the literature before. For the proposed problem, it is essential for law graduates to peruse in chambers before they are qualified to become legal counselor. Thus, assigning the chambering students to cases is a critically needed especially when involving many preferences. Hence, this study presents a preliminary study of the proposed project assignment problem. The objective of the study is to minimize the total completion time for all students in solving the given cases. This study employed a minimum cost greedy heuristic in order to construct a feasible initial solution. The search then is preceded with a simulated annealing algorithm for further improvement of solution quality. The analysis of the obtained result has shown that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm has greatly improved the solution constructed by the minimum cost greedy heuristic. Hence, this research has demonstrated the advantages of solving project assignment problem by using metaheuristic techniques.
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A
2016-10-01
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Exploring mathematics problem-solving and proof
Grieser, Daniel
2018-01-01
Have you ever faced a mathematical problem and had no idea how to approach it? Or perhaps you had an idea but got stuck halfway through? This book guides you in developing your creativity, as it takes you on a voyage of discovery into mathematics. Readers will not only learn strategies for solving problems and logical reasoning, but they will also learn about the importance of proofs and various proof techniques. Other topics covered include recursion, mathematical induction, graphs, counting, elementary number theory, and the pigeonhole, extremal and invariance principles. Designed to help students make the transition from secondary school to university level, this book provides readers with a refreshing look at mathematics and deep insights into universal principles that are valuable far beyond the scope of this book. Aimed especially at undergraduate and secondary school students as well as teachers, this book will appeal to anyone interested in mathematics. Only basic secondary school mathematics is requi...
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry
Aleksandrov, D; Hille, P T; Polichtchouk, B; Kharlov, Y; Sukhorukov, M; Wang, D; Shabratova, G; Demanov, V; Wang, Y; Tveter, T; Faltys, M; Mao, Y; Larsen, D T; Zaporozhets, S; Sibiryak, I; Lovhoiden, G; Potcheptsov, T; Kucheryaev, Y; Basmanov, V; Mares, J; Yanovsky, V; Qvigstad, H; Zenin, A; Nikolaev, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Yuan, X; Cai, X; Redlich, K; Pavlinov, A; Roehrich, D; Manko, V; Deloff, A; Ma, K; Maruyama, Y; Dobrowolski, T; Shigaki, K; Nikulin, S; Wan, R; Mizoguchi, K; Petrov, V; Mueller, H; Ippolitov, M; Liu, L; Sadovsky, S; Stolpovsky, P; Kurashvili, P; Nomokonov, P; Xu, C; Torii, H; Il'kaev, R; Zhang, X; Peresunko, D; Soloviev, A; Vodopyanov, A; Sugitate, T; Ullaland, K; Huang, M; Zhou, D; Nystrand, J; Punin, V; Yin, Z; Batyunya, B; Karadzhev, K; Nazarov, G; Fil'chagin, S; Nazarenko, S; Buskenes, J I; Horaguchi, T; Djuvsland, O; Chuman, F; Senko, V; Alme, J; Wilk, G; Fehlker, D; Vinogradov, Y; Budilov, V; Iwasaki, T; Ilkiv, I; Budnikov, D; Vinogradov, A; Kazantsev, A; Bogolyubsky, M; Lindal, S; Polak, K; Skaali, B; Mamonov, A; Kuryakin, A; Wikne, J; Skjerdal, K
2010-01-01
We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the it decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN {[}1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasileios Kolonias
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.
Directed Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Nurse Rostering Problem.
Rajeswari, M; Amudhavel, J; Pothula, Sujatha; Dhavachelvan, P
2017-01-01
The Nurse Rostering Problem is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization, scheduling problem for assigning a set of nurses to shifts per day by considering both hard and soft constraints. A novel metaheuristic technique is required for solving Nurse Rostering Problem (NRP). This work proposes a metaheuristic technique called Directed Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm using the Modified Nelder-Mead Method for solving the NRP. To solve the NRP, the authors used a multiobjective mathematical programming model and proposed a methodology for the adaptation of a Multiobjective Directed Bee Colony Optimization (MODBCO). MODBCO is used successfully for solving the multiobjective problem of optimizing the scheduling problems. This MODBCO is an integration of deterministic local search, multiagent particle system environment, and honey bee decision-making process. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using the standard dataset INRC2010, and it reflects many real-world cases which vary in size and complexity. The experimental analysis uses statistical tools to show the uniqueness of the algorithm on assessment criteria.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.
1996-12-01
We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.
Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications
Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew
2012-01-01
Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…
The Place of Problem Solving in Contemporary Mathematics Curriculum Documents
Stacey, Kaye
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers' support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often…
Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology
Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn
2008-01-01
Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…
Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rolando V. Obiedo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuen-Yih Chen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.
Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...
Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro
2011-09-01
Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
The Automatic Generation of Knowledge Spaces From Problem Solving Strategies
Milovanovic, Ivica; Jeuring, Johan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explore theoretical and practical aspects of the automatic generation of knowledge spaces from problem solving strategies. We show how the generated spaces can be used for adapting strategy-based problem solving learning environments (PSLEs).
Effects of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Instructional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
(iii). lack of organizational skill in solving quantitative problems. (Onwu, 1982, Onwu ... improved in terms of conceptual thinking, intuitive knowledge and insightful ... Problem Solving: This is a cognitive learning strategy which has to do with ...
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout their B.Sc. Course. ... there is a need for explicitly identifying important cognitive skills and strategies and ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' ...
de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees
2003-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential
Projective geometry solved problems and theory review
Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita
2016-01-01
This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...
Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chien Sing
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...
The Role of Expository Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving
Craig, Tracy S.
2016-01-01
Mathematical problem-solving is notoriously difficult to teach in a standard university mathematics classroom. The project on which this article reports aimed to investigate the effect of the writing of explanatory strategies in the context of mathematical problem solving on problem-solving behaviour. This article serves to describe the…
Using Digital Mapping Tool in Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Bai, Hua
2013-01-01
Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Systematic Problem Solving in Production: The NAX Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsdottir, Aslaug; Nygaard, Martin; Edwards, Kasper
2017-01-01
This paper outlines the NAX problem solving approach developed by a group of problem solving experts at a large Danish Producer of medical equipment. The company, “Medicmeter” is one of Denmark’s leading companies when it comes to lean and it has developed a strong problem solving culture. The ma...
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
A Game Theoretical Approach for Solving Winner Determination Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen-Kun Tsung
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Determining the winners in combinatorial auctions to maximize the auctioneer's revenue is an NP-complete problem. Computing an optimal solution requires huge computation time in some instances. In this paper, we apply three concepts of the game theory to design an approximation algorithm: the stability of the Nash equilibrium, the self-learning of the evolutionary game, and the mistake making of the trembling hand assumption. According to our simulation results, the proposed algorithm produces near-optimal solutions in terms of the auctioneer's revenue. Moreover, reasonable computation time is another advantage of applying the proposed algorithm to the real-world services.
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.
Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert
This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…
Find the Dimensions: Students Solving a Tiling Problem
Obara, Samuel
2018-01-01
Students learn mathematics by solving problems. Mathematics textbooks are full of problems, and mathematics teachers use these problems to test students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper discusses how problem-solving skills can be fostered with a geometric tiling problem.
Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications
Bergmann, Sebastian
2011-01-01
Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process
Studying Real-World Perceptual Expertise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong eShen
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.
A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving
Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.
1989-03-01
This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.
Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?
Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.
