Sample records for solving math word

1. The Impact of Metacognitive Strategies and Self-Regulating Processes of Solving Math Word Problems

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Vula, Eda; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Berisha, Valbona; Saqipi, Blerim; Elezi, Shpetim

2017-01-01

This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners' achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems.…

2. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

OpenAIRE

Eda Vula; Rrezarta Avdyli; Valbona Berisha; Blerim Saqipi; Shpetim Elezi

2017-01-01

This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130) and four classes of fifth ...

3. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training

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Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

2016-01-01

Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012

4. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

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Anton eBoonen

2016-02-01

Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

5. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

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Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

2016-01-01

Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

6. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eda Vula

2017-09-01

Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130 and four classes of fifth graders (N=133 of the elementary cycle from two urban schools of Kosovo, participated in the study. Almost half of the total number of the third and fifth-graderswere exposed to metacognitive instruction. The rest of the learners were included in control classes in which they performed tasks without having been given any specific guidance, based exclusively on traditional methods and respective textbooks. All the learners were tested in math word problems twice, before the intervention and after it. Research findings have shown that metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes that learners use to control their actions, to reason, and to reflect, are one of the main resources that influence their success in solving a math word problem. Although the difference between the pre-test and the post-test resultswas statistically significant solely with the fifth-grade experimental classes, yet an improved performance was observed in third-grade experimental learners’ classes compared to control classes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the end of the study.

7. A broad look at the literature on math word problem-solving interventions for third graders

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Sheri Kingsdorf

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Though research on effective instruction in math word problem solving is prominent at the middle and secondary levels, much less work has been done in elementary grades. In this article, we review the research on varied problem-solving instructional interventions at the third-grade level for students across ability levels. Third grade was chosen as the focus due to the fact that word problem-solving requirements are first introduced into the curriculum and standardized assessment at this point in time. Drawing on quantitative studies using single subject, quasi-experimental, and randomized controlled trial designs, we examine the instructional components and instructional content identified as effective across the 13 studies that met search criteria. Conclusions focus on current understanding of best practices, limitations of the existing research, and important considerations for future research.

8. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

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Banerjee, Banmali

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (pvocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success through careful attention to the creation and labeling of diagrams to represent the mathematics involved in standard word problems. Although Learnertype (ELL, EFLL

9. Cognitive Strategies, Working Memory, and Growth in Word Problem Solving in Children With Math Difficulties.

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Swanson, H Lee; Lussier, Catherine M; Orosco, Michael J

2015-01-01

This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on word problem solving accuracy in children with (n = 100) and without (n = 92) math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grades 2 and 3 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: verbal-only strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), verbal + visual strategies, visual-only strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), or untreated control. Strategy interventions included 20 sessions in both Year 1 and Year 2. The intent-to-treat as well as the "as-treated" analyses showed that treatment effects were significantly moderated by WMC. In general, treatment outcomes were higher when WMC was set to a high rather than low level. When set to a relatively high WMC level, children with MD performed significantly better under visual-only strategy conditions and children without MD performed better under verbal + visual conditions when compared to control conditions. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

10. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities.

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Swanson, H Lee

2015-01-01

This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures.

11. Solving America's Math Problem

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Vigdor, Jacob

2013-01-01

Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…

12. Math word problems for dummies

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Sterling, Mary Jane

2008-01-01

Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

13. It's Not a Math Lesson--We're Learning to Draw! Teachers' Use of Visual Representations in Instructing Word Problem Solving in Sixth Grade of Elementary School

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Boonen, Anton J. H.; Reed, Helen C.; Schoonenboom, Judith; Jolles, Jelle

2016-01-01

Non-routine word problem solving is an essential feature of the mathematical development of elementary school students worldwide. Many students experience difficulties in solving these problems due to erroneous problem comprehension. These difficulties could be alleviated by instructing students how to use visual representations that clarify the…

14. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

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Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534

15. Helping Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Solve Mathematics Word Problems

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Alter, Peter

2012-01-01

The author presents a strategy for helping students with emotional and behavioral disorders become more proficient at solving math word problems. Math word problems require students to go beyond simple computation in mathematics (e.g., adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) and use higher level reasoning that includes recognizing relevant…

16. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.

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Dana Ganor-Stern

17. On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: The role of problem solving strategies.

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Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

2016-01-01

Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18. Three-M in Word Problem Solving

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Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria

2018-01-01

We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…

19. The Use of a Bar Model Drawing to Teach Word Problem Solving to Students with Mathematics Difficulties

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Morin, Lisa L.; Watson, Silvana M. R.; Hester, Peggy; Raver, Sharon

2017-01-01

For students with mathematics difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-solving strategy, bar model drawing, on the mathematical problem-solving skills of students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based…

20. Math Teachers' Attitudes towards Photo Math Application in Solving Mathematical Problem Using Mobile Camera

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2015-01-01

This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…

1. Assessing the Effect of Language Demand in Bundles of Math Word Problems

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Banks, Kathleen; Jeddeeni, Ahmad; Walker, Cindy M.

2016-01-01

Differential bundle functioning (DBF) analyses were conducted to determine whether seventh and eighth grade second language learners (SLLs) had lower probabilities of answering bundles of math word problems correctly that had heavy language demands, when compared to non-SLLs of equal math proficiency. Math word problems on each of four test forms…

2. Does Cognitive Strategy Training on Word Problems Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Children with Math Difficulties?

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Swanson, H. Lee

2014-01-01

Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may…

3. Holistic Mathematics Instruction: Interactive Problem Solving and Real Life Situations Help Learners Understand Math Concepts.

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Archambeault, Betty

1993-01-01

Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)

4. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

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Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

2012-01-01

In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

5. Working memory components as predictors of children's mathematical word problem solving.

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Zheng, Xinhua; Swanson, H Lee; Marcoulides, George A

2011-12-01

6. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

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Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

2015-01-01

Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

7. Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems

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Khoo Jia Sian

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90

8. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The study examined errors students make in solving linear equation word problems with a view to expose the nature of these errors and to make suggestions for classroom teaching. A diagnostic test comprising 10 linear equation word problems, was administered to a sample (n=130) of senior high school first year Home ...

9. Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms

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Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with…

10. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

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Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

2015-01-01

This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…

11. Text Comprehension and Oral Language as Predictors of Word-Problem Solving: Insights into Word-Problem Solving as a Form of Text Comprehension.

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Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Fuchs, Douglas; Seethaler, Pamela M; Martin, BrittanyLee N

2018-01-01

This study was designed to deepen insights on whether word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension (TC) and on the role of language in WPs. A sample of 325 second graders, representing high, average, and low reading and math performance, was assessed on (a) start-of-year TC, WP skill, language, nonlinguistic reasoning, working memory, and foundational skill (word identification, arithmetic) and (b) year-end WP solving, WP-language processing (understanding WP statements, without calculation demands), and calculations. Multivariate, multilevel path analysis, accounting for classroom and school effects, indicated that TC was a significant and comparably strong predictor of all outcomes. Start-of-year language was a significantly stronger predictor of both year-end WP outcomes than of calculations, whereas start-of-year arithmetic was a significantly stronger predictor of calculations than of either WP measure. Implications are discussed in terms of WP solving as a form of TC and a theoretically coordinated approach, focused on language, for addressing TC and WP-solving instruction.

12. Text Comprehension and Oral Language as Predictors of Word-Problem Solving: Insights into Word-Problem Solving as a Form of Text Comprehension

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Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Fuchs, Douglas; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Martin, BrittanyLee N.

2018-01-01

This study was designed to deepen insights on whether word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension (TC) and on the role of language in WPs. A sample of 325 second graders, representing high, average, and low reading and math performance, was assessed on (a) start-of-year TC, WP skill, language, nonlinguistic reasoning, working memory, and foundational skill (word identification, arithmetic) and (b) year-end WP solving, WP-language processing (understanding WP statements, without calculation demands), and calculations. Multivariate, multilevel path analysis, accounting for classroom and school effects, indicated that TC was a significant and comparably strong predictor of all outcomes. Start-of-year language was a significantly stronger predictor of both year-end WP outcomes than of calculations, whereas start-of-year arithmetic was a significantly stronger predictor of calculations than of either WP measure. Implications are discussed in terms of WP solving as a form of TC and a theoretically coordinated approach, focused on language, for addressing TC and WP-solving instruction. PMID:29643723

13. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

kofi.mereku

Development in most areas of life is based on effective knowledge of science and ... Problem solving, as used in mathematics education literature, refers ... word problems, on the other hand, are those linear equation tasks or ... taught LEWPs in the junior high school, many of them reach the senior high school without a.

14. [The application of new technologies to solving maths problems for students with learning disabilities: the 'underwater school'].

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Miranda-Casas, A; Marco-Taverner, R; Soriano-Ferrer, M; Melià de Alba, A; Simó-Casañ, P

2008-01-01

Different procedures have demonstrated efficacy to teach cognitive and metacognitive strategies to problem solving in mathematics. Some studies have used computer-based problem solving instructional programs. To analyze in students with learning disabilities the efficacy of a cognitive strategies training for problem solving, with three instructional delivery formats: a teacher-directed program (T-D), a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program, and a combined program (T-D + CAI). Forty-four children with mathematics learning disabilities, between 8 and 10 years old participated in this study. The children were randomly assigned to one of the three instructional formats and a control group without cognitive strategies training. In the three instructional conditions which were compared all the students learnt problems solving linguistic and visual cognitive strategies trough the self-instructional procedure. Several types of measurements were used for analysing the possible differential efficacy of the three instructional methods implemented: solving problems tests, marks in mathematics, internal achievement responsibility scale, and school behaviours teacher ratings. Our findings show that the T-D training group and the T-D + CAI group improved significantly on math word problem solving and on marks in Maths from pre- to post-testing. In addition, the results indicated that the students of the T-D + CAI group solved more real-life problems and developed more internal attributions compared to both control and CAI groups. Finally, with regard to school behaviours, improvements in school adjustment and learning problems were observed in the students of the group with a combined instructional format (T-D + CAI).

15. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

Science.gov (United States)

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

2015-01-01

This study’s hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension). In spring, they were assessed on WP-specific language comprehension, WPs, and text comprehension. Path analytic mediation analysis indicated that effects of general language comprehension on text comprehension were entirely direct, whereas effects of general language comprehension on WPs were partially mediated by WP-specific language. By contrast, effects of working memory and reasoning operated in parallel ways for both outcomes. PMID:25866461

16. Clock Math — a System for Solving SLEs Exactly

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2013-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a GPU-accelerated hybrid system that solves ill-conditioned systems of linear equations exactly. Exactly means without rounding errors due to using integer arithmetics. First, we scale floating-point numbers up to integers, then we solve dozens of SLEs within different modular arithmetics and then we assemble sub-solutions back using the Chinese remainder theorem. This approach effectively bypasses current CPU floating-point limitations. The system is capable of solving Hilbert’s matrix without losing a single bit of precision, and with a significant speedup compared to existing CPU solvers.

17. Refractive Thinking Profile In Solving Mathematical Problem Reviewed from Students Math Capability

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Maslukha, M.; Lukito, A.; Ekawati, R.

2018-01-01

Refraction is a mental activity experienced by a person to make a decision through reflective thinking and critical thinking. Differences in mathematical capability have an influence on the difference of student’s refractive thinking processes in solving math problems. This descriptive research aims to generate a picture of refractive thinking of students in solving mathematical problems in terms of students’ math skill. Subjects in this study consisted of three students, namely students with high, medium, and low math skills based on mathematics capability test. Data collection methods used are test-based methods and interviews. After collected data is analyzed through three stages that are, condensing and displaying data, data display, and drawing and verifying conclusion. Results showed refractive thinking profiles of three subjects is different. This difference occurs at the planning and execution stage of the problem. This difference is influenced by mathematical capability and experience of each subject.

18. Working memory components that predict word problem solving: Is it merely a function of reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence?

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Fung, Wenson; Swanson, H Lee

2017-07-01

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model. Fluid intelligence was found to moderate the relationship between WM and word problem solving, whereas reading, calculation, and related skills (naming speed, domain-specific knowledge) completely mediated the influence of the executive system on problem-solving accuracy. Our results are consistent with findings suggesting that storage eliminates the predictive contribution of executive WM to various measures Colom, Rebollo, Abad, & Shih (Memory & Cognition, 34: 158-171, 2006). The findings suggest that the storage component of WM, rather than the executive component, has a direct path to higher-order processing in children.

19. Mining EEG with SVM for Understanding Cognitive Underpinnings of Math Problem Solving Strategies.

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Bosch, Paul; Herrera, Mauricio; López, Julio; Maldonado, Sebastián

2018-01-01

We have developed a new methodology for examining and extracting patterns from brain electric activity by using data mining and machine learning techniques. Data was collected from experiments focused on the study of cognitive processes that might evoke different specific strategies in the resolution of math problems. A binary classification problem was constructed using correlations and phase synchronization between different electroencephalographic channels as characteristics and, as labels or classes, the math performances of individuals participating in specially designed experiments. The proposed methodology is based on using well-established procedures of feature selection, which were used to determine a suitable brain functional network size related to math problem solving strategies and also to discover the most relevant links in this network without including noisy connections or excluding significant connections.

20. Mining EEG with SVM for Understanding Cognitive Underpinnings of Math Problem Solving Strategies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Paul Bosch

2018-01-01

Full Text Available We have developed a new methodology for examining and extracting patterns from brain electric activity by using data mining and machine learning techniques. Data was collected from experiments focused on the study of cognitive processes that might evoke different specific strategies in the resolution of math problems. A binary classification problem was constructed using correlations and phase synchronization between different electroencephalographic channels as characteristics and, as labels or classes, the math performances of individuals participating in specially designed experiments. The proposed methodology is based on using well-established procedures of feature selection, which were used to determine a suitable brain functional network size related to math problem solving strategies and also to discover the most relevant links in this network without including noisy connections or excluding significant connections.

1. Threshold Effects of Creative Problem-Solving Attributes on Creativity in the Math Abilities of Taiwanese Upper Elementary Students

OpenAIRE

Lin, Chia-Yi

2017-01-01

This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for t...

2. The precision of mapping between number words and the approximate number system predicts children's formal math abilities.

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Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2016-10-01

Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-mapping accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3. The Precision of Mapping Between Number Words and the Approximate Number System Predicts Children’s Formal Math Abilities

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Libertus, Melissa E.; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2016-01-01

Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive Approximate Number System (ANS), and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Further, by the time they are five years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children’s math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation – mapping accuracy and variability – might each relate to math performance. Here, we address these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. PMID:27348475

4. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

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Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

2013-01-01

This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…

5. Problem representation and mathematical problem solving of students of varying math ability.

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Krawec, Jennifer L

2014-01-01

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in math problem solving among students with learning disabilities (LD, n = 25), low-achieving students (LA, n = 30), and average-achieving students (AA, n = 29). The primary interest was to analyze the processes students use to translate and integrate problem information while solving problems. Paraphrasing, visual representation, and problem-solving accuracy were measured in eighth grade students using a researcher-modified version of the Mathematical Processing Instrument. Results indicated that both students with LD and LA students struggled with processing but that students with LD were significantly weaker than their LA peers in paraphrasing relevant information. Paraphrasing and visual representation accuracy each accounted for a statistically significant amount of variance in problem-solving accuracy. Finally, the effect of visual representation of relevant information on problem-solving accuracy was dependent on ability; specifically, for students with LD, generating accurate visual representations was more strongly related to problem-solving accuracy than for AA students. Implications for instruction for students with and without LD are discussed.

6. Math

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Robertson, William C

2006-01-01

Flummoxed by formulas? Queasy about equations? Perturbed by pi? Now you can stop cursing over calculus and start cackling over Math, the newest volume in Bill Robertson's accurate but amusing Stop Faking It! best sellers. As Robertson sees it, too many people view mathematics as a set of rules to be followed, procedures to memorize, and theorems to apply. This book focuses on the reasoning behind the rules, from math basics all the way up to a brief introduction to calculus.

7. Talking Math, Blogging Math

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Mathews, Linda Marie

2009-01-01

Talking Math, Blogging Math is a curriculum designed to aid middle school Pre- Algebra students' mathematical problem-solving through the use of academic language instruction, explanatory proofs, and online technology (blogging). Talking Math, Blogging Math was implemented over a period of ten weeks during the 2008 - 2009 school year. The school where the curriculum was implemented is a non-traditional classroom-based charter school. The 7th, 8th and 9th grade students attended class twice a ...

8. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

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What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

9. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

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Bae, Young Seh

2013-01-01

Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

10. Model Drawing Strategy for Fraction Word Problem Solving of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities

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Sharp, Emily; Shih Dennis, Minyi

2017-01-01

This study used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of a model drawing strategy (MDS) intervention package on fraction comparing and ordering word problem-solving performance of three Grade 4 students. MDS is a form of cognitive strategy instruction for teaching word problem solving that includes explicit instruction…

11. The Motivation of Secondary School Students in Mathematical Word Problem Solving

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Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo

2014-01-01

Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…

12. The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-Instruction Training on Math Problem-Solving of Intellectually Disabled Students

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2015-12-01

Full Text Available Objectives: The study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of verbal self-instruction training on math problem-solving of intellectually disabled boy students in Tehran Provinces. Methods: The study was a semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. Thirty intellectually disabled boy students were selected randomly through cluster sampling method from 9th grade students. They were assigned to experimental and control group equally. Experimental group participated in 8 sessions and were trained by verbal self-instruction program but control group did not. All students answered to a teacher-made math problem-solving test before and after the training sessions. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: Findings showed that there was a significant difference between two groups according to math problem-solving performance (P<0.002. Discussion: It can conclude that verbal self-instruction training probably leads to promote math problem-solving performance of intellectually disabled boy students.

13. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

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Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.

