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Sample records for solvent system utilized

  1. Development of novel solvent extraction system by utilizing the metal ions excitation with ultraviolet pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Morihisa; Sasaki, Yuji; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Novel liquid-liquid extraction technique was developed using ultraviolet pulse laser. The liquid-liquid system was composed of pure water and the 1-octanol solution of EuCl 3 and TODGA (TODGA = N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide). The Eu 3+ ion, which was formed to be the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n complex in 1-octanol, was reduced to Eu 2+ by irradiation of fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). The Eu 2+ ion was stabilized by addition of 15-Crown-5 (15C5). The observation by in-situ emission spectroscopy showed that the Eu 2+ ion reduced by the 266 nm-laser irradiation resulted in back-extraction of Eu from the 1-octanol solution to the water. The emission spectrum observed in 1-octanol suggested the change from the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n to the Eu 2+ (15C5) m complex after the reduction by the 266 nm laser. Time dependence of the concentration of Eu 2+ (15C5) m was investigated at the aqueous phase, the organic one and their interface. The results suggest that (1) rapid formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol after the irradiation of the 266 nm laser, (2) slow diffusion of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol, and (3) existence of time-lag between the formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol and its back-extraction to the water. (author)

  2. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  3. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  6. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  7. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  8. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  9. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  10. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  11. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...

  12. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  13. The development of Gallstone solvent temperature adaptive PID control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; BING; QIAO; BO; YAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper expatiated the work principle,general project,and the control part of the corresponding program of the temperature system in the gallstone dissolving instrument.Gallstone dissolving instrument adopts automatic control solvent cycle of direct solution stone treatment,replacing the traditional external shock wave rock row stone and gallblad-der surgery method.PID control system to realize the gall stone solvent temperature intelligent control,the basic principle of work is as solvent temperature below the set temperature,the relay control heater to solvent to be heated,conversely,no heating,achieve better able to dissolve the the rapeutic effect of gallstones.

  14. A solvent/non-solvent system for achieving solution-processed multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Lin; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-08-31

    We developed a solvent/non-solvent system to fabricate the multilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) by solution-process. This solvent system consists of both the solvent and non-solvent of PVK, in which fluorescent small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on top of the PVK layer; it could effectively avoid the redissolution of PVK during the spin-coating process of small molecules emitting layer. In the further investigation of this system, we also demonstrated the three-component solvent system, and found out that the third component, a less volatile solvent of PVK, was crucial for preparing a smoother interface between PVK and emitting layer. Compared with OLEDs through the vacuum deposition, the devices fabricated by solution-process from the solvent/non-solvent system showed comparable efficiency, which indicate that the solvent/non-solvent system can be used as an alternative process to prepare the polymer and small molecule multilayer devices through all-solution-process. - Highlights: • We fabricate the multilayer OLEDs by solution-process using a novel system. • We develop a solvent/non-solvent system of polymer (PVK) to avoid redissolution. • Small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on PVK layer. • The devices fabricated by the system and vacuum deposition show comparable efficiency.

  15. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solvent-Free Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dot Films Utilizing Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyun Keum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (QDs with properties that can be tuned by size, shape, and composition are promising for the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. However, utilization of these materials in such devices is hindered by the limited compatibility of established semiconductor processing techniques. In this context, patterning of QD films formed from colloidal solutions is a critical challenge and alternative methods are currently being developed for the broader adoption of colloidal QDs in functional devices. Here, we present a solvent-free approach to patterning QD films by utilizing a shape memory polymer (SMP. The high pull-off force of the SMP below glass transition temperature (Tg in conjunction with the conformal contact at elevated temperatures (above Tg enables large-area, rate-independent, fine patterning while preserving desired properties of QDs.

  17. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  18. Separation of rare earth metal using micro solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihama, S.; Tajiri, Y.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2005-01-01

    A micro solvent extraction system for the separation of rare earth metals has been investigated. The micro flow channel was fabricated on a PMMA plate. Extraction equilibrium was quickly achieved, without any mechanical mixing. The solvent extraction results obtained for the Pr/Sm binary solutions revealed that both rare earth metals are firstly extracted together. Following, the Pr is extracted in the organic solution and Sm remains in the aqueous phase. The phase separation can be successively achieved by contriving the cross section of the flow channel

  19. Separation of lanthanides using micro solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihama, S.; Tajiri, Y.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2006-01-01

    A micro solvent extraction system for the separation of lanthanides has been investigated. The micro flow channel is fabricated on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate, and solvent extraction progresses by feeding aqueous and organic solutions into the channel simultaneously. The extraction equilibrium is quickly achieved, without any mechanical mixing, when a narrow channel (100 μm width and 100 μm depth) is used. The results of solvent extraction from the Pr/Nd and Pr/Sm binary solutions revealed that both lanthanides are firstly extracted together, and then, the lighter lanthanide extracted in the organic solution alternatively exchanges to the heavier one in the aqueous solution to achieve the extraction equilibrium. The phase separation of the aqueous and organic phases after extraction can also be successively achieved by contriving the cross section of the flow channel, and the extractive separation of Pr/Sm is demonstrated. (authors)

  20. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  1. Simulation of equilibrium distribution data in a solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Giriyalkar, A.B.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, D.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrometallurgy, solvent extraction has been proved to be the purification method to recover metal in high-pure form from impure solution. Any solvent extraction process is complex and based on some operating parameters which always lure the scientists to model them. Operating parameters like aqueous to organic volume ratio and concentration of feed are related to required number of stages for a product with specific recovery. So to determine final feed concentration or aqueous to organic volume ratio for a specific extractant concentration, one needs to carry out a number of extraction experiments tediously supported by analysis. Here an attempt is being made to model the distribution of solute between organic and aqueous phases with minimum analytical and experimental support for any system. The model can predict the effect on solvent extraction for a change in the aqueous to organic volume ratio i.e. slope of operating line, percentage loading of solvent, feed concentration, solvent concentration, number of stages and in the process it can help in optimizing conditions for the best result from a solvent extraction system. Uranium-7% TBP in dodecane system was taken up to validate the model. The predicted values of the model was tallied against uranium distribution between aqueous and organic phases in a running mixer settler. The equation for operating line i.e. straight line is derived from O/A=1.5 and considering barren organic contains 2 ppm uranium: y 1 = 0.667x 0 - .002. The extraction isotherm i.e. parabola equation came as : x 1 = 0.003y 0 2 + 0.723y 0 considering three points i.e. (0,0), (13,16.7) (uranium analysis for first stage of mixer-settler) and (25, 30.69) (feed concentration, loading capacity of solvent). Using these two equations the results that were obtained, predicted the solute distribution across different stages exactly as it is in the running mixer settler. Individual isotherms could also be drawn with the predicted results from the

  2. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Kochly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement, and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. 1H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  3. Third generation capture system: precipitating amino acid solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Misiak, K.; Ham, L. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This work summarises the results of the design of novel separation processes for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating amino acid solvents. The processes here described (DECAB, DECAB Plus and pH-swing) use a combination of enhanced CO2 absorption (based on the Le Chatelier’s principle)

  4. Solubility of cefoxitin acid in different solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fuhong; Wang, Yongli; Xiao, Liping; Huang, Qiaoyin; Xu, Jinchao; Jiang, Chen; Hao, Hongxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of cefoxitin acid in different solvent systems was measured. • Three models were used to correlate the solubility data. • The dissolution enthalpy of the dissolution process was calculated. - Abstract: Cefoxitin acid is one kind of important pharmaceutical intermediate. Its solubility is crucial for designing and optimizing the crystallization processes. In this work, the solubility of cefoxitin acid in organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile, ethanol, isopropanol, n-propanol and ethyl acetate), water and water-methanol mixtures was measured spectrophotometrically using a shake-flask method within the temperature range 278.15–303.15 K. PXRD data and the Karl Fischer method were used to verify the crystal form stability of cefoxitin acid in the solubility measuring process. The melting points, the enthalpy and entropy of fusion were estimated. Results showed that the solubility of cefoxitin acid increases with the increasing temperature in all tested solvents in this work, and the solubility of cefoxitin acid increases with the increasing methanol concentration in water-methanol mixtures. The experimental solubility values were well correlated using the modified Apelblat equation, NRTL model and CNIBS/R-K model. An equation proposed by Williamson was adopted to calculate the molar enthalpy during the dissolution process.

  5. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  6. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  7. Porous fiber formation in polymer-solvent system undergoing solvent evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Kyu, Thein

    2006-08-01

    Temporal evolution of the fiber morphology during dry spinning has been investigated in the framework of Cahn-Hilliard equation [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] pertaining to the concentration order parameter or volume fraction given by the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing [P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1953), p. 672] in conjunction with the solvent evaporation rate. To guide the solvent evaporation induced phase separation, equilibrium phase diagram of the starting polymer solution was established on the basis of the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing. The quasi-steady-state approximation has been adopted to account for the nonconserved nature of the concentration field caused by the solvent loss. The process of solvent evaporation across the fiber skin-air interface was treated in accordance with the classical Fick's law [R. B. Bird et al., Transport Phenomena (J. Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 780]. The simulated morphologies include gradient type, hollow fiber type, bicontinuous type, and host-guest type. The development of these diverse fiber morphologies is explicable in terms of the phase diagram of the polymer solution in a manner dependent on the competition between the phase separation dynamics and rate of solvent evaporation.

  8. Solvent oriented hobbies and the risk of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietert, P J; Sutherland, S E; Silver, R M; Pandey, J P; Dosemeci, M

    1999-11-01

    To examine whether those participating in solvent oriented hobbies (SOH) are at greater risk of developing systemic sclerosis (SSc), and if the association is modified by the presence of the anti-Scl70 antibody. Patients with SSc and controls were recruited from a university hospital rheumatology clinic. Recreational hobby and occupational histories were obtained along with blood samples. Cumulative scores were created for participation in SOH. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios associated with SOH exposure after adjustment for sex, age at diagnosis, and occupational solvent exposure, and to examine the association between SOH exposure and the presence of anti-Scl70. Solvent exposure based on hobbies and occupations was determined for 178 cases (141 women, 37 men) and 200 controls (138 women, 62 men). Overall participation in SOH was not associated with SSc. However, odds of high cumulative SOH exposure was 3 times greater in those patients with SSc testing positive for the anti-Scl70 antibody compared to patients testing negative (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1, 7.9), and twice as great as controls (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.9). While patients with SSc did not participate more often in SOH than controls over all, odds of high cumulative SOH exposure was greater among patients with SSc testing positive for anti-Scl70 compared to those testing negative and compared to controls. These results provide further evidence that environmental agents may play a role in the development of Ssc.

  9. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste

  10. Clostridium beijerinckii cells expressing Neocallimastix patriciarum glycoside hydrolases show enhanced Lichenan utilization and solvent production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Contreras, A.; Oost, van der J.; Claassen, P.; Mooibroek, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and the production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 on several polysaccharides and sugars were analyzed. On crystalline cellulose, growth and solvent production were observed only when a mixture of fungal cellulases was added to the medium. On lichenan

  11. Density Changes in the Optimized CSSX Solvent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.

    2002-11-25

    Density increases in caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) solvent have been observed in separate experimental programs performed by different groups of researchers. Such changes indicate a change in chemical composition. Increased density adversely affects separation of solvent from denser aqueous solutions present in the CSSX process. Identification and control of factors affecting solvent density are essential for design and operation of the centrifugal contactors. The goals of this research were to identify the factors affecting solvent density (composition) and to develop correlations between easily measured solvent properties (density and viscosity) and the chemical composition of the solvent, which will permit real-time determination and adjustment of the solvent composition. In evaporation experiments, virgin solvent was subjected to evaporation under quiescent conditions at 25, 35, and 45 C with continuously flowing dry air passing over the surface of the solvent. Density and viscosity were measured periodically, and chemical analysis was performed on the solvent samples. Chemical interaction tests were completed to determine if any chemical reaction takes place over extended contact time that changes the composition and/or physical properties. Solvent and simulant, solvent and strip solution, and solvent and wash solution were contacted continuously in agitated flasks. They were periodically sampled and the density measured (viscosity was also measured on some samples) and then submitted to the Chemical Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the virgin solvent as the baseline. Chemical interaction tests showed that solvent densities and viscosities did not change appreciably during contact with simulant, strip, or wash solution. No effects on density and viscosity and no chemical changes in the solvent were noted within

  12. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  13. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  14. ODC-Free Solvent Implementation Issues for Vulcanized Rubber and Bond Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, James R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thiokol Propulsion has worked extensively to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) with ozone depleting chemicals (ODC)-free solvents for use in the manufacture of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) for the Space Shuttle Program. As Thiokol has transitioned from sub-scale to full-scale testing and implementation of these new solvents, issues have been discovered which have required special attention. The original intent of Thiokol's solvent replacement strategy was to replace TCA with a single drop-in solvent for all equivalent applications. We have learned that a single candidate does not exist for replacing TCA. Solvent incompatibility with process materials has caused us to seek for niche solvents and/or processing changes that provide an ODC-free solution for special applications. This paper addresses some of the solvent incompatibilities, which have lead to processes changes and possible niche solvent usage. These incompatibilities were discovered during full-scale testing of ODC-free solvents and relate to vulcanized rubber and bond systems in the RSRM. Specifically, the following items are presented: (1) Cure effects of d-limonene based solvents on Silica Filled Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (SF-EPDM) rubber. During full-scale test operations, Thiokol discovered that d-limonene (terpene) based solvents inhibit the cure of EPDM rubber. Subsequent testing showed the same issue with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Also discussed are efforts to minimize uncured rubber exposure to solvents; and (2) Cured bond system sensitivity to ODC-free solvents. During full scale testing it was discovered that a natural rubber to steel vulcanized bond could degrade after prolonged exposure to ODC-free solvents. Follow on testing showed that low vapor pressure and residence time seemed to be most likely cause for failure.

  15. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  16. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    This paper will discuss the integration of SPS power in electric utility power systems. Specifically treated will be the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load.

  17. Thermodynamic equilibrium of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiaoyin; Xie, Chuang; Li, Yang; Su, Nannan; Lou, Yajing; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yongli; Bao, Ying; Hou, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Modified Apelblat, NRTL and Wilson model were used to correlate the solubility data in pure solvents. • CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. • The mixing properties were calculated based on the NRTL model. - Abstract: The solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in five pure organic solvents and two binary solvent mixtures were experimentally measured from 273.15 K to 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) by using a dynamic method. The order of solubility in pure organic solvents is ethanol > isopropanol > n-butanol > acetonitrile > ethyl acetate within the investigated temperature range, except for temperature lower than 278 K where the solubility of HA in ethyl acetate is slightly larger than that in acetonitrile. Furthermore, the solubility data in pure solvents were correlated with the modified Apelblat model, NRTL model, and Wilson model and that in the binary solvents mixtures were fitted to the CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model. Finally, the mixing thermodynamic properties of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems were calculated and discussed.