2017-03-01
Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.
Solved Problems in Quantum and Statistical Mechanics
Cini, Michele; Sbragaglia, Mauro
2012-01-01
This work arises from our teaching this subject during many years. The vast majority of these exercises are the exams we gave to our students in this period. We carefully selected the subjects of the exercises to cover all the material which is most needed and which is treated in the most well known texts on these subjects. Each exercise is carefully solved in full details, explaining the theory behind the solution with particular care for those issues that, from our experience, are found most difficult from the average student. Indeed, several exercises are designed to throw light on aspects of the theory that, for one reason or another, are usually neglected with the result to make the students feel uneasy about them. In fact most students get acquainted just with the more common manipulations, which are illustrated by many examples in textbooks. Our exercises never require extensive calculations but tend to be somewhat unusual and force the solver to think about the problem starting from the ...
Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient
Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah
2018-01-01
Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.
Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media
Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.
Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.
Von Kuster, Lee N.
1984-01-01
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
CODA Performance in the Real World
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D.J. Abbott; W.G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; R. W. MacLeod; C. Timmer; E. Wolin
2000-01-01
The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments we found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year we have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. We discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software
CODA performance in the real world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; Jastrzembski, E.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.
1999-01-01
The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments the authors found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year the authors have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. They discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software
Problem solving therapy - use and effectiveness in general practice.
Pierce, David
2012-09-01
Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.
Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng
2018-02-01
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.
Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim
2018-01-01
While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics
Devine, Matthew T.
2013-01-01
In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.
Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S
2010-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability
Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.
2012-01-01
The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
Problem solving and Program design using the TI-92
Ir.ing. Ton Marée; ir Martijn van Dongen
2000-01-01
This textbook is intended for a basic course in problem solving and program design needed by scientists and engineers using the TI-92. The TI-92 is an extremely powerful problem solving tool that can help you manage complicated problems quickly. We assume no prior knowledge of computers or
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
2008-07-01
Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.
Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry
Huhtala, Nina
2013-01-01
The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...
Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
2017-01-01
Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...
The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML
Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob
2003-01-01
Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving Dynamic Battlespace Movement Problems Using Dynamic Distributed Computer Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bradford, Robert
2000-01-01
.... The thesis designs a system using this architecture that invokes operations research network optimization algorithms to solve problems involving movement of people and equipment over dynamic road networks...
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Student’s scheme in solving mathematics problems
Setyaningsih, Nining; Juniati, Dwi; Suwarsono
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ scheme in solving mathematics problems. Scheme are data structures for representing the concepts stored in memory. In this study, we used it in solving mathematics problems, especially ratio and proportion topics. Scheme is related to problem solving that assumes that a system is developed in the human mind by acquiring a structure in which problem solving procedures are integrated with some concepts. The data were collected by interview and students’ written works. The results of this study revealed are students’ scheme in solving the problem of ratio and proportion as follows: (1) the content scheme, where students can describe the selected components of the problem according to their prior knowledge, (2) the formal scheme, where students can explain in construct a mental model based on components that have been selected from the problem and can use existing schemes to build planning steps, create something that will be used to solve problems and (3) the language scheme, where students can identify terms, or symbols of the components of the problem.Therefore, by using the different strategies to solve the problems, the students’ scheme in solving the ratio and proportion problems will also differ.
Workflow Agents vs. Expert Systems: Problem Solving Methods in Work Systems Design
Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Seah, Chin
2009-01-01
During the 1980s, a community of artificial intelligence researchers became interested in formalizing problem solving methods as part of an effort called "second generation expert systems" (2nd GES). How do the motivations and results of this research relate to building tools for the workplace today? We provide an historical review of how the theory of expertise has developed, a progress report on a tool for designing and implementing model-based automation (Brahms), and a concrete example how we apply 2nd GES concepts today in an agent-based system for space flight operations (OCAMS). Brahms incorporates an ontology for modeling work practices, what people are doing in the course of a day, characterized as "activities." OCAMS was developed using a simulation-to-implementation methodology, in which a prototype tool was embedded in a simulation of future work practices. OCAMS uses model-based methods to interactively plan its actions and keep track of the work to be done. The problem solving methods of practice are interactive, employing reasoning for and through action in the real world. Analogously, it is as if a medical expert system were charged not just with interpreting culture results, but actually interacting with a patient. Our perspective shifts from building a "problem solving" (expert) system to building an actor in the world. The reusable components in work system designs include entire "problem solvers" (e.g., a planning subsystem), interoperability frameworks, and workflow agents that use and revise models dynamically in a network of people and tools. Consequently, the research focus shifts so "problem solving methods" include ways of knowing that models do not fit the world, and ways of interacting with other agents and people to gain or verify information and (ultimately) adapt rules and procedures to resolve problematic situations.
Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher
undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...
de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.
2012-01-01
The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…
Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective.
Flink, Ida K; Boersma, Katja; MacDonald, Shane; Linton, Steven J
2012-05-01
The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
The process model of problem solving difficulty
Pala, O.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.
2002-01-01
Groups and organizations, or in general multi-actor decision-making groups, frequently come across complex problems in which neither the problem definition nor the interrelations of parts that make up the problem are well defined. In these kinds of situations, members of a decision-making group
Yang, Eunice
2016-02-01
This paper discusses the use of a free mobile engineering application (app) called Autodesk® ForceEffect™ to provide students assistance with spatial visualization of forces and more practice in solving/visualizing statics problems compared to the traditional pencil-and-paper method. ForceEffect analyzes static rigid-body systems using free-body diagrams (FBDs) and provides solutions in real time. It is a cost-free software that is available for download on the Internet. The software is supported on the iOS™, Android™, and Google Chrome™ platforms. It is easy to use and the learning curve is approximately two hours using the tutorial provided within the app. The use of ForceEffect has the ability to provide students different problem modalities (textbook, real-world, and design) to help them acquire and improve on skills that are needed to solve force equilibrium problems. Although this paper focuses on the engineering mechanics statics course, the technology discussed is also relevant to the introductory physics course.
Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics
Koleci, Carolann
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
Science writing in the real world
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mike Mentis
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to consider guides to technical writing. Since the professional writes what he does and does what he writes, guides to how you execute the one relate to how you perform the other, so this article is about more than just writing. While there is need for idiosyncrasy and individualism, there are some rules. Documents must have an explicit purpose stated at the outset. By their nature, documents in the applied sciences and business address real-world problems, but elsewhere activity may be laissez faire for which the cost-effectiveness in yielding innovations is contestable. A hallmark of written science and technology is that every statement is capable of being tested and capable of being shown to be wrong, and that methods yield repeatable results. Caution should be observed in requiring authoritative referencing for every notion, partly because of the unsatisfying infinite regress in searching for ultimate sources, and partly to avoid squashing innovation. It is not only the content of messages that matters, but reliability too. Probability theory must be built into design to assure that strong inference can be drawn from outcomes. Research, business and infrastructure projects must substitute the frequent optimistic ‘everything goes according to plan’ (EGAP with a more realistic ‘most likely development’ (MLD and the risks of even that not happening. A cornerstone of science and technology is parsimony. No description, experiment, explanation, hypothesis, idea, instrument, machine, method, model, prediction, statement, technique, test or theory should be more elaborate than necessary to satisfy its purpose. Antifragility – the capacity to survive and benefit from shocks – must be designed into project and organizational structure and function by manipulating such factors as complexity and interdependency to evade failure in a turbulent and unpredictable world. The role of writing is to integrate
Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.
Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C
2017-01-01
An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Leenen, L
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...
Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear.
Morgan, Michael
1983-01-01
Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)
Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education
National Academies Press, 2012
2012-01-01
The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…
Managing Uncertainty in the Real World
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Systems. Satish Kumar. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Satish Kumar1. Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India.
Cellphones and Real-World Communication
Bugeja, Michael
2004-01-01
In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…
An approach to solve replacement problems under intuitionistic fuzzy nature
Balaganesan, M.; Ganesan, K.
2018-04-01
Due to impreciseness to solve the day to day problems the researchers use fuzzy sets in their discussions of the replacement problems. The aim of this paper is to solve the replacement theory problems with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. An effective methodology based on fuzziness index and location index is proposed to determine the optimal solution of the replacement problem. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed method.
Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving
Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2017-01-01
Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…
Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups
Sun, Jingjng; Anderson, Richard C.; Perry, Michelle; Lin, Tzu-Jung
2017-01-01
Social skills involved in leadership were examined in a problem-solving activity in which 252 Chinese 5th-graders worked in small groups on a spatial-reasoning puzzle. Results showed that students who engaged in peer-managed small-group discussions of stories prior to problem solving produced significantly better solutions and initiated…
Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies
Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya
2016-01-01
The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…
Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.
Lash, Fredrick B.
This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…
Schema Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Story Problems: Some Affective Components.
Marshall, Sandra P.
This report discusses the role of affect in cognitive processing. The importance of affect in processing mathematical information is described in the context of solving arithmetic story problems. Some ideas are offered about the way affective responses to mathematical problem solving situations influence the development, maintenance, and retrieval…
A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies
Shour, Robert
2009-01-01
A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.
Visual Attention Modulates Insight versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems
Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark
2012-01-01
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals,…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet
Teppaitoon, Wittaya
2016-01-01
This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Teachers Beliefs in Problem Solving in Rural Malaysian Secondary Schools
Palraj, Shalini; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah
2017-01-01
Problem solving is the highest level of cognitive skill. However, this skill seems to be lacking among secondary school students. Teachers' beliefs influence the instructional strategies used for students' learning. Hence, it is important to understand teachers' beliefs so as to improve the processes for teaching problem solving. The purpose of…
Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?
Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles
1987-01-01
Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy
Erdemir, Naki
2009-01-01
In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.
Swan, Karen; Black, John B.
The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…
Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.
McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others
1987-01-01
Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…
Decision-Making Styles and Problem-Solving Appraisal.
Phillips, Susan D.; And Others
1984-01-01
Compared decision-making style and problem-solving appraisal in 243 undergraduates. Results suggested that individuals who employ rational decision-making strategies approach problematic situations, while individuals who endorse dependent decisional strategies approach problematic situations without confidence in their problem-solving abilities.…
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebraically using the concept of duality ...
Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.
Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.
2003-01-01
Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…
A problem solving model for regulatory policy making
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for
Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills
Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…
Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
2014-12-15
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications
Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.
2010-01-01
The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show
Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.
Logan, Corina J
2016-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.
Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving
Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn
2017-08-01
This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.
Analysis of problem solving in terms of cognitive style
Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.
Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-11-01
The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.
ÖÇAL, Mehmet Fatih; ŞİMŞEK, Mertkan
2016-01-01
Problem solving skill is the core of mathematics education and its importance cannot be denied. This study specifically examined 56 freshmen pre-service mathematics teachers’ problem solving processes on a specific problem with the help of Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP). They were grouped into two-person teams to solve a problem called "the mirror problem". They were expected to solve it by means of GSP. According to their works on GSP and related reflections, there appeared two differe...
Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.
1983-01-01
The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.
Erdley-Kass, Shiloh D; Kass, Darrin S; Gellis, Zvi D; Bogner, Hillary A; Berger, Andrea; Perkins, Robert M
2017-08-24
To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment. In comparison to the control group, patients receiving PST intervention reported improved perceptions of mental health, were more likely to view their problems with a positive orientation and were more likely to use functional problem-solving methods. Furthermore, this group was also more likely to view their overall health, activity limits, social activities and ability to accomplish desired tasks with a more positive mindset. The results demonstrate that PST may positively impact mental health components of quality of life and problem-solving coping among older HD patients. PST is an effective, efficient, and easy to implement intervention that can benefit problem-solving abilities and mental health-related quality of life in older HD patients. In turn, this will help patients manage their daily living activities related to their medical condition and reduce daily stressors.
Solving multi-objective job shop scheduling problems using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
The efforts of finding optimal schedules for the job shop scheduling problems are highly important for many real-world industrial applications. In this paper, a multi-objective based job shop scheduling problem by simultaneously minimizing makespan and tardiness is taken into account. The problem is considered to be more complex due to the multiple business criteria that must be satisfied. To solve the problem more efficiently and to obtain a set of non-dominated solutions, a meta-heuristic based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is presented. In addition, task based representation is used for solution encoding, and tournament selection that is based on rank and crowding distance is applied for offspring selection. Swapping and insertion mutations are employed to increase diversity of population and to perform intensive search. To evaluate the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, a set of modified benchmarking job shop problems obtained from the OR-Library is used, and the results are considered based on the number of non-dominated solutions and quality of schedules obtained by the algorithm.
A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.
Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted
1994-01-01
Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)
Solved problems in dynamical systems and control
Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M
2016-01-01
This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shelly Wismath
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course. These changes can be posited to reveal three underlying threshold concepts in the evolution and establishment of students’ problem-solving skills.
Dimensional analysis and qualitative methods in problem solving: II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pescetti, D
2009-01-01
We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.
Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.
Volden, C M; Monnig, R
1993-01-01
A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.
Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid
2013-03-01
Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.
Mills, Nadia Monrose
2015-01-01
The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
The Missing Curriculum in Physics Problem-Solving Education
Williams, Mobolaji
2018-05-01
Physics is often seen as an excellent introduction to science because it allows students to learn not only the laws governing the world around them, but also, through the problems students solve, a way of thinking which is conducive to solving problems outside of physics and even outside of science. In this article, we contest this latter idea and argue that in physics classes, students do not learn widely applicable problem-solving skills because physics education almost exclusively requires students to solve well-defined problems rather than the less-defined problems which better model problem solving outside of a formal class. Using personal, constructed, and the historical accounts of Schrödinger's development of the wave equation and Feynman's development of path integrals, we argue that what is missing in problem-solving education is practice in identifying gaps in knowledge and in framing these knowledge gaps as questions of the kind answerable using techniques students have learned. We discuss why these elements are typically not taught as part of the problem-solving curriculum and end with suggestions on how to incorporate these missing elements into physics classes.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Sociodrama: Group Creative Problem Solving in Action.
Riley, John F.
1990-01-01
Sociodrama is presented as a structured, yet flexible, method of encouraging the use of creative thinking to examine a difficult problem. An example illustrates the steps involved in putting sociodrama into action. Production techniques useful in sociodrama include the soliloquy, double, role reversal, magic shop, unity of opposites, and audience…
Writing Plays Using Creative Problem-Solving.
Raiser, Lynne; Hinson, Shirley
1995-01-01
This article describes a project which involved inner city elementary grade children with disabilities in writing and performing their own plays. A four-step playwriting process focuses on theme and character development, problem finding, and writing dialogue. The project has led to improved reading skills, attention, memory skills,…
Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table
An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems
Andrew Oyakhobo Odior
2012-01-01
Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills
Shelly Wismath; Doug Orr; Bruce MacKay
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course....
Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm
Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan
Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.
Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
Interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems
Jayanti, W. E.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
2018-04-01
This research aims to describe interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems. Interference thinking in solving problems occurs when students have two concepts that interfere with each other’s concept. Construction of problem-solving can be traced using Piaget’s assimilation and accommodation framework, helping to know the students’ thinking structures in solving the problems. The method of this research was a qualitative method with case research strategy. The data in this research involving problem-solving result and transcripts of interviews about students’ errors in solving the problem. The results of this research focus only on the student who experience proactive interference, where student in solving a problem using old information to interfere with the ability to recall new information. The student who experience interference thinking in constructing their knowledge occurs when the students’ thinking structures in the assimilation and accommodation process are incomplete. However, after being given reflection to the student, then the students’ thinking process has reached equilibrium condition even though the result obtained remains wrong.
[Investigation of problem solving skills among psychiatric patients].
Póos, Judit; Annus, Rita; Perczel Forintos, Dóra
2008-01-01
According to our present knowledge depression and hopelessness play an important role in attempted suicide and the development of hopelessness seems to be closely associated with poor problem solving skills. In the present study we have used the internationally well-known MEPS (Means-Ends Problem Solving Test; a measure of social problem solving ability) in Hungary for the first time and combined with other tests. We intended to explore the cognitive risk factors that potentially play a role in the suicidal behavior in clinical population. In our study we compared a group of individuals who had attempted suicide to a nonsuicidal psychiatric control group and a normal control group (61 subjects in each group). Our results confirm the findings of others that psychiatric patients have difficulties in social problem solving compared to normal controls. Moreover, they generate less and poorer solutions. According to our data problem solving skills of the two clinical groups were similar. A strong positive correlation was found between poor problem solving skills, depression and hopelessness which may suggest that the development of problem solving skills could help to reduce negative mood.
Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoo Jia Sian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90
A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onut, S; Kamber, M R; Altay, G
2014-01-01
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time
A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study
Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.
2014-03-01
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet Demir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the fields which require finding the most appropriate value, optimization became a vital approach to employ effective solutions. With the use of optimization techniques, many different fields in the modern life have found solutions to their real-world based problems. In this context, classical optimization techniques have had an important popularity. But after a while, more advanced optimization problems required the use of more effective techniques. At this point, Computer Science took an important role on providing software related techniques to improve the associated literature. Today, intelligent optimization techniques based on Artificial Intelligence are widely used for optimization problems. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative study on the employment of classical optimization solutions and Artificial Intelligence solutions for enabling readers to have idea about the potential of intelligent optimization techniques. At this point, two recently developed intelligent optimization algorithms, Vortex Optimization Algorithm (VOA and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA, have been used to solve some multidisciplinary optimization problems provided in the source book Thomas' Calculus 11th Edition and the obtained results have compared with classical optimization solutions.
Solving the uncommon reactor core neutronics problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.
1980-01-01
The common reactor core neutronics problems have fundamental neutron space, energy spectrum solutions. Typically the most positive eigenvalue is associated with an all-positive flux for the pseudo-steady-state condition (k/sub eff/), or the critical state is to be effected by selective adjustment of some variable such as the fuel concentration. With sophistication in reactor analysis has come the demand for solutions of other, uncommon neutronics problems. Importance functionss are needed for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, as for ratios of intergral reaction rates such as the fuel conversion (breeding) ratio. The dominant higher harmonic solution is needed in stability analysis. Typically the desired neutronics solution must contain negative values to qualify as a higher harmonic or to satisfy a fixed source containing negative values. Both regular and adjoint solutions are of interest as are special integrals of the solutions to support analysis
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving
Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran
2015-11-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.
How to solve nuclear siting problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inhaber, H.
1992-01-01
In recent years, finding sites for nuclear facilities, both reactors and waste repositories, has become more of a problem. While all agree that the difficulties are more than technical, a technical solution is presently pursued. The reverse Dutch auction generates a solution to siting. It produces a volunteer community or state, at the same time retaining public safety and environmental standards. No coercion is required. Elements of the system already exist in a number of public policy areas. (orig.) [de
Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan
2015-01-01
Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...
Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…
1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics
Kamal, Ahmad A
2010-01-01
This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area of modern physics, specially particle and nuclear physics. Lecturers/tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas, tables and line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
ITOUGH2: Solving TOUGH inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
ITOUGH2 is a program that provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 code. While the main purpose of ITOUGH2 is to estimate two-phase hydraulic properties of calibrating a TOUGH2 model to laboratory or field data, the information obtained by evaluating parameter sensitivities can also be used to optimize the design of an experiment, and to analyze the uncertainty of model predictions. ITOUGH2 has been applied to a number of laboratory and field experiments on different scales. Three examples are discussed in this paper, demonstrating the code`s capability to support test design, data analysis, and model predictions for a variety of TOUGH problems.
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayyub, Bilal M.
2004-01-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayyub, Bilal M
2004-09-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.
Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving.
Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Griego, Jacqueline; Schmid, Ute
2007-03-01
Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience with the source problem is used to guide the search for the target solution by applying the same solution technique rather than by transferring the complete solution. We report an empirical study using the path finding problems presented in Novick and Hmelo (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1296-1321, 1994) as material. We show that both transformational and derivational analogy are problem-solving strategies realized by human problem solvers. Which strategy is evoked in a given problem-solving context depends on the constraints guiding object-to-object mapping between source and target problem. Specifically, if constraints facilitating mapping are available, subjects are more likely to employ a transformational strategy, otherwise they are more likely to use a derivational strategy.
Ancel, Gulsum
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach problem-solving skills. The present study, as a first study in Turkey, may provide valuable insight for nurse academicians employed at üniversities. Purpose of ...
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information
Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both...
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…
Information theory and coding solved problems
Ivaniš, Predrag
2017-01-01
This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...
Solving the decompactification problem in string theory
Kiritsis, Elias B; Petropoulos, P M; Rizos, J
1996-01-01
We investigate heterotic ground states in four dimensions in which N=4 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken to N=2. N=4 supersymmetry is restored at a decompactification limit corresponding to m_{3/2}\\to 0. We calculate the full moduli dependent threshold corrections and confirm that they are supressed in the decompactification limit m_{3/2}\\to 0 as expected from the restauration of N=4 supersymmetry. This should be contrasted with the behavior of the standard N=2 groundstates where the coupling blow up linearly with the volume of the decompactifying manifold. This mechanism provides a solution to the decompactification problem for the gauge coupling constants. We also discuss how the mechanism can be implemented in ground states with lower supersymmetry.
Neurogenetic Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Engineering Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jalali Varnamkhasti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Diversity of the population in a genetic algorithm plays an important role in impeding premature convergence. This paper proposes an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system genetic algorithm based on sexual selection. In this technique, for choosing the female chromosome during sexual selection, a bilinear allocation lifetime approach is used to label the chromosomes based on their fitness value which will then be used to characterize the diversity of the population. The motivation of this algorithm is to maintain the population diversity throughout the search procedure. To promote diversity, the proposed algorithm combines the concept of gender and age of individuals and the fuzzy logic during the selection of parents. In order to appraise the performance of the techniques used in this study, one of the chemistry problems and some nonlinear functions available in literature is used.
Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Ninck
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.
Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.
Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F
2002-05-01
This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.
Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.