2014-01-01

Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830

14. Cognition-emotion interactions: Patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

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Kelly eTrezise

2014-07-01

Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry unstable across time subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

15. Threshold Effects of Creative Problem-Solving Attributes on Creativity in the Math Abilities of Taiwanese Upper Elementary Students

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Chia-Yi Lin

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for this study, with the aim of measuring students’ perceptions on their motivation, knowledge, and skills, both in general and in specific domains. Divergent and convergent thinking were also measured. Cluster analyses yielded three creative problem-solving typologies: High, Medium, and Low. The High Attribute group scored significantly higher in the Math Creative Problem-Solving Ability Test than did the Medium Attribute and Low Attribute groups. The results suggest a threshold effect from several attributes—divergent thinking, convergent thinking, motivation, general knowledge and skills, domain-specific knowledge and skills, and environment—on students’ creative problem-solving abilities. Balanced development of attributes may be an important consideration in nurturing creativity in children.

16. Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms

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Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

2012-01-01

Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

17. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

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Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

2015-01-01

Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…

18. Processing of Words Related to the Demands of a Previously Solved Problem

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Kowalczyk Marek

2014-06-01

Full Text Available Earlier research by the author brought about findings suggesting that people in a special way process words related to demands of a problem they previously solved, even when they do not consciously notice this relationship. The findings concerned interference in the task in which the words appeared, a shift in affective responses to them that depended on sex of the participants, and impaired memory of the words. The aim of this study was to replicate these effects and to find out whether they are related to working memory (WM span of the participants, taken as a measure of the individual’s ability to control attention. Participants in the experimental group solved a divergent problem, then performed an ostensibly unrelated speeded affective classification task concerning each of a series of nouns, and then performed an unexpected cued recall task for the nouns. Afterwards, a task measuring WM span was administered. In the control group there was no problem-solving phase. Response latencies for words immediately following problem-related words in the classification task were longer in the experimental than in the control group, but there was no relationship between this effect and WM span. Solving the problem, in interaction with sex of the participants and, independently, with their WM span, influenced affective responses to problem-related words. Recall of these words, however, was not impaired in the experimental group.

19. Effectiveness of Word Solving: Integrating Morphological Problem-Solving within Comprehension Instruction for Middle School Students

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Goodwin, Amanda P.

2016-01-01

This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…

20. Strategies of solving arithmetic word problems in students with learning difficulties in mathematics

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Kalan, Marko

2015-01-01

Problem solving as an important skill is, beside arithmetic, measure and algebra, included in standards of school mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) (NCTM, 2000) and needed as a necessary skill for successfulness in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). Since solving of human problems is connected to the real life, the arithmetic word problems (in short AWP) are an important kind of mathematics tasks in scho...

1. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

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Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

2016-01-01

Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

2. Students' Mathematics Word Problem-Solving Achievement in a Computer-Based Story

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Gunbas, N.

2015-01-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth-grade students' mathematics word problem-solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper-based version of the same story…

3. The Efficacy of Using Diagrams When Solving Probability Word Problems in College

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Beitzel, Brian D.; Staley, Richard K.

2015-01-01

Previous experiments have shown a deleterious effect of visual representations on college students' ability to solve total- and joint-probability word problems. The present experiments used conditional-probability problems, known to be more difficult than total- and joint-probability problems. The diagram group was instructed in how to use tree…

4. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

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Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

2013-01-01

This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

5. The Model Method: Singapore Children's Tool for Representing and Solving Algebraic Word Problems

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Ng, Swee Fong; Lee, Kerry

2009-01-01

Solving arithmetic and algebraic word problems is a key component of the Singapore elementary mathematics curriculum. One heuristic taught, the model method, involves drawing a diagram to represent key information in the problem. We describe the model method and a three-phase theoretical framework supporting its use. We conducted 2 studies to…

6. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

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Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2016-01-01

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

7. Are middle school mathematics teachers able to solve word problems without using variable?

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Gökkurt Özdemir, Burçin; Erdem, Emrullah; Örnek, Tuğba; Soylu, Yasin

2018-01-01

Many people consider problem solving as a complex process in which variables such as x, y are used. Problems may not be solved by only using 'variable.' Problem solving can be rationalized and made easier using practical strategies. When especially the development of children at younger ages is considered, it is obvious that mathematics teachers should solve problems through concrete processes. In this context, middle school mathematics teachers' skills to solve word problems without using variables were examined in the current study. Through the case study method, this study was conducted with 60 middle school mathematics teachers who have different professional experiences in five provinces in Turkey. A test consisting of five open-ended word problems was used as the data collection tool. The content analysis technique was used to analyze the data. As a result of the analysis, it was seen that the most of the teachers used trial-and-error strategy or area model as the solution strategy. On the other hand, the teachers who solved the problems using variables such as x, a, n or symbols such as Δ, □, ○, * and who also felt into error by considering these solutions as without variable were also seen in the study.

8. Student’s thinking process in solving word problems in geometry

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Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

2018-05-01

This research aims to find out the thinking process of seventh grade of Junior High School in solve word problem solving of geometry. This research was descriptive qualitative research. The subject of the research was selected based on sex and differences in mathematical ability. Data collection was done based on student’s work test, interview, and observation. The result of the research showed that there was no difference of thinking process between male and female with high mathematical ability, and there were differences of thinking process between male and female with moderate and low mathematical ability. Also, it was found that male with moderate mathematical ability took a long time in the step of making problem solving plans. While female with moderate mathematical ability took a long time in the step of understanding the problems. The importance of knowing the thinking process of students in solving word problem solving were that the teacher knows the difficulties faced by students and to minimize the occurrence of the same error in problem solving. Teacher could prepare the right learning strategies which more appropriate with student’s thinking process.

9. Students’ Representation in Mathematical Word Problem-Solving: Exploring Students’ Self-efficacy

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Sahendra, A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Fuad, Y.

2018-01-01

This descriptive qualitative research aims at investigating student represented in mathematical word problem solving based on self-efficacy. The research subjects are two eighth graders at a school in Surabaya with equal mathematical ability consisting of two female students with high and low self-efficacy. The subjects were chosen based on the results of test of mathematical ability, documentation of the result of middle test in even semester of 2016/2017 academic year, and results of questionnaire of mathematics word problem in terms of self-efficacy scale. The selected students were asked to do mathematical word problem solving and be interviewed. The result of this study shows that students with high self-efficacy tend to use multiple representations of sketches and mathematical models, whereas students with low self-efficacy tend to use single representation of sketches or mathematical models only in mathematical word problem-solving. This study emphasizes that teachers should pay attention of student’s representation as a consideration of designing innovative learning in order to increase the self-efficacy of each student to achieve maximum mathematical achievement although it still requires adjustment to the school situation and condition.

10. Original article Key factors for successful solving of mathematical word problems in fifth-grade learners

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Marija Kavkler

2014-05-01

Full Text Available BACKGROUND Difficulties in solving mathematical word problems (MWP are one of the most common reasons for weak mathematics performance, and poor mathematical literacy has important implications for an individual’s further education, employment opportunities, mental health and quality of life in today’s modern technological society. The purpose of the study was to examine whether Slovenian good and poor MWP solvers differ in arithmetic knowledge and skills, non-verbal reasoning, pupils’ self-evaluations of MWP abilities, teachers’ assessment of their mathematical knowledge and what strategies fifth- grade learners use in solving MWP. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The larger sample included 233 pupils from 14 fifth-grade classes (mean age 10 years 3 months and 14 teachers. On the basis of the teachers’ opinions and the results of MWP solving two sub-samples of 24 students were formed, good and poor MWP solvers. Several tests were used to determine MWP solving ability, automation of arithmetic facts and procedures as well as Raven’s SPM. Questionnaires for pupils were used to assess pupils’ estimations of MWP tasks’ difficulty, their own ability to solve them and the strategies used. To assess pupils’ knowledge a questionnaire for teachers was used. RESULTS Slovenian 5 th graders in the larger sample generally used very few empirically proven effective cognitive and metacognitive strategies to solve MWP. Pupils with lower achievement in solving MWP, compared to pupils with higher achievement demonstrated significantly less automated arithmetic facts and procedures of the algorithm, less flexible use of arithmetic skills, as well as qualitatively different MWP solving, which is also related to their lower non-verbal reasoning. Teachers’ assessments and pupils’ self-assessments matched the achieved test results. CONCLUSIONS The results exposed important key factors for successful solving of mathematical word problems with

11. Solving Math and Science Problems in the Real World with a Computational Mind

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Olabe, Juan Carlos; Basogain, Xabier; Olabe, Miguel Ángel; Maíz, Inmaculada; Castaño, Carlos

2014-01-01

This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n = 242) was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in…

12. Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind

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Juan Carlos Olabe

2014-07-01

13. Solving the Unknown with Algebra: Poster/Teaching Guide for Pre-Algebra Students. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

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Actuarial Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

"Solving the Unknown with Algebra" is a new math program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and designed to help students practice pre-algebra skills including using formulas, solving for unknowns, and manipulating equations. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation with Scholastic, this program provides…

14. The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.

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Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

2014-06-01

Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

15. Using Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension and Solve a Word Problem

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Tomo Djudin

2017-03-01

Full Text Available This article describes briefly the theories of metacognition and the impacts of metacognitive skills on learning. The differences between cognitive strategy and metacognitive strategy were mentioned. Some strategies to improve students’ meta cognition skills in the classroom explored as well. Based on the theories, two models of metacognitive strategies instruction for deeply understanding in reading textbook and for finding a solution of words physics problem solving were developed. These models will enable students to be independent and strategic learners.

16. Language, arithmetic word problems, and deaf students: Linguistic strategies used to solve tasks

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Zevenbergen, Robyn; Hyde, Merv; Power, Des

2001-12-01

There has been limited examination of the intersection between language and arithmetic in the performance of deaf students, although some previous research has shown that deaf and hearing-impaired1 students are delayed in both their language acquisition and arithmetic performance. This paper examines the performance of deaf and hearing-impaired students in South-East Queensland, Australia, in solving arithmetic word problems. It was found that the subjects' solutions of word problems confirmed trends for hearing students, but that their performance was delayed in comparison. The results confirm other studies where deaf and hearing-impaired students are delayed in their language acquisition and this impacts on their capacity to successfully undertake the resolution of word problems.

17. The effects of stating problems in bilingual students' first and second languages on solving mathematical word problems.

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Bernardo, Allan B I; Calleja, Marissa O

2005-03-01

Researchers have suggested that among bilinguals, solving word problems in mathematics is influenced by linguistic factors (K. Durkin & B. Shire, 1991; L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, & E. De Corte, 2000). Others have suggested that students exhibit a strong tendency to exclude real-world constraints in solving mathematics word problems (L. Verschaffel, E. De Corte, & S. Lasure, 1994). In the present study, the authors explored the effects of stating word problems in either Filipino or English on how Filipino-English bilingual students solved word problems in which the solution required the application of real-world knowledge. The authors asked bilingual students to solve word problems in either their first or second language. For some of the word problems, real-life constraints prevented straightforward application of mathematical procedures. The authors analyzed the students' solutions to determine whether the language of the word problems affected the tendency to apply real-life constraints in the solution. Results showed that the bilingual students (a) rarely considered real-life constraints in their solutions, (b) were more successful in understanding and solving word problems that were stated in their first language, and (c) were more likely to experience failure in finding a solution to problems stated in their second language. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between linguistic and mathematical problem-solving processes among bilinguals.

18. The Algebra Teacher's Activity-a-Day, Grades 6-12 Over 180 Quick Challenges for Developing Math and Problem-Solving Skills

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Thompson, Frances McBroom

2010-01-01

Fun-filled math problems that put the emphasis on problem-solving strategies and reasoning. The Algebra Teacher's Activity-a-Day offers activities for test prep, warm-ups, down time, homework, or just for fun. These unique activities are correlated with national math education standards and emphasize problem-solving strategies and logical reasoning skills. In many of the activities, students are encouraged to communicate their different approaches to other students in the class.: Filled with dozens of quick and fun algebra activities that can be used inside and outside the classroom; Designed

19. Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.

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Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language…

20. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

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Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

2013-01-01

This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

1. When math operations have visuospatial meanings versus purely symbolic definitions: Which solving stages and brain regions are affected?

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Pyke, Aryn A; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

2017-06-01

How does processing differ during purely symbolic problem solving versus when mathematical operations can be mentally associated with meaningful (here, visuospatial) referents? Learners were trained on novel math operations (↓, ↑), that were defined strictly symbolically or in terms of a visuospatial interpretation (operands mapped to dimensions of shaded areas, answer = total area). During testing (scanner session), no visuospatial representations were displayed. However, we expected visuospatially-trained learners to form mental visuospatial representations for problems, and exhibit distinct activations. Since some solution intervals were long (~10s) and visuospatial representations might only be instantiated in some stages during solving, group differences were difficult to detect when treating the solving interval as a whole. However, an HSMM-MVPA process (Anderson and Fincham, 2014a) to parse fMRI data identified four distinct problem-solving stages in each group, dubbed: 1) encode; 2) plan; 3) compute; and 4) respond. We assessed stage-specific differences across groups. During encoding, several regions implicated in general semantic processing and/or mental imagery were more active in visuospatially-trained learners, including: bilateral supramarginal, precuneus, cuneus, parahippocampus, and left middle temporal regions. Four of these regions again emerged in the computation stage: precuneus, right supramarginal/angular, left supramarginal/inferior parietal, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, mental visuospatial representations may not just inform initial problem interpretation (followed by symbolic computation), but may scaffold on-going computation. In the second stage, higher activations were found among symbolically-trained solvers in frontal regions (R. medial and inferior and L. superior) and the right angular and middle temporal gyrus. Activations in contrasting regions may shed light on solvers' degree of use of symbolic versus mental

2. Gender-related effects of contemporary math instruction for low performers on problem solving behaviour

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Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.

2007-01-01

Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty

3. VStops: A Thinking Strategy and Visual Representation Approach in Mathematical Word Problem Solving toward Enhancing STEM Literacy

Science.gov (United States)

Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi

2014-01-01

This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…

4. The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rachel Erbey

2011-07-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

5. Putting Two and Two Together: Middle School Students' Morphological Problem-Solving Strategies for Unknown Words

Science.gov (United States)

Pacheco, Mark B.; Goodwin, Amanda P.

2013-01-01

Adolescents often use root word and affix knowledge to figure out unknown words. Anglin (1993) found that younger readers favor the Part-to-Whole strategy, and Tyler and Nagy (1989) confirmed the importance of root-word knowledge for middle school students. This study seeks to understand the different strategies middle school readers use so that…

6. Penguin Math

Science.gov (United States)

Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

2015-01-01

Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

7. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour.

Science.gov (United States)

Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

2016-06-01

8. Are Middle School Mathematics Teachers Able to Solve Word Problems without Using Variable?

Science.gov (United States)

Gökkurt Özdemir, Burçin; Erdem, Emrullah; Örnek, Tugba; Soylu, Yasin

2018-01-01

Many people consider problem solving as a complex process in which variables such as "x," "y" are used. Problems may not be solved by only using "variable." Problem solving can be rationalized and made easier using practical strategies. When especially the development of children at younger ages is considered, it is…

9. The relation between early constructive play and mathematical word problem solving is mediated by spatial ability. A path analysis in sixth grade students.

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Oostermeijer, M.; Boonen, A.J.H.; Jolles, J.

2014-01-01

The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children's spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children's constructive play and their

10. Enhancing Arithmetic and Word-Problem Solving Skills Efficiently by Individualized Computer-Assisted Practice

Science.gov (United States)

Schoppek, Wolfgang; Tulis, Maria

2010-01-01

The fluency of basic arithmetical operations is a precondition for mathematical problem solving. However, the training of skills plays a minor role in contemporary mathematics instruction. The authors proposed individualization of practice as a means to improve its efficiency, so that the time spent with the training of skills is minimized. As a…

11. GRE math workbook

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

Reflective of the current GRE, this third edition includes a description of the General Math Exam explaining structure, questions types, and scoring, strategies for problem solving, two full-length math sample sections structured to reflect the actual exam, answers thoroughly explained, and more.

12. The Interference of Stereotype Threat with Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies.

Science.gov (United States)

Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.

2001-01-01

Investigated whether stereotype threat would depress college women's math performance. In one test, men outperformed women when solving word problems, though women performed equally when problems were converted into numerical equivalents. In another test, participants solved difficult problems in high or reduced stereotype threat conditions. Women…

13. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yinghui Lai

Full Text Available Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS. We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56 with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA, typical achieving (TA, low achieving (LA, and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD. Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA. MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

14. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

Science.gov (United States)

Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

2015-01-01

Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

15. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

Science.gov (United States)

Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

2015-01-01

Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

16. Effects of computer-based graphic organizers to solve one-step word problems for middle school students with mild intellectual disability: A preliminary study.

Science.gov (United States)

Sheriff, Kelli A; Boon, Richard T

2014-08-01

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-based graphic organizers, using Kidspiration 3© software, to solve one-step word problems. Participants included three students with mild intellectual disability enrolled in a functional academic skills curriculum in a self-contained classroom. A multiple probe single-subject research design (Horner & Baer, 1978) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-based graphic organizers to solving mathematical one-step word problems. During the baseline phase, the students completed a teacher-generated worksheet that consisted of nine functional word problems in a traditional format using a pencil, paper, and a calculator. In the intervention and maintenance phases, the students were instructed to complete the word problems using a computer-based graphic organizer. Results indicated that all three of the students improved in their ability to solve the one-step word problems using computer-based graphic organizers compared to traditional instructional practices. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

Science.gov (United States)

Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

2002-01-01

A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

18. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety

Science.gov (United States)

Libertus, Melissa E.

2018-01-01

Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments. PMID:29718939

19. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Braham, Emily J; Libertus, Melissa E

2018-01-01

Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.

20. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Emily J Braham

Full Text Available Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.

1. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

Science.gov (United States)

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2016-01-01

This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

2. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Brenda RJ Jansen

2016-04-01

Full Text Available This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations. Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521 were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

3. Flight Software Math Library

Science.gov (United States)

McComas, David

2013-01-01

The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

4. Math anxiety and math performance in children: The mediating roles of working memory and math self-concept.

Science.gov (United States)

Justicia-Galiano, M José; Martín-Puga, M Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

2017-12-01

Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept. A total of 167 children aged 8-12 years participated in this study. Children completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children. A series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Results suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

5. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

Science.gov (United States)

Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

2014-12-01

Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

6. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Orly eRubinsten

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

7. Word Problem Wizardry.

Science.gov (United States)

Cassidy, Jack

1991-01-01

Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

8. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Jansen, B.R.J.; Schmitz, E.A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

2016-01-01

This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence

9. A Review of the Effects of Visual-Spatial Representations and Heuristics on Word Problem Solving in Middle School Mathematics

Science.gov (United States)

Kribbs, Elizabeth E.; Rogowsky, Beth A.