  18. Multiple Solvent Extraction System with Flow Injection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    encounters a back extraction step where the direction of the extraction is from organic to aqueous solvent. Thus it is advantageous to incorporate both...stainless steel ( Alltech Associates, Arlington Heights, IQ) and prepared from a single section of 180 cmn in length. The Section 2 mixing and extraction

  19. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants.

  20. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  1. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  2. Preparation of detergent-lipase complexes utilizing water-soluble amphiphiles in single aqueous phase and catalysis of transesterifications in homogeneous organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Y; Fukunaga, K; Maruoka, N; Nakao, K; Sugimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    A novel method of preparing detergent-enzyme complexes that can be employed in organic media was developed utilizing newly synthesized water-soluble nonionic gemini-type detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIG2CnCA: n = 10,12,14,16,18) and N,N-bis(3-D-lactonamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIL2CnCA: n = 16,18), and nonionic twin-headed detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)alkanamides (BIG1Cn: n = 12,14,16,18,delta9). This method simply entails mixing a selected enzyme with an appropriate detergent in an aqueous solution followed by lyophilization, and it offers the advantages of enhanced enzymatic activity in organic solvents and eliminates both enzyme loss and the necessity for an organic solvent in the preparation stage. Using various modified lipases originating from Aspergillus niger (Lipase A), Candida rugosa (Lipase C), Pseudomonas cepacia (Lipase P), and porcine pancreas (PPL), prepared using the novel method and detergents, including conventional synthesized nonionic detergents such as dialkyl N-D-glucona-L-glutamates (2CnGE: n = 12,18delta9) and octanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-8), enantioselective transesterifications of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol (sulcatol) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (solketal) with a vinyl or isopropenyl carboxylate were carried out in an organic solvent. The modified lipase activity was influenced by both the lipases and the structure of the detergents. The value for the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the detergent provided a means of correlating the structure and the obtained modified lipase activity. For detergents of the same class with a HLB value of approximately 9 and 12, the highest activity was obtained for Lipase A and Lipase P, and Lipase C and PPL, respectively. Among detergents of the same HLB value tested, the gemini-type detergents possessing the most bulky head and tail were most effective as a modifier for lipases of all

  3. Parametric Study for Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Utilizing Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste rubber is a polymeric material containing 50% of rubber and is generally referred to as waste tyre rubber. The main purpose of this research is to study ultrasonic devulcanisation of waste rubber utilising deep eutectic solvent (DES of ZnCl2:Urea by improving process parameters such as sonication time, reaction temperature and rubber: DES mass ratio by effectively cleaving cross-link sulphur bonds. DES was created and prepared by mixing ZnCl2 with urea at 2:7 and 1:4 molar ratios respectively. Physicochemical properties of the prepared DES was measured using DSC, KFT and TGA analysis to find the freezing point, moisture content and degradation temperature, whereby their freezing point below 60°C, moisture content lower than 3.0 wt.% and 200°C degradation temperature average. Rubber to DES mass ratio was varied at 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40 and sonicated for 15 minutes inside ultrasonic water-bath. Samples were placed onto hot plate whereby heating temperature was varied at room temperature, 130°C, 150°C, and 180°C for 15 minutes. Samples were filtered, washed with distilled water and dried in oven for 24 hours. Once dried, samples were taken for analysis using TGA, EDX, FESEM, FTIR and Gel content. Under TGA analysis, most samples have an average degradation temperature of 200°C, hence justifying a successful devulcanisation. EDX analysis shows two occurrences during devulcanisation process which is bond reformation and cleavage. Furthermore, it is determined that heating temperature of 130°C is an important parameter as it is the optimum temperature for ZnCl2:Urea. Under FTIR analysis, it shows that disulphide bond, S-S is the only bond that is being broken while the rest still remains the same. Gel content analysis showed that samples have a lower soluble fraction after devulcanisation process. Finally, FESEM proves that at 130°C and 15 minutes is the optimum temperature and time which is illustrated by the smooth surface at that

  4. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  5. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupang, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The integration of Satellite Power System (SPS) power in electric utility power systems is discussed. Specifically, the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power, and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load are treated. It is concluded that if RF beam control is an acceptable method for power control, and that the site distribution of SPS rectennas do not cause a very high local penetration (40 to 50%), SPS may be integrated into electric utility system with a few negative impacts. Increased regulating duty on the conventional generation, and a potential impact on system reliability for SPS penetration in excess of about 25% appear to be two areas of concern.

  6. Design and construction of an interceptor system for radioactively contaminated solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Blickwedehl, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the conduct of fuel reprocessing operations at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972, the site operator disposed of spent solvent by shallow land burial in the area used for disposal of solid radioactive waste. The spent solvent was placed in twenty-two 3785 liter (1000-gallon) steel tanks which were then placed in eight 6-meter-deep burial holes. With the passage of time groundwater entered the tanks displacing the solvent (a mixture of tributyl phosphate and n-dodecane) and allowing it to enter the surrounding groundwater system. The solvent, which is lighter than water, floated to the surface of the groundwater within the burial holes and began to migrate laterally through cracks caused by weathering. In 1983, after the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated efforts for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), trace amounts of solvent were encountered in a monitoring well near the perimeter of the burial area. Since the initial discovery, extensive studies and continued monitoring have been conducted of the solvent migration. In the fall of 1989, this monitoring showed evidence of further on-site migration of the solvent within the disposal area. In response, the DOE authorized West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS) to proceed with the design and construction of a trench system to intercept the flow of solvent and prevent it from discharging to nearby streams. Since the solvent and the contaminated groundwater samples taken in the area exhibited high levels of Iodine-129 in an organic complex, it was necessary to construct a pretreatment facility. An important aspect of the trench construction was the management of contaminated soil and construction water. Contaminated soils were placed into storage containers and held for future treatment and disposal. All water pumped from the trench during construction was stored in large bladder tanks, analyzed for hazardous constituents, and upon finding none, was discharged

  7. Effects of solvation on partition and dimerization of benzoic acid in mixed solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Yajima, K; Wada, H; Nakagawa, G

    1995-06-01

    The partition of benzoic acid between 0.1M perchloric acid solution and two kinds of mixed solvents has been carried out at 25 degrees C. The partition and dimerization constants of benzoic acid have been determined in the 1-octanol-benzene and 2-octanone-benzene systems. In both the mixed solvent systems, with increasing content of 1-octanol and 2-octanone in each mixed solvent, the partition constant of benzoic acid has been found to increase, and the dimerization constant of benzoic acid in each organic phase to decrease. These phenomena are attributable to solvation of monomeric benzoic acid by 1-octanol and 2-octanone molecules in each mixed solvent.

  8. Tactical Utility of Tailored Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    create a procurement system to produce materiel at a cost low enough to make equipment disposable. Further cost savings may be realized by upgrading...replacement parts. With the advent of 3-d printing and digital manufacturing, a new part may be procured as easily as scanning a bar code and pressing...9/11 Commission Report “Imagination is not a gift usually associated with bureaucracies. It is therefore crucial to find a way of routinizing, even

  9. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  10. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  11. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi...

  12. Innovative polymeric system (IPS) for solvent-free lipophilic drug transdermal delivery via dissolving microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangol, Manita; Yang, Huisuk; Li, Cheng Guo; Lahiji, Shayan Fakhraei; Kim, Suyong; Ma, Yonghao; Jung, Hyungil

    2016-02-10

    Lipophilic drugs are potential drug candidates during drug development. However, due to the need for hazardous organic solvents for their solubilization, these drugs often fail to reach the pharmaceutical market, and in doing so highlight the importance of solvent free systems. Although transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) are considered prospective safe drug delivery routes, a system involving lipophilic drugs in solvent free or powder form has not yet been described. Here, we report, for the first time, a novel approach for the delivery of every kind of lipophilic drug in powder form based on an innovative polymeric system (IPS). The phase transition of powder form of lipophilic drugs due to interior chemical bonds between drugs and biodegradable polymers and formation of nano-sized colloidal structures allowed the fabrication of dissolving microneedles (DMNs) to generate a powerful TDDS. We showed that IPS based DMN with powder capsaicin enhances the therapeutic effect for treatment of the rheumatic arthritis in a DBA/1 mouse model compared to a solvent-based system, indicating the promising potential of this new solvent-free platform for lipophilic drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical studies of the carbamate-CO2-solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prencipe, M.; Ishida, T.

    1977-08-01

    The formation of carbamate from CO 2 and the various amine solutions has been investigated for the purpose of elucidating the structure of the species generated in the reaction. The amine solutions used were 1 and 2 molar solutions of di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA), pure DNBA and pure TEA. It has been found that the nonaqueous solvent participates in the formation of carbamate in 1 and 2M-DNBA/TEA solutions as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate formation. However, due to the high concentration of the solutions and the basicities of the amines, a significant amount of DNBA which does not form the DNBA-carbamate anion is also found to be participating as a proton acceptor. Pure TEA absorbs only 1 / 60 of the absorption by pure DNBA. The extent of TEA participation in the CO 2 -absorption process other than as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate is negligible. The formation of carbamic acid and zwitterion have been found unlikely. 7 tables, 15 figs

  14. Relation between the interfacial tension in an organic solvent-water system and the parameters of the solvating capacity of the solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, S.D.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    It was shown that there is a linear relation between the empirical DE (diluent effect) and E/sub T/ parameters, which characterize the solvating capacity of the solvent, and the interfacial tension in an organic solvent-water two-phase system. Analysis of the sample correlation coefficients shows that the relation between the interfacial tension and the DE parameters of the solvents is closer to linear than the corresponding relation for the E/sub T/ parameters. During analysis of the data for 31 solvents it was established that the largest inverse correlation coefficient r = -0.98 is obtained with an equation of the DE = a + bσ/rho 1/3, type, were a and b are constants, and rho is the density of the solvent. The regression equation has the following form: DE = 7.586 - 0.147 σ/rho 1/3. Since the interfacial activity of hydrophobic surfactants decreases linearly with increase in the DE values, it follows from the obtained equation that decrease of the interfacial tension at the water-organic solvent interface must lead to a decrease in the interfacial activity of hydrophobic surfactants present in the system

  15. Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  17. Analysis of a gas absorption system with soluble carrier gas and volatile solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanak, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of column diameter, carrier gas coabsorption, and solvent vaporization on the performance of a packed gas absorption column are examined. The system investigated employs dichlorodifluoromethane as a solvent to remove krypton from a nitrogen stream and is characterized by substantial nitrogen coabsorption. Three columns with diameters of 2, 3, and 4 inches were constructed and packed with 34.5 inches of Goodloe packing. In addition to the more conventional data, the experimental evaluation of these columns included the use of a radioisotope and a gamma scanning technique which provided direct measurement of the columns' molar krypton profiles. A multicomponent gas absorption model was developed, based on the two-film mass transfer theory, that allows the fluxes of all species to interact. Verification of this model was achieved through comparison of the calculated results with experimental data. With the feed gas flow rate between 6 and 36 lb moles/hr-ft 2 and the solvent feed rate between 40 and 400 lb moles/hr-ft 2 , column diameter was found to have no significant impact on the mass transfer efficiency of this system when carried out in columns with diameters of 2 inches or greater. The absorption of krypton was found to be enhanced and inhibited, respectively, by carrier gas coabsorption and solvent vaporization. An injector system to add gaseous solvent to the feed gas stream prior to its introduction into the packed bed was proposed to eliminate the detrimental effects of solvent vaporization.Using this injector to supersaturate the feed gas stream with solvent enhanced absorber performance in the same manner as carrier gas coabsorption

  18. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  19. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  20. Activity and conformation of lysozyme in molecular solvents, protic ionic liquids (PILs) and salt-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Emmy C; Separovic, Frances; Drummond, Calum J; Greaves, Tamar L

    2016-09-21

    Improving protein stabilisation is important for the further development of many applications in the pharmaceutical, specialty chemical, consumer product and agricultural sectors. However, protein stabilization is highly dependent on the solvent environment and, hence, it is very complex to tailor protein-solvent combinations for stable protein maintenance. Understanding solvent features that govern protein stabilization will enable selection or design of suitable media with favourable solution environments to retain protein native conformation. In this work the structural conformation and activity of lysozyme in 29 solvent systems were investigated to determine the role of various solvent features on the stability of the enzyme. The solvent systems consisted of 19 low molecular weight polar solvents and 4 protic ionic liquids (PILs), both at different water content levels, and 6 aqueous salt solutions. Small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the tertiary and secondary structure of lysozyme along with the corresponding activity in various solvation systems. At low non-aqueous solvent concentrations (high water content), the presence of solvents and salts generally maintained lysozyme in its native structure and enhanced its activity. Due to the presence of a net surface charge on lysozyme, electrostatic interactions in PIL-water systems and salt solutions enhanced lysozyme activity more than the specific hydrogen-bond interactions present in non-ionic molecular solvents. At higher solvent concentrations (lower water content), solvents with a propensity to exhibit the solvophobic effect, analogous to the hydrophobic effect in water, retained lysozyme native conformation and activity. This solvophobic effect was observed particularly for solvents which contained hydroxyl moieties. Preferential solvophobic effects along with bulky chemical structures were postulated to result in less