2009-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
A Problem-Solving Model for Literacy Coaching Practice
Toll, Cathy A.
2017-01-01
Literacy coaches are more effective when they have a clear plan for their collaborations with teachers. This article provides details of such a plan, which involves identifying a problem, understanding the problem, deciding what to do differently, and trying something different. For each phase of the problem-solving model, there are key tasks for…
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.
2010-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin
2009-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Solving potential field problems in composite media with complicated geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, H.
1977-01-01
Recently, Yeh developed a method of solving potential field problems for complicated geometries and theorems of piecewise continuous eigenfunctions which can be used to solve boundary-value problems in composite media by the separation of variables. This paper shows that by a proper arrangement of matching conditions and boundary conditions, this method and these theorems can be applied simultaneously so that the problems in composite media with complicated geometries can be solved. To illustrate this, a heat-conduction problem in a composite cylinder with an abrupt change in cross-section area is solved. Also presented in this paper are the method of handling the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions for composite media and the extension of one of the above-mentioned theorems to include imperfect contact on material boundaries
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NICO
Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' difficulties with cognitive skills. 1. Introduction ... storage of information in memory, and the retrieval and use of ..... 18 P. Eggen and D. Kauchak, Educational Psychology, Windows on.
Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Ranjbar
2013-01-01
Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.
Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro
Yamin, Mohammad
2016-01-01
This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
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María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
Examining Multiscale Movement Coordination in Collaborative Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Steffensen, Sune Vork
2017-01-01
During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should, at least on some scales, play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration outcomes. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer...
The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.
Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan
2016-01-01
Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.
Spreadsheet-Enhanced Problem Solving in Context as Modeling
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Sergei Abramovich
2003-07-01
development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001
Making Sure you Solve the Right Problem
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Kim Cartledge
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Macleod et al. have given us an admirable case study and argued that "... there is an urgent need to create stronger and more transparent, integrated, and adaptive linkages between opening-up and closing down mechanisms at the science-policy interface." Two questions must be addressed: what sorts of managerial reform would be required to achieve this? and Is this likely to happen? A natural subsidiarity makes large institutions more inclined to "closing down" (specification actions and smaller ones more inclined to open problems up. The method of boundary judgments developed in integrative research could be applied to the science-policy interface but there are political and sociological reasons why this is unlikely to happen. Receptiveness to opening up actions is a prerequisite of innovation. Innovations are suppressed in times of geopolitical and economic stress. The result is often an ill-structured, co-evolutionary dynamic in which the actions of one species or population reduce the fitness of another.
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-08-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.
The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerny, V.
1998-01-01
The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)
ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework
2012-07-13
Gamification Summit 2012 Mensa Colloquium 2012.2: Social and Video Games Seattle Science Festival TED Salon Vancouver : http...From - To) 6/1/2012 – 6/30/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b...Popović ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework (Task 1 Month 4) Progress, Status and Management Report Monthly Progress
The art and science of participative problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Comparison of mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils
Wasilewská, Eliška
2016-01-01
The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pryor, R.J.
1990-01-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe
Problem solving teaching practices: Observer and teacher's view
Felmer , Patricio; Perdomo-Díaz , Josefa; Giaconi , Valentina; Espinoza , Carmen ,
2015-01-01
International audience; In this article, we report on an exploratory study on teaching practices related to problem solving of a group of 29 novel secondary mathematics teachers. For this purpose, two independent instruments were designed, the first one is based on lesson observations, and the second one is a questionnaire answered by teachers about their teaching practices while working on non-routine problem solving with their students. For each instrument, we perform a statistical analysis...
Emotion Oriented Programming: Computational Abstractions for AI Problem Solving
Darty , Kevin; Sabouret , Nicolas
2012-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we present a programming paradigm for AI problem solving based on computational concepts drawn from Affective Computing. It is believed that emotions participate in human adaptability and reactivity, in behaviour selection and in complex and dynamic environments. We propose to define a mechanism inspired from this observation for general AI problem solving. To this purpose, we synthesize emotions as programming abstractions that represent the perception ...
DESIGN AND EXAMINATION OF ALGORITHMS FOR SOLVING THE KNAPSACK PROBLEM
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S. Kantsedal
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The use of methods of branches and boundaries as well as the methods of dynamic programming at solving the problem of «knapsack» is grounded. The main concepts are expounded. The methods and algorithms development for solving the above specified problem are described. Recommendations on practical application of constructed algorithms based on their experimental investigation and carrying out charactheristics comparison are presented.
Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-01-01
Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...
M. ZANGIABADI; H. R. MALEKI
2007-01-01
In the real-world optimization problems, coefficients of the objective function are not known precisely and can be interpreted as fuzzy numbers. In this paper we define the concepts of optimality for linear programming problems with fuzzy parameters based on those for multiobjective linear programming problems. Then by using the concept of comparison of fuzzy numbers, we transform a linear programming problem with fuzzy parameters to a multiobjective linear programming problem. To this end, w...
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James
2009-11-01
Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts.
Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waller, Edward
2008-01-01
Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto
A problem-solving routine for improving hospital operations.
Ghosh, Manimay; Sobek Ii, Durward K
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically why a systematic problem-solving routine can play an important role in the process improvement efforts of hospitals. Data on 18 process improvement cases were collected through semi-structured interviews, reports and other documents, and artifacts associated with the cases. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Adherence to all the steps of the problem-solving routine correlated to greater degrees of improvement across the sample. Analysis resulted in two models. The first partially explains why hospital workers tended to enact short-term solutions when faced with process-related problems; and tended not seek longer-term solutions that prevent problems from recurring. The second model highlights a set of self-reinforcing behaviors that are more likely to address problem recurrence and result in sustained process improvement. The study was conducted in one hospital setting. Hospital managers can improve patient care and increase operational efficiency by adopting and diffusing problem-solving routines that embody three key characteristics. This paper offers new insights on why caregivers adopt short-term approaches to problem solving. Three characteristics of an effective problem-solving routine in a healthcare setting are proposed.
Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen
In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta-heuristic...
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
2016-01-01
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalçın KANBAY
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and
Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study
Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.
2018-01-01
Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of
BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World
Jardine, Jim
2000-05-01
Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At Â£8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre
[Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
1984-01-01
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Psychosocial dimensions of solving an indoor air problem.
Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari
2002-03-01
This investigation focuses on the psychological and social dimensions of managing and solving indoor air problems. The data were collected in nine workplaces by interviews (n = 85) and questionnaires (n = 375). Indoor air problems in office environments have traditionally utilized industrial hygiene or technical expertise. However, indoor air problems at workplaces are often more complex issues to solve. Technical questions are inter-related with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the solving process are also put to the test. In the present study, the interviewees were very critical of the process of solving the indoor air problem. The responsibility for coordinating the problem-managing process was generally considered vague, as were the roles and functions of the various parties. Communication problems occurred and rumors about the indoor air problem circulated widely. Conflicts were common, complicating the process in several ways. The research focused on examining different ways of managing and resolving an indoor air problem. In addition, reference material on the causal factors of the indoor air problem was also acquired. The study supported the hypothesis that psychosocial factors play a significant role in indoor air problems.
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon
name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...
A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna
2010-08-01
The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.