2016-01-01

Mathematics word-problems continue to be an insurmountable challenge for many middle school students. Educators have used pictorial and schematic illustrations within the classroom to help students visualize these problems. However, the data shows that pictorial representations can be more harmful than helpful in that they only display objects or…

10. Four and twenty blackbirds : How transcoding ability mediates the relationship between visuospatial working memory and math in a language with inversion

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klaiber, J.D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

2017-01-01

Writing down spoken number words (transcoding) is an ability that is predictive of math performance and related to working memory ability. We analysed these relationships in a large sample of over 25,000 children, from kindergarten to the end of primary school, who solved transcoding items with a

11. Modern maths

CERN Multimedia

Thom,R

1974-01-01

Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

CERN Document Server

Sterling, Mary Jane

2008-01-01

Now, it is easier than ever before to understand complex mathematical concepts and formulas and how they relate to real-world business situations. All you have to do it apply the handy information you will find in Business Math For Dummies. Featuring practical practice problems to help you expand your skills, this book covers topics like using percents to calculate increases and decreases, applying basic algebra to solve proportions, and working with basic statistics to analyze raw data. Find solutions for finance and payroll applications, including reading financial statements, calculating wages and commissions, and strategic salary planning. Navigate fractions, decimals, and percents in business and real estate transactions, and take fancy math skills to work. You'll be able to read graphs and tables and apply statistics and data analysis. You'll discover ways you can use math in finance and payroll investments, banking and payroll, goods and services, and business facilities and operations. You'll learn ho...

13. Math Safari.

Science.gov (United States)

Nelson, Vaunda; Stanko, Anne

1992-01-01

Describes Math Safari, a mathematical, scientific, geographic, informational adventure for fourth grade students. It integrates all curriculum areas and other skills by using information children must find in books to pose math problems about animals. It encourages cooperative learning, critical reading, analysis, and use of research skills. (SM)

14. Math and Humane Education.

Science.gov (United States)

DeRosa, Bill

1986-01-01

Describes an activity designed to improve students' skills at solving mathematical word problems through an awareness of the pet overpopulation problem. Uses the concept of cumulative female offspring as a focal point in assisting students to analyze and work through word problems. (ML)

15. Math Stuff

CERN Document Server

Pappas, Theoni

2002-01-01

Whether it's stuff in your kitchen or garden, stuff that powers your car or your body, stuff that helps you work, communicate or play, or stuff that you've never heard of you can bet that mathematics is there. MATH STUFF brings it all in the open in the Pappas style. Not many people think of mathematics as fascinating, exciting and invaluable. Yet Pappas writes about math ideas in such a way that conveys its often overlooked fascination, excitement, and worth. MATH STUFF deals with 38 topics in an non-threatening way that piques our curiosities. Open the book at random, and learn about such to

16. Detecting math problem solving strategies: an investigation into the use of retrospective self-reports, latency and fMRI data.

Science.gov (United States)

Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

2014-02-01

This research explores how to determine when mathematical problems are solved by retrieval versus computation strategies. Past research has indicated that verbal reports, solution latencies, and neural imaging all provide imperfect indicators of this distinction. Participants in the current study solved mathematical problems involving two distinct problem types, called 'Pyramid' and 'Formula' problems. Participants were given extensive training solving 3 select Pyramid and 3 select Formula problems. Trained problems were highly practiced, whereas untrained problems were not. The distinction between untrained and trained problems was observed in the data. Untrained problems took longer to solve, more often used procedural strategies and showed a greater activation in the horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) when compared to trained problems. A classifier fit to the neural distinction between trained-untrained problems successfully predicted training within and between the two problem types. We employed this classifier to generate a prediction of strategy use. By combining evidence from the classifier, problem solving latencies, and retrospective reports, we predicted the strategy used to solve each problem in the scanner and gained unexpected insight into the distinction between different strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

Science.gov (United States)

Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

2012-12-01

Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

18. Doing physics with scientific notebook a problem solving approach

CERN Document Server

Gallant, Joseph

2012-01-01

The goal of this book is to teach undergraduate students how to use Scientific Notebook (SNB) to solve physics problems. SNB software combines word processing and mathematics in standard notation with the power of symbolic computation. As its name implies, SNB can be used as a notebook in which students set up a math or science problem, write and solve equations, and analyze and discuss their results. Written by a physics teacher with over 20 years experience, this text includes topics that have educational value, fit within the typical physics curriculum, and show the benefits of using SNB.

19. Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102

Science.gov (United States)

Blazer, Christie

2011-01-01

Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…

20. Literacy Specialists in Math Class! Closing the Achievement Gap on State Math Assessments

Science.gov (United States)

DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne

2005-01-01

Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…

1. Numbers and other math ideas come alive

CERN Document Server

Pappas, Theoni

2012-01-01

Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math

2. Americans Need Advanced Math to Stay Globally Competitive. Math Works

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, Inc., 2013

2013-01-01

No student who hopes to compete in today's rapidly evolving global economy and job market can afford to graduate from high school with weak mathematical skills, which include the ability to use logic, reason, and solve problems. The benefits associated with improving the math performance of American students also extend to the larger U.S. economy.…

3. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

2015-01-01

Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

4. Talking Maths

Science.gov (United States)

Murray, Jenny

2006-01-01

Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…

5. Tangible Math

Science.gov (United States)

Scarlatos, Lori L.

2006-01-01

Educators recognize that group work and physical involvement with learning materials can greatly enhance the understanding and retention of difficult concepts. As a result, math manipulatives--such as pattern blocks and number lines--have increasingly been making their way into classrooms and children's museums. Yet without the constant guidance…

6. Math Problem

Science.gov (United States)

Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

2012-01-01

Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…

7. Productive failure in learning math.

Science.gov (United States)

Kapur, Manu

2014-06-01

When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

8. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

Science.gov (United States)

Lamb, Barbara

The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

9. Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A

2007-04-01

The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.

10. Response to intervention in math

CERN Document Server

Riccomini, Paul J

2010-01-01

Boost academic achievement for all students in your mathematics classroom! This timely resource leads the way in applying RTI to mathematics instruction. The authors describe how the three tiers can be implemented in specific math areas and illustrate RTI procedures through case studies. Aligned with the NMAP final report and IES practice guide, this book includes: Intervention strategies for number sense, fractions, problem solving, and more Procedures for teaching math using systematic and explicit instruction for assessment, instructional planning, and evaluation Essential components to con

11. Counseling the Math Anxious

Science.gov (United States)

1977-01-01

Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)

12. Language and modeling word problems in mathematics among bilinguals.

Science.gov (United States)

Bernardo, Allan B I

2005-09-01

The study was conducted to determine whether the language of math word problems would affect how Filipino-English bilingual problem solvers would model the structure of these word problems. Modeling the problem structure was studied using the problem-completion paradigm, which involves presenting problems without the question. The paradigm assumes that problem solvers can infer the appropriate question of a word problem if they correctly grasp its problem structure. Arithmetic word problems in Filipino and English were given to bilingual students, some of whom had Filipino as a first language and others who had English as a first language. The problem-completion data and solution data showed similar results. The language of the problem had no effect on problem-structure modeling. The results were discussed in relation to a more circumscribed view about the role of language in word problem solving among bilinguals. In particular, the results of the present study showed that linguistic factors do not affect the more mathematically abstract components of word problem solving, although they may affect the other components such as those related to reading comprehension and understanding.

13. Basic math and pre-algebra practice problems for dummies

CERN Document Server

Zegarelli, Mark

2013-01-01

1001 Basic Math & Pre- Algebra Practice Problems For  Dummies   Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of basic math and pre-algebra 1001 Basic Math & Pre-Algebra Practice Problems For Dummies, with free access to online practice problems, takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Basic Math & Pre-Algebra For Dummies, giving you 1,001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your math course. You begin with some basic arithmetic practice, move on to fractions, decimals, and per

14. Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction

Science.gov (United States)

Shields, Darla J.

2007-01-01

To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…

15. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability

Science.gov (United States)

Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

2014-01-01

Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971

16. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

OpenAIRE

Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

2015-01-01

Children?s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...

17. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

Science.gov (United States)

Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

2013-01-01

This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

18. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

CERN Document Server

Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

2008-01-01

The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

19. The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School

Science.gov (United States)

Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

2014-01-01

The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

20. Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gerry Stahl

2010-06-01

Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies the online math discourse that takes place during sessions of virtual math teams working on open-ended problem-solving tasks. In particular, it investigates methods of group cognition that are employed by teams in this setting. The VMT environment currently integrates social networking, synchronous text chat, a shared whiteboard for drawing, web browsers and an asynchronous wiki for exchanging findings within the larger community. A simple version of MathML is supported in the whiteboard, chat and wiki for displaying mathematical expressions. The VMT Project is currently integrating the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra, into its collaboration environment. This will create a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with the chat, web browsers, curricular topics and wiki repository.

1. The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod

2012-05-01

Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

2. Symbolic math for computation of radiation shielding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suman, Vitisha; Datta, D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

2010-01-01

Radiation transport calculations for shielding studies in the field of accelerator technology often involve intensive numerical computations. Traditionally, radiation transport equation is solved using finite difference scheme or advanced finite element method with respect to specific initial and boundary conditions suitable for the geometry of the problem. All these computations need CPU intensive computer codes for accurate calculation of scalar and angular fluxes. Computation using symbols of the analytical expression representing the transport equation as objects is an enhanced numerical technique in which the computation is completely algorithm and data oriented. Algorithm on the basis of symbolic math architecture is developed using Symbolic math toolbox of MATLAB software. Present paper describes the symbolic math algorithm and its application as a case study in which shielding calculation of rectangular slab geometry is studied for a line source of specific activity. Study of application of symbolic math in this domain evolves a new paradigm compared to the existing computer code such as DORT. (author)

3. Short-cut math

CERN Document Server

Kelly, Gerard W

1984-01-01

Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

4. The Value of the Math Circle for Gifted Middle School Students

Science.gov (United States)

Burns, Barbara; Henry, Julie; McCarthy, Dianne; Tripp, Jennifer

2017-01-01

Math Circles are designed to allow students to explore mathematics using a problem-solving/inquiry approach. Many of the students attending our Math Circle are mathematically talented and curious. This study examines the perspectives of the students and their families in determining why students attend Math Circle, what they enjoy about Math…

5. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

OpenAIRE

Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

2015-01-01

Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, Inc., 2013

2013-01-01

The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…

7. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sarah eWu

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA, a new measure for assessing math anxiety in 2nd and 3rd graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II. Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were significantly correlated with scores on the Math Reasoning subtest, which involves more complex verbal problem solving, but not with the Numerical Operations subtest which assesses basic computation skills. Our results suggest that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. Our results further suggest that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.

8. Teaching Math Their Way.

Science.gov (United States)

Tankersley, Karen

1993-01-01

Teachers at a K-8 urban school in Phoenix, Arizona, worked to develop an effective math program that generated student interest and positive self-esteem. They eventually set aside classroom and large enclosed porch area to house math manipulative lab, where children could learn new concepts at concrete level. Results are excitement about math and…

9. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

Science.gov (United States)

González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

2016-01-01

Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

10. Maths in Prison

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Catherine Patricia Byrne

2015-08-01

Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

11. Some words on Word

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

12. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

2012-01-01

Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement

13. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals.

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

2017-12-01

Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

14. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

Science.gov (United States)

Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

2015-01-01

Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

15. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.

16. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

Science.gov (United States)

Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

2008-01-01

Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

17. Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers

Science.gov (United States)

Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.

2017-09-01

Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.

18. Development of a Web Application: Recording Learners' Mouse Trajectories and Retrieving their Study Logs to Identify the Occurrence of Hesitation in Solving Word-Reordering Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mitsumasa Zushi

2014-04-01

Full Text Available Most computer marking systems evaluate the results of the answers reached by learners without looking into the process by which the answers are produced, which will be insufficient to ascertain learners' understanding level because correct answers may well include lucky hunches, namely accidentally correct but not confident answers. In order to differentiate these lucky answers from confident correct ones, we have developed a Web application that can record mouse trajectories during the performance of tasks. Mathematical analyses of these trajectories have revealed that some parameters for mouse movements can be useful indicators to identify the occurrence of hesitation resulting from lack of knowledge or confidence in solving problems.

19. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

Science.gov (United States)

Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

2010-02-02

People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

20. Maths in Prison

OpenAIRE

Catherine Patricia Byrne

2015-01-01

I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...

1. Maths in Prison

OpenAIRE

Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael

2015-01-01

I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...

Science.gov (United States)

Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

1984-01-01

Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

3. GRE math tests

CERN Document Server

Kolby, Jeff

2014-01-01

Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Butgereit, L

2012-10-01

Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....

5. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

Science.gov (United States)

Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

2015-01-01

Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

6. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-11-01

Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

Science.gov (United States)

Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

2015-01-01

Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

8. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

2013-01-01

It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

9. Barron's SAT math workbook

CERN Document Server

Leff MS, Lawrence S

2016-01-01

This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.

10. String Math 2017

CERN Document Server

The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.

11. The Influence of Experiencing Success in Math on Math Anxiety, Perceived Math Competence, and Math Performance

Science.gov (United States)

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

2013-01-01

It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…

12. Fifth and Sixth Grade Students' Deficiencies on Word Problem Solving and Failures in the Problem Solving Process [Beşinci ve Altıncı Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Sözel Problemleri Çözme Konusundaki Yetersizlikleri ve Problem Çözümlerindeki Hataları

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dilek Sezgin Memnun

2014-08-01

Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the deficiencies of secondary school fifth- and sixth-grade students on word problem solving and their failures in this process. For this purpose, four separate word problems were asked to the students and their written answers were taken at the implementation process. The analysis of the data suggests that a significant part of these secondary school students had deficiencies during word problem solving and their failures in this process. Moreover, these deficiencies and failures were reported to be related to the understanding of word problems and the planning for solutions in the solving process. In addition, it was found that the fifth- and sixth- grade students rarely attempted to use drawing in order to solve the word problems. They mostly had deficiencies in deciding which arithmetic operations to be used while approaching the problems and they had failures at their arithmetic operations. [Bu araştırmada, ortaokul beşinci ve altıncı sınıf öğrencilerinin sözel problemleri çözme konusundaki yetersizlikleri ile bu tür problem çözümlerindeki hatalarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, beşinci ve altıncı sınıf öğrencilerine dört farklı sözel problem sorulmuş ve cevapları yazılı olarak alınmıştır. Ulaşılan verilerin analizi, ortaokul öğrencilerinin önemli bir kısmının sözel problemleri çözme konusunda yetersizlikleri ve problem çözümlerinde hataları bulunduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca, bu yetersizlik ve hatalarının çoğunlukla problem çözme süreci kapsamında problemin anlaşılması ve çözüm için plan yapma aşamalarına ilişkin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bununla birlikte, beşinci ve altıncı sınıf öğrencilerinin sözel problem çözümlerinde şekil çizmeye çok az yer verdikleri anlaşılmıştır. Öğrenciler problemlere yaklaşımlarında kullanacakları uygun aritmetik işlemlere karar vermede çoğunlukla yetersiz

13. Signal Words

Science.gov (United States)

SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

14. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

Science.gov (United States)

Helming, Luralyn

2013-01-01

The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

15. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

2017-11-01

Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

OpenAIRE

Su?rez-Pellicioni, Macarena; N??ez-Pe?a, Maria Isabel; Colom?, ?ngels

2015-01-01

Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present s...

17. Math in plain english literacy strategies for the mathematics classroom

CERN Document Server

Benjamin, Amy

2013-01-01

Do word problems and math vocabulary confuse students in your mathematics classes? Do simple keywords like ""value"" and ""portion"" seem to mislead them? Many words that students already know can have a different meaning in mathematics. To grasp that difference, students need to connect English literacy skills to math. Successful students speak, read, write, and listen to each other so they can understand, retain, and apply mathematics concepts. This book explains how to use 10 classroom-ready literacy strategies in concert with your mathematics instruction. You'll learn how to develop stude

18. The Effects of Math Anxiety

Science.gov (United States)

Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

2015-01-01

Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

19. SAT math prep course

CERN Document Server

Kolby, Jeff

2011-01-01

Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

20. More math into Latex

CERN Document Server

Grätzer, George

2007-01-01

For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr

1. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

Science.gov (United States)

Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

2009-01-01

One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

2. A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults

Science.gov (United States)

Hocker, Tami

2017-01-01

This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…

3. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

Science.gov (United States)

Leamnson, Robert N.

1996-01-01

Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

4. Using Computer Symbolic Algebra to Solve Differential Equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Mathews, John H.

1989-01-01

This article illustrates that mathematical theory can be incorporated into the process to solve differential equations by a computer algebra system, muMATH. After an introduction to functions of muMATH, several short programs for enhancing the capabilities of the system are discussed. Listed are six references. (YP)

5. Doing words together

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

6. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

Science.gov (United States)

Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

2010-01-01

Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

7. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

Science.gov (United States)

Yikmis, Ahmet

2016-01-01

This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

8. Getting Started with The Math Forum Problems of the Week Library. Teacher's Guide

Science.gov (United States)

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

The Math Forum Problems of the Week Library is designed to leverage the power of interactive technology to hold student interest while increasing their success as strategic thinkers. The Math Forum Library is an online source of non-routine challenges in which problem solving and mathematical communication are key elements of every problem. This…

9. Tutoring math platform accessible for visually impaired people.

Science.gov (United States)

Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland

2018-04-01

There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood.

Science.gov (United States)

Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

2015-01-01

Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

11. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guy eBosmans

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (Mage = 10.34 years; SDage = 0.63 filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

12. Math in Action. Hands-On, Minds-On Math.

Science.gov (United States)

Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Stupiansky, Nicholas G.