  1. Protection efficacy of gloves against components of the solvent in a sprayed isocyanate coating utilizing a reciprocating permeation panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Sasakura, Miyoko; Dills, Russell; Yost, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    Determine protection effectiveness of 5-mil natural rubber latex (0.13-mm), 5-mil nitrile rubber (0.13-mm), and 13-mil butyl rubber (0.33-mm) glove materials against solvents present in a commonly used automotive clear coat formulation using a novel permeation panel. The latex and nitrile gloves were the type commonly used by local autobody spray painters. Glove materials were tested by spraying an automotive clear coat onto an automated reciprocating permeation panel (permeation panel II). Temperature, relative humidity, and spray conditions were controlled to optimize clear coat loading homogeneity as evaluated by gravimetric analysis. Solvent permeation was measured using charcoal cloth analyzed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1501 method. Natural rubber latex allowed 3-5 times the permeation of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all 10 solvents evaluated: ethyl benzene, 2-heptanone, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, n-butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, petroleum distillates, and toluene. There is a distinct behavior in solvent permeation before and after the coating dry time. Solvent permeation increased steadily before coating dry time and remained fairly constant after coating dry time. Butyl was not permeated by any of the solvents under the conditions tested. Commonly used 5-mil thick (0.13-mm) latex and nitrile gloves were ineffective barriers to solvents found in a commonly used clear coat formulation. Conversely, 13-mil (0.33-mm) butyl gloves were found to be protective against all solvents in the clear coat formulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  3. Solvation-based vapour pressure model for (solvent + salt) systems in conjunction with the Antoine equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapour pressures of (solvent + salt) systems have been estimated through a solvation-based model. • Two structural forms of the generalized solvation model using the Antoine equation have been performed. • A simplified concentration-dependent vapour pressure model has been also processed. • The model reliability analysis has been performed in terms of a log-ratio objective function. • The reliability of the models has been interpreted in terms of the statistical design factors. -- Abstract: This study deals with modelling the vapour pressure of a (solvent + salt) system on the basis of the principles of LSER. The solvation model framework clarifies the simultaneous impact of several physical variables such as the vapour pressure of a pure solvent estimated by the Antoine equation, the solubility and solvatochromic parameters of the solvent and the physical properties of the ionic salt. It has been analyzed independently the performance of two structural forms of the generalized model, i.e., a relation depending on an integration of the properties of the solvent and the ionic salt and a relation on a reduced property-basis. A simplified concentration-dependent vapour pressure model has been also explored and implemented on the relevant systems. The vapour pressure data of sixteen (solvent + salt) systems have been processed to analyze statistically the reliability of existing models in terms of a log–ratio objective function. The proposed vapour pressure models match relatively well the observed performance, yielding the overall design factors of 1.066 and 1.073 for the solvation-based models with the integrated and reduced properties, and 1.008 for the concentration-based model, respectively

  4. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  5. Dual Alkali Solvent System for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, H Paul; Liao, Chang-Yu; Zhao, Xinglei; Hsiung, Tung-Li; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2017-08-01

    A novel two-aqueous-phase CO 2 capture system, namely the dual alkali solvent (DAS) system, has been developed. Unlike traditional solvent-based CO 2 capture systems in which the same solvent is used for both CO 2 absorption and stripping, the solvent of the DAS system consists of two aqueous phases. The upper phase, which contains an organic alkali 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), is used for CO 2 absorption. The lower phase, which consists of a mixture of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 aqueous solution and KHCO 3 precipitate, is used for CO 2 stripping. Only a certain kind of amine (such as HEP) is able to ensure the phase separation, satisfactory absorption efficiency, effective CO 2 transfer from the upper phase to the lower phase, and regeneration of the upper phase. In the meantime, due to the presence of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 in the lower phase, HEP in the upper phase is capable of being regenerated from its sulfite/sulfate heat stable salt, which enables the simultaneous absorption of CO 2 and SO 2 /SO 3 from the flue gas. Preliminary experiments and simulations indicate that the implementation of the DAS system can lead to 24.0% stripping energy savings compared to the Econamine process, without significantly lowering the CO 2 absorption efficiency (∼90%).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFFSITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  7. Solubility of Meloxicam in Mixed Solvent Systems | Babu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) compared to water, probably due to ionization of the drug. The solubility of meloxicam is marginally enhanced in surfactant systems (Tween 80 and Brij 35) at concentrations higher than cmc, proving the micellar solubilization. Meloxicam solubility studies in ...

  8. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  9. Study of equivalent retention among different polymer-solvent systems in thermal field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Suk; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Dai Woon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Yu, Euy Kyung

    1998-01-01

    An equivalent retention has been experimentally observed in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFF) for different polymer-solvent systems. It is shown that iso-retention between two sets of polymer-solvent systems can be obtained by adjusting the temperature difference (ΔT) according to the difference in the ration of ordinary diffusion coefficient to thermal diffusion coefficient. This method uses a compensation of field strength (ΔT) in ThFFF at a fixed condition of cold wall temperature. It is applied for the calculation of molecular weight of polymers based on a calibration run of different standards obtained at an adjusted ΔT. The polymer standards used in this study are polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). Three carrier solvents, tetrahydrofuran (THF), methylethylketone (MEK) and ethylacetate (ETAc) were employed. Though the accuracy in the calculation of molecular weight is dependent on the difference in the slope of log λ vs. log M which is related to Mark-Houwink constant a, it shows reasonable agreement within about 6% of relative error in molecular weight calculation for the polymer-solvent systems having similar a value

  10. Utilization of Keno system for criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies involving benchmarks have been performed with the KENO-IV code in order to utilize it in a more efficient way at IPEN-COPESP. The influence of different cross section libraries has been verifed. The Hansen-Roach library produced better results for fast systems, while GAMTEC-II code was more efficient for thermal systems. For reflectors it has been shown that the differential albedo and automatic reflection options are more appropriate for infinite and finite reflectors, respectively. A number of histories greater than 30.000 did not seem to improve the results. Plutonium systems should be treated with special care. (author) [pt

  11. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  12. Morphological classification of mesoporous silicas synthesized in a binary water-ether solvent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Qiang; Geng, Yi; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Kai; Sun, Qianyao; Chen, Xihua; Feng, Qingling; Li, Hengde; Vrieling, Engel G.

    2008-01-01

    Using diethyl ether as a co-solvent, a non-stable interface of biphasic oil-water system (the so-called oil-water two-phase (OWTP) system) was employed in the preparation of mesostructured silicas with diversified particle morphologies. By adjusting the molar ratios of H2O:C2H5OC2H5:NH3 center dot

  13. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  14. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeli, Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake) and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness) were produced (N=48) using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3)/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE)/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS)/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU)/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group), and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2). After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12) or mineral oil (N=12) to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (%) was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%). The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (padhesives. CSE (control) presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%). The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated.

  15. Utility equipment systems: promising more for less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This paper discusses current developments in utility equipment systems, a term applied to carrier vehicles, mostly evolved from well-known forms of construction or mining equipment modified to work with a variety of different front or back end attachments. One of the equipment ranges discussed is the Normet cassette system produced by the Orion corporation of Finland, which allows a basic chassis to be converted from a personnel carrier to an ANFO carrier within minutes. LHD vehicles which are being adapted to fulfil multipurpose roles, such as carrying roof supports, chocks and other heavy mining equipment underground are also discussed. 5 figs.

  16. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  17. Studies on the partial specific volume of a poly(ethylene glycol) derivative in different solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tziatzios, C.; Precup, A.A.; Weidl, C.H.; Schubert, U.S.; Schuck, P.; Durchschlag, H.; Mächtle, W.; Broek, van den J.A.; Schubert, D.

    2002-01-01

    The specific volume of charged supramolecular compounds dissolved in organic solvents varies considerably with the solvent system applied; in addition, it is influenced by the presence of salt. In this study we determined the specific volume of an uncharged molecule from the same molar mass range in

  18. Modeling vapor pressures of solvent systems with and without a salt effect: An extension of the LSER approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new polynomial vapor pressure approach for pure solvents is presented. • Solvation models reproduce the vapor pressure data within a 4% mean error. • A concentration-basis vapor pressure model is also implemented on relevant systems. • The reliability of existing models was analyzed using log-ratio objective function. - Abstract: A new polynomial vapor pressure approach for pure solvents is presented. The model is incorporated into the LSER (linear solvation energy relation) based solvation model framework and checked for consistency in reproducing experimental vapor pressures of salt-containing solvent systems. The developed two structural forms of the generalized solvation model (Senol, 2013) provide a relatively accurate description of the salting effect on vapor pressure of (solvent + salt) systems. The equilibrium data spanning vapor pressures of eighteen (solvent + salt) and three (solvent (1) + solvent (2) + salt) systems have been subjected to establish the basis for the model reliability analysis using a log-ratio objective function. The examined vapor pressure relations reproduce the observed performance relatively accurately, yielding the overall design factors of 1.084, 1.091 and 1.052 for the integrated property-basis solvation model (USMIP), reduced property-basis solvation model and concentration-dependent model, respectively. Both the integrated property-basis and reduced property-basis solvation models were able to simulate satisfactorily the vapor pressure data of a binary solvent mixture involving a salt, yielding an overall mean error of 5.2%

  19. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-06-15

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R{sup 2}=0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k{sub L}a=4,652-1,9807 h{sup -1}.

  20. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R 2 =0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k L a=4,652-1,9807 h -1

  1. Two novel solvent system compositions for protected synthetic peptide purification by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, F; Borie, Nicolas; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-04-11

    Protected synthetic peptide intermediates are often hydrophobic and not soluble in most common solvents. They are thus difficult to purify by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), usually used for industrial production. It is then challenging to develop alternative chromatographic purification processes. Support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques, including both hydrostatic (centrifugal partition chromatography or CPC) and hydrodynamic (counter-current chromatography or CCC) devices, are mainly involved in phytochemical studies but have also been applied to synthetic peptide purification. In this framework, two new biphasic solvent system compositions covering a wide range of polarity were developed to overcome solubility problems mentioned above. The new systems composed of heptane/tetrahydrofuran/acetonitrile/dimethylsulfoxide/water and heptane/methyl-tetrahydrofuran/N-methylpyrrolidone/water were efficiently used for the CPC purification of a 39-mer protected exenatide (Byetta®) and a 8-mer protected peptide intermediate of bivalirudin (Angiox®) synthesis. Phase compositions of the different biphasic solvent systems were determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical properties including viscosity, density and interfacial tension of these biphasic systems are also described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  3. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz CHIMELI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Material and Methods: Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness were produced (N=48 using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group, and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2. After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12 or mineral oil (N=12 to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (% was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%. The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (p<0.05. Solvent evaporation had no influence in the WS and SL of the adhesives. CSE (control presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%. The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Conclusions: Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated.

  4. Equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system of (triethanolamine + piperazine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, P.-Y.; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new set of data for the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in the amine solvent system that consists of triethanolamine (TEA), piperazine (PZ), and water is presented. Equilibrium solubility values were obtained at T = (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and pressures up to 153 kPa using the vapour-recirculation equilibrium cell. The TEA concentrations in the considered ternary (solvent) mixture were (2 and 3) kmol . m -3 and those of PZ's were (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) kmol . m -3 . The solubility data (CO 2 loading in the amine solution) obtained were correlated as a function of CO 2 partial pressure, system temperature, and amine composition via the modified Kent-Eisenberg model. Results showed that the model applied is generally satisfactory in representing the CO 2 absorption into mixed aqueous solutions of TEA and PZ.

  5. A chromatographic determination of water in non-aqueous phases of solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, S.J.; Smith, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The disadvantages of the Karl Fischer method for the determination of water in the non-aqueous phases of solvent extraction systems are pointed out, and a gas chromatographic method is described which is claimed to be potentially capable of overcoming these disadvantages. The method, as described, was developed to satisfy conditions relevant to measurement of the transfer rate of water from an aqueous phase into tri-n-butylphosphate in toluene, but it can be used for water determination in other solvent extraction systems. The apparatus used is described in detail. The concentration of water in water-saturated TBP was found to be 3.56 mol/litre, compared with a value of 3.55 obtained by Karl Fischer titration and previous literature values of 3.59 and 3.57. Measurements of water content in benzene solutions of long chain alkylamines were also sucessfully carried out. (U.K.)

  6. Estimation of phase separation temperatures for polyethersulfone/solvent/non-solvent systems in RTIPS and membrane properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2018-01-01

    was observed. When the membrane-forming temperature was higher than the cloud point, membranes with a bi-continuous structure were acquired and showed a higher pure water permeation flux than that of membranes prepared with the non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process. The pure water permeation flux...... and the mean pore size of membranes prepared with the RTIPS process decreased in line with an increase of PES molecular weight. When the membrane formation mechanism was the RTIPS process, the mechanical properties were better than those of the corresponding membranes prepared with the NIPS process....

  7. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  8. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  9. A systematic approach to solvent selection based on cohesive energy densities in a molecular bulk heterojunction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Bright; Duong, Duc T.; Dang, Xuan-Dung; Kim, Chunki; Granstrom, Jimmy; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Tamayo, Arnold [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO, 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-18

    The solubilities of 3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP(TBFu){sub 2}) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) in a series of solvents are measured, and this data is used to calculate the Hansen solubility parameters of the two materials. The dispersion, polar, and H-bonding parameters of DPP(TBFu){sub 2} and PC{sub 71}BM were found to be (19.3, 4.8, 6.3) and (20.2, 5.4, 4.5) MPa{sup 1/2}, respectively, with an error of {+-} 0.8 MPa{sup 1/2}. Based on the solubility properties of the two materials, three new solvents (thiophene, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide) were utilized for the DPP(TBFu){sub 2}:PC{sub 71}BM system which, after device optimization, led to power conversion efficiencies up to 4.3%. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Systemic-Functional Approach to Utilities Supplys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article consists in statement of management approach to development of utilities supply processes based on conflict situations decision – making search. It had appeared in the period of the transition from the planned and directive management to market development. Methods: the research methodology is based on the system analysis of full life cycle processes functioning, forecasting of complex systems development, mathematical modeling of processes of services supply and innovative and investment projects modeling as well as development of supplying services processes. Results: the results of the work are concentrated in the presentation of systemic-functional approach to managing the development of processes of municipal services, able to resolve conflict situations in this sphere. Conclusions and Relevance: the traditional management approach on the basis of elimination of "bottlenecks" and emergencies prevailing within planned and directive system at its transformation in the market conditions has led to accumulation of conflict situations and unsolvable problems. The offered systemic-functional approach based on forecasting of full life cycle of the modernized processes and the services providing systems allows to consider costs of modernization, prime cost and quality of the rendered services. 

  11. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  12. Is occupational exposure to solvents associated with an increased risk for developing systemic scleroderma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexler Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was aimed to investigate in a German collective if there are any hints for an increased occupational or environmental risk to develop systemic sclerosis, especially, focussing on work-related exposure to solvents. Moreover, we tried to evaluate the feasibility of a sampling method addressing support groups. Methods A standardised questionnaire was published in two journals subscribed by members of two different support groups and all members were asked to complete the questionnaire and to return it anonymously. The subjects were not informed on the scientific hypotheses, nor did they know who of them belonged to the case group (scleroderma or to the control group (multiple sclerosis. Results 175 questionnaires could be included in the statistical analysis. As expected, a female predominance was in our collective. In the male subpopulation, the occupational exposure to solvents was higher in the case group than in the control-group (70% versus 45.8%. Based only on the male subgroup, a tendency for an association between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk to develop systemic sclerosis was found. Conclusion According to our experience in this case-control-study exposure misclassification, qualitative or quantitative, was an eminent problem. Within such a setting, it is generally very difficult to establish an exact dose-response relationship due to incomplete, imprecise or missing data concerning duration of exposure, frequency of use and kind of solvent. Additionally, a well-known problem in studies based on self-reported questionnaires is the so-called volunteer bias. Unfortunately, but similar to other studies assessing epidemiologic factors in such a rare disease, our study was of limited power, especially in the subgroups defined by gender.