Problem solving: How can we help students overcome cognitive difficulties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liberato Cardellini
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The traditional approach to teach problem solving usually consists in showing students the solutions of some example-problems and then in asking students to practice individually on solving a certain number of related problems. This approach does not ensure that students learn to solve problems and above all to think about the solution process in a consistent manner. Topics such as atoms, molecules, and the mole concept are fundamental in chemistry and instructors may think that, for our students, should be easy to learn these concepts and to use them in solving problems, but it is not always so. If teachers do not put emphasis on the logical process during solving problems, students are at risk to become more proficient at applying the formulas rather than to reason. This disappointing result is clear from the outcomes of questionnaires meant to measure the ability to calculate the mass of a sample from the number of atoms and vice versa. A suggestion from the cognitive load theory has proved a useful way to improve students’ skills for this type of problems: the use of worked out examples. The repetition after two weeks of the Friedel-Maloney test after the use of worked examples shows that students' skills significantly improve. Successful students in all questions jumped from 2 to 64%.
Development and validation of the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire.
Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Jaser, Sarah S; Rothman, Russell L; Russell, William E; Pittel, Eric J; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A
2014-10-01
Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13-17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Empirical elimination of items using principal components analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 56% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, pproblem solving in youth with T1D and is associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeddi, Babak; Vahidinasab, Vahid
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) model is proposed. • The proposed model considers practical constraints of real-world power systems. • A new modified harmony search algorithm proposed to solve non-convex CEELD. • The proposed algorithm is tested by applying it to solve seven test systems. - Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the basic and important optimization problems in a power system. However, considering practical constraints of real-world power systems such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, valve loading effects, multi-fuel options, spinning reserve and transmission system losses in ELD problem makes it a non-convex optimization problem, which is a challenging one and cannot be solved by traditional methods. Moreover, considering environmental issues, results in combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) problem that is a multiobjective optimization model with two non-commensurable and contradictory objectives. In this paper, a modified harmony search algorithm (MHSA) proposed and applied to solve ELD and CEELD problem considering the abovementioned constraints. In the proposed MHSA, a new improvising method based on wavelet mutation together with a new memory consideration scheme based on the roulette wheel mechanism are proposed which improves the accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness of the classical HSA. Performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated by applying it to solve various test systems having non-convex solution spaces. To Show the effectiveness of the proposed method, obtained results compared with classical harmony search algorithm (HSA) and some of the most recently published papers in the area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Rabbani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Integration of various logistical components in supply chain management, such as transportation, inventory control and facility location are becoming common practice to avoid sub-optimization in nowadays’ competitive environment. The integration of transportation and inventory decisions is known as inventory routing problem (IRP in the literature. The problem aims to determine the delivery quantity for each customer and the network routes to be used in each period, so that the total inventory and transportation costs are to be minimized. On the contrary of conventional IRP that each retailer can only provide its demand from the supplier, in this paper, a new multi-period, multi-item IRP model with considering lateral trans-shipment, back-log and financial decisions is proposed as a business model in a distinct organization. The main purpose of this paper is applying an applicable inventory routing model with considering real world setting and solving it with an appropriate method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.
2007-04-01
Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.
Guesstimation solving the world's problems on the back of a cocktail napkin
Weinstein, Lawrence
2008-01-01
"Guesstimation" is a book that unlocks the power of approximation - it's popular mathematics rounded to the nearest power of ten! The ability to estimate is an important skill in daily life. More and more leading businesses today use estimation questions in interviews to test applicants' abilities to think on their feet. "Guesstimation" enables anyone with basic math and science skills to estimate virtually anything - quickly - using plausible assumptions and elementary arithmetic. Lawrence Weinstein and John Adam present an eclectic array of estimation problems that range from devilishly simple to quite sophisticated and from serious real-world concerns to downright silly ones.How long would it take a running faucet to fill the inverted dome of the Capitol? What is the total length of all the pickles consumed in the US in one year? What are the relative merits of internal-combustion and electric cars, of coal and nuclear energy? The problems are marvelously diverse, yet the skills to solve them are the same....
Graphic Design for the Real World?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elisabeth Bichler, Katrine; Beier, Sofie
2016-01-01
This article examines graphic design’s role within design activism. It outlines design activism in general and its relation to commercial design culture in a consumerist economy. Thereafter it discusses persuasive tendencies in graphic design and questions if its current contribution to design...... activism is limited to its predominant narrow role of persuading for “the good cause.” To illustrate the hypothesis that such a persuasive approach lacks activist potential and thus social impact, cases that represent traditional graphic-design activism are compared to alternative approaches...... solely solving communicative problems for commissioning clients. It is argued that in this way visual communication can intervene into problems on a functional level, similarly to artifacts from design disciplines such as architecture and industrial or product design....
Personality and problem-solving in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis).
Lermite, Françoise; Peneaux, Chloé; Griffin, Andrea S
2017-01-01
Animals show consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and/or contexts. Recently, it has been suggested that proactive personality types might also exhibit fast cognitive styles. The speed with which individuals sample environmental cues is one way in which correlations between personality and cognition might arise. Here, we measured a collection of behavioural traits (competitiveness, neophobia, neophilia, task-directed motivation and exploration) in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) and measured their relationship with problem solving. We predicted that fast solving mynas would interact with (i.e. sample) the problem solving task at higher rates, but also be more competitive, less neophobic, more neophilic, and more exploratory. Mynas that were faster to solve a novel foraging problem were no more competitive around food and no more inclined to take risks. Unexpectedly, these fast-solving mynas had higher rates of interactions with the task, but also displayed lower levels of exploration. It is possible that a negative relation between problem solving and spatial exploration arose as a consequence of how inter-individual variation in exploration was quantified. We discuss the need for greater consensus on how to measure exploratory behaviour before we can advance our understanding of relationships between cognition and personality more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving the Flood Propagation Problem with Newton Algorithm on Parallel Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chefi Triki
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a parallel implementation for the flood propagation method Flo2DH. The model is built on a finite element spatial approximation combined with a Newton algorithm that uses a direct LU linear solver. The parallel implementation has been developed by using the standard MPI protocol and has been tested on a set of real world problems.
Teaching science problem solving: an overview of experimental work
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-01-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the
Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study
Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent
2016-01-01
Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…
The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving
Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…
Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller
2015-01-01
We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...
Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?
Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing
2017-01-01
Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…
A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science
Parham, Jennifer R.
2009-01-01
According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…
Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...
Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study examined errors students make in solving linear equation word problems with a view to expose the nature of these errors and to make suggestions for classroom teaching. A diagnostic test comprising 10 linear equation word problems, was administered to a sample (n=130) of senior high school first year Home ...
A Unified Model of Attention and Problem Solving.
1984-02-01
paradigma deocribed boro. In confliot condition. In a facolitation condition GREEN Stroup sitnations signls are preented simultaneously o would be plinted In...and perforlao. paradigma similar to theae studied .. . .. ’ Attention and Problem solInS Page 65 Attention and Problem Solving Page 66 her.. Mis
W-algebra for solving problems with fuzzy parameters
Shevlyakov, A. O.; Matveev, M. G.
2018-03-01
A method of solving the problems with fuzzy parameters by means of a special algebraic structure is proposed. The structure defines its operations through operations on real numbers, which simplifies its use. It avoids deficiencies limiting applicability of the other known structures. Examples for solution of a quadratic equation, a system of linear equations and a network planning problem are given.
Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kofi.mereku
identified difficulties in comparison to the conventional lecture method. ... important for chemistry educators to be aware of the difficulties students encounter as they learn .... these concepts before the can solve quantitative numerical problems. Secondly ... development of stepped supporting tools for stoichiometric problems, ...