1998-01-01

Hands-on math must also involve students' minds in creative thinking. Math manipulatives must be used for uncovering, not just discovering. This paper presents guidelines for planning hands-on, minds-on math for elementary students. Suggestions include dialoging, questioning, integrating manipulatives and other tools, writing, and evaluating. (SM)

13. An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.

Science.gov (United States)

Schussheim, Joan Yares

1980-01-01

A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)

14. Culture and math.

Science.gov (United States)

Tcheang, Lili

2014-01-01

Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.

15. Approximate Arithmetic Training Improves Informal Math Performance in Low Achieving Preschoolers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Emily Szkudlarek

2018-05-01

Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that practice with approximate and non-symbolic arithmetic problems improves the math performance of adults, school aged children, and preschoolers. However, the relative effectiveness of approximate arithmetic training compared to available educational games, and the type of math skills that approximate arithmetic targets are unknown. The present study was designed to (1 compare the effectiveness of approximate arithmetic training to two commercially available numeral and letter identification tablet applications and (2 to examine the specific type of math skills that benefit from approximate arithmetic training. Preschool children (n = 158 were pseudo-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: approximate arithmetic, letter identification, or numeral identification. All children were trained for 10 short sessions and given pre and post tests of informal and formal math, executive function, short term memory, vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, and number word knowledge. We found a significant interaction between initial math performance and training condition, such that children with low pretest math performance benefited from approximate arithmetic training, and children with high pretest math performance benefited from symbol identification training. This effect was restricted to informal, and not formal, math problems. There were also effects of gender, socio-economic status, and age on post-test informal math score after intervention. A median split on pretest math ability indicated that children in the low half of math scores in the approximate arithmetic training condition performed significantly better than children in the letter identification training condition on post-test informal math problems when controlling for pretest, age, gender, and socio-economic status. Our results support the conclusion that approximate arithmetic training may be especially effective for children with low math skills, and that

16. Approximate Arithmetic Training Improves Informal Math Performance in Low Achieving Preschoolers.

Science.gov (United States)

Szkudlarek, Emily; Brannon, Elizabeth M

2018-01-01

Recent studies suggest that practice with approximate and non-symbolic arithmetic problems improves the math performance of adults, school aged children, and preschoolers. However, the relative effectiveness of approximate arithmetic training compared to available educational games, and the type of math skills that approximate arithmetic targets are unknown. The present study was designed to (1) compare the effectiveness of approximate arithmetic training to two commercially available numeral and letter identification tablet applications and (2) to examine the specific type of math skills that benefit from approximate arithmetic training. Preschool children ( n = 158) were pseudo-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: approximate arithmetic, letter identification, or numeral identification. All children were trained for 10 short sessions and given pre and post tests of informal and formal math, executive function, short term memory, vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, and number word knowledge. We found a significant interaction between initial math performance and training condition, such that children with low pretest math performance benefited from approximate arithmetic training, and children with high pretest math performance benefited from symbol identification training. This effect was restricted to informal, and not formal, math problems. There were also effects of gender, socio-economic status, and age on post-test informal math score after intervention. A median split on pretest math ability indicated that children in the low half of math scores in the approximate arithmetic training condition performed significantly better than children in the letter identification training condition on post-test informal math problems when controlling for pretest, age, gender, and socio-economic status. Our results support the conclusion that approximate arithmetic training may be especially effective for children with low math skills, and that approximate arithmetic

17. Mathematical Tasks without Words and Word Problems: Perceptions of Reluctant Problem Solvers

Science.gov (United States)

Holbert, Sydney Margaret

2013-01-01

This qualitative research study used a multiple, holistic case study approach (Yin, 2009) to explore the perceptions of reluctant problem solvers related to mathematical tasks without words and word problems. Participants were given a choice of working a mathematical task without words or a word problem during four problem-solving sessions. Data…

18. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ian M Lyons

Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

19. When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math

Science.gov (United States)

Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.

2012-01-01

Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs’ feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation – such as pain – about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one’s math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths. PMID:23118929

20. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

Science.gov (United States)

Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

2012-01-01

Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

1. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

Science.gov (United States)

Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

2016-01-01

In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

2. Is Math Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning? The Role of Math Motivation.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A

2015-12-01

The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

Science.gov (United States)

Merchant, Ronald

1980-01-01

Describes a new course at Spokane Falls Community College which builds on and reviews basic business math and electronic calculator skills. Material is self-paced and includes work with metrics. Discusses student evaluation of the course and type of equipment used. (CT)

4. Where's the Math?

Science.gov (United States)

Texas Child Care, 2003

2003-01-01

Offers examples of materials and activities that promote and guide math-learning opportunities in all areas of the classroom. Materials and activities relate to: (1) art center; (2) science and discovery center; (3) blocks; (4) library and writing centers; (5) music and movement; (6) manipulatives; (7) dramatic play; (8) outdoor play; and (9)…

5. Understand electrical and electronics maths

CERN Document Server

Bishop, Owen

1993-01-01

Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

6. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

Science.gov (United States)

Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

2009-01-01

The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630

7. Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us

CERN Document Server

Fernandez, Oscar E

2014-01-01

Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia

8. Learning Math at Home. Making the Parent Connection! Leader Guide.

Science.gov (United States)

Moke, Susan, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

This manual is a resource book for organizers and leaders and parent groups who want to explore specific strategies to use to encourage children to view math as a "user-friendly" subject. The guide contains material necessary to conduct a 1- or 1.5-hour session to help parents see the importance of: showing their children how problem-solving math…

9. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

2011-01-01

The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

10. Teachers and Counselors: Building Math Confidence in Schools

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joseph M. Furner

2017-08-01

Full Text Available Mathematics teachers need to take on the role of counselors in addressing the math anxious in today's math classrooms. This paper looks at the impact math anxiety has on the future of young adults in our high-tech society. Teachers and professional school counselors are encouraged to work together to prevent and reduce math anxiety. It is important that all students feel confident in their ability to do mathematics in an age that relies so heavily on problem solving, technology, science, and mathematics. It really is a school's obligation to see that their students value and feel confident in their ability to do math, because ultimately a child's life: all decisions they will make and careers choices may be determined based on their disposition toward mathematics. This paper raises some interesting questions and provides some strategies (See Appendix A for teachers and counselors for addressing the issue of math anxiety while discussing the importance of developing mathematically confident young people for a high-tech world of STEM.

11. String-math 2012

CERN Document Server

Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R

2015-01-01

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.

12. Technical Math For Dummies

CERN Document Server

Schoenborn, Barry

2010-01-01

Technical Math For Dummies is your one-stop, hands-on guide to acing the math courses youâ€™ll encounter as you work toward getting your degree, certifacation, or�license in the skilled trades. Youâ€™ll get easy-to-follow, plain-English guidance on mathematical formulas and methods that professionals use every day in the automotive, health, construction, licensed trades, maintenance, and other trades. Youâ€™ll learn how to apply concepts of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry and their formulas related to occupational areas of study. Plus, youâ€™ll find out how to perform basic arithmetic

13. Contact dynamics math model

Science.gov (United States)

Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

1986-01-01

The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

14. Learning Math With My Father: A Memoir

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yolanda De La CRUZ

2012-07-01

Full Text Available If he is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the house of his wisdom, but rather leads you to the threshold of your own mind. Kahlil Gibran. We all build our own houses of wisdom, each of us; we cannot build them for each other. Teachers cannot simply invite students into their houses of wisdom, but can often find ways to help learners to enter and explore their own minds. While Constructivism has had a positive impact on the teaching and learning of literacy mathematics instruction continues to rely heavily on rote memorization and drills. As a young child, I learned to love math. My love of math stems from learning math with my father. He did not focus on rote memorization and drills. The primary emphasis was for a real purpose. My self-confidence was enforced when he started me out with problems that were less difficult and had many different solutions. These solutions were valued and respected, which allowed me to trust in my own problem solving abilities. How can we hope to lead children to the thresholds of their own minds when we remain intent on forcing them into our houses of wisdom? What alternative ways can we devise of interacting with children that respect their confidence and leave intact their levels of understanding, that lead them to the thresholds of their own minds excited about entering?

15. All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, Inc., 2013

2013-01-01

This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…

16. Financial Statement Math

OpenAIRE

2007-01-01

game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis

17. MathSci

OpenAIRE

De Robbio, Antonella

1997-01-01

This paper shows the prestigious mathematics database MathSci, produced by American Mathematical Society (AMS). It is an indexing resource that deals with the whole literature about mathematics. The subject involved in referred to mathematical sciences and others relating such as Statistics, Information science, Operative research and Mathematics Physics. Moreover it indexes sciences related to applied mathematics such as Astronomy, Astrophysics, Biology, Compartmental Sciences, Thermodyn...

18. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

2015-01-01

Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

19. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

Science.gov (United States)

Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

2015-01-01

Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

20. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elizabeth A Necka

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be

1. Word classes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rijkhoff, Jan

2007-01-01

in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

2. New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

Science.gov (United States)

Suzuki, Masakazu; Terada, Yugo; Kanahori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito

2015-01-01

New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dyslexic.

3. An Exploration of the Relationships among Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory-Aligned Cognitive Abilities and Math Fluency

Science.gov (United States)

Piselli, Katherine D.

2017-01-01

Math fluency, which refers to the ability to solve single digit arithmetic problems quickly and accurately, is a foundational mathematical skill. Recent research has examined the role of phonological processing, executive control, and number sense in explaining differences in math fluency performance in school-aged children. Identifying the links…

4. Advanced Math: Closing the Equity Gap. Math Works

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, Inc., 2013

2013-01-01

Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…

5. Early Math Interest and the Development of Math Skills

Science.gov (United States)

Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.

2012-01-01

Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…

6. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

Science.gov (United States)

Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

2009-01-01

Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

7. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

Science.gov (United States)

Devine, Matthew T.

2013-01-01

In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

8. Remediation of Childhood Math Anxiety and Associated Neural Circuits through Cognitive Tutoring.

Science.gov (United States)

Supekar, Kaustubh; Iuculano, Teresa; Chen, Lang; Menon, Vinod

2015-09-09

Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction that is characterized by feelings of stress and anxiety in situations involving mathematical problem solving. High math-anxious individuals tend to avoid situations involving mathematics and are less likely to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math-related careers than those with low math anxiety. Math anxiety during childhood, in particular, has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. Identifying cognitive interventions and brain mechanisms by which math anxiety can be ameliorated in children is therefore critical. Here we investigate whether an intensive 8 week one-to-one cognitive tutoring program designed to improve mathematical skills reduces childhood math anxiety, and we identify the neurobiological mechanisms by which math anxiety can be reduced in affected children. Forty-six children in grade 3, a critical early-onset period for math anxiety, participated in the cognitive tutoring program. High math-anxious children showed a significant reduction in math anxiety after tutoring. Remarkably, tutoring remediated aberrant functional responses and connectivity in emotion-related circuits anchored in the basolateral amygdala. Crucially, children with greater tutoring-induced decreases in amygdala reactivity had larger reductions in math anxiety. Our study demonstrates that sustained exposure to mathematical stimuli can reduce math anxiety and highlights the key role of the amygdala in this process. Our findings are consistent with models of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders and have the potential to inform the early treatment of a disability that, if left untreated in childhood, can lead to significant lifelong educational and socioeconomic consequences in affected individuals. Significance statement: Math anxiety during early childhood has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. It is therefore important to identify ways to alleviate

9. Math primer for engineers

CERN Document Server

Cryer, CW

2014-01-01

Mathematics and engineering are inevitably interrelated, and this interaction will steadily increase as the use of mathematical modelling grows. Although mathematicians and engineers often misunderstand one another, their basic approach is quite similar, as is the historical development of their respective disciplines. The purpose of this Math Primer is to provide a brief introduction to those parts of mathematics which are, or could be, useful in engineering, especially bioengineering. The aim is to summarize the ideas covered in each subject area without going into exhaustive detail. Formula

10. Challenges in Math.

Science.gov (United States)

Feng, Chengde

1992-01-01

Fourteen mathematics problems from the 1987 Chinese Primary School Mathematics Examination for fifth and sixth grade students are presented. The word problems, accompanied by answers, involve algebra, division, ratios, areas, and other mathematical processes. (JDD)

11. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. M. Barabash

2016-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

12. Math Education at a Crossroads

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Markvorsen, Steen

With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...

13. Math Learning Begins at Home

Science.gov (United States)

Eason, Sarah H.; Levine, Susan C.

2017-01-01

Children demonstrate gaps in the math knowledge that they possess by the time they begin school, and these gaps have been found to predict long-term outcomes not only in math but also in reading. Consequently, it is important to identify what accounts for these early differences and how they can be addressed to ensure that all children enter…

14. From Mxit to Dr Math

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

2013-02-01

Full Text Available In 2007, Laurie Butgereit, a researcher at the CSIR Meraka Institute, started to use Mxit as a communication channel to tutor her son in mathematics. Her son and a number of his friends logged in, and Dr Math was born. At the inception of Dr Math...

15. What Math Teachers Need Most

Science.gov (United States)

Nelson, Barbara Scott; Sassi, Annette

2007-01-01

The combination of new instructional methods and new accountability pressures puts many in a quandary in evaluating math instruction. There is much for principals to learn about how and under what conditions new instructional methods work in math classrooms, how to support teachers as they develop new instructional skills, and how to integrate a…

16. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

Science.gov (United States)

Sparks, Sarah D.

2011-01-01

Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

17. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

Science.gov (United States)

Boso, Annie

2011-01-01

An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

18. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

Science.gov (United States)

Quinn, Reginald

2013-01-01

The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

19. Learning words

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

2006-01-01

Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

20. Effects of 6 weeks motor-enrichment-intervention to improve math performance in preadolescent children

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wienecke, Jacob; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

al., 2015). We conducted a six-week cluster-randomized intervention study of motor-enriched mathematics for Danish schoolchildren (n= 148, age= 7.5 ± 0.02). We investigated whether low intensity motor activity congruently integrated during solving of math problems could enhance math performance....... Three groups were included: 1) Control group with normal math teaching, CON (used pencil, paper but refrained from additional motor activity). 2) Fine-motor-enriched-group, FM (motor-manipulating LEGO bricks integrated in the lessons). 3) Gross-motor-enriched-group, GM (full-body movements integrated...... in the lessons). In FM and GM, all math classes (six lessons pr. week) had motor activity integrated in the math lessons and the teachers of all groups followed a detailed description for the conduction of the lessons. This aimed at ensuring homogeneity between groups concerning the taught themes. The children...

1. The math excellence workshop

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lasser, Susan J.S.; Snelsire, Robert W.

1992-01-01

This paper describes the first two years of the Clemson University College of Engineering's Math Excellence Workshop, a program administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Savannah River Site, and funded by the Department of Energy. The objective of the program is to prepare minority students for technical/scientific study, with the goal of increasing minority retention in the College of Engineering, Twenty-three African American students, all of whom had been accepted into the College of Engineering Fall 1990 freshman class, took part in the first year of the program. The contract paid for room, board, tuition, fees, books, and supplies for the students to live on campus and take a precalculus math course. In addition, the students attended a special honors workshop designed to prepare them to study technical material effectively. Twenty of the 23 students earned As or Bs in the precalculus class. All participants indicated that they felt confident of their ability to succeed academically at Clemson. At the end of the session, twenty of the students were still planning to major in engineering. The program was repeated the following summer with 24 students from the 1991 freshman class. Twelve of the students earned A's or B's in the precalculus class. (author)

2. The math excellence workshop

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lasser, Susan J.S.; Snelsire, Robert W [College of Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

1992-07-01

This paper describes the first two years of the Clemson University College of Engineering's Math Excellence Workshop, a program administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Savannah River Site, and funded by the Department of Energy. The objective of the program is to prepare minority students for technical/scientific study, with the goal of increasing minority retention in the College of Engineering, Twenty-three African American students, all of whom had been accepted into the College of Engineering Fall 1990 freshman class, took part in the first year of the program. The contract paid for room, board, tuition, fees, books, and supplies for the students to live on campus and take a precalculus math course. In addition, the students attended a special honors workshop designed to prepare them to study technical material effectively. Twenty of the 23 students earned As or Bs in the precalculus class. All participants indicated that they felt confident of their ability to succeed academically at Clemson. At the end of the session, twenty of the students were still planning to major in engineering. The program was repeated the following summer with 24 students from the 1991 freshman class. Twelve of the students earned A's or B's in the precalculus class. (author)

3. The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children's Math Achievement

Science.gov (United States)

Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha

2017-01-01

The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…

4. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

Science.gov (United States)

Finlayson, Maureen

2014-01-01

In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

5. Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams

Science.gov (United States)

Stahl, Gerry; Çakir, Murat Perit; Weimar, Stephen; Weusijana, Baba Kofi; Ou, Jimmy Xiantong

2010-01-01

The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT) service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies…

6. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

Science.gov (United States)

Scarpello, Gary

2007-01-01

Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

7. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

Science.gov (United States)

Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

2011-01-01

This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

8. String-Math 2015

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...

9. Mathe Kompakt fur Dummies

CERN Document Server

Zegarelli, Mark

2015-01-01

Der schnelle Überblick für Schüler und jeden, den es sonst noch interessiert Müssen Sie sich in der Schule oder im Beruf mit Mathematik beschäftigen und es hapert schon an den Grundlagen? Frei nach dem Motto »Einst gelernt, doch längst vergessen« bereiten oft gerade die einfachen Fragestellungen Probleme. Wie viel Prozent sind das nochmal? Wie war das doch gleich mit der Bruchrechnung und wie berechnet man eigentlich den Flächeninhalt eines Dreiecks? Keine Sorge, Mark Zegarelli erklärt es Ihnen einfach, aber zugleich amüsant, und hilft Ihnen so, Ihre Wissenslücken zu schließen. Damit ist Mathe

10. Embedding Number-Combinations Practice Within Word-Problem Tutoring

Science.gov (United States)

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas

2012-01-01

Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also learn counting strategies for answering number combinations that they cannot retrieve from memory. Results from randomized-control trials indicated that embedding the counting strategies for number combinations produces superior word-problem and number-combination outcomes for students with MLD beyond tutoring programs that focus exclusively on number combinations or word problems. PMID:22661880

11. Word wheels

CERN Document Server

Clark, Kathryn

2013-01-01

Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

CERN Document Server

Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

2009-01-01

For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

13. Math in a Can

Science.gov (United States)

Cupillari, Antonella

2015-01-01

Practical problems that use mathematical concepts are among the highlights of any mathematics class, for better and for worse. Teachers are thrilled to show applications of new theoretical ideas, whereas most students dread "word problems." This article presents a sequence of three activities designed to get students to think about…

14. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

OpenAIRE

Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

2017-01-01

:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...