  13. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  14. Utility oversight of Cask System Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.A.; Jordan, J.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will present the electric utility industry's perspective on the status and scope of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (DOE/OCRWM) transportation cask systems development activities, including the Cask Systems Development Program (CSDP) Initiative I transportation cask projects. This presentation is particularly timely because the CSDP Independent Management Review Group (IMRG), os which one of the authors is a member, completed an objective assessment of OCRWM's transportation cask system development activities and issued its first report in late August 1992. The perspective on these cask systems development activities that will be presented reflects conclusions based on (1) the industry's review of CSDP Preliminary and Draft Final Design Reports for the Initiative I cask projects, (2) the activities of one of the authors as a member of the IMRG, and (3) the positions that the industry has consistently taken on what it believes to be the appropriate scope and pace of the CSDP and its integration with other OCRWM activities. Background information on the OCRWM transportation cask systems development activities and the relevant industry activities will also be provided

  15. Solvent-Dependent Dual Fluorescence of the Push-Pull System 2-Diethylamino-7-Nitrofluorene

    KAUST Repository

    Larsen, Martin A. B.; Stephansen, Anne B.; Alarousu, Erkki; Pittelkow, Michael; Mohammed, Omar F.; Sø lling, Theis I

    2018-01-01

    The solvent-dependent excited state behavior of the molecular push-pull system 2-diethylamino-7-nitrofluorene has been explored using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. Several excited state minima have been identified computationally, all possessing significant intramolecular charge transfer character. The experimentally observed dual fluorescence is suggested to arise from a planar excited state minimum and another minimum reached by twisting of the aryl-nitrogen bond of the amino group. The majority of the excited state population, however, undergo non-radiative transitions and potential excited deactivation pathways are assessed in the computational investigation. A third excited state conformer, characterized by twisting around the aryl-nitrogen bond of the nitro group, is reasoned to be responsible for the majority of the non-radiative decays and a crossing between the excited state and ground state is localized. Additionally, ultrafast intersystem crossing is observed in the apolar solvent cyclohexane and rationalized to occur via an El-Sayed assisted transition from one of the identified excited state minima. The solvent thus determines more than just the fluorescence lifetime and shapes the potential energy landscape, thereby dictating the available excited state pathways.

  16. System Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Process for Mobile Solvent Vapor Phase Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent vapor phase drying process is one of the most important processes during the production and maintenance for large oil-immersed power transformer. In this paper, the working principle, system composition, and technological process of mobile solvent vapor phase drying (MVPD equipment for transformer are introduced in detail. On the basis of necessary simplification and assumption for MVPD equipment and process, a heat and mass transfer mathematical model including 40 mathematical equations is established, which represents completely thermodynamics laws of phase change and transport process of solvent, water, and air in MVPD technological processes and describes in detail the quantitative relationship among important physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, and flux in key equipment units and process. Taking a practical field drying process of 500 KV/750 MVA power transformer as an example, the simulation calculation of a complete technological process is carried out by programming with MATLAB software and some relation curves of key process parameters changing with time are obtained such as body temperature, tank pressure, and water yield. The change trend of theoretical simulation results is very consistent with the actual production record data which verifies the correctness of mathematical model established.

  17. Solvent-Dependent Dual Fluorescence of the Push-Pull System 2-Diethylamino-7-Nitrofluorene

    KAUST Repository

    Larsen, Martin A. B.

    2018-01-31

    The solvent-dependent excited state behavior of the molecular push-pull system 2-diethylamino-7-nitrofluorene has been explored using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. Several excited state minima have been identified computationally, all possessing significant intramolecular charge transfer character. The experimentally observed dual fluorescence is suggested to arise from a planar excited state minimum and another minimum reached by twisting of the aryl-nitrogen bond of the amino group. The majority of the excited state population, however, undergo non-radiative transitions and potential excited deactivation pathways are assessed in the computational investigation. A third excited state conformer, characterized by twisting around the aryl-nitrogen bond of the nitro group, is reasoned to be responsible for the majority of the non-radiative decays and a crossing between the excited state and ground state is localized. Additionally, ultrafast intersystem crossing is observed in the apolar solvent cyclohexane and rationalized to occur via an El-Sayed assisted transition from one of the identified excited state minima. The solvent thus determines more than just the fluorescence lifetime and shapes the potential energy landscape, thereby dictating the available excited state pathways.

  18. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  19. Solvent-Free Biginelli Reactions Catalyzed by Hierarchical Zeolite Utilizing a Ball Mill Technique: A Green Sustainable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Shahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable, green one-pot process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs derivatives by a three-component reaction of β-ketoester derivatives, aldehyde and urea or thiourea over the alkali-treated H-ZSM-5 zeolite under ball-milling was developed. Isolation of the product with ethyl acetate shadowed by vanishing of solvent was applied. The hierachical zeolite catalyst (MFI27_6 showed high yield (86%–96% of DHPMs in a very short time (10–30 min. The recyclability of the catalyst for the subsequent reactions was examined in four subsequent runs. The catalyst was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in catalytic activity, and high yields of products showed the efficient protocol of the Biginelli reactions.

  20. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems: Progress report for period April 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.D.

    1986-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic, vapor pressure osmometric and Karl Fischer titrimetric measurements have provided support for our earlier findings obtained from interfacial tension and mass transfer experiments that reversed micelles are formed, under certain conditions, in the system HDEHP/n-hexane/CaCl 2 solution. These studies were further extended to include different organophosphorus acid (PC 88A), diluent (benzene), and metal ions (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) to determine whether reversed micellization is a general phenomenon occurring in solvent extraction systems which employ organophosphorus acids. The data obtained so far, suggest that reversed micellization indeed is a general phenomenon operative in organophosphorus acid extractant systems. A new mass transfer cell has been constructed in order to investigate the metal distribution equilibria and extraction kinetics of Co, Ni and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. A quasi-elastic light-scattering apparatus has been installed to investigate aggregation phenomena in solvent extraction systems. Preliminary drop-interface coalescence studies were performed, and the results were correlated with those obtained from interfacial tension measurements. The laser heterodyne light-scattering apparatus for measurement of interfacial viscoelastic properties also has been set-up and is being optimized for high resolution measurements. 21 refs., 16 figs

  1. Abiotic systems for the catalytic treatment of solvent-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betterton, E.A.; Arnold, R.G.; Liu, Zhijie; Hollan, N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Three abiotic systems are described that catalyze the reductive dehalogenation of heavily halogenated environmental pollutants, including carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, and perchloroethene. These systems include (a) an electrolytic reactor in which the potential on the working electrode (cathode) is fixed by using a potentiostat, (b) a light-driven system consisting of a semiconductor and (covalently attached) macrocycle that can accept light transmitted via an optical fiber, and a light-driven, two-solvent (isopropanol/acetone) system that promotes dehalogenation reactions via an unknown mechanism. Each is capable of accelerating reductive dehalogenation reactions to very high rates under laboratory conditions. Typically, millimolar concentrations of aqueous-phase targets can be dehalogenated in minutes to hours. The description of each system includes the elements of reaction mechanism (to the extent known), typical kinetic data, and a discussion of the feasibility of applying this technology for the in situ destruction of hazardous compounds. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Method to produce biomass-derived compounds using a co-solvent system containing gamma-valerolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain

    2017-06-27

    A method to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates containing C5- and/or C6-sugar-containing oligomers and/or C5- and/or C6-sugar monomers in which biomass or a biomass-derived reactant is reacted with a solvent system having an organic solvent, and organic co-solvent, and water, in the presence of an acid. The method produces the desired product, while a substantial portion of any lignin present in the reactant appears as a precipitate in the product mixture.

  3. Lignin Structure and Aggregation Behavior in a Two-Component Ionic Liquid Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bylin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are of potential interest in the processing of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, the ionic liquid co-solvent system of 1-methylimidazole (MIM and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc was used to solvate LignoBoost lignin fractionated from black liquor obtained from a kraft paper mill. Lignin ethanol-precipitated (LEP and ethanol-soluble (LES fractions were characterized via gel permeation chromatography (GPC and 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to determine structural characteristics and their relationship to polymer solubility in the system. Polymer integrity and solubility were optimal at ~20% lignin loading (w/w. Results showed that LEPs were generally of higher apparent molecular weight (Mw and enriched with condensed/aliphatic ether linkages and aliphatic hydroxyls. The LESs had a lower apparent Mw and were enriched with carboxylic and phenolic groups. This newly gained knowledge on lignin fractionation and aggregation in the present solvent system provides future opportunities for tuning fractionation/extraction to suit a specific biomass-derived product, e.g., carbon fibers.

  4. "Solvent-in-salt" systems for design of new materials in chemistry, biology and energy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azov, Vladimir A; Egorova, Ksenia S; Seitkalieva, Marina M; Kashin, Alexey S; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2018-02-21

    Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents. Water molecules tend to form nano- and microstructures (droplets and channel networks) in ionic media impacting their heterogeneity. Such microscale domains can be employed as microreactors for chemical and enzymatic synthesis. In this review, we address known SIS systems and discuss their composition, structure, properties and dynamics. Special attention is paid to the current and potential applications of inorganic and organic SIS systems in energy research, chemistry and biochemistry. A separate section of this review is dedicated to experimental methods of SIS investigation, which is crucial for the development of this field.

  5. Evaluation of a novel and efficient solvent system containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for radio-cesium recovery from acidic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandwal, Pankaj; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2014-11-01

    A novel solvent system containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in a diluent mixture containing 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) and n-dodecane was found to be highly efficient for the extraction of radio-cesium from acidic feed conditions. When PEG-400 (polyethylene glycol with average molecular weight of 400) was added to the solvent system, it was found to extract radio-strontium as well similar to that reported with the UNEX (Universal Extractant) solvent. The solvent system was found to be superior as compared to analogous solvent systems reported previously using CCD in either nitrobenzene or PTMS (phenyltrifluoromethyl sulphone, a fluorinated diluent). The present work deals with less toxic solvent formulation which can be used as an alternative to these hazardous/toxic chemicals for simultaneous recovery of Cs(I) and Sr(II) from acidic solutions. Batch co-current extraction data are also presented for the simultaneous recovery of Cs and Sr which indicated near quantitative extraction (>99.5%) of the metal ions in 4 and 3 stages, respectively. The reusability and radiolytic stability studies were also carried out which suggested highly encouraging results.

  6. A development and an application of Mixset-X computer code for simulating the Purex solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, M.; Naito, M.; Suto, T.; Omori, E.; Nojiri, T.

    2001-01-01

    MIXSET is a FORTRAN code developed to simulate the Purex solvent extraction system using mixer-settler extractors. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing the MIXSET code since the years 1970 to analyze the behavior of nuclides in the solvent extraction processes in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). This paper describes the history of MIXSET code development, the features of the latest version, called MIXSET-X and the application of the code for safety evaluation work. (author)

  7. A knowledge based advisory system for acid/base titrations in non-aqueous solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program was developed that could advice on the choice of solvent and titrant for acid/base titrations in nonaqueous media. It is shown that the feasibility of a titration in a given solvent can be calculated from solvent properties and intrinsic acid/base properties of the sample

  8. Analytical Methods Development in Support of the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the project reported herein was to develop and apply methods for the analysis of the major components of the solvent system used in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process (CSSX). These include the calix(4)arene, the modifier, 1-(2,2,3,3- tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol and tri-n-octylamine. In addition, it was an objective to develop methods that would allow visualization of other components under process conditions. These analyses would include quantitative laboratory methods for each of the components, quantitative analysis of expected breakdown products (4-see-butylphenol and di-n-octylamine), and qualitative investigations of possible additional breakdown products under a variety of process extremes. These methods would also provide a framework for process analysis should a pilot facility be developed. Two methods were implemented for sample preparation of aqueous phases. The first involves solid-phase extraction and produces quantitative recovery of the solvent components and degradation products from the various aqueous streams. This method can be automated and is suitable for use in radiation shielded facilities. The second is a variation of an established EPA liquid-liquid extraction procedure. This method is also quantitative and results in a final extract amenable to virtually any instrumental analysis. Two HPLC methods were developed for quantitative analysis. The first is a reverse-phase system with variable wavelength W detection. This method is excellent from a quantitative point of view. The second method is a size-exclusion method coupled with dual UV and evaporative light scattering detectors. This method is much faster than the reverse-phase method and allows for qualitative analysis of other components of the waste. For tri-n-octylamine and other degradation products, a GC method was developed and subsequently extended to GUMS. All methods have precision better than 5%. The combination of these methods

  9. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  10. Assessment of Purex solvent cleanup methods using a mixer-settler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-11-01

    A test system consisting of three mixer-settlers in series has been used to determine the usefulness of several possible aqueous scrub solutions for cleanup of TBP solvent in fuel reprocessing plants. The simulated solvent that was treated was nominally 0.1 mM zirconium, 0.2 mM uranium, 0.4 mM dibutyl phosphate, and 0.3 mM HNO 3 . Five aqueous scrub solutions - sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydroxylamine/tartaric acid, hydroxylamine/citric acid, hydrazine/oxalic acid, and LiOH/sucrose - were evaluated. The order of effectiveness of these solutions for removal of contaminants was: sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydrazine/oxalic acid, LiOH/sucrose, and the two hydroxylamine solutions. Interfacial crud, which was related to the presence of zirconium and DBP, was observed in all cases except the LiOH/sucrose solution. The recommended system would use sodium carbonate/tartrate. If sodium usage must be minimized, a hydroxylamine-containing scrub followed by a sodium carbonate/tartrate scrub is recommended. 13 references, 11 figures, 21 tables

  11. Phase Behavior and Evaporation Profile of Tween 20 - Eugenol System. Effect of Different Alkane Chain Length and Solvent System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Lim, W.H.; Kuangl, D.; Rusmawati, W.W.M.; Abdullah, A.H.; Teoh, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The isotropic region of Tween 20/eugenol/n-alkane in aqueous systems was determined. The solubilisation trend of isotropic solution formed in the presence of eugenol was studied as a function of different alkyl chain length of n-alkane. The solubility of solvent in surfactant solution is dependent on their molecular polarity. An increase in n-alkane chain length (lower polarity) lead to smaller isotropic region which will affect the surfactant partitioning between the interface, the oil phase and the aqueous phase of the microemulsion as the oil chain length is varied. The changes of evaporation behaviour were affected strongly by the types of phases existed in the systems. The increment of n-alkane and water content led to higher evaporation rate. But the formation of w/o microemulsion would lower the evaporation rate because water molecules were trapped in the core of aggregates. In solubilisation system, evaporation rate is dependent on the solvent content and the interaction between Tween 20 and solvent molecules in the mixed composition. (author)

  12. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  14. Development of a utility conflict management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    A critical process for the timely development and delivery of highway construction projects is the early : identification and depiction of utility interests that may interfere with proposed highway facilities. The : effective management of such utili...