The Students Decision Making in Solving Discount Problem
Abdillah; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Susanto, Hery; Abadyo
2016-01-01
This research is reviewing students' process of decision making intuitively, analytically, and interactively. The research done by using discount problem which specially created to explore student's intuition, analytically, and interactively. In solving discount problems, researcher exploring student's decision in determining their attitude which…
Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kofi.mereku
Development in most areas of life is based on effective knowledge of science and ... Problem solving, as used in mathematics education literature, refers ... word problems, on the other hand, are those linear equation tasks or ... taught LEWPs in the junior high school, many of them reach the senior high school without a.
Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry
In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...
Applying Groebner bases to solve reduction problems for Feynman integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.
2006-01-01
We describe how Groebner bases can be used to solve the reduction problem for Feynman integrals, i.e. to construct an algorithm that provides the possibility to express a Feynman integral of a given family as a linear combination of some master integrals. Our approach is based on a generalized Buchberger algorithm for constructing Groebner-type bases associated with polynomials of shift operators. We illustrate it through various examples of reduction problems for families of one- and two-loop Feynman integrals. We also solve the reduction problem for a family of integrals contributing to the three-loop static quark potential
Applying Groebner bases to solve reduction problems for Feynman integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, Alexander V. [Mechanical and Mathematical Department and Scientific Research Computer Center of Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Nuclear Physics Institute of Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)
2006-01-15
We describe how Groebner bases can be used to solve the reduction problem for Feynman integrals, i.e. to construct an algorithm that provides the possibility to express a Feynman integral of a given family as a linear combination of some master integrals. Our approach is based on a generalized Buchberger algorithm for constructing Groebner-type bases associated with polynomials of shift operators. We illustrate it through various examples of reduction problems for families of one- and two-loop Feynman integrals. We also solve the reduction problem for a family of integrals contributing to the three-loop static quark potential.
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vergult Anneleen
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative
Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)
1994-12-31
The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.
Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens F. Beckmann
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the
On the Impact of using Mixed Integer Programming Techniques on Real-world Offshore Wind Parks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David
2017-01-01
Wind power is a leading technology in the transition to sustainable energy. Being a new and still more competitive field, it is of major interest to investigate new techniques to solve the design challenges involved. In this paper, we consider optimization of the inter-array cable routing...... optimization problem considers two objectives: minimizing immediate costs (CAPEX) and minimizing costs due to power losses. This makes it possible to perform various what-if analyses to evaluate the impact of different preferences to CAPEX versus reduction of power losses. Thanks to the close collaboration...... with a leading energy company, we have been able to report results on a set of real-world instances, based on six existing wind parks, studying the economical impact of considering power losses in the cable routing design phase....
Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão
2013-01-01
such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....
Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.
2003-01-01
Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world....... In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo...
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.
SOLVING THE HAMILTONIAN CYCLE PROBLEM USING SYMBOLIC DETERMINANTS
Ejov, V.; Filar, J. A.; Lucas, S. K.; Nelson, J. L.
2006-01-01
In this note we show how the Hamiltonian Cycle problem can be reduced to solving a system of polynomial equations related to the adjacency matrix of a graph. This system of equations can be solved using the method of Gröbner bases, but we also show how a symbolic determinant related to the adjacency matrix can be used to directly decide whether a graph has a Hamiltonian cycle.
Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinin, A.A.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.
1987-01-01
A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems
EISPACK-J: subprogram package for solving eigenvalue problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Toichiro; Tsutsui, Tsuneo
1979-05-01
EISPACK-J, a subprogram package for solving eigenvalue problems, has been developed and subprograms with a variety of functions have been prepared. These subprograms can solve standard problems of complex matrices, general problems of real matrices and special problems in which only the required eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated. They are compared to existing subprograms, showing their features through benchmark tests. Many test problems, including realistic scale problems, are provided for the benchmark tests. Discussions are made on computer core storage and computing time required for each subprogram, and accuracy of the solution. The results show that the subprograms of EISPACK-J, based on Householder, QR and inverse iteration methods, are the best in computing time and accuracy. (author)
Problem Solving in Physics: Undergraduates' Framing, Procedures, and Decision Making
Modir, Bahar
In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I
Nasution, M. L.; Yerizon, Y.; Gusmiyanti, R.
2018-04-01
One of the purpose mathematic learning is to develop problem solving abilities. Problem solving is obtained through experience in questioning non-routine. Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities required an appropriate strategy in learning activities one of them is models problem based learning (PBL). Thus, the purpose of this research is to determine whether the problem solving abilities of mathematical students’ who learn to use PBL better than on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. This research included quasi experiment with static group design and population is students class XI MIA SMAN 1 Lubuk Alung. Class experiment in the class XI MIA 5 and class control in the class XI MIA 6. The instrument of final test students’ mathematical problem solving used essay form. The result of data final test in analyzed with t-test. The result is students’ mathematical problem solving abilities with PBL better then on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. It’s seen from the high percentage achieved by the group of students who learn to use PBL for each indicator of students’ mathematical problem solving.
The construction of the representation in solving a physics problem
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Enrique A. Coleoni
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Written solutions of a physics problem provided by high school students in a physics olympiad are analysed. The study was done on the basis of theoretical developments which take into account peculiarities of the understanding of scientific problems. Some errors are typefied according to failures at different levels of the representation process. A categorization is proposed suggesting the possibility of reinterpreting some mistakes made by physics students in problem solving.
Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth
2015-01-01
This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…
Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...
Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students
Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.
2017-04-01
The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the
Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
Ancel, Gulsum
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…
Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.
[Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].
Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit
2008-01-01
Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.
Solving of L0 norm constrained EEG inverse problem.
Xu, Peng; Lei, Xu; Hu, Xiao; Yao, Dezhong
2009-01-01
l(0) norm is an effective constraint used to solve EEG inverse problem for a sparse solution. However, due to the discontinuous and un-differentiable properties, it is an open issue to solve the l(0) norm constrained problem, which is usually instead solved by using some alternative functions like l(1) norm to approximate l(0) norm. In this paper, a continuous and differentiable function having the same form as the transfer function of Butterworth low-pass filter is introduced to approximate l(0) norm constraint involved in EEG inverse problem. The new approximation based approach was compared with l(1) norm and LORETA solutions on a realistic head model using simulated sources. The preliminary results show that this alternative approximation to l(0) norm is promising for the estimation of EEG sources with sparse distribution.
Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...
Education: 1. Creativity and Problem Finding/Solving in Art
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Rusu Marinela
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Creativity is a complex process that invites to action, both the conscious and the unconscious mind. The work proposed by us puts into question a new aspect of the process of creativity: finding and solving problems, inserting the cognitive and ideational elements into the artistic creative process. Artistic personality represents a complex interaction between diverse psychological factors: intellectual (lateral, creative-thinking and convergent thinking and nonintellectual factors (temperament, character, motivation, affectivity, abyssal factors, special aptitudes. To these are added also, the biological factors (heredity, age, gender, mental health and social factors (economical condition, historical epoch, socio-cultural conditions. In the same time, the artist's success also appears to be linked to his ability to find and solve new problems in artistic themes, to his ability to correctly formulate questions, and then to find original, genuine answers. This paper explains the link between the multitude of solved problems and the artistic success.