15. Students as Math Level Designers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

16. Parents' Beliefs about Children's Math Development and Children's Participation in Math Activities

OpenAIRE

Susan Sonnenschein; Claudia Galindo; Shari R. Metzger; Joy A. Thompson; Hui Chih Huang; Heather Lewis

2012-01-01

This study explored associations between parents’ beliefs about children’s development and children’s reported math activities at home. Seventy-three parents were interviewed about the frequency of their children’s participation in a broad array of math activities, the importance of children doing math activities at home, how children learn math, parents’ role in their children’s math learning, and parents’ own math skills. Although the sample consisted of African Americans, Chinese, Latino, ...

17. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math

OpenAIRE

Krystle O'Leary; Cheryll L. Fitzpatrick; Darcy Hallett

2017-01-01

Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through...

18. Universals and Specifics of Math Self-Concept, Math Self-Efficacy, and Math Anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 Participating Countries

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Jihyun

2009-01-01

The overarching goal of the present study is to investigate the factorial structure of three closely related constructs: math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety. The factorial structure consisting of three factors, each representing math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, is supported in all 41 countries employed…

19. Effective pedagogies for teaching math to nursing students: a literature review.

Science.gov (United States)

Hunter Revell, Susan M; McCurry, Mary K

2013-11-01

Improving mathematical competency and problem-solving skills in undergraduate nursing students has been an enduring challenge for nurse educators. A number of teaching strategies have been used to address this problem with varying degrees of success. This paper discusses a literature review which examined undergraduate nursing student challenges to learning math, methods used to teach math and problem-solving skills, and the use of innovative pedagogies for teaching. The literature was searched using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Education Resource Information Center databases. Key search terms included: math*, nurs*, nursing student, calculation, technology, medication administration, challenges, problem-solving, personal response system, clickers, computer and multi-media. Studies included in the review were published in English from 1990 to 2011. Results support four major themes which include: student challenges to learning, traditional pedagogies, curriculum strategies, and technology and integrative methods as pedagogy. The review concludes that there is a need for more innovative pedagogical strategies for teaching math to student nurses. Nurse educators in particular play a central role in helping students learn the conceptual basis, as well as practical hands-on methods, to problem solving and math competency. It is recommended that an integrated approach inclusive of technology will benefit students through better performance, increased understanding, and improved student satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

2015-09-01

A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.

1. Effects of the SOLVE Strategy on the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

Science.gov (United States)

Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth

2015-01-01

This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…

2. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

OpenAIRE

Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

2015-01-01

Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

3. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Kai-Ju

2015-01-01

This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

4. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

2006-06-04

Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

5. Training in Influencing Skills from Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Modelled from Hypnosis and Family Therapy), in Combination with Innovative Maths Pedagogy, Raises Maths Attainment in Adult Numeracy Learners

Science.gov (United States)

Allan, F.; Bourne, J.; Bouch, D.; Churches, R.; Dennison, J.; Evans, J.; Fowler, J.; Jeffers, A.; Prior, E.; Rhodes, L.

2012-01-01

Case study research suggests that NLP [neuro-linguistic programming] influencing strategies benefit teacher effectiveness. Maths pedagogy involving higher-order questioning, challenge, problem solving and collaborative working may be a way of improving attainment in adult numeracy learning, however, such strategies may be less effective if the…

6. Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development

Science.gov (United States)

McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley

2012-01-01

In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…

7. Clinical and Cognitive Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Problem Solving in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Science.gov (United States)

Oswald, Tasha M; Beck, Jonathan S; Iosif, Ana-Maria; McCauley, James B; Gilhooly, Leslie J; Matter, John C; Solomon, Marjorie

2016-04-01

Mathematics achievement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied. However, the ability to solve applied math problems is associated with academic achievement, everyday problem-solving abilities, and vocational outcomes. The paucity of research on math achievement in ASD may be partly explained by the widely-held belief that most individuals with ASD are mathematically gifted, despite emerging evidence to the contrary. The purpose of the study was twofold: to assess the relative proportions of youth with ASD who demonstrate giftedness versus disability on applied math problems, and to examine which cognitive (i.e., perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, working memory) and clinical (i.e., test anxiety) characteristics best predict achievement on applied math problems in ASD relative to typically developing peers. Twenty-seven high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 27 age- and Full Scale IQ-matched typically developing controls were assessed on standardized measures of math problem solving, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and test anxiety. Results indicated that 22% of the ASD sample evidenced a mathematics learning disability, while only 4% exhibited mathematical giftedness. The parsimonious linear regression model revealed that the strongest predictor of math problem solving was perceptual reasoning, followed by verbal ability and test anxiety, then diagnosis of ASD. These results inform our theories of math ability in ASD and highlight possible targets of intervention for students with ASD struggling with mathematics. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

8. WordPress 3 Cookbook

CERN Document Server

Shreves, Ric

2011-01-01

This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

9. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

Science.gov (United States)

Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

2013-05-01

10. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

Science.gov (United States)

de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

2012-01-01

The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

11. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

Science.gov (United States)

Bull, Heather

2009-01-01

Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

12. A Play on Words: Using Cognitive Computing as a Basis for AI Solvers in Word Puzzles

Science.gov (United States)

Manzini, Thomas; Ellis, Simon; Hendler, James

2015-12-01

In this paper we offer a model, drawing inspiration from human cognition and based upon the pipeline developed for IBM's Watson, which solves clues in a type of word puzzle called syllacrostics. We briefly discuss its situation with respect to the greater field of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and how this process and model might be applied to other types of word puzzles. We present an overview of a system that has been developed to solve syllacrostics.

13. A Motivational Technique for Business Math

Science.gov (United States)

Voelker, Pamela

1977-01-01

The author suggests the use of simulation and role playing as a method of motivating students in business math. Examples of career-oriented business math simulation games are counting change, banking, payrolls, selling, and shopping. (MF)

14. Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

Science.gov (United States)

Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

2013-01-01

Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…

15. A Latent Profile Analysis of Math Achievement, Numerosity, and Math Anxiety in Twins

Science.gov (United States)

Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.

2016-01-01

Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…

16. Reciprocal Relations among Motivational Frameworks, Math Anxiety, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

Science.gov (United States)

Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Park, Daeun; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

2018-01-01

School-entry math achievement is a strong predictor of math achievement through high school. We asked whether reciprocal relations among math achievement, math anxiety, and entity motivational frameworks (believing that ability is fixed and a focus on performance) can help explain these persistent individual differences. We assessed 1st and 2nd…

17. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness. REL 2015-096

Science.gov (United States)

Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

2015-01-01

The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…

18. Math Branding in a Community College Library

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…

19. Saxon Math. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

Science.gov (United States)

What Works Clearinghouse, 2017

2017-01-01

"Saxon Math" is a curriculum for students in grades K-12. The amount of new math content students receive each day is limited and students practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters or units. This review focuses on studies of "Saxon Math"'s…

20. Math Game(s) - an alternative (approach) to teaching math?

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ruttkay, Z.M.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Breitlauch, L.

2009-01-01

Getting students to read, digest and practice material is diﬃcult in any discipline, but even more so for math, since many students have to cope with motivational problems and feelings of inadequacy, often due to prior unsuccesful training and teaching methods. In this paper we look at the

1. Taking Math Outside of the Classroom: Math in the City

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Math in the City is an interdisciplinary mathematics course offered at University of Nebraska-Lincoln in which students engage in a real-world experience to understand current major societal issues of local and national interest. The course is run in collaboration with local businesses, research centers, and government organizations, that provide…

2. Abelian primitive words

OpenAIRE

2011-01-01

We investigate Abelian primitive words, which are words that are not Abelian powers. We show that unlike classical primitive words, the set of Abelian primitive words is not context-free. We can determine whether a word is Abelian primitive in linear time. Also different from classical primitive words, we find that a word may have more than one Abelian root. We also consider enumeration problems and the relation to the theory of codes. Peer reviewed

3. Combinatorics of compositions and words

CERN Document Server

Heubach, Silvia

2009-01-01

A One-Stop Source of Known Results, a Bibliography of Papers on the Subject, and Novel Research Directions Focusing on a very active area of research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Compositions and Words provides an introduction to the methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in compositions and words. It also presents various tools and approaches that are applicable to other areas of enumerative combinatorics. After a historical perspective on research in the area, the text introduces techniques to solve recurrence relations, including iteration and generating functions. It then focuses on enumeration of basic statistics for compositions. The text goes on to present results on pattern avoidance for subword, subsequence, and generalized patterns in compositions and then applies these results to words. The authors also cover automata, the ECO method, generating trees, and asymptotic results via random compositions and complex analysis. Highlighting both established a...

4. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

Science.gov (United States)

Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J

2016-01-01

There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

5. Is Mathematical Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning: The Role of Math Motivation

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.

2015-01-01

The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438

6. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sara A Hart

Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

7. All you need in Maths!

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.

2014-01-01

All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary

8. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

Science.gov (United States)

Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

2005-01-01

An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

9. Teaching Math to the Talented

Science.gov (United States)

Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

2011-01-01

Maintaining America's productivity as a nation depends importantly on developing a highly qualified cadre of scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, and other professionals. To realize that objective requires a system of schooling that produces students with advanced math and science skills. To see how well schools in the United States do at…

10. Big Math for Little Kids

Science.gov (United States)

Greenes, Carole; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Balfanz, Robert

2004-01-01

"Big Math for Little Kids," a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the…

11. Basic Maths Practice Problems For Dummies

CERN Document Server

Beveridge, Colin

2012-01-01

Fun, friendly coaching and all the practice you need to tackle maths problems with confidence and ease In his popular Basic Maths For Dummies, professional maths tutor Colin Beveridge proved that he could turn anyone - even the most maths-phobic person - into a natural-born number cruncher. In this book he supplies more of his unique brand of maths-made- easy coaching, plus 2,000 practice problems to help you master what you learn. Whether you're prepping for a numeracy test or an employability exam, thinking of returning to school, or you'd just like to be one of those know-it-alls who says

12. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

Science.gov (United States)

Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

2015-12-01

This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

13. Development of the Metacognitive Skills of Prediction and Evaluation in Children With or Without Math Disability

Science.gov (United States)

Garrett, Adia J.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Baker, Linda

2009-01-01

14. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Erkki Pehkonen

2013-12-01

Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

15. Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’

OpenAIRE

Mellony Graven

2016-01-01

In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sense-making maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3-6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low l...

16. Math Game(s) - an alternative (approach) to teaching math?

OpenAIRE

Ruttkay, Z.M.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Breitlauch, L.

2009-01-01

Getting students to read, digest and practice material is diﬃcult in any discipline, but even more so for math, since many students have to cope with motivational problems and feelings of inadequacy, often due to prior unsuccesful training and teaching methods. In this paper we look at the opportunities oﬀered by computer graphics, visual programming and game design as an alternative for traditional methods of teaching mathemathics. In particular, games may be deployed both as intruments to d...

17. The association between motivation, affect, and self-regulated learning when solving problems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

M.A. Baars (Martine); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

2017-01-01

textabstractSelf-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a

18. Nurses' maths: researching a practical approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Wilson, Ann

To compare a new practical maths test with a written maths test. The tests were undertaken by qualified nurses training for intravenous drug administration, a skill dependent on maths accuracy. The literature showed that the higher education institutes (HEIs) that provide nurse training use traditional maths tests, a practical way of testing maths had not been described. Fifty five nurses undertook two maths tests based on intravenous drug calculations. One was a traditional written test. The second was a new type of test using a simulated clinical environment. All participants were also interviewed one week later to ascertain their thoughts and feelings about the tests. There was a significant improvement in maths test scores for those nurses who took the practical maths test first. It is suggested that this is because it improved their conceptualisation skills and thus helped them to achieve accuracy in their calculations. Written maths tests are not the best way to help and support nurses in acquiring and improving their maths skills and should be replaced by a more practical approach.

19. Recurrent Partial Words

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2011-08-01

Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

20. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Teaching Word Problems to Primary-Level Struggling Students

Science.gov (United States)

Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Porterfield, Jennifer A.

2015-01-01

Students with mathematics difficulties and learning disabilities (LD) typically struggle with solving word problems. These students often lack knowledge about efficient, cognitive strategies to utilize when solving word problems. Cognitive strategy instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching struggling students how to solve word…

1. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

2017-02-01

Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2. Family Maths and Complexity Theory

OpenAIRE

Webb, Paul; Austin, Pam

2012-01-01

The importance of family involvement is highlighted by findings that parents’ behaviours, beliefs and attitudes affect children’s behaviour in a major way. The Family Maths programme, which is the focus of this study, provides support for the transformative education practices targeted by the South African Department of Education by offering an intervention which includes teachers, learners and their families in an affirming learning community. In this study participating parents were intervi...

3. Greg Tang: Making Math Count

Science.gov (United States)

Pierpont, Katherine

2006-01-01

Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…

4. Maths4Stats: Educating teachers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Renette J. Blignaut

2013-02-01

Full Text Available The inadequate nature of the education infrastructure in South Africa has led to poor academic performance at public schools. Problems within schools such as under-qualified teachers and poor teacher performance arise due to the poorly constructed education system in our country. The implementation in 2012 of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS at public schools in South Africa saw the further crippling of some teachers, as they were unfamiliar with parts of the CAPS subject content. The Statistics and Population Studies department at the University of the Western Cape was asked to join the Maths4Stats project in 2012. This project was launched by Statistics South Africa in an effort to assist in training the teachers in statistical content within the CAPS Mathematics curricula. The University of the Western Cape’s team would like to share their experience of being part of the Maths4Stats training in the Western Cape. This article focuses on how the training sessions were planned and what the outcomes were. With the knowledge gained from our first Maths4Stats experience, it is recommended that future interventions are still needed to ensure that mathematics teachers become well-informed and confident to teach topics such as data handling, probability and regression analysis.

5. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

6. Math Games 180 Reproducible Activities to Motivate, Excite, and Challenge Students, Grades 6-12

CERN Document Server

Muschla, Judith A

2011-01-01

Math Games offers a dynamic collection of 180 reproducible activity sheets to stimulate and challenge your students in all areas of math - from whole numbers to data analysis - while emphasizing problem solving, critical thinking, and the use of technology for today's curriculum! Each of the book's activities can help you teach students in grades 6 through 12 how to think with numbers, recognize relationships, and make connections between mathematical concepts. You pick the activity appropriate for their needs . . . encourage the use of a calculator . . . or provide further challenges with act

7. Discussion of Science and Math Teaching Methods: criticism and possibilities in teaching practices

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elizabeth Gerhardt Manfredo

2005-06-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of practices among Science and Math teachers in Brazilian Basic Education. Analysis focuses on criticism over teaching practices throughout Basic Education which includes Children, Primary and Medium levels. Discussion highlights the interdisciplinary and educational projects as the most chosen tool for reflective practices. Most educational problems must be solved by the use of shared theoretical choices and investigative methodological approach. Such choices ought to be made during teachers' continuing trainning based on a researcher-teacher action as it provides ways for methodological changes in Sciences and Math Education in the Country

8. Universal Lyndon Words

OpenAIRE

Carpi, Arturo; Fici, Gabriele; Holub, Stepan; Oprsal, Jakub; Sciortino, Marinella

2014-01-01

A word $w$ over an alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a Lyndon word if there exists an order defined on $\\Sigma$ for which $w$ is lexicographically smaller than all of its conjugates (other than itself). We introduce and study \\emph{universal Lyndon words}, which are words over an $n$-letter alphabet that have length $n!$ and such that all the conjugates are Lyndon words. We show that universal Lyndon words exist for every $n$ and exhibit combinatorial and structural properties of these words. We then defi...

9. Changes in Math Prerequisites and Student Performance in Business Statistics: Do Math Prerequisites Really Matter?

OpenAIRE

Jeffrey J. Green; Courtenay C. Stone; Abera Zegeye; Thomas A. Charles

2007-01-01

We use a binary probit model to assess the impact of several changes in math prerequisites on student performance in an undergraduate business statistics course. While the initial prerequisites did not necessarily provide students with the necessary math skills, our study, the first to examine the effect of math prerequisite changes, shows that these changes were deleterious to student performance. Our results helped convince the College of Business to change the math prerequisite again begin...

10. Inhibition Performance in Children with Math Disabilities

OpenAIRE

Winegar, Kathryn Lileth

2013-01-01

This study examined the inhibition deficit hypothesis in children with math disabilities (MD). Children with and without MD were compared on two inhibition tasks that included the random generation of numbers and letters. The results addressed three hypotheses. Weak support was found for the first hypothesis which stated difficulties related to inhibition are significantly related to math performance. I found partial support for this hypothesis in that inhibition was related to math problem s...

11. Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths

OpenAIRE

Glaister, Paul

2015-01-01

This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...

12. Teachers’ ability in using math learning media

Science.gov (United States)

Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.

2017-12-01

The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.

13. TEMA and Dot Enumeration Profiles Predict Mental Addition Problem Solving Speed Longitudinally.

Science.gov (United States)

Major, Clare S; Paul, Jacob M; Reeve, Robert A

2017-01-01

Different math indices can be used to assess math potential at school entry. We evaluated whether standardized math achievement (TEMA-2 performance), core number abilities (dot enumeration, symbolic magnitude comparison), non-verbal intelligence (NVIQ) and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM), in combination or separately, predicted mental addition problem solving speed over time. We assessed 267 children's TEMA-2, magnitude comparison, dot enumeration, and VSWM abilities at school entry (5 years) and NVIQ at 8 years. Mental addition problem solving speed was assessed at 6, 8, and 10 years. Longitudinal path analysis supported a model in which dot enumeration performance ability profiles and previous mental addition speed predicted future mental addition speed on all occasions, supporting a componential account of math ability. Standardized math achievement and NVIQ predicted mental addition speed at specific time points, while VSWM and symbolic magnitude comparison did not contribute unique variance to the model. The implications of using standardized math achievement and dot enumeration ability to index math learning potential at school entry are discussed.