  15. Mutual diffusion coefficient models for polymer-solvent systems based on the Chapman-Enskog theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of the importance of small molecule migration in polymeric materials, such as in drying polymeric packing, controlled drug delivery, formation of films, and membrane separation, etc. The Chapman-Enskog kinetic theory of hard-sphere fluids with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen effective hard-sphere diameter (Enskog-WCA has been the most fruitful in diffusion studies of simple fluids and mixtures. In this work, the ability of the Enskog-WCA model to describe the temperature and concentration dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient, D, for a polystyrene-toluene system was evaluated. Using experimental diffusion data, two polymer model approaches and three mixing rules for the effective hard-sphere diameter were tested. Some procedures tested resulted in models that are capable of correlating the experimental data with the refereed system well for a solvent mass fraction greater than 0.3.

  16. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer, E-mail: rmartini@stevens.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Chen, Gang [School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, I-chun Anderson [Newport Corporation/Oriel Instruments, 150 Long Beach Boulevard, Stratford, Connecticut 06615 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N{sub 2}O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX.

  17. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer; Chen, Gang; Chen, I-chun Anderson

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N 2 O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX

  18. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  19. Effective recovery of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer from Cupriavidus necator using a novel and environmentally friendly solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tao; Cazeneuve, Stacy; Wen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lei; Wang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a significant advance in bioprocessing for a high-melting lipid polymer. A novel and environmental friendly solvent mixture, acetone/ethanol/propylene carbonate (A/E/P, 1:1:1 v/v/v) was identified for extracting poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a high-value biopolymer, from Cupriavidus necator. A set of solubility curves of PHB in various solvents was established. PHB recovery of 85% and purity of 92% were obtained from defatted dry biomass (DDB) using A/E/P. This solvent mixture is compatible with water, and from non-defatted wet biomass, PHB recovery of 83% and purity of 90% were achieved. Water and hexane were evaluated as anti-solvents to assist PHB precipitation, and hexane improved recovery of PHB from biomass to 92% and the purity to 93%. A scale-up extraction and separation reactor was designed, built and successfully tested. Properties of PHB recovered were not significantly affected by the extraction solvent and conditions, as shown by average molecular weight (1.4 × 10(6) ) and melting point (175.2°C) not being different from PHB extracted using chloroform. Therefore, this biorenewable solvent system was effective and versatile for extracting PHB biopolymers. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:678-685, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  1. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  2. The Study of Expert System Utilization for the Accelerator Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi-Santosa; Slamet-Santosa; Subari-Santosa

    2000-01-01

    The utilization of expert system in the accelerator laboratory has been studied. The study covers the utilization of expert system in the setting up experiment (tuning parameter), controlling system, safety or warning system. The results study shows, that using the expert system in the accelerator would be easy to operate the accelerator for user and operator. Increasing the skill of expert system could be updated without logical mechanism modification. (author)

  3. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  4. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  5. Fuel cell heat utilization system; Nenryo denchi netsuriyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Omura, T. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    In the conventional fuel cell heat utilization system, the waste heat is recovered to be utilized by either the waste heat recovery heat exchanger or the waste heat recovery steam. In the employment of the waste heat recovery heat exchanger system, however, the utility value is decreased when the temperature of the waste heat is lowered. Contrarily, in the employment of the waste heat recovery steam system, the supplementary water requirement is increased corresponding to the amount of waste heat recovery steam, resulting in the cost increase for water treatment. This invention solves the problem. In the invented fuel cell heat utilization system, a pressurized water from the steam separator is introduced into the second circuit to utilize directly the heat in the heat utilization system without employing the heat exchanger. If a blowdown valve is installed between the second circuit heat utilization system and the steam separator, the heat loss due to the blowdown can be reduced, since the low temperature water is blown down after being utilized in the heat utilization system. 4 figs.

  6. Modifications of the SEPHIS computer code for calculating the Purex solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.B.; Rainey, R.H.

    1975-12-01

    The SEPHIS computer program was developed to simulate the countercurrent solvent extraction. This report gives modifications in the program which result in improved fit to experimental data, a decrease in computer storage requirements, and a decrease in execution time. Methods for applying the computer program to practical solvent extraction problems are explained

  7. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  8. Enhancing Teacher Utilization of Complex Instructional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Ann; Daniel, Dan

    This paper describes a research and development effort by Jostens Learning Corporation that resulted in the Renaissance Information Management System (RIMS), an information-management user interface for an integrated learning system that is designed to overcome two major obstacles to the use of computer systems by classroom teachers--limited…

  9. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  10. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  11. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Ternary diagram of extract proteins / solvent systems: Sesame, soybean and lupine proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed, S. S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction as a method of extracting protein from oilseed meals offers the advantage of higher efficiency. Unfortunately, the published literature points to the gap in the work concerned with the necessary equilibrium diagram to design due process equipment for such extracts. Initiated by this lack of basic knowledge, the present study has been undertaken to provide the equilibrium data for three different ternary systems, namely: sesame protein / sodium hydroxide solution system, soybean protein / sodium hydroxide solution system and lupine protein / sodium hydroxide solution system. These oilseed meals were selected because of their high protein content (53.4 %, 46.2 % and 42.3 % protein, respectively. The study also concentrated on the evaluation of the major parameters affecting the extraction process, i.e. the normality of the sodium hydroxide solution used as extracting solvent and the initial oilseed solvent to meal feeding ratio. The results obtained indicate that the best normality of sodium hydroxide solution used for extracting soybean and lupine protein is 0.02N, while 0.04N solution is required for extracting sesame protein. Also, operating at a liquid to solid feed ratio of 30:1 and 50:1 for soybean, sesame and lupine, respectively, is enough to reach a high protein extract. Correlations were presented for each locus of under flow compositions, graphically acquired, and the data are compared with those calculated by analytical solutions.La extracción con disolventes es un método de extracción de proteínas de las harinas de semillas oleaginosas que ofrece la ventaja de su elevada eficacia. Desafortunadamente, la bibliografía coincide en el vacío existente con respecto a los diagramas de equilibrio necesarios para el diseño de los equipos adecuados. Debido a esta falta de conocimientos, el presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo para obtener datos de tres sistemas ternarios: sistema proteína de sésamo / disolución de

  13. Aqueous biphasic systems containing PEG-based deep eutectic solvents for high-performance partitioning of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Yang, Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, 16 kinds of novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salts, were coupled with Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs) to extract RNA. The phase forming ability of ABSs were comprehensively evaluated, involving the effects of various proportions of DESs' components, carbon chain length and anions species of quaternary ammonium salts, average molecular weights of PEG and inorganic salts nature. Then the systems were applied in RNA extraction, and the results revealed that the extraction efficiency values were distinctly enhanced by relatively lower PEG content in DESs, smaller PEG molecular weights, longer carbon chain of quaternary ammonium salts and more hydrophobic inorganic salts. Then the systems composed of [TBAB][PEG600] and Na 2 SO 4 were utilized in the influence factor experiments, proving that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant force for RNA extraction. Therefore, back-extraction efficiency values ranging between 85.19% and 90.78% were obtained by adjusting the ionic strength. Besides, the selective separation of RNA and tryptophane (Trp) was successfully accomplished. It was found that 86.19% RNA was distributed in the bottom phase, while 72.02% Trp was enriched in the top phase in the novel ABSs. Finally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to further investigate the extraction mechanism. The proposed method reveals the outstanding feasibility of the newly developed ABSs formed by PEG-based DESs and inorganic salts for the green extraction of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Programmable electronic system design & verification utilizing DFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtermans, M.J.M.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Brombacher, A.C.; Karydas, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DIM) during the design and verification of programmable electronic safety-related systems. The safety system consists of hardware as well as software. This paper explains and demonstrates the use of DIM to

  15. The use of Nile Red to monitor the aggregation behavior in ternary surfactant-water-organic solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, MCA; van de Pas, JC; Engberts, JBFN; Pas, John C. van de

    Ternary systems of surfactants, water and organic solvents were studied by monitoring the steady-state fluorescence of the versatile solvatochromic probe Nile Red. We found not only that Nile Red can be used throughout the whole isotropic regions in the phase diagram, but also that subtle changes in

  16. Vapour–Liquid Equilibria in the Polymer + Solvent System Containing Lower Concentrations of Solute at Normal or Reduced Pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 358, 25 NOV (2013), s. 301-303 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : vapour–liquid equilibrium * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  17. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  18. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  19. Ionization and thermodynamic constants of 6-methylquinoline by potentiometry in aqueous and mixed organic-water solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, A; Indhar, B.; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2000-01-01

    The ionization constant pKa and Gibbs's free energy DG of 6-methylquinoline are determined in aqueous solution at different temperatures and in three mixed organic-water solvent systems at 25 deg. C. It is observed that dissociation constant of 6-methylquinoline in aqueous system decreases with the increase of temperature. The curve is a parabolic. It is noted that pKa values of this compound are higher than those of quinoline and 8-methylquinoline. In case of mixed organic-water solvent systems, the influence of these solvents on the ionization equilibria of NH/sub 2/ group has been observed. The pK M/A and pK T/A values versus percent composition decrease gradually with increase in percent of organic solvents The curve of the pK/sub a/ versus percent composition is a distorted parabola. The data have been obtained potentiometrically by titrating 6-methylquinoline solutions with HCl. The values of dissociation constant were obtained from these data by a computer program written in GW-BASIC. From pKa values Gibbs's free energies DG for the respective pKa values have also been calculated. (author)

  20. Control of Evaporation Behavior of an Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Layer Using a Mixed-Solvent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hak Soon; Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the evaporation behavior and the resulting morphology of inkjet-printed dielectric layers were controlled using a mixed-solvent system to fabricate uniform poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric layers without any pinholes. The mixed-solvent system consisted of two different organic solvents: 1-hexanol and ethanol. The effects of inkjet-printing variables such as overlap condition, substrate temperature, and different printing sequences (continuous and interlacing printing methods) on the inkjet-printed dielectric layer were also investigated. Increasing volume fraction of ethanol (VFE) is likely to reduce the evaporation rate gradient and the drying time of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer; this diminishes the coffee stain effect and thereby improves the uniformity of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer. However, the coffee stain effect becomes more severe with an increase in the substrate temperature due to the enhanced outward convective flow. The overlap condition has little effect on the evaporation behavior of the printed dielectric layer. In addition, the interlacing printing method results in either a stronger coffee stain effect or wavy structures of the dielectric layers depending on the VFE of the PVP solution. All-inkjet-printed capacitors without electrical short circuiting can be successfully fabricated using the optimized PVP solution (VFE = 0.6); this indicates that the mixed-solvent system is expected to play an important role in the fabrication of high-quality inkjet-printed dielectric layers in various printed electronics applications.

  1. Enhanced Furfural Yields from Xylose Dehydration in the gamma-Valerolactone/Water Solvent System at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Canan; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James

    2018-05-18

    High yields of furfural (>90%) were achieved from xylose dehydration in a sustainable solvent system composed of -valerolactone (GVL), a biomass derived solvent, and water. It is identified that high reaction temperatures (e.g., 498 K) are required to achieve high furfural yield. Additionally, it is shown that the furfural yield at these temperatures is independent of the initial xylose concentration, and high furfural yield is obtained for industrially relevant xylose concentrations (10 wt%). A reaction kinetics model is developed to describe the experimental data obtained with solvent system composed of 80 wt% GVL and 20 wt% water across the range of reaction conditions studied (473 - 523 K, 1-10 mM acid catalyst, 66 - 660 mM xylose concentration). The kinetic model demonstrates that furfural loss due to bimolecular condensation of xylose and furfural is minimized at elevated temperature, whereas carbon loss due to xylose degradation increases with increasing temperature. Accordingly, the optimal temperature range for xylose dehydration to furfural in the GVL/H2O solvent system is identified to be from 480 to 500 K. Under these reaction conditions, furfural yield of 93% is achieved at 97% xylan conversion from lignocellulosic biomass (maple wood). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  3. Stabilizing Effects of Deep Eutectic Solvents on Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mediated Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Zohra Ibn Majdoub Hassani; Ivan Lavandera; Joseph Kreit

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of different organic solvents, temperature, and the amount of glycerol on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalysed stereoselective reduction of different ketones. These conversions were then analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that when the amount of deep eutectic solvents (DES) increases, it can improve the stereoselectivity of the enzyme although reducing its ability to convert the substrate into the corresponding alcohol. Moreover, glycerol was fou...

  4. In vitro dissolution of curium oxide using a phagolysosomal simulant solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfinstine, S.Y.; Guilmette, R.A.; Schlapper, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed study of actinide oxide behavior in alveolar macrophages (AM) in vitro is limited because of the short life span of these cells in culture. We created an in vitro dissolution system that could mimic the acidic phagolysosomal environment for the actinide and be maintained for an indefinite period so that dissolution of more insoluble materials could be measured. The dissolution system for this investigation, consisting of nine different solutions of HCl and the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) in distilled water, is called the phagolysosomal simulant solvent (PSS). In this system, both the pH and the amount of DTPA were varied. We could observe the effect of altering pH within a range of 4.0-6.0 (similar to that of the phagolysosome) and the effect of the molar ratio of DTPA to curium at 1000: 1, 100;1, or 10:1. We chose curium sesquioxide ( 244 Cm 2 O 3 ) to validate the PSS for actinide dissolution versus that occurring in AM in vitro because it dissolves significantly in less than 1 week. The polydisperse 244 Cm 2 O 3 aerosol was generated, collected on filters, resuspended, and added to the PSS solutions and to cultured canine AM. By comparing dissolution in the two systems directly, we hoped to arrive at an optimum PSS for future dissolution studies. PSS and cell culture samples were taken daily for 7 days after exposure and tested for the solubilized curium. The amount of soluble material was determined by ultracentrifugation to separate the insoluble CM 2 O 3 from the soluble curium in the PSS solutions and filtration for the cell-containing material. After separating the soluble and insoluble fractions, the samples were analyzed using alpha liquid scintillation counting. Time-dependent dissolution measurements from the PSS/AM showed that the CM 2 O 3 dissolution was similar for both the PSS solutions and the cultured AM. 13 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Rational Design of Molecular Gelator - Solvent Systems Guided by Solubility Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yaqi

    Self-assembled architectures, such as molecular gels, have attracted wide interest among chemists, physicists and engineers during the past decade. However, the mechanism behind self-assembly remains largely unknown and no capability exists to predict a priori whether a small molecule will gelate a specific solvent or not. The process of self-assembly, in molecular gels, is intricate and must balance parameters influencing solubility and those contrasting forces that govern epitaxial growth into axially symmetric elongated aggregates. Although the gelator-gelator interactions are of paramount importance in understanding gelation, the solvent-gelator specific (i.e., H-bonding) and nonspecific (dipole-dipole, dipole-induced and instantaneous dipole induced forces) intermolecular interactions are equally important. Solvent properties mediate the self-assembly of molecular gelators into their self-assembled fibrillar networks. Herein, solubility parameters of solvents, ranging from partition coefficients (logP), to Henry's law constants (HLC), to solvatochromic ET(30) parameters, to Kamlet-Taft parameters (beta, alpha and pi), to Hansen solubility parameters (deltap, deltad, deltah), etc., are correlated with the gelation ability of numerous classes of molecular gelators. Advanced solvent clustering techniques have led to the development of a priori tools that can identify the solvents that will be gelled and not gelled by molecular gelators. These tools will greatly aid in the development of novel gelators without solely relying on serendipitous discoveries.