A "feasible direction" search for Lineal Programming problem solving
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Jaime U Malpica Angarita
2003-07-01
Full Text Available The study presents an approach to solve linear programming problems with no artificial variables. A primal linear minimization problem is standard form and its associated dual linear maximization problem are used. Initially, the dual (or a partial dual program is solved by a "feasible direction" search, where the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions help to verify its optimality and then its feasibility. The "feasible direction" search exploits the characteristics of the convex polyhedron (or prototype formed by the dual program constraints to find a starting point and then follows line segments, whose directions are found in afine subspaces defined by boundary hyperplanes of polyhedral faces, to find next points up to the (an optimal one. Them, the remaining dual constraints not satisfaced at that optimal dual point, if there are any, are handled as nonbasic variables of the primal program, which is to be solved by such "feasible direction" search.
Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability
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Gligorović Milica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.
Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals.
Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna
2017-04-01
Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in seeking information. Educators in public health
Creative Brains: Designing in the Real World
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Vinod eGoel
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The process of designing artifacts is a creative activity. It is proposed that, at the cognitive level, one key to understanding design creativity is to understand the array of symbol systems designers utilize. These symbol systems range from being vague, imprecise, abstract, ambiguous, and indeterminate (like conceptual sketches, to being very precise, concrete, unambiguous, and determinate (like contract documents. The former types of symbol systems support associative processes that facilitate lateral (or divergent transformations that broaden the problem space, while the latter types of symbol systems support inference processes facilitating vertical (or convergent transformations that deepen of the problem space. The process of artifact design requires the judicious application of both lateral and vertical transformations. This leads to a dual mechanism model of design problem-solving comprising of an associative engine and an inference engine. It is further claimed that this dual mechanism model is supported by an interesting hemispheric dissociation in human prefrontal cortex. The associative engine and neural structures that support imprecise, ambiguous, abstract, indeterminate representations are lateralized in the right prefrontal cortex, while the inference engine and neural structures that support precise, unambiguous, determinant representations are lateralized in the left prefrontal cortex. At the brain level, successful design of artifacts requires a delicate balance between the two hemispheres of prefrontal cortex.
Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem
Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang
2018-03-01
The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.
Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
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Wenping Zou
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization has been a difficult problem and focus for research in fields of science and engineering. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on artificial bee colony (ABC to deal with multi-objective optimization problems. ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. It uses less control parameters, and it can be efficiently used for solving multimodal and multidimensional optimization problems. Our algorithm uses the concept of Pareto dominance to determine the flight direction of a bee, and it maintains nondominated solution vectors which have been found in an external archive. The proposed algorithm is validated using the standard test problems, and simulation results show that the proposed approach is highly competitive and can be considered a viable alternative to solve multi-objective optimization problems.
Doing physics with scientific notebook a problem solving approach
Gallant, Joseph
2012-01-01
The goal of this book is to teach undergraduate students how to use Scientific Notebook (SNB) to solve physics problems. SNB software combines word processing and mathematics in standard notation with the power of symbolic computation. As its name implies, SNB can be used as a notebook in which students set up a math or science problem, write and solve equations, and analyze and discuss their results. Written by a physics teacher with over 20 years experience, this text includes topics that have educational value, fit within the typical physics curriculum, and show the benefits of using SNB.
A Predictor-Corrector Method for Solving Equilibrium Problems
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Zong-Ke Bao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a predictor-corrector method for solving nonsmooth convex equilibrium problems based on the auxiliary problem principle. In the main algorithm each stage of computation requires two proximal steps. One step serves to predict the next point; the other helps to correct the new prediction. At the same time, we present convergence analysis under perfect foresight and imperfect one. In particular, we introduce a stopping criterion which gives rise to Δ-stationary points. Moreover, we apply this algorithm for solving the particular case: variational inequalities.
Wang, Jing-Jy; Lo, Chi-Hui Kao; Ku, Ya-Lie
2004-11-01
A set of problem solving strategies integrated into nursing process in nursing core courses (PSNP) was developed for students enrolled in a post-RN baccalaureate nursing program (RN-BSN) in a university in Taiwan. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effectiveness of PSNP on students' clinical problem solving abilities. The one-group post-test design with repeated measures was used. In total 114 nursing students with 47 full-time students and 67 part-time students participated in this study. The nursing core courses were undertaken separately in three semesters. After each semester's learning, students would start their clinical practice, and were asked to submit three written nursing process recordings during each clinic. Assignments from the three practices were named post-test I, II, and III sequentially, and provided the data for this study. The overall score of problem solving indicated that score on the post-test III was significantly better than that on post-test I and II, meaning both full-time and part-time students' clinical problem solving abilities improved at the last semester. In conclusion, problem-solving strategies integrated into nursing process designed for future RN-BSN students are recommendable.
Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.
Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M
2018-01-01
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Gender differences in algebraic thinking ability to solve mathematics problems
Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi
2018-05-01
This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Students’ Algebraic Reasonsing In Solving Mathematical Problems With Adversity Quotient
Aryani, F.; Amin, S. M.; Sulaiman, R.
2018-01-01
Algebraic reasoning is a process in which students generalize mathematical ideas from a set of particular instances and express them in increasingly formal and age-appropriate ways. Using problem solving approach to develop algebraic reasoning of mathematics may enhace the long-term learning trajectory of the majority students. The purpose of this research was to describe the algebraic reasoning of quitter, camper, and climber junior high school students in solving mathematical problems. This research used qualitative descriptive method. Subjects were determined by purposive sampling. The technique of collecting data was done by task-based interviews.The results showed that the algebraic reasoning of three students in the process of pattern seeking by identifying the things that are known and asked in a similar way. But three students found the elements of pattern recognition in different ways or method. So, they are generalize the problem of pattern formation with different ways. The study of algebraic reasoning and problem solving can be a learning paradigm in the improve students’ knowledge and skills in algebra work. The goal is to help students’ improve academic competence, develop algebraic reasoning in problem solving.
How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment
Baker, Lisa M.
While theory formation and the relation between theory and data has been investigated in many studies of scientific reasoning, researchers have focused less attention on reasoning about experimental design, even though the experimental design process makes up a large part of real-world scientists' reasoning. The goal of this thesis was to provide a cognitive account of the scientific experimental design process by analyzing experimental design as problem-solving behavior (Newell & Simon, 1972). Three specific issues were addressed: the effect of potential error on experimental design strategies, the role of prior knowledge in experimental design, and the effect of characteristics of the space of alternate hypotheses on alternate hypothesis testing. A two-pronged in vivo/in vitro research methodology was employed, in which transcripts of real-world scientific laboratory meetings were analyzed as well as undergraduate science and non-science majors' design of biology experiments in the psychology laboratory. It was found that scientists use a specific strategy to deal with the possibility of error in experimental findings: they include "known" control conditions in their experimental designs both to determine whether error is occurring and to identify sources of error. The known controls strategy had not been reported in earlier studies with science-like tasks, in which participants' responses to error had consisted of replicating experiments and discounting results. With respect to prior knowledge: scientists and undergraduate students drew on several types of knowledge when designing experiments, including theoretical knowledge, domain-specific knowledge of experimental techniques, and domain-general knowledge of experimental design strategies. Finally, undergraduate science students generated and tested alternates to their favored hypotheses when the space of alternate hypotheses was constrained and searchable. This result may help explain findings of confirmation
Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight.
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Mark Jung-Beeman
2004-04-01
Full Text Available People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an "Aha!" experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1 revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2 revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.
Goodwin, Amanda P.
2016-01-01
This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…
Building problem solving environments with the arches framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV
2009-01-01
The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.