14. A Few Words about Words | Poster

Science.gov (United States)

By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message

15. The Impact of MOVE IT Math(TM) and Traditional Textbook Instruction on Math Achievement Scores

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett, Angela Stephens

2010-01-01

One recommendation of government, education, and business leaders is an increased emphasis on math and science instruction in public schools. The purpose of this quantitative study using a posttest, quasi-experimental design was to determine if the Math Opportunities, Valuable Experiences, and Innovative Teaching (MOVE IT Math(TM)) program…

16. The Effectiveness of Using STAR Math to Improve PSSA Math Scores

Science.gov (United States)

Holub, Sherry L.

2017-01-01

This is a quantitative study examining whether STAR Math, a student monitoring system, can improve PSSA Math scores. The experimental school used STAR Math during the 2015-2016 school year in grouping students for remediation and intervention. The control school used traditional curriculum measures to group students for remediation and…

17. Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study

Science.gov (United States)

Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.

2017-01-01

The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…

18. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

Science.gov (United States)

Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

2015-01-01

Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

19. Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance

Science.gov (United States)

Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.

2011-01-01

This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…

20. Math Performance as a Function of Math Anxiety and Arousal Performance Theory

Science.gov (United States)

Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.

2009-01-01

While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…

1. Cognitive Prediction of Reading, Math, and Attention: Shared and Unique Influences.

Science.gov (United States)

Peterson, Robin L; Boada, Richard; McGrath, Lauren M; Willcutt, Erik G; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce F

The current study tested a multiple-cognitive predictor model of word reading, math ability, and attention in a community-based sample of twins ages 8 to 16 years ( N = 636). The objective was to identify cognitive predictors unique to each skill domain as well as cognitive predictors shared among skills that could help explain their overlap and thus help illuminate the basis for comorbidity of related disorders (reading disability, math disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Results indicated that processing speed contributes to the overlap between reading and attention as well as math and attention, whereas verbal comprehension contributes to the overlap between reading and math. There was no evidence that executive functioning skills help account for covariation among these skill domains. Instead, specific executive functions differentially related to certain outcomes (i.e., working memory to math and inhibition to attention). We explored whether the model varied in younger versus older children and found only minor differences. Results are interpreted within the context of the multiple deficit framework for neurodevelopmental disorders.

2. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

kofi.mereku

the modified Newman Error Hierarchical levels (NEAL), which comprise reading, comprehension, transformation, process skills and encoding errors. The results revealed that majority (60%) of the students attempted most of the questions with a few (2%) arriving at the correct answer which implies students have difficulties ...

3. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

Science.gov (United States)

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

4. Math Anxiety and Math Performance in Children: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Math Self-Concept

Science.gov (United States)

Justicia-Galiano, M. José; Martín-Puga, M. Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

2017-01-01

Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible…

5. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

CERN Document Server

Grigorieva, Ellina

2015-01-01

This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

6. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

2017-01-01

:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

7. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

2012-09-01

Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

8. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

Science.gov (United States)

Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

2017-06-01

Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. Girls Talk Math - Engaging Girls Through Math Media

Science.gov (United States)

Bernardi, Francesca; Morgan, Katrina

2017-11-01

Girls Talk Math: Engaging Girls through Math Media'' is a free two-week long summer day camp for high-school girls in the Triangle area of NC. This past June the camp had its second run thanks to renewed funding from the Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant. The camp involved 35 local high-school students who identify as female. Campers complete challenging problem sets and research the life of a female scientist who worked on similar problems. They report their work in a blog post and record a podcast about the scientist they researched. The curriculum has been developed by Mathematics graduate students at UNC from an inquiry based learning perspective; problem sets topics include some theoretical mathematics, but also more applied physics-based material. Campers worked on fluid dynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics problem sets which included experiments. The camp has received positive feedback from the local community and the second run saw a large increase in the number of participants. The program is evaluated using pre and post surveys, which measure campers' confidence and interest in pursuing higher level courses in STEM. The results from the past two summers have been encouraging. Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant.