  6. Workshop Proceedings: Utilizing global information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This one day workshop was attended by 50 delegates representing 20 countries. Fourteen papers dealing with cleaner production/cleaner technology global information systems were presented. The objective of the workshop was to increase cooperation and interaction on international clean production/clean technology information transfer activities and to identify ways to ensure continued cooperation and system improvements. Topics discussed included information format to meet user needs; coordination of effort to avoid duplication and to encourage consistency in information delivery; and marketing, to expand the dissemination of information on cleaner production/cleaner technology. In terms of information format, content, systems and reliability were identified as target issues. The group discussing coordination of effort suggested that a wholesale/retail approach to information dissemination be adopted. The group also called for regular meetings to supplement communication via the Internet. The marketing group suggested that there is a need to show the benefits of technologies and to establish links to industrial associations as being critical to success.

  7. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  8. Co-precipitation of loperamide hydrochloride and polyethylene glycol using aerosol solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjojokusumo, Edward; Youn, Yong-Suk; Lee, Youn-Woo; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond Rubianto

    2013-01-01

    The co-precipitation of loperamide hydrochloride (LPM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES) was examined. Scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis showed that the co-precipitation was achieved in various LPM-PEG mass ratios with changes in its morphology. In 10-50% PEG mass ratios, angular-shaped particles were formed, whereas in 65-90% PEG mass ratios, irregular-shaped particles were formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the co-precipitates revealed that the LPM retained amorphous structure, while, on the other hand, the PEG retained crystalline structure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicated carbonyl function group of LPM and ether function group of PEG appeared in the co-precipitates. Results of a dissolution test showed that the co-precipitates of LPM-PEG had higher dissolution rate compared to that of the raw material and processed LPM with ASES. Taken together, the co-precipitation of LPMPEG was achieved using ASES and higher in its dissolution rate

  9. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  10. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  11. MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: UTILITY, PRACTICE, MANIPULATION, NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius-Andrei GUINEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic entities accuse current managerial accounting instruments due to their used indicators, their post operativeness, and their lack of necessary adjustments, short-term target, information handling and decisions taken for various reasons, except the efficiency one. In order to manage a more and more complex organization, located in an uncertain environment, managers require a permanent, real-time, information system. There is no longer sufficient the simple retrospective measurement of results, as there should be provided those instruments that support the decision making process throughout the strategic and operational processes. The implementation of a managerial accounting tool will always interact with the human behavioural dimension. In the initial stage, the actors of an organization will initially manifest reactions of difficult acceptance or even rejection. Each of them will adopt that behaviour which ensures the maximization of its own goals, even if these are, or not, convergent with the organizational objectives.

  12. Superinsulating Polyisocyanate Based Aerogels: A Targeted Search for the Optimum Solvent System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Snellings, Geert M B F; Koebel, Matthias M; Malfait, Wim J

    2017-05-31

    Polyisocyanate based aerogels combine ultralow thermal conductivities with better mechanical properties than silica aerogel, but these properties critically depend on the nature of the gelation solvent, perhaps more so than on any other parameter. Here, we present a systematic study of the relationship between the polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) aerogel microstructure, surface area, thermal conductivity, and density and the gelation solvent's Hansen solubility parameters for an industrially relevant PUR-PIR rigid foam formulation. We first investigated aerogels prepared in acetone-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) blends and observed a minimum in thermal conductivity (λ) and maximum in specific surface area for an acetone:DMSO ratio of 85:15 v/v. We then prepared PUR-PIR aerogels in 32 different solvent blends, divided into three series with δ Dispersion , δ Polarity , and δ H-bonding fixed at 15.94, 11.30, and 7.48 MPa 1/2 , respectively, corresponding to the optimum parameters for the acetone:DMSO series. The aerogel properties display distinct dependencies on the various solubility parameters: aerogels with low thermal conductivity can be synthesized in solvents with a high δ H-bonding parameter (above 7.2) and δ Dispersion around 16.3 MPa 1/2 . In contrast, the δ Polarity parameter is of lesser importance. Our study highlights the importance of the gelation solvent, clarifies the influence of the different solvent properties, and provides a methodology for a targeted search across the solvent chemical space based on the Hansen solubility parameters.

  13. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  14. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  15. Utilization of antenna arrays in HF systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bertel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Different applications of radio systems are based on the implementation of antenna arrays. Classically, radio direction

    finding operates with a multi channel receiving system connected to an array of receiving antennas. More

    recently, MIMO architectures have been proposed to increase the capacity of radio links by the use of antenna

    arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

    The first part of this paper describes some novel experimental work carried out to examine the feasibility of applying

    MIMO techniques for communications within the HF radio band. A detailed correlation analysis of a variety

    of different antenna array configurations is presented. The second section of the paper also deals with HF

    MIMO communications, focusing on the problem from a modelling point of view. The third part presents a sensitivity

    analysis of different antenna array structures for HF direction finding applications. The results demonstrate

    that when modelling errors, heterogeneous antenna arrays are more robust in comparison to homogeneous structures


  16. Phase equilibrium data for systems composed of oregano essential oil compounds and hydroalcoholic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellini, Maria C.; Carvalho, Fernanda H.; Koshima, Cristina C.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, ethanol and water were determined. • Complete second order models were fitted to the experimental data. • Distribution coefficients of thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol in pure and mixed solute were evaluated. • Mass fractions of oxygenated compounds and water influenced the distribution coefficients of the essential oil components. • NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models satisfactorily describe the partition of components and solvent selectivity. - Abstract: The deterpenation process of essential oils consists of terpene removal and a consequent concentration of oxygenated compounds, which increases the sensorial quality, the aromatic potential and the oxidative stability of the oil. Deterpenation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) essential oil, which has been used extensively as a popular medication and as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antimutagenic and a powerful antioxidant agent, can be performed by (liquid + liquid) extraction using hydroalcoholic solvents. This research presents (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for model systems composed of p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, some of the main components of oregano essential oil, using hydrous ethanol as the solvent with the water mass fraction ranging from 0.28 to 0.41 at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K. The results show that an increase in the hydration of the alcoholic solvent causes a negative influence on the values of the distribution coefficient for the three oxygenated compounds (thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol), with an increase in solvent selectivity. An increase in the content of oxygenated compounds in the terpene-rich phase reduces their distribution coefficients and the selectivity values. In addition, binary interaction parameters were estimated correlating the experimental data using the NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models, and the global deviations were

  17. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  18. Studies on hydrolysis and radiolysis of tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA)/isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.N.; Ruhela, R.; Suri, A.K.; Singh, K.K.; Kumar, M.; Janardhanan, C.; Achutan, P.V.; Manohar, S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    To establish the use of TEHDGA/isodecylalcohol/n-dodecane solvent system for actinide partitioning from HLW, the hydrolytic and radiolytic stability of the solvent was investigated. Hydrolysis of TEHDGA with nitric acid at room temperature was not observed. Radiolytic degradation was observed and found to increase with increase in absorbed dose. It was found that the presence of n-dodecane enhances the degradation of TEHDGA whereas isodecyl alcohol, the phase modifier, has no such effect. At gamma-radiation dose as high as 0.2 MGy, no significant loss of TEHDGA was observed. The degradation products were identified by GC-MS, the main products were formed by cleavage of ether and amide bonds of TEHDGA molecule. The extraction behavior of Am(III) at 4.0 M HNO 3 does not vary much with increase in absorbed dose, however stripping behavior is affected by the presence of acidic degradation products formed during radiolysis. The findings indicate that the solvent retains its expected extraction and stripping properties up to a high gamma-radiation dose of 0.2 MGy. Irradiated solvent was purified and made suitable for reuse by treating it with 5% w/v Na 2 CO 3 solution, basic alumina and finally by distillation at reduced pressure. (orig.)

  19. Studies on hydrolysis and radiolysis of tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA)/isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane solvent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, J.N.; Ruhela, R.; Suri, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Hydrometallurgy Section, Materials Group; Singh, K.K.; Kumar, M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Chemistry Group; Janardhanan, C.; Achutan, P.V.; Manohar, S.; Wattal, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group

    2010-07-01

    To establish the use of TEHDGA/isodecylalcohol/n-dodecane solvent system for actinide partitioning from HLW, the hydrolytic and radiolytic stability of the solvent was investigated. Hydrolysis of TEHDGA with nitric acid at room temperature was not observed. Radiolytic degradation was observed and found to increase with increase in absorbed dose. It was found that the presence of n-dodecane enhances the degradation of TEHDGA whereas isodecyl alcohol, the phase modifier, has no such effect. At gamma-radiation dose as high as 0.2 MGy, no significant loss of TEHDGA was observed. The degradation products were identified by GC-MS, the main products were formed by cleavage of ether and amide bonds of TEHDGA molecule. The extraction behavior of Am(III) at 4.0 M HNO{sub 3} does not vary much with increase in absorbed dose, however stripping behavior is affected by the presence of acidic degradation products formed during radiolysis. The findings indicate that the solvent retains its expected extraction and stripping properties up to a high gamma-radiation dose of 0.2 MGy. Irradiated solvent was purified and made suitable for reuse by treating it with 5% w/v Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution, basic alumina and finally by distillation at reduced pressure. (orig.)

  20. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  1. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  2. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  3. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alfred; Brown, Nathan

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of ION’s lead solvent and determine if ION’s solvent candidate could potentially meet DOE’s target of achieving 90% CO{sub 2} Capture from a 550 MWe Pulverized Coal Plant without resulting in an increase in COE greater than 35%. In this project, ION’s lead solvent demonstrated a 65% reduction in regeneration energy and a simultaneous 35% reduction in liquid to gas ratio (L/G) in comparison to aqMEA at 90% CO{sub 2} capture using actual flue gas at 0.2 MWe. Results have clearly demonstrated that the ION technology is in line with DOE performance expectations and has the potential to meet DOE’s performance targets in larger scale testing environments.

  4. Review of Recommender Systems Algorithms Utilized in Social Networks based e-Learning Systems & Neutrosophic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.

  5. EPRI expert system activities for nuclear utility industry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on expert systems which have reached a level of maturity where they offer considerable benefits for the nuclear utility industry. The ability of expert systems to enhance expertise makes them an important tool for the nuclear utility industry in the areas of engineering, operations and maintenance. Benefits of expert system applications include comprehensive and consistent reasoning, reduction of time required for activities, retention of human expertise and ability to utilize multiple experts knowledge for an activity. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been performing four basic activities to help the nuclear industry take advantage of this expert system technology. The first is the development of expert system building tools which are tailored to nuclear utility industry applications. The second is the development of expert system applications. The third is work in developing a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems. The last is technology transfer activities to help the nuclear utility industry benefit from expert systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the EPRI activities

  6. Optimal Wonderful Life Utility Functions in Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The mathematics of Collective Intelligence (COINs) is concerned with the design of multi-agent systems so as to optimize an overall global utility function when those systems lack centralized communication and control. Typically in COINs each agent runs a distinct Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm, so that much of the design problem reduces to how best to initialize/update each agent's private utility function, as far as the ensuing value of the global utility is concerned. Traditional team game solutions to this problem assign to each agent the global utility as its private utility function. In previous work we used the COIN framework to derive the alternative Wonderful Life Utility (WLU), and experimentally established that having the agents use it induces global utility performance up to orders of magnitude superior to that induced by use of the team game utility. The WLU has a free parameter (the clamping parameter) which we simply set to zero in that previous work. Here we derive the optimal value of the clamping parameter, and demonstrate experimentally that using that optimal value can result in significantly improved performance over that of clamping to zero, over and above the improvement beyond traditional approaches.

  7. Effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Damião, Álvaro José; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moisés; de Paiva Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the evaporation degree (ED) of the solvent components in total-etch and self-etch adhesives. The ED of Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) one-step self-etch adhesive, and Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE), and XP Bond (Dentsply) total-etch adhesives was determined by weight alterations using two techniques: Control--spontaneous evaporation of the solvent for 5 min; Experimental--Nd:YAG laser irradiation for 1 min, followed by spontaneous evaporation for 4 min. The weight loss due to evaporation of the volatile components was measured at baseline and after 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s, 60 s, 70 s, 80 s, 90 s, 100 s, 110 s, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, and 5 min. Evaporation of solvent components significantly increased with Nd:YAG laser irradiation for all adhesives investigated. Gluma Comfort Bond showed significantly higher evaporation of solvent components than Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond. All the adhesives lost weight quickly during the first min of Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The application of Nd:YAG laser on adhesives before light curing had a significant effect on the evaporation of the solvent components, and the ED of Gluma Comfort Bond one-step self-etch adhesive was significantly higher than with Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond total-etch adhesives. The use of the Nd:YAG laser on the uncured adhesive technique can promote a greater ED of solvents, optimizing the longevity of the adhesive restorations.

  8. Nab-paclitaxel, docetaxel, or solvent-based paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer: a cost-utility analysis from a Chinese health care perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Bo Yu,2 Jennifer King,3 Satyin Kaura,3 Adams Zhang3 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA Background: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are commonly used for metastatic breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China. To improve the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel, an albumin-bound formulation (nab is now available in the People's Republic of China (Abraxane®. To provide health economic data for the key stakeholders, a cost-utility analysis comparing nab-paclitaxel to docetaxel, both as alternatives to paclitaxel, was conducted. Methods: A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes Phase III trials comparing nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m2 every [q] 3 weeks or branded docetaxel (100 mg/m2 q 3 weeks, to solvent-based branded paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 q 3 weeks was undertaken to provide safety and clinical data. Resource use data for the delivery of anticancer therapy and for the treatment of grade 3/4 toxicity was collected from a time and motion study conducted in three Chinese cancer centers and from a survey of clinicians. Using the Time Trade-Off technique, health utility estimates were derived from interviewing 28 breast cancer patients from one cancer center in the People's Republic of China. All costs were reported in 2014 US dollars. Results: Nab-paclitaxel had the most favorable safety profile, characterized with the lowest incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, anemia, and stomatitis. When the median number of cycles delivered from the clinical trials was applied, nab-paclitaxel had a cost per course of $19,752 compared with $8,940 and $13,741 for paclitaxel and docetaxel, respectively. As an alternative to paclitaxel, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained with nab-paclitaxel suggested better value than with docetaxel ($57,900 vs $130,600. Conclusion: Nab

  9. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  10. Degree of conversion of simplified contemporary adhesive systems as influenced by extended air-activated or passive solvent volatilization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; Brandt, William C; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Montes, Marcos A J R; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five methods of solvent volatilization on the degree of conversion (DC) of nine one-bottle adhesive systems using Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) analysis. Nine adhesives were tested: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Adper Easy One (EO), One Up Bond F Plus (OUP), One Coat Bond SL (OC), XP Bond (XP), Ambar (AM), Natural Bond (NB), GO, and Stae. The adhesive systems were applied to a zinc-selenide pellet and 1) cured without solvent volatilization, 2) left undisturbed for 10 seconds before curing, 3) left undisturbed for 60 seconds before curing, 4) air-dried with an air stream for 10 seconds before curing, and 5) air-dried with an air stream for 60 seconds before curing. FTIR/ATR spectra were obtained, and the DC was calculated by comparing the aliphatic bonds/reference peaks before and after light activation for 10 seconds (FlashLite 1401). The DC means of each material were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (pStae adhesive systems was not affected by the five evaporation conditions. Air-drying for 60 seconds before curing yielded the highest DC for SB, EO, and OC. Extended solvent volatilization time (60 seconds) either with or without air-drying before curing provided the highest DC for AM, NB, XP, and OUP. Thus, the monomer conversion of adhesive systems was material dependent. In general, the 60-second passive or active air-drying modes to volatilize solvents before curing enhanced the degree of conversion for the one-bottle simplified adhesive systems.

  11. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of two rotary retreatment systems in removing Gutta-percha and sealer during endodontic retreatment with or without solvent: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavaldas, Moushmi Chalakkarayil; Diwan, Abhinav; Kusumvalli, S; Pasha, Shiraz; Devale, Madhuri; Chava, Deepak Chowdary

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of two retreatment rotary systems in the removal of Gutta-percha (GP) and sealer from the root canal walls with or without solvent. Forty-eight extracted human mandibular first premolars were prepared and obturated with GP and AH Plus sealer. Samples were then randomly divided into four groups. Group I was retreated with MtwoR rotary system without solvent, Group II was retreated with MtwoR rotary system with Endosolv R as the solvent, Group III with D-RaCe rotary system without solvent, and Group IV with D-RaCe rotary system and Endosolv R solvent. The cleanliness of canal walls was determined by stereomicroscope (×20) and AutoCAD software. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the data. Results showed that none of the retreatment systems used in this study was able to completely remove the root canal filling material. D-RaCe with or without solvent showed significantly ( P > 0.05) less filling material at all levels compared to MtwoR with/without solvent. Within the limitation of the current study, D-RaCe rotary retreatment system is more effective in removing filling material from root canal walls when compared to MtwoR rotary retreatment system.

  13. Utility guide to advanced UT systems for PSI and ISI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The number of automated UT inspection systems and techniques, currently in the marketplace or being developed, has grown in recent years to the point where a utility engineer reviewing this field is faced with a major task in trying to decide what inspection technique and system will meet his inspection requirements. Recognizing the utility engineer's problem, EPRI initiated this project to produce a utility engineer's guide to advanced, automated UT systems. Of principal concern are those that have been recently introduced, and designed for problem areas such as BWR piping. Older automated scanning systems, used primarily for pressure vessel inspection, are not being ignored, but are not covered here. Costs, benefits and inspection time are addressed for several systems in this report

  14. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  15. Solvents in Organic Synthesis: Replacement and Multi-step Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Gómez, Paola Arenas; Folic, Milica

    2008-01-01

    Solvents are widely used as reaction media in the chemical, fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but they present numerous environmental, health and safety (EHS) challenges that need to be managed and are subject to increasing regulatory scrutiny. The above issues, together with the princ...

  16. Measurement of infinite dilution activity coefficient and application of modified ASOG model for solvent-polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.; Choi, J. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    A gas chromatographic method was used in order to measure vapor-liquid equilibria for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems in which the polymers were polystyrene, poly(a-methyl) styrene and the advents were benzene toluene cyclohexane methylisobutylketone, ethylacetate, and vinylacetate. The activity coefficients of solvents for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems were measured at infinite dilution and the modified ASOG (Analytical Solution of Group) model was suggested to describe vapor-liquid equilibria of those systems within a range of temperatures 423.15K through 498.15K. The model consists of the original ASOG and the free volume term. An external degree of freedom in the free volume term empirically became to a C1={alpha}+{beta}/T as a function of temperature. Each tern in the modified ASOG model is based on the weight fraction. The external degree of freedom in the model was estimated by experimental data within a range of temperatures. As a result of doing it the infinite dilution activity coefficients calculated were agreed with the experimental data within an error of 0.1%. 27 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Fractionation of lemon essential oil by solvent extraction: Phase equilibrium for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Capellini, Maria C.; Geremias, Ivana M.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deterpenation of lemon oil by solvent extraction using hydrous ethanol. ► Limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral were used to simulate the oil. ► Citral shows a higher distribution coefficient than the hydrocarbons. ► Terpenic hydrocarbons exhibit very similar phase separation behaviour. ► NRTL and UNIQUAC models provided a good description of the phase equilibrium. - Abstract: The fractioning of lemon essential oil can be performed by liquid–liquid extraction using hydrous ethanol as a solvent. A quaternary mixture composed of limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral was used to simulate lemon essential oil. In this paper, we present (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data that were experimentally determined for systems containing essential oil compounds, ethanol, and water at T = 298.2 K. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the mean deviations between calculated and experimental data were less than 0.0053 in all systems, indicating the accuracy of these molecular models in describing our systems. The results show that as the water content in the solvent phase increased, the values of the distribution coefficients decreased, regardless of the type of compound studied. However, the oxygenated compound always showed the highest distribution coefficient among the components of the essential oil, thus making deterpenation of the lemon essential oil a feasible process.

  18. Thin-layer chromatography of 49 metal ions on stannic antimonate in aqueous and mixed solvent systems containing dimethylsulfoxide: quantitative separation of uranium from numerous metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Varshney, K.G.; Rajput, R.P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography of 40 metal ions in 31 aqueous and mixed solvent systems has been performed on stannic antimonate ion-exchange material. Dimethylsulfoxide has been utilized to resolve such binary mixtures as La 3+ and Ce 3+ from Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Sm 3+ ; VO 2+ from Ti 4+ , Nb 5+ , and Ta 5+ ; Ga 3+ from In 3+ , Tl + , and Y 3+ ; Fe 3+ from VO 2+ ; and Mg 2+ from Al 3+ . Quantitative separation of 200 to 800 μg U from its binary mixtures and from the synthetic mixtures containing Mg 2+ , Bi 3+ , Fe 3+ , Th 4+ , Ce 4+ , Cr 3+ , Zr 4+ , Hf 4+ , Ti 4+ Mn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ce 3+ , In 3+ , Y 3+ , Ca 2+ , Co 2+ , Tl + , Nb 5+ , and Ag + has been obtained

  19. Optimal channel utilization and service protection in cellular communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    In mobile communications an efficient utilization of the channels is of great importance.In this paper we consider the basic principles for obtaining the maximum utilization, and we study strategies for obtaining these limits.In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service...... protection mechanisms for protecting services and subscriber groups.We study cellular systems with overlaid cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by dynamic channel allocation we obtain a high utilization.The models are generalizations of the Erlang-B formula, and can be evaluated...

  20. Critical Uses of College Resources. Part I: Personnel Utilization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Mantha

    A Personnel Utilization System has been designed at Broward Community College, which combines payroll, personnel, course, and function information in order to determine the actual duties performed by personnel for the amount of remuneration received. Objectives of the system are (1) to define the tasks being performed by faculty, staff, and…

  1. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  2. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  3. Development of integrated nuclear data utilization system for innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoki, Yamano; Masayuki, Igashira; Akira, Hasegawa; Kiyoshi, Kato

    2005-01-01

    An integrated nuclear data utilization system has been developing for innovative nuclear energy systems such as innovative reactors and accelerator-driven systems. The system has been constructed as a modular code system, which consists of a managing system and two subsystems. The management system named CONDUCT controls system resource management of the PC Linux server and the user authentication through Internet access. A subsystem is the nuclear data search and plotting subsystem based on a SPES engine developed by Hokkaido University. Nuclear data such as EXFOR, JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI and JEFF-3.1 can be searched and plotted in the subsystem. The other is the nuclear data processing and utilization subsystem, which is able to handle JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI and JEFF-3.1 to generate point-wise and group cross sections in several formats, and perform various criticality and shielding benchmarks for verification of nuclear data and validation of design methods for innovative reactors. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilization system, describes the progress of the system development to examine the operability of the user interface and discuss specifications of the two subsystems. (authors)

  4. Overview of HTGR utilization system developments at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Inagaki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    JAERI has been constructing a 30-MWt HTGR, named HTTR, to develop technology and to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization. A hydrogen production system by natural gas steam reforming is to be the first heat utilization system of the HTTR since its technology matured in fossil-fired plant enables to couple with HTTR in the early 2000's and technical solutions demonstrated by the coupling will contribute to all other hydrogen production systems. The HTTR steam reforming system is designed to utilize the nuclear heat effectively and to achieve hydrogen productivity competitive to that of a fossil-fired plant with operability, controllability and safety acceptable enough to commercialization, and an arrangement of key components was already decided. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test is planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions. The out-of-pile system is an approximately 1/20-1/30 scale system of the HTTR steam reforming system and simulates key components downstream from an IHX

  5. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter’s two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus–Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein–Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms. (paper)

  6. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-16

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter's two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms.

  7. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  8. A low viscosity, low boiling point, clean solvent system for the rapid crystallisation of highly specular perovskite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Nakita K.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Wenger, Bernard; Klug, Matthew T.; Hörantner, Maximilian T.; Johnston, Michael B.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Moore, David T.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite-based photovoltaics have, in recent years, become poised to revolutionise the solar industry. While there have been many approaches taken to the deposition of this material, one-step spin-coating remains the simplest and most widely used method in research laboratories. Although spin-coating is not recognised as the ideal manufacturing methodology, it represents a starting point from which more scalable deposition methods, such as slot-dye coating or ink-jet printing can be developed. Here, we introduce a new, low-boiling point, low viscosity solvent system that enables rapid, room temperature crystallisation of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite films, without the use of strongly coordinating aprotic solvents. Through the use of this solvent, we produce dense, pinhole free films with uniform coverage, high specularity, and enhanced optoelectronic properties. We fabricate devices and achieve stabilised power conversion efficiencies of over 18% for films which have been annealed at 100 degrees C, and over 17% for films which have been dried under vacuum and have undergone no thermal processing. This deposition technique allows uniform coating on substrate areas of up to 125 cm2, showing tremendous promise for the fabrication of large area, high efficiency, solution processed devices, and represents a critical step towards industrial upscaling and large area printing of perovskite solar cells.

  9. Some regularities in formation and solvent extraction of complexes in metal-salicylic acid or its derivative- organic base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Tikhomirova, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of concentrations of the reagents, pH and solvent on the conditions for the formation and extraction of Sc, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th complexes has been examined in salicylic acid (H 2 Sal)-heterocyclic amine systems. The extraction chemism and factors, which affect the reactions between the metal ions and the ligands, are discussed. It has been shown that Zr, Hf, Ti form species of ion associate type, Sc and Th form different-ligand complexes under conditions for interphase equilibrium in a Me-H 2 Sal-heterocyclic amine system

  10. Abstraction of continuous dynamical systems utilizing lyapunov functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the development of a method for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. The method is based on partitioning the state space of dynamical systems with invariant sets, which form cells representing locations of the timed automata. To enable verification...... of the dynamical system based on the abstraction, conditions for obtaining sound, complete, and refinable abstractions are set up. It is proposed to partition the state space utilizing sub-level sets of Lyapunov functions, since they are positive invariant sets. The existence of sound abstractions for Morse......-Smale systems and complete and refinable abstractions for linear systems are shown....

  11. An Improved Apparatus for Vapour-Liquid Equilibria Measurement in Polymer + Solvent Systems at Higher Temperatures: a Study of the Water + Poly(ethylene glycol) System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 454, 25 DEC (2017), s. 111-115 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : correlation * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  12. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  13. Utility systems operation: Optimisation-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Garcia, Patricia; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Wozny, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisation model has been developed, where besides for running the utility system, also the costs associated with starting-up the operating units have been modelled. The illustrative case study shows that accounting for the shut-downs and start-ups of utility operating units can bring significant cost savings. - Highlights: → Optimisation methodology for decision making on running utility systems. → Accounting for varying steam demands. → Optimal operating specifications when a demand change occurs. → Operating costs include start-up costs of boilers and other units. → Validated on a real-life case study. Up to 20% cost savings are possible.

  14. Control board and utility system for cell complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Silva, A.C.; Souza, A.S.F. de; Souza, M.L.M. de; Rautenberg, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    To attend necessities of hot cells operation and process control for isotope production in IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) a utility system, such as, electricity, water, vacuum, air, and gas, and control board was constructed, which advantages are presented. (M.C.K.)

  15. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  16. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  17. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  18. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  19. Bulk power system performance issues affecting utility peaking capacity additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Sytems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of transmission system constraints and problems that affect the siting and rating of peaking capacity additions. Techniques for addressing and modifying these concerns are presented. Particular attention is paid to techniques that have been successfully used by utilities to improve power transfer and system loadability, while avoiding the construction of additional transmission lines. Proven techniques for dealing with thermal, short-circuit level and stability issues are presented.

  20. Photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin-effect of copper amendment and solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia Rashid; Ahmed, Dildar; Farooq, Amna; Rasheed, Sonia; Mansoor, Mubarkah

    2017-02-01

    The photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin was studied in the presence of Cu salts and two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. Results of the study showed that in the absence of any metal salt, the two pesticides degraded more rapidly in acetonitrile than in methanol. After 24 h of UV irradiation, 70% of deltamethrin had degraded in acetonitrile, while only 41% bifenthrin degraded in this solvent. In methanol, bifenthrin degraded at a much enhanced rate than in acetonitrile while the rate of degradation of deltamethrin was comparable to that in acetonitrile. The photodegradation was further enhanced by the addition of copper to the solution of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in acetonitrile. The rate of photodegradation of deltamethrin increased from 2.4 × 10 -2 to 3.5 × 10 -2  h -1 in acetonitrile and 2.5 × 10 -2 to 3.4 × 10 -2  h -1 in methanol after the addition of copper. Similarly, the rate of photodegradation of bifenthrin was increased from 5.0 × 10 -3 to 9.0 × 10 -3  h -1 in acetonitrile and 7.0 × 10 -3 to 9.05 × 10 -3  h -1 in methanol with the addition of copper. Thus, copper has the potential to enhance the photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in both the solvents.