10. On universal partial words

OpenAIRE

Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

2016-01-01

A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\ 11. Word 2013 for dummies CERN Document Server Gookin, Dan 2013-01-01 This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit 12. 80 Years of Zentralblatt MATH CERN Document Server Teschke, Olaf; Werner, Dirk 2011-01-01 Founded in 1931 by Otto Neugebauer as the printed documentation service "Zentralblatt fur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete", Zentralblatt MATH (ZBMATH) celebrates its 80th anniversary in 2011. Today it is the most comprehensive and active reference database in pure and applied mathematics worldwide. Many prominent mathematicians have been involved in this service as reviewers or editors and have, like all mathematicians, left their footprints in ZBMATH, in a long list of entries describing all of their research publications in mathematics. This book provides one review from each of t 13. Maths for the building trades CERN Document Server Kidd, Jim 2014-01-01 Maths for the Building Trades provides students of all ages with an easy-to-understand guide to the fundamental mathematics that is required in their area of study and beyond. It can be used as a learning programme on its own or in conjunction with the textbooks associated with their chosen trade. The book assumes only a minimum level of mathematical knowledge and thoroughly covers the basic rules. It then goes on to fully explain some of the more complex areas in which the student will be required to demonstrate competence. 14. Combining Basic Business Math and Electronic Calculators. Science.gov (United States) Merchant, Ronald As a means of alleviating math anxiety among business students and of improving their business machine skills, Spokane Falls Community College offers a course in which basic business math skills are mastered through the use of desk top calculators. The self-paced course, which accommodates varying student skill levels, requires students to: (1)… 15. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust Science.gov (United States) Kilic-Bebek, Ebru 2009-01-01 This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The… 16. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development Science.gov (United States) Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer 2014-01-01 This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators… 17. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance Science.gov (United States) Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof 2015-01-01 Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving… 18. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math Science.gov (United States) Olsen, James R. 2015-01-01 After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also… 19. Mini-Portfolio on Math and Science. Science.gov (United States) Teaching PreK-8, 1996 1996-01-01 Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"… 20. Football to improve math and reading performance NARCIS (Netherlands) Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof 2015-01-01 Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates ‘Playing for Success’ (PfS), an extended 1. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students Science.gov (United States) Perry, Andrew B. 2004-01-01 This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with… 2. The main problem solving differences between high school and university in mathematical beliefs and professional behavior Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani 2016-10-01 Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors. 3. Is math anxiety in the secondary classroom limiting physics mastery? A study of math anxiety and physics performance Science.gov (United States) Mercer, Gary J. This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender. 4. Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain. Science.gov (United States) Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie 2007-01-01 The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter. 5. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Paul Latiolais 2009-07-01 Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously. 6. Understanding Medical Words Science.gov (United States) ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ... 7. Multidimensional assessment of self-regulated learning with middle school math students. Science.gov (United States) Callan, Gregory L; Cleary, Timothy J 2018-03-01 This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) measures situated in mathematics. The sample included 100 eighth graders from a diverse, urban school district. Four measurement formats were examined including, 2 broad-based (i.e., self-report questionnaire and teacher ratings) and 2 task-specific measures (i.e., SRL microanalysis and behavioral traces). Convergent validity was examined across task-difficulty, and the predictive validity was examined across 3 mathematics outcomes: 2 measures of mathematical problem solving skill (i.e., practice session math problems, posttest math problems) and a global measure of mathematical skill (i.e., standardized math test). Correlation analyses were used to examine convergent validity and revealed medium correlations between measures within the same category (i.e., broad-based or task-specific). Relations between measurement classes were not statistically significant. Separate regressions examined the predictive validity of the SRL measures. While controlling all other predictors, a SRL microanalysis metacognitive-monitoring measure emerged as a significant predictor of all 3 outcomes and teacher ratings accounted for unique variance on 2 of the outcomes (i.e., posttest math problems and standardized math test). Results suggest that a multidimensional assessment approach should be considered by school psychologists interested in measuring SRL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved). 8. The Association between Mathematical Word Problems and Reading Comprehension Science.gov (United States) Vilenius-Tuohimaa, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik 2008-01-01 This study aimed to investigate the interplay between mathematical word problem skills and reading comprehension. The participants were 225 children aged 9-10 (Grade 4). The children's text comprehension and mathematical word problem-solving performance was tested. Technical reading skills were investigated in order to categorise participants as… 9. Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle. Science.gov (United States) Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C 2015-02-01 Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10. Designing Math Trails for Enhanced by Mobile Learning Realistic Mathematics Education in Primary Education Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Georgios Fesakis 2018-05-01 Full Text Available Seeking a systematic combination of the pedagogical model of m-learning with the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME approach, this study concerns the use of math trail as a learning activity model that can take the advantages of mobile computing devices for the design of effective learning experiences in an authentic context. The paper presents the design and the case study of the first pilot implementation of a math trail, using mobile devices for primary school students. In this math trail, the students are guided, through a digital map, to a sequence of preselected sites of a park where they solve specially designed math problems using data from the environmental context. The students measure real objects’ dimensions either with conventional instruments or by measurement applications of their tablet. According to the findings of the study, students solved the puzzles by applying mathematical knowledge, discussion and collaboration. The students applied and reinforced their knowledge through an effective and engaging learning activity. Moreover, the students were puzzled about the differences of the measurements by conventional and digital instruments and this confusion triggered social negotiation. Further research is needed for a grounded theory development about m-learning design for RME. 11. Math Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Srinivas Jangili 2016-09-01 Full Text Available The present study investigates the entropy generation in magnetized-micropolar fluid flow in between two vertical concentric rotating cylinders of infinite length. The surface of the inner cylinder is heated while the surface of the outer cylinder is cooled. Internal heat generation is incorporated. The Eringen thermo-micropolar fluid model is used to simulate the micro-structural rheological flow characteristics in the annulus region. The flow is subjected to a constant, static, axial magnetic field. The surface of the inner cylinder is prescribed to be isothermal whereas the surface of the outer cylinder was exposed to convection cooling. The conservation equations are normalized and closed-form solutions are obtained for the velocity, microrotation, temperature, entropy generation number, Bejan number and total entropy generation rate. The effects of the relevant parameters are displayed graphically. It is observed that the external magnetic force enhances the entropy production rate and it is maximum in the proximity of the inner cylinder. This causes more wear and tear at the surface of the inner cylinder. Greater Hartmann number also elevates microrotation values in the entire annulus region. The study is relevant to optimization of chemical engineering processes, nuclear engineering cooling systems and propulsion systems utilizing non-Newtonian fluids and magnetohydrodynamics. 12. Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’ Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Mellony Graven 2016-02-01 Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sensemaking maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3–6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low levels of numeracy learning across the majority of schools in the province. Two sources of data, learner interviews and teacher questionnaires, from one case study club, are shared in this article to illuminate the potential such clubs hold in developing increasingly participatory mathematics learning dispositions. 13. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School Science.gov (United States) Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly 2017-01-01 Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed. PMID:29180973 14. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School. Science.gov (United States) Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly 2017-01-01 Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother's math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children's arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children's math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers' attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children's skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed. 15. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math. Science.gov (United States) O'Leary, Krystle; Fitzpatrick, Cheryll L; Hallett, Darcy 2017-01-01 Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples) were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not. 16. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Krystle O'Leary 2017-12-01 Full Text Available Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not. 17. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Lital Daches Cohen 2017-11-01 Full Text Available Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors; (b children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors; and (c intrinsic math motivation (personal factor. A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed. 18. Error Analysis for Arithmetic Word Problems--A Case Study of Primary Three Students in One Singapore School Science.gov (United States) Cheng, Lu Pien 2015-01-01 In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some… 19. New Efficient Fourth Order Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Farooq Ahmad 2013-12-01 Full Text Available In a paper [Appl. Math. Comput., 188 (2 (2007 1587--1591], authors have suggested and analyzed a method for solving nonlinear equations. In the present work, we modified this method by using the finite difference scheme, which has a quintic convergence. We have compared this modified Halley method with some other iterative of fifth-orders convergence methods, which shows that this new method having convergence of fourth order, is efficient. 20. WordPress Bible CERN Document Server Brazell, Aaron 2010-01-01 The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end. 1. New Voices Ancient Words: Language Immersion Produces Fluent Speakers, Stronger Personal and Cultural Identities Science.gov (United States) Pease, Janine 2004-01-01 Across Indian Country, people can hear voices speaking ancient words, in a Cochiti extended family in New Mexico, a Navajo community school on the Arizona desert, a Native Hawaiian kindergarten, a Salish/Kootenai summertime ceremony, on the North Dakota plains, and in a Blackfeet math classroom in Montana. Unlike other language instruction… 2. Structuring Word Problems for Diagnostic Teaching: Helping Teachers Meet the Needs of Children with Mild Disabilities. Science.gov (United States) Parmar, Rene S.; Cawley, John F. 1994-01-01 Matrix organization can be used to construct math word problems for children with mild disabilities. Matrix organization specifies the characteristics of problems, such as problem theme or setting, operations, level of computation complexity, reading vocabulary level, and need for classification. A sample scope and sequence and 16 sample word… 3. La maison des mathématiques CERN Document Server Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent 2014-01-01 Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc... 4. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children Science.gov (United States) Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G. 2011-01-01 A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.… 5. More than Counting: Whole Math Activities for Preschool and Kindergarten. Science.gov (United States) Moomaw, Sally; Hieronymus, Brenda This book presents extensive sampling of a "whole math" curriculum for preschool and kindergarten children ages 3 and older. An introductory chapter is followed by seven curriculum chapters that discuss math manipulatives, collections, grid games, path games, graphing, math and gross-motor play, and the "math suitcase." Each chapter is divided… 6. Reducing the Effects of Auditory and Visual Distraction on the Math Performances of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Science.gov (United States) Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A. 2010-01-01 Two exploratory studies assessed the effects of an intervention on the math problem solving of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the first study, students were assessed on a visual task in a high stimulation classroom analog setting with and without the use of a fine motor activity. Results showed that the fine… 7. Collaborative Workshops and Student Academic Performance in Introductory College Mathematics Courses: A Study of a Treisman Model Math Excel Program. Science.gov (United States) Duncan, Hollis; Dick, Thomas 2000-01-01 Describes the Treisman model which involves supplemental workshops in which college students solve problems in collaborative learning groups. Reports on the effectiveness of Math Excel, an implementation of the Treisman model for introductory mathematics courses at Oregon State University over five academic terms. Reveals a significant effect on… 8. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on students’ problem solving ability in vector analysis course Science.gov (United States) Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan 2018-01-01 The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category. 9. Word segmentation with universal prosodic cues. Science.gov (United States) Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D 2010-09-01 When listening to speech from one's native language, words seem to be well separated from one another, like beads on a string. When listening to a foreign language, in contrast, words seem almost impossible to extract, as if there was only one bead on the same string. This contrast reveals that there are language-specific cues to segmentation. The puzzle, however, is that infants must be endowed with a language-independent mechanism for segmentation, as they ultimately solve the segmentation problem for any native language. Here, we approach the acquisition problem by asking whether there are language-independent cues to segmentation that might be available to even adult learners who have already acquired a native language. We show that adult learners recognize words in connected speech when only prosodic cues to word-boundaries are given from languages unfamiliar to the participants. In both artificial and natural speech, adult English speakers, with no prior exposure to the test languages, readily recognized words in natural languages with critically different prosodic patterns, including French, Turkish and Hungarian. We suggest that, even though languages differ in their sound structures, they carry universal prosodic characteristics. Further, these language-invariant prosodic cues provide a universally accessible mechanism for finding words in connected speech. These cues may enable infants to start acquiring words in any language even before they are fine-tuned to the sound structure of their native language. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. 10. Exploring the relationship between math anxiety and gender through implicit measurement. Science.gov (United States) Rubinsten, Orly; Bialik, Noam; Solar, Yael 2012-01-01 Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is suggested as a strong antecedent for the low visibility of women in the science and engineering workforce. However, the assumption of gender differences in math anxiety is still being studied and results are inconclusive, probably due to the use of explicit measures such as direct questionnaires. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in males and females by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Specifically, university students (23 males and 30 females) completed a priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative, or related to mathematics). Participants were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division) was true or false. People are typically found to respond to target stimuli more rapidly after presentation of an affectively related prime than after an affectively unrelated one. In the current study, shorter response latencies for positive as compared to negative affective primes were found in the male group. An affective priming effect was found in the female group as well, but with a reversed pattern. That is, significantly shorter response latencies were observed in the female group for negative as compared to positive targets. That is, for females, negative affective primes act as affectively related to simple arithmetic problems. In contrast, males associated positive affect with simple arithmetic. In addition, only females with lower or insignificant negative affect toward arithmetic study at faculties of mathematics and science. We discuss the advantages of examining pure anxiety factors with implicit measures which are free of response factors. In addition it is suggested that environmental factors may enhance the association between math achievements 11. Changes in frontal-parietal activation and math skills performance following adaptive number sense training: preliminary results from a pilot study. Science.gov (United States) Kesler, Shelli R; Sheau, Kristen; Koovakkattu, Della; Reiss, Allan L 2011-08-01 Number sense is believed to be critical for math development. It is putatively an implicitly learned skill and may therefore have limitations in terms of being explicitly trained, particularly in individuals with altered neurodevelopment. A case series study was conducted using an adaptive, computerised programme that focused on number sense and general problem-solving skills. The study was designed to investigate training effects on performance as well as brain function in a group of children with Turner syndrome who are at risk for math difficulties and altered development of math-related brain networks. Standardised measurements of math and math-related cognitive skills as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to assess behavioural and neurobiological outcomes following training. Participants demonstrated significantly increased basic math skills, including number sense, and calculation as well as processing speed, cognitive flexibility and visual-spatial processing skills. With the exception of calculation, increased scores also were clinically significant (i.e., recovered) based on reliable change analysis. Participants additionally demonstrated significantly increased bilateral parietal lobe activation and decreased frontal-striatal and mesial temporal activation following the training programme. These findings show proof of concept for an accessible training approach that may be potentially associated with improved number sense, math and related skills, as well as functional changes in math-related neural systems, even among individuals at risk for altered brain development. 12. Math and Gender: Is Math a Route to a High-Powered Career? DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt There is a large gender gap in advanced math coursework in high school that many believe exists because girls are discouraged from taking math courses. In this paper, we exploit an institutional change that reduced the costs of acquiring advanced high school math to determine if access is, in fact......, the mechanism - in particular for girls at the top of the math ability distribution. By estimating marginal treatment effects of acquiring advanced math qualifications, we document substantial beneficial wage effects from encouraging even more females to opt for these qualifications. Our analysis suggests...... that the beneficial effect comes from accelerating graduation and attracting females to high-paid or traditionally male-dominated career tracks and to CEO positions. Our results may be reconciled with experimental and empirical evidence suggesting there is a pool of unexploited math talent among high ability girls... 13. Turning Negatives into Positives: The Role of an Instructional Math Course on Preservice Teachers' Math Beliefs Science.gov (United States) Looney, Lisa; Perry, David; Steck, Andy 2017-01-01 Teachers' beliefs about mathematics can play a role in their teaching effectiveness (Bandura, 1993). Negative attitudes toward math (e.g., math anxiety) or low self-efficacy beliefs for teaching math can act as barriers to the teaching process, impacting the achievement and math beliefs of students (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez, & Levine, 2010;… 14. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables Science.gov (United States) Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda 2015-01-01 Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math… 15. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables NARCIS (Netherlands) Erturan, S; Jansen, B. 2015-01-01 GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 16. Math Practice and Its Influence on Math Skills and Executive Functions in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Science.gov (United States) Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J. 2013-01-01 Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an… 17. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications OpenAIRE Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph 2015-01-01 Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that pr... 18. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition? Science.gov (United States) Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel 2016-01-01 An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. 19. Words, Concepts, and the Geometry of Analogy Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Stephen McGregor 2016-08-01 Full Text Available This paper presents a geometric approach to the problem of modelling the relationship between words and concepts, focusing in particular on analogical phenomena in language and cognition. Grounded in recent theories regarding geometric conceptual spaces, we begin with an analysis of existing static distributional semantic models and move on to an exploration of a dynamic approach to using high dimensional spaces of word meaning to project subspaces where analogies can potentially be solved in an online, contextualised way. The crucial element of this analysis is the positioning of statistics in a geometric environment replete with opportunities for interpretation. 20. Word Pocket Guide CERN Document Server Glenn, Walter 2004-01-01 Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003 1. Math: The Gateway to Great Careers Science.gov (United States) Ploutz-Snyder, Robert 2010-01-01 This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying. 2. Young Filipino Students Making Sense of Arithmetic Word Problems in English Science.gov (United States) Bautista, Debbie; Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael 2009-01-01 Young Filipino children are expected to solve mathematical word problems in English, a task which they typically encounter only in schools. In this exploratory study, task-based interviews were conducted with seven Filipino children from a public school. The children were asked to read and solve addition and subtraction word problems in English or… 3. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rolando V. Obiedo 2017-12-01 Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied. 4. Baby's first 10 words. Science.gov (United States) Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A 2008-07-01 Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers completed MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories and reported them to produce between 1 and 10 words. Analyses of individual words indicated striking commonalities in the first words that children learn. However, substantive cross-linguistic differences appeared in the relative prevalence of common nouns, people terms, and verbs as well as in the probability that children produced even one of these word types when they had a total of 1-3, 4-6, or 7-10 words in their vocabularies. These data document cross-linguistic differences in the types of words produced even at the earliest stages of vocabulary learning and underscore the importance of parental input and cross-linguistic/cross-cultural variations in children's early word-learning. 5. Word 2010 Bible CERN Document Server Tyson, Herb 2010-01-01 In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag 6. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children’s Math Skills Science.gov (United States) Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J. 2016-01-01 There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925 7. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading Science.gov (United States) Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy 2012-01-01 This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of… 8. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Holt, Else Kragelund 2007-01-01 The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done... 9. Influence of Math Club Activities on Primary Students’ Mathematics Achievement Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Alenka Lipovec 2014-12-01 Full Text Available An intervention program called Didactic pentagon is described. Participants are teachers, students, parents, pre-service teachers and teacher educators. The programme is shaped as a math club activity. Empirical results focus on comparing mathematics achievements of students included in the programme and mathematically promising students taking part in TIMSS 2003. Experimental group has surpassed control group in overall results. Statistically significant differences in favour of experimental group can be found at intermediate international benchmark of mathematics achievements and at problem solving cognitive domain. The results can be assigned to pentagon activities guided by pre-service teachers. Cooperation between university and schools has evidently overcome the lack of pre-service teachers’ experience and helped in raising mathematical knowledge of school youth. 10. How Can One Learn Mathematical Word Problems in a Second Language? A Cognitive Load Perspective Science.gov (United States) Moussa-Inaty, Jase; Causapin, Mark; Groombridge, Timothy 2015-01-01 Language may ordinarily account for difficulties in solving word problems and this is particularly true if mathematical word problems are taught in a language other than one's native language. Research into cognitive load may offer a clear theoretical framework when investigating word problems because memory, specifically working memory, plays a… 11. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents Science.gov (United States) Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter 2010-01-01 Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age… 12. Brain-Building Math Games. Science.gov (United States) Jung, Loretta Welk 1983-01-01 Index cards, masking tape, pizza shells, golf tees, and empty soda bottles can be used to make manipulative objects to be used in children's mathematics games. Twenty-two games that provide practice in number drills and problem solving are described, along with instructions for making objects needed for the games. (PP) 13. A Math-Box Tale Science.gov (United States) Nelson, Catherine J. 2012-01-01 The author is a strong proponent of incorporating the Content and Process Standards (NCTM 2000) into the teaching of mathematics. For candidates in her methods course, she models research-based best practices anchored in the Standards. Her students use manipulatives, engage in problem-solving activities, listen to children's literature, and use… 14. Word Processing for All. Science.gov (United States) Abbott, Chris 1991-01-01 Pupils with special educational needs are finding that the use of word processors can give them a new confidence and pride in their own abilities. This article describes the use of such devices as the "mouse," on-screen word lists, spell checkers, and overlay keyboards. (JDD) 15. Word Translation Entropy DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p... 16. Nine Words - Nine Columns DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan 2016-01-01 of computational and mechanical processes towards an anesthetic. Each team received a single word, translating and evolving that word first into a double-curved computational surface, next a ruled computational surface, and then a physically shaped foam mold via a 6-axis robot. The foam molds then operated... 17. The Aftermath of Remedial Math: Investigating the Low Rate of Certificate Completion among Remedial Math Students Science.gov (United States) Bahr, Peter Riley 2013-01-01 Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:… 18. Math Tracks: What Pace in Math Is Best for the Middle School Child? Science.gov (United States) Morrison, Michelle 2011-01-01 Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,… 19. Investigating Validity of Math 105 as Prerequisite to Math 201 among Undergraduate Students, Nigeria Science.gov (United States) Zakariya, Yusuf F. 2016-01-01 In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and… 20. Math and Movement: Practical Ways to Incorporate Math into Physical Education Science.gov (United States) Wade, Marcia 2016-01-01 Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to… 1. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness Science.gov (United States) Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal 2016-01-01 To raise math success rates in middle school, many schools and districts have implemented summer math programs designed to improve student preparation for algebra content in grade 8. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. While students who participate typically experience learning gains, there is little rigorous… 2. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics Science.gov (United States) Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut 2016-12-01 [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields. 3. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute's Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California Science.gov (United States) Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan 2014-01-01 The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level… 4. Math Academy: Are You Game? Explorations in Probability. Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-6 Science.gov (United States) Rimbey, Kimberly 2007-01-01 Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the themed program "Are You Game? Math Academy--Explorations in Probability," which teachers can use to… 5. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics Science.gov (United States) Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut 2016-01-01 Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and… 6. Math Anxiety and the "Math Gap": How Attitudes toward Mathematics Disadvantages Students as Early as Preschool Science.gov (United States) Geist, Eugene 2015-01-01 This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they… 7. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety Science.gov (United States) Kulkin, Margaret 2016-01-01 Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to… 8. Flexible Word Classes DEFF Research Database (Denmark) • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than... 9. WordPress Bible CERN Document Server Brazell, Aaron 2011-01-01 Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media 10. Students Use Graphic Organizers to Improve Mathematical Problem-Solving Communications Science.gov (United States) Zollman, Alan 2009-01-01 Improving students' problem-solving abilities is a major, if not the major, goal of middle grades mathematics. To address this goal, the author, who is a university mathematics educator, and nine inner-city middle school teachers developed a math/science action research project. This article describes their unique approach to mathematical problem… 11. Perceptual Learning in Early Mathematics: Interacting with Problem Structure Improves Mapping, Solving and Fluency Science.gov (United States) Thai, Khanh-Phuong; Son, Ji Y.; Hoffman, Jessica; Devers, Christopher; Kellman, Philip J. 2014-01-01 Mathematics is the study of structure but students think of math as solving problems according to rules. Students can learn procedures, but they often have trouble knowing when to apply learned procedures, especially to problems unlike those they trained with. In this study, the authors rely on the psychological mechanism of perceptual learning… 12. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science Science.gov (United States) Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J. 1998-01-01 As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order 13. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words. Science.gov (United States) Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista 2008-01-01 People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. 14. Word learning mechanisms. Science.gov (United States) He, Angela Xiaoxue; Arunachalam, Sudha 2017-07-01 How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms. We review some of these mechanisms to examine the relationship between the input that is available to learners and learners' intake of that input-that is, the organized, interpreted, and stored representations they form. We discuss how learners segment individual words from the speech stream and identify their grammatical categories, how they identify the concepts denoted by these words, and how they refine their initial representations of word meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1435. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1435 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Language. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 15. Key identifiers and spelling conventions in MXit-lingo as found in conversations with Dr Math Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Laurie Butgereit 2012-07-01 Full Text Available Different human languages look different from other human languages. To use a term from the computer industry, each human language has its own “look and feel”. European English speakers can easily recognise a phrase such as “Comment allez-vous?” as being written in French while the phrase “¿Habla usted español?” is written in Spanish. Each language has its own letter frequencies, word frequencies and other identifiers. This paper describes key identifiers in MXit lingo as found in Dr Math conversations. MXit is a mobile instant messaging system which originated in South Africa and is expanding to other countries. Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which uses MXit as a communication protocol. Primary and secondary school pupils can receive help with the mathematics homework using the Dr Math tutoring system. The pupils use MXit on their cell phones and the tutors use traditional Internet workstations. After exploring how MXit lingo is written, this paper will briefly explore why MXit lingo is written the way it is. By identifying and describing the orthographic conventions visible in the spelling of MXit lingo, although with some theoretical support, insight into the purposeful and functional nature of written, mobile communication will be revealed. In highlighting spelling that is influenced by Black South African English, an attempt will be made to contribute to the empirical development of a field of study that explores the construction of words used in South African mobile communication. Keywords: MXit, Math, letters, writing, orthography Disciplines: Linguistics, mathematics, information technology 16. MATH77 - A LIBRARY OF MATHEMATICAL SUBPROGRAMS FOR FORTRAN 77, RELEASE 4.0 Science.gov (United States) Lawson, C. L. 1994-01-01 MATH77 is a high quality library of ANSI FORTRAN 77 subprograms implementing contemporary algorithms for the basic computational processes of science and engineering. The portability of MATH77 meets the needs of present-day scientists and engineers who typically use a variety of computing environments. Release 4.0 of MATH77 contains 454 user-callable and 136 lower-level subprograms. Usage of the user-callable subprograms is described in 69 sections of the 416 page users' manual. The topics covered by MATH77 are indicated by the following list of chapter titles in the users' manual: Mathematical Functions, Pseudo-random Number Generation, Linear Systems of Equations and Linear Least Squares, Matrix Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Matrix Vector Utilities, Nonlinear Equation Solving, Curve Fitting, Table Look-Up and Interpolation, Definite Integrals (Quadrature), Ordinary Differential Equations, Minimization, Polynomial Rootfinding, Finite Fourier Transforms, Special Arithmetic , Sorting, Library Utilities, Character-based Graphics, and Statistics. Besides subprograms that are adaptations of public domain software, MATH77 contains a number of unique packages developed by the authors of MATH77. Instances of the latter type include (1) adaptive quadrature, allowing for exceptional generality in multidimensional cases, (2) the ordinary differential equations solver used in spacecraft trajectory computation for JPL missions, (3) univariate and multivariate table look-up and interpolation, allowing for "ragged" tables, and providing error estimates, and (4) univariate and multivariate derivative-propagation arithmetic. MATH77 release 4.0 is a subroutine library which has been carefully designed to be usable on any computer system that supports the full ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 language. It has been successfully implemented on a CRAY Y/MP computer running UNICOS, a UNISYS 1100 computer running EXEC 8, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, a Sun4 series computer running Sun 17. Exploring the relationship between math anxiety and gender through implicit measurement Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Orly eRubinsten 2012-10-01 Full Text Available Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is suggested as a strong antecedent for the low visibility of women in the science and engineering workforce. However, the assumption of gender differences in math anxiety is still being studied and results are inconclusive, probably due to the use of explicit measures such as direct questionnaires. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in males and females by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Specifically, university students (23 males and 30 females completed a priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative, or related to mathematics. Participants were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division was true or false. People are typically found to respond to target stimuli more rapidly after presentation of an affectively related prime than after an affectively unrelated one. In the current study, shorter response latencies for positive as compared to negative affective primes were found in the male group. An affective priming effect was found in the female group as well, but with a reversed pattern. That is, significantly shorter response latencies were observed in the female group for negative as compared to positive targets. That is, for females, negative affective primes act as affectively related to simple arithmetic problems. In contrast, males associated positive affect with simple arithmetic. In addition, only females with lower or insignificant negative affect towards arithmetic study at faculties of mathematics and science. We discuss the advantages of examining pure anxiety factors with implicit measures which are free of response factors. In addition it is suggested that environmental factors may enhance the association between 18. The new math of ownership. Science.gov (United States) Gross, B 1998-01-01 In 1994, when the software maker Knowledge Adventure decided to spin out a new venture--Worlds, Incorporated--founder Bill Gross expected the worst. He had argued with the board that it was in KA's best interests to maintain a controlling ownership stake in Worlds, whose powerful new software technology had enormous revenue potential. But the board prevailed, and KA took only a 20% ownership in the new company, giving the rest to Worlds' employees. Within a year, the company's performance had surpassed all expectations, and instead of owning 80% of a$5 million business, KA owned 20% of a 77 million business. The arithmetic may have been counterintuitive, but the lesson was clear. When KA let go of Worlds and gave its employees near total ownership, the company unleashed a new level of employee performance. That, in turn, led to the creation of economic value that more than made up for the equity KA had surrendered. So compelling was this "new math of ownership" that Gross founded a new company, Idealab, on this principle. The company, which develops ideas for Internet-based businesses and seeds the most promising ones, takes no more than a 49% equity stake in the new ventures and gives at least 1% of ownership to each employee. For Gross, this radical approach to ownership is the key to inspiring stellar performances. In part, employee-owners are motivated by their potential to earn great financial reward. But the drama of ownership, he argues, is even more important. In that drama, employees become personally involved in the struggle to outdo the competition and emerge victorious. 19. Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals. Science.gov (United States) Bernardo, Allan B I 2002-05-01 Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. 20. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability. Science.gov (United States) Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J 2013-05-01 Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Who is afraid of math? Two sources of genetic variance for mathematical anxiety. Science.gov (United States) Wang, Zhe; Hart, Sara Ann; Kovas, Yulia; Lukowski, Sarah; Soden, Brooke; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert; McLoughlin, Grainne; Bartlett, Christopher W; Lyons, Ian M; Petrill, Stephen A 2014-09-01 Emerging work suggests that academic achievement may be influenced by the management of affect as well as through efficient information processing of task demands. In particular, mathematical anxiety has attracted recent attention because of its damaging psychological effects and potential associations with mathematical problem solving and achievement. This study investigated the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the observed differences in the anxiety people feel when confronted with mathematical tasks. In addition, the genetic and environmental mechanisms that link mathematical anxiety with math cognition and general anxiety were also explored. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 514 12-year-old twin siblings. Genetic factors accounted for roughly 40% of the variation in mathematical anxiety, with the remaining being accounted for by child-specific environmental factors. Multivariate genetic analyses suggested that mathematical anxiety was influenced by the genetic and nonfamilial environmental risk factors associated with general anxiety and additional independent genetic influences associated with math-based problem solving. The development of mathematical anxiety may involve not only exposure to negative experiences with mathematics, but also likely involves genetic risks related to both anxiety and math cognition. These results suggest that integrating cognitive and affective domains may be particularly important for mathematics and may extend to other areas of academic achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2. Who’s Afraid of Math? Two Sources of Genetic Variance for Mathematical Anxiety Science.gov (United States) Wang, Zhe; Hart, Sara Ann; Kovas, Yulia; Lukowski, Sarah; Soden, Brooke; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert; McLoughlin, Grainne; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Lyons, Ian M.; Petrill, Stephen A. 2015-01-01 Background Emerging work suggests that academic achievement may be influenced by the management of affect as well as through efficient information processing of task demands. In particular, mathematical anxiety has attracted recent attention because of its damaging psychological effects and potential associations with mathematical problem-solving and achievement. The present study investigated the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the observed differences in the anxiety people feel when confronted with mathematical tasks. In addition, the genetic and environmental mechanisms that link mathematical anxiety with math cognition and general anxiety were also explored. Methods Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 514 12-year-old twin siblings. Results Genetic factors accounted for roughly 40% of the variation in mathematical anxiety, with the remaining being accounted for by child-specific environmental factors. Multivariate genetic analyses suggested that mathematical anxiety was influenced by the genetic and non-familial environmental risk factors associated with general anxiety and additional independent genetic influences associated with math-based problem solving. Conclusions The development of mathematical anxiety may involve not only exposure to negative experiences with mathematics, but also likely involves genetic risks related to both anxiety and math cognition. These results suggest that integrating cognitive and affective domains may be particularly important for mathematics, and may extend to other areas of academic achievement. PMID:24611799 3. Math at home adds up to achievement in school. Science.gov (United States) Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L 2015-10-09 With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. 4. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist? Science.gov (United States) Heinrichs, Audrey S. 1987-01-01 Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH) 5. Words that Pop! Science.gov (United States) Russell, Shirley 1988-01-01 To excite students' appreciation of language, comic book words--onomatopoeia--are a useful tool. Exercises and books are suggested. A list of books for adults and children is recommended, and a reproducible page is provided. (JL) 6. Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model Science.gov (United States) Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A. 1988-01-01 An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed. 7. Problem Solving in Physics: Undergraduates' Framing, Procedures, and Decision Making Science.gov (United States) Modir, Bahar In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I 8. Decorporation: officially a word. Science.gov (United States) Fisher, D R 2000-05-01 This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. 9. Decorporation: Officially a word International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Fisher, D.R. 2000-01-01 This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition 10. Decorporation: Officially a word Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Fisher, D.R. 2000-05-01 This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. 11. Decorporation: Officially a word International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Fisher, Darrell R. 1999-01-01 This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition 12. Sonority and early words DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus 2015-01-01 Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises... 13. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels. Science.gov (United States) El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M; Cutler, Anne 2012-07-01 Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in certain languages that allow stand-alone vowelless open-class words. One such language is Berber (where t is indeed a word). Berber listeners here detected words affixed to nonsense contexts with or without vowels. Length effects seen in other languages replicated in Berber, but in contrast to prior findings, word detection was not hindered by vowelless contexts. When words can be vowelless, otherwise universal constraints disfavoring vowelless words do not feature in spoken-word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 14. Essential math and calculations for pharmacy technicians CERN Document Server Reddy, Indra K 2003-01-01 Working with Roman and Arabic NumeralsUsing Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy MathUsing Ratios, Proportions and Percentages in Dosage CalculationsApplying Systems of MeasurementsInterpreting Medication OrdersIdentifying Prescription Errors and OmissionsWorking with Liquid Dosage FormsWorking with Solid Dosage FormsAdjusting IsotonicityWorking with Buffer and Ionization ValuesDealing with ReconstitutionsDetermining Milliequivalent StrengthsCalculating Caloric Values Determining IV Flow RatesWorking with Insulin and Heparin ProductsAppendices: A: Working with Temperature ConversionsB: Working with Capsule Dosage FormsC: Dealing with Pediatric Dosages D: Understanding Essential Business Math. 15. The "Parrot Math" Attack on Memorization Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bill Quirk 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Constructivist math educators regularly cite Parrot Math by Thomas C. O'Brien. Although this paper promotes constructivist "activity-based" learning over direct instruction, it's primary claim to fame is the open hostility to memorization. Professor O'Brien rejects "memorization and parrot-like drill " in favor of "children's invented strategies." He references a paper by Kamii and Dominick as evidence of "considerable research" showing that mastery of the standard algorithms of arithmetic is harmful for children. [See The Bogus Research in Kamii and Dominick's Harmful Algorithms Papers 16. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2 Science.gov (United States) Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine 2009-01-01 More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific… 17. Firefighter Math - a web-based learning tool Science.gov (United States) Dan Jimenez 2010-01-01 Firefighter Math is a web based interactive resource that was developed to help prepare wildland fire personnel for math based training courses. The website can also be used as a refresher for fire calculations including slope, flame length, relative humidity, flow rates, unit conversion, etc. The website is designed to start with basic math refresher skills and... 18. Mathematizing: An Emergent Math Curriculum Approach for Young Children Science.gov (United States) Rosales, Allen C. 2015-01-01 Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their… 19. Learning to Be a Math Teacher: What Knowledge Is Essential? Science.gov (United States) Reid, Mary; Reid, Steven 2017-01-01 This study critically examined the math content knowledge (MCK) of teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a two-year Master of Teaching (MT) degree. Teachers require a solid math knowledge base in order to support students' achievement. Provincial and international math assessments have been of major concern in Ontario, Canada, due to declining… 20. Formula for Success: Engaging Families in Early Math Learning Science.gov (United States) Global Family Research Project, 2017 2017-01-01 Early math ability is one of the best predictors of children's later success in school. Because children's learning begins in the home, families are fundamental in shaping children's interest and skills in math. The experience of learning and doing math, however, looks different from the instruction that was offered when most adults were in… 1. How to Make the Most of Math Manipulatives. Science.gov (United States) Burns, Marilyn 1996-01-01 A discussion of how to use math manipulatives to teach elementary students focuses on essential program elements: what math manipulatives are and why they are used, common questions about math manipulatives, how one teacher introduced the geoboard into the classroom, and pattern block activities. (SM) 2. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction Science.gov (United States) Holmstrom, Annette 2010-01-01 The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%… 3. Impact of Math Snacks Games on Students' Conceptual Understanding Science.gov (United States) Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B. 2016-01-01 This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a… 4. The Sum of All Fears: The Effects of Math Anxiety on Math Achievement in Fifth Grade Students and the Implications for School Counselors Science.gov (United States) Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R. 2014-01-01 Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to… 5. Optics learning by computing, with examples using Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB CERN Document Server Moeller, Karl Dieter 2007-01-01 This new edition is intended for a one semester course in optics for juniors and seniors in science and engineering; it uses scripts from Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB provide a simulated laboratory where students can learn by exploration and discovery instead of passive absorption. The text covers all the standard topics of a traditional optics course, including: geometrical optics and aberration, interference and diffraction, coherence, Maxwell's equations, wave guides and propagating modes, blackbody radiation, atomic emission and lasers, optical properties of materials, Fourier transforms and FT spectroscopy, image formation, and holography. It contains step by step derivations of all basic formulas in geometrical, wave and Fourier optics. The basic text is supplemented by over 170 files in Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB (many of which are in the text, each suggesting programs to solve a particular problem, and each linked to a topic in or application of optics. The computer files are d... 6. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability NARCIS (Netherlands) Jansen, B.R.J.; Lange, E.; van der Molen, M.J. 2013-01-01 Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this 7. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills Science.gov (United States) Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa 2015-01-01 The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher… 8. Developmental Math Programs in California Community College: An Analysis of Math Boot Camp at Cosumnes River College Science.gov (United States) Powell, Torence J. 2017-01-01 The California Community College system, as an open access institution, is tasked with helping students who possess math skills far below college-level complete math course requirements for obtaining an associate degree or transfer to a university. Colleges have created various developmental math programs to achieve this mission; this paper… 9. Order of Administration of Math and Verbal Tests: An Ecological Intervention to Reduce Stereotype Threat on Girls' Math Performance Science.gov (United States) Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle 2013-01-01 In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be… 10. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders Science.gov (United States) Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M. 2006-01-01 This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition… 11. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION NARCIS (Netherlands) Chen, W.; Gader, P. 2004-01-01 Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical 12. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels NARCIS (Netherlands) El Aissati, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A. 2012-01-01 Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the 13. Problem Solving and Learning Science.gov (United States) Singh, Chandralekha 2009-07-01 One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition. 14. Teaching Creative Problem Solving. Science.gov (United States) Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren 1992-01-01 Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK) 15. Interactive geometry inside MathDox NARCIS (Netherlands) Cuypers, H.; Hendriks, M.; Knopper, J.W. 2010-01-01 In this paper we describe how we envision using interactive geometry inside MathDox pages. In particular, by some examples we discuss how users and mathematical services (offered by various mathematical software packages) can interact with the geometric objects available. This not only includes 16. What Adds Up?: Math Enrollment and Graduation Science.gov (United States) Utah System of Higher Education, 2015 2015-01-01 College students struggling to pass a college level math course required for Quantitative Literacy (QL) credit1 has been a common issue facing many institutions in higher education. In the fall of 2014, the Utah State Board of Regents solidified a statewide initiative that set goals for each of the Utah System of Higher Education institutions (UU,… 17. ADP Security Plan, Math Building, Room 1139 Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Melton, R. 1985-08-27 This document provides the draft copy of an updated (ADP) Security Plan for an IBM Personal Computer to be used in the Math Building at PNL for classified data base management. Using the equipment specified in this document and implementing the administrative and physical procedures as outlined will provide the secure environment necessary for this work to proceed. 18. Admission Math Level and Student Performance DEFF Research Database (Denmark) la Cour, Lisbeth 2015-01-01 In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse... 19. Confessions of a Dr Math tutor CSIR Research Space (South Africa) Butgereit, L 2015-06-01 Full Text Available Mathematics look different on a small 3-inch screen of an inexpensive cell phone when compared to a 3-meter whiteboard in a mathematics classroom. Dr Math uses cell phone or mobile data "chat" technologies to assist primary and secondary school... 20. Early math intervention for marginalized students DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck 2016-01-01 This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM... 1. Fold in Origami and Unfold Math Science.gov (United States) Georgeson, Joseph 2011-01-01 Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be… 2. Math on the Job. Metal Product Assembler. Science.gov (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education. This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of metal product assemblers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to… 3. Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children. Science.gov (United States) Murray, Anne 2001-01-01 Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts… 4. The Demise of the Asian Math Gene. Science.gov (United States) Bracey, Gerald W. 1999-01-01 The 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress math scores for eighth-graders show that when socioeconomic status is considered, English-proficient Asian students have no achievement advantage over other ethnic groups. However, Chinese sixth-graders, using abstract reasoning skills, outperformed American students on 12 open-ended math… 5. MIT professor wins major international math prize CERN Multimedia Allen, S 2004-01-01 Mathematicians Isadore Singer of MIT and Sir Michael Francis Atiyah of the University of Edinburgh will share an875,000 award as winners of the second Abel Prize, which some hope will come to be seen as a Nobel Prize for math.

6. Online Options for Math-Advanced Students

Science.gov (United States)

Wessling, Suki

2012-01-01

Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…

7. Relationship between Affective Dimension and Math Learning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ronny Gamboa Araya

2014-05-01

Full Text Available Math has become an obstacle to achieve educational goals for a large number of students; thus it has transcended the academic world and has become a cognitive and emotional impairment.  What students feel, perceive, believe, and how they act directly influences this.  In addition, what teachers feel and perceive, their expectations, beliefs and attitudes towards the discipline also play an important role in how they teach and in the affective dimension of their students.  Based on theoretical aspects from various authors, this paper is aimed at addressing some elements regarding the affective dimension, and at showing elements pertaining to teachers and students, and their relationship with math learning and teaching.  It was concluded that the role of the affective dimension in math learning must be addressed by math educators in order to understand the process from the perspective of the actors associated with it, both students and teachers, as well as to achieve a change in the discipline by improving the beliefs and attitudes of students and teachers.

8. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

Science.gov (United States)

New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

2016-01-01

In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

9. Tic Tac Toe Math. Train the Trainer.

Science.gov (United States)

Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.

This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…

10. The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng

2018-02-01

Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

11. Matching and Compression of Strings with Automata and Word Packing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye; Gørtz, Inge Li; Thomassen, Carsten

pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters...... in (deterministic) time O (m= + logm + log log ) ; where = w= log is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = (log n). Our query time is always at least as good as the previous best known bounds and whenever several characters are packed in a word, i.e., log w, the query times are faster. Dynamic...

12. Electronic Word of Behavior

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kunst, Katrine

It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

13. Teaching Problem Solving to Students Receiving Tiered Interventions Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence and Schema-Based Instruction

Science.gov (United States)

Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.

2016-01-01

Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…

14. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

Science.gov (United States)

Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

2015-01-01

Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824

15. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

Science.gov (United States)

Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

2015-01-01

Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

16. Neural correlates of math anxiety – An overview and implications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Christina eArtemenko

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

17. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

2015-01-01

The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

18. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

2015-01-01

The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster ) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham ). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham ) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster ), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

19. Essential words for the TOEFL

CERN Document Server

Matthiesen, Steven J

2017-01-01

This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

20. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

Science.gov (United States)

Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

2018-01-01

This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

1. Finding Rising and Falling Words

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Tjong Kim Sang, E.

2016-01-01

We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

2. Word of mouth komunikacija

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

2009-01-01

Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

3. An associative account of the development of word learning.

Science.gov (United States)

Sloutsky, Vladimir M; Yim, Hyungwook; Yao, Xin; Dennis, Simon

2017-09-01

Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning. In a series of experiments, 4-year-olds and adults were presented with sets of words that included a single nonsense word (e.g. dax). Some lists were taxonomic (i.,e., all items were members of a given category), some were associative (i.e., all items were associates of a given category, but not members), and some were mixed. Participants were asked to indicate whether the nonsense word was an animal or an artifact. Adults exhibited evidence of learning when lists consisted of either associatively or taxonomically related items. In contrast, children exhibited evidence of word learning only when lists consisted of associatively related items. These results present challenges to several extant models of word learning, and a new model based on the distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic associations is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4. AARP Word 2010 for dummies

CERN Document Server

Gookin, Dan

2011-01-01

It's a whole new Word - make the most of it! Here's exactly what you need to know to get going with Word 2010. From firing up Word, using the spell checker, and working with templates to formatting documents, adding images, and saving your stuff, you'll get the first and last word on Word 2010 with this fun and easy mini guide. So get ready to channel your inner writer and start creating Word files that wow! Open the book and find:Tips for navigating Word with the keyboard and mouseAdvice on using the RibbonHow to edit text and undo mistakesThings to know

5. Cultural Image of Animal Words

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

邓海燕

2017-01-01

This paper,after introducing the definition and forms of cultural image,focuses on the detailed comparison and analysis of cultural image of animal words both in English and in Chinese from four aspects,that is,same animal word,same cultural image;same animal word,different cultural images;different animal words,same cultural image;different animal words,different cultural images.

6. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

Science.gov (United States)

Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

2009-01-01

This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:20084180

7. Wording in international law

NARCIS (Netherlands)

d' Aspremont, J.

2012-01-01

Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

8. Wording in International Law

NARCIS (Netherlands)

d' Aspremont, J.

2012-01-01

Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, the scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

9. A Life in Words

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

"Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

10. Have Words, Will Understand?

Science.gov (United States)

James, Jon

2013-01-01

Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

11. Getting the Word Out.

Science.gov (United States)

Brandou, Julian R.

1982-01-01

Suggests public relations strategies which science educators can adopt to spread the word about the importance of good science teaching. These include preparing a fact sheet summarizing a project/course/organization, tips on creating a newsworthy event (awards, displays at a mall, and others), and what to submit to the news media. (Author/JN)

12. Distributed Problem-Solving

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemi, Tatiana

2016-01-01

This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

13. Solving Environmental Problems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

2017-01-01

for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

14. A Cognitive Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability on Geometry

Science.gov (United States)

Rusyda, N. A.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.

2017-09-01

The purpose of this research is to analyze of mathematical problem solving ability of students in one of secondary school on geometry. This research was conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. Population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was twenty five students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical problem solving were collected through essay test. The results showed the percentage of achievement of mathematical problem solving indicators of students were: 1) solve closed mathematical problems with context in math was 50%; 2) solve the closed mathematical problems with the context beyond mathematics was 24%; 3) solving open mathematical problems with contexts in mathematics was 35%; And 4) solving open mathematical problems with contexts outside mathematics was 44%. Based on the percentage, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of mathematical problem solving ability in geometry still low. This is because students are not used to solving problems that measure mathematical problem solving ability, weaknesses remember previous knowledge, and lack of problem solving framework. So the students’ ability of mathematical problems solving need to be improved with implement appropriate learning strategy.

15. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

Science.gov (United States)

Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

2016-01-01

Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

16. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhan Shi

Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

17. Think Like A Maths Genius The Art of Calculating in Your Head

CERN Document Server

Benjamin, Arthur

2011-01-01

How to calculate almost anything in your head.Did you know that it's easier to add and subtract from left to right, rather than the other way round?You can be taught to square a three-digit number in seconds. Learn how to perform lightning calculations in your head, discover methods of incredible memorisation and other feats of mental agility. Learn maths secrets for the real world, from shopping to calculating a restaurant tip and figuring out gambling odds (or how much you've won). Learn how to solve sudoku faster.

18. Extreme value problems without calculus: a good link with geometry and elementary maths

Science.gov (United States)

Ganci, Salvatore

2016-11-01

Some classical examples of problem solving, where an extreme value condition is required, are here considered and/or revisited. The search for non-calculus solutions appears pedagogically useful and intriguing as shown through a rich literature. A teacher, who teaches both maths and physics, (as happens in Italian High schools) can find in these kinds of problems a mind stimulating exercise compared with the standard solution obtained by the differential calculus. A good link between the geometric and analytical explanations is so established.

19. Stress, Time Pressure, Strategy Selection and Math Anxiety in Mathematics: A Review of the Literature.

Science.gov (United States)

Caviola, Sara; Carey, Emma; Mammarella, Irene C; Szucs, Denes

2017-01-01

We review how stress induction, time pressure manipulations and math anxiety can interfere with or modulate selection of problem-solving strategies (henceforth "strategy selection") in arithmetical tasks. Nineteen relevant articles were identified, which contain references to strategy selection and time limit (or time manipulations), with some also discussing emotional aspects in mathematical outcomes. Few of these take cognitive processes such as working memory or executive functions into consideration. We conclude that due to the sparsity of available literature our questions can only be partially answered and currently there is not much evidence of clear associations. We identify major gaps in knowledge and raise a series of open questions to guide further research.

20. Elephant: Sequence Labeling for Word and Sentence Segmentation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Evang, Kilian; Basile, Valerio; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Bos, Johan

2013-01-01

Tokenization is widely regarded as a solved problem due to the high accuracy that rule-based tokenizers achieve. But rule-based tokenizers are hard to maintain and their rules language specific. We show that high-accuracy word and sentence segmentation can be achieved by using supervised sequence