  1. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  3. Criteria for inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Yeh, H.C.

    1974-01-01

    Principles are given for the design and operation of a new class of inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry (CFS), a simple method for providing realtime measurement of respiratory volumes and rates during inhalation exposure by mouth or nose of individual experimental animals or man to aerosols or gases. This technique is especially useful for inhalation exposure of larger experimental animals, such as horses, where whole-body plethysmography is usually impractical. Difficulties encountered with conventional exposure systems in maintenance of uniform aerosol or gas concentrations and prevention of large pressure excursions in the exposure chamber during breathing are obviated by systems utilizing the principles of concurrent flow spirometry. For illustration, two exposure units with CFS are described, one for exposure of Beagle dogs and one for ponies. (U.S.)

  4. Improvement of human operator vibroprotection system in the utility machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, P. A.; Teterina, I. A.; Rahuba, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to an urgent problem of improving efficiency of road-building utility machines in terms of improving human operator vibroprotection system by determining acceptable values of the rigidity coefficients and resistance coefficients of operator’s cab suspension system elements and those of operator’s seat. Negative effects of vibration result in labour productivity decrease and occupational diseases. Besides, structure vibrations have a damaging impact on the machine units and mechanisms, which leads to reducing an overall service life of the machine. Results of experimental and theoretical research of operator vibroprotection system in the road-building utility machine are presented. An algorithm for the program to calculate dynamic impacts on the operator in terms of different structural and performance parameters of the machine and considering combination of external pertrubation influences was proposed.

  5. Healthcare Utilization and Costs of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Medicaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J. Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Healthcare utilization and costs associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a US Medicaid population were examined. Methods. Patients ≥ 18 years old with SLE diagnosis (ICD-9-CM 710.0x were extracted from a large Medicaid database 2002–2009. Index date was date of the first SLE diagnosis. Patients with and without SLE were matched. All patients had a variable length of followup with a minimum of 12 months. Annualized healthcare utilization and costs associated with SLE and costs of SLE flares were assessed during the followup period. Multivariate regressions were conducted to estimate incremental healthcare utilization and costs associated with SLE. Results. A total of 14,777 SLE patients met the study criteria, and 14,262 were matched to non-SLE patients. SLE patients had significantly higher healthcare utilization per year than their matched controls. The estimated incremental annual cost associated with SLE was $10,984, with the highest increase in inpatient costs (P<0.001. Cost per flare was $11,716 for severe flares, $562 for moderate flares, and $129 for mild flares. Annual total costs for patients with severe flares were $49,754. Conclusions. SLE patients had significantly higher healthcare resource utilization and costs than non-SLE patients. Patients with severe flares had the highest costs.

  6. High-efficiency SO2 removal in utility FGD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company's Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy's Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company's Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy's Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light's Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations's (NYSEG's) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO 2 removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO 2 removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994

  7. Solution processing of chalcogenide materials using thiol-amine "alkahest" solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Brutchey, Richard L

    2017-05-02

    Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks. In this review, we recount the work that has been done toward elucidating the scope of this method for the solution processing of inorganic materials for use in applications such as photovoltaic devices, electrocatalysts, photodetectors, thermoelectrics, and nanocrystal ligand exchange. We also take stock of the wide range of bulk materials that can be used as soluble precursors, and discuss the work that has been done to reveal the nature of the dissolved species. This method has provided a vast toolbox of over 65 bulk precursors, which can be utilized to develop new routes to functional chalcogenide materials. Future studies in this area should work toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dissolution and recovery of bulk materials, as well as broadening the scope of soluble precursors and recoverable functional materials for innovative applications.

  8. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  10. Olive oil glycero lysis with the immobilized lipase Candida antarctica in a solvent free system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, the solvent free lipase glycerolysis of olive oil for the production of monoglyceride (MG) and diglyceride (DG) with an immobilized Lipase B Candida antarctica was studied. The experiments were performed in batch mode by varying different process parameters. The Results showed that the MG and DG yields were dependent on operating conditions such as time, temperature, glycerol/ oil molar ratio, enzyme concentration and the water content in glycerol. The optimum operating time for maximum MG, 26 wt% and DG, 30 wt% production was 3h. The initial reaction rate was studied by varying different process parameters for 1h. The initial reaction rate increased at 30 degree centigrade temperature, 2:1 glycerol/oil molar ratio, 3.5% (w/w) water content in glycerol and 0.015g of enzyme loading. Comparative data for MG and DG yields for different oils and enzyme combinations were presented.

  11. An Examination of Organizatinal Performance Measurement System Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    DeBusk, Gerald Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation provides results of three studies, which examine the utilization of organizational performance measurement systems. Evidence gathered in the first study provides insight into the number of perspectives or components found in the evaluation of an organization's performance and the relative weight placed on those components. The evidence suggests that the number of performance measurement components and their relative composition is situational. Components depend heavily on th...

  12. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  13. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of (water + phosphoric acid + solvents) systems at T = (308.2 and 318.2) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Shekarsaraee, S.; Uslu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of the (water + PA + solvents) systems were investigated. ► Experimental LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. ► Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. - Abstract: Ternary equilibrium data for the mixtures of {water + phosphoric acid + organic solvent (cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene)} were determined at T = (308.2 and 318.2) K and atmospheric pressure. Solubility data were determined by the cloud-point titration method. In order to obtain the tie-line data, the concentration of each phase was determined by acidimetric titration, the Karl–Fischer technique, and refractive index measurements. The experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The reliability of the experimental data was determined through the Othmer–Tobias and Hand plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions. The Katritzky LSER model was applied to correlate distribution coefficients and separation factors in these ternary systems.

  14. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of the Test Program for Replacement of AK-225G Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon the solvent AsahiKlin AK-225 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225ca/cb or HCFC-225ca/cb) and, more recently AK-225G (the single isomer form, HCFC-225cb) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of Class II Ozone Depleting Substances, including AK-225G, was prohibited in the United States by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, NASA test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a solvent replacement for AK-225G that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. This paper summarizes the tests performed, results, and lessons learned.

  16. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans......-ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  17. Survey of thorium utilization in power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.; Schleifer, P.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is clear that thorium-fueled thermal power reactor systems based on current technology can play a vital role in serving present and long-term energy needs. Advanced thorium converters and thermal breeders can provide an expanded resource base from which the world's growing energy demands can be met. Utilization of a symbiotic system of fast breeders and thorium-fueled thermal reactors can be particularly effective in providing low cost power while conserving uranium resources. Breeder reactors are characterized by high capital costs and very low fuel costs since they produce more fuel than they consume. This excess fuel can be used to fuel thermal converter reactors whose capital costs are low. This symbiosis is optimized when 233 U is bred in the fast breeders and then used to fuel high-conversion-ratio thermal converter reactors operating on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The thorium-cycle HTGR, after undergoing more than fifteen years of development in both the United States and Europe, provides for the optimum utilization of our limited uranium resources. Other thermal reactor systems, previously operating on the uranium cycle, also show potential in their capability to utilize the thorium cycle effectively

  18. Solvent extraction technology of 90Mo-sup(99m)Tc system: design and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The design features of 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc solvent extraction system have been reviewed. An improved semi-automated system has been improvised using the basic equipment of an indigenous unit along with other accessories, and with an added element of radiation protection to handle daily about 300-600 millicurie amounts of reactor-produced very low specific activity 99 Mo. The system has been used routinely for obtaining sup(99m)TcO 4 - - required for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine for the last twelve years. The performance characteristics of this unit with respect to yield and purity of 99 TcO 4 - - consistency of the process, the radiation dose to personnel and related health physics aspects have been evaluated. (author)

  19. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  20. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  1. Defense strategies for asymmetric networked systems under composite utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)

    2017-11-01

    We consider an infrastructure of networked systems with discrete components that can be reinforced at certain costs to guard against attacks. The communications network plays a critical, asymmetric role of providing the vital connectivity between the systems. We characterize the correlations within this infrastructure at two levels using (a) aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability giventhe failure of an individual system or network, and (b) first order differential conditions on system survival probabilities that characterize component-level correlations. We formulate an infrastructure survival game between an attacker and a provider, who attacks and reinforces individual components, respectively. They use the composite utility functions composed of a survival probability term and a cost term, and the previously studiedsum-form and product-form utility functions are their special cases. At Nash Equilibrium, we derive expressions for individual system survival probabilities and the expected total number of operational components. We apply and discuss these estimates for a simplified model of distributed cloud computing infrastructure

  2. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  3. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  4. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  6. Organic high ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent system series for separation of ultra-polar compounds by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Existing two-phase solvent systems for high-speed countercurrent chromatography cover the separation of hydrophobic to moderately polar compounds, but often fail to provide suitable partition coefficient values for highly polar compounds such as sulfonic acids, catecholamines and zwitter ions. The present paper introduces a new solvent series which can be applied for the separation of these polar compounds. It is composed of 1-butanol, ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate and water at various volume ratios and consists of a series of 10 steps which are arranged according to the polarity of the solvent system so that the two-phase solvent system with suitable K values for the target compound(s) can be found in a few steps. Each solvent system gives proper volume ratio and high density difference between the two phases to provide a satisfactory level of retention of the stationary phase in the spiral column assembly. The method is validated by partition coefficient measurement of four typical polar compounds including methyl green (basic dye), tartrazine (sulfonic acid), tyrosine (zwitter ion) and epinephrine (a catecholamine), all of which show low partition coefficient values in the polar 1-butanol-water system. The capability of the method is demonstrated by separation of three catecholamines. PMID:22033108

  7. The utilization of Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbent [Lour]. Merr) leaves extracts as an antioxidant for coconut oil by using ethanol solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Ariska, R.; Defriska, P.

    2018-02-01

    Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbent [Lour]. Merr) is commonly well-known as traditional medicine. It contains several chemical constituents such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids or triterpenoids, which are potential as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Sambung Nyawa leaves to extract as an antioxidant and its ability to preserve the quality of coconut oil. First, flavonoids were extracted from Sambung Nyawa leaves at various leaf to the solvent ratio (w/v) and extraction temperature. The extracts which gave the highest total flavonoids content was added into the coconut oil and stored for 3 days, 6 days, 9 days, 12 days, and 15 days. Total flavonoids content of Sambung Nyawa leaves extracts were evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Coconut oil was analyzed for its value of acid, iodine, and peroxide number. The results showed that the highest total flavonoids content of 5.18% was obtained for the leaf to solvent ratio of 1:15 (w/v) and an extraction temperature of 65 °C. The lowest acid number of 0.35%, the highest iodine number of 8.09 g I2/100 g, and the lowest peroxide number of 5.20 mg O2/100 g was obtained for the storage time of 3 days for coconut oil mixed with the Sambung Nyawa leaves extracts.

  8. A novel dipicolinamide-dicarbollide synergistic solvent system for actinide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Ajay Bhagwan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Pune Univ. (India). Garware Research Centre; Pathak, Priyanath; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Shinde, Vaishali Sanjay [Pune Univ. (India). Garware Research Centre; Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Babain, Vasiliy A. [Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute

    2014-09-01

    Solvent extraction studies of several actinide ions such as Am(III), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(VI), Pu(IV) were carried out from nitric acid medium using a synergistic mixture of N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-di(para)fluorophenyl-2,6-dipicolinamide, (DEtD(p)FPhDPA, DPA), and hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}CCD{sup -}) dissolved in phenyltrifluoromethylsulphone (PTMS). The effects of different parameters such as aqueous phase acidity (0.01-3 M HNO{sub 3}), oxidation states of metal ions, ligand concentration, nature of diluent and temperature on the extraction behavior of metal ions were studied. The extracted Am(III) species was determined as H{sup +}[Am(DPA){sub 2}(CCD){sub 4}]{sup -} With increasing aqueous phase acidities, the extractability of both Am(III) and Eu(III) was found to decrease. The synergistic mixture showed better extraction in mM concentrations as compared to previously studied dipicolinamides. The thermodynamic studies were performed to calculate heat of extraction reaction and the extraction constants. The proposed synergistic mixture showed good extraction for all the metal ions, though lanthanide actinide separation results are not encouraging. (orig.)

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Oxicams as Multi-donor Ligand Systems: pH- and Solvent-Dependent Coordination Modes of Meloxicam and Piroxicam to Ru and Os.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Farhana; Hanif, Muhammad; Kubanik, Mario; Ashraf, Adnan; Söhnel, Tilo; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Siddiqui, Waseeq Ahmad; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-04-06

    The nitrogen- and sulfur-containing 1,2-benzothiazines meloxicam and piroxicam are widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Intrigued by the presence of multiple donor atoms and therefore potentially rich coordination chemistry, we prepared a series of organometallic Ru and Os compounds with meloxicam and piroxicam featuring either as mono- or bidentate ligand systems. The choice of the solvent and the pH value was identified as the critical parameter to achieve selectively mono- or bidentate coordination. The coordination modes were confirmed experimentally by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Using DFT calculations, it was established that complexes in which meloxicam acts as a bidentate N,O donor are energetically more favorable than coordination as O,O and S,O donor systems. Since meloxicam and piroxicam derivatives have shown anticancer activity in the past, we aimed to compare the complexes with mono- and bidentate ligands on their in vitro anticancer activity. However, stability studies revealed that only the latter complexes were stable in [D 6 ]DMSO/D 2 O (5:95) and therefore no direct comparisons could be made. The meloxicam complexes 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity, whereas the piroxicam derivatives 5 and 6 were hardly active against the utilized cell lines. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  11. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  12. Utilization of Solar Energy for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Juwari Purwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to do a system simulation of air conditioning utilizing solar energy with single effect absorption refrigeration method, analyze the coefficient of performance (COP for each absorbent-refrigerant variable and compare the effectivity of every absorbent-refrigerant variable used. COP is a constant that denotes the effeciency of a refrigeration system, that is ratio of work or useful output to the amount of work or energy input. The higher the number of COP, the more efficient the system is. Absorbent-refrigerant (working fluids variables used in this research depend on its chemical and thermodynamics properties. Steps in this research are including data collection and tabulation from literature and do a simulation of air conditioning system both commercial air conditioning system (using electrical energy and solar energy air conditioning system with Aspen Plus software. Next, run the simulation for each working fluid variables used and calculate the COP for each variable. Subsequently, analyze and compare the effectivity of all variables used from COP value and economical point of view with commercial air conditioning system. From the result of the simulation, can be concluded that solar air conditioning can achieve 98,85 % of energy savings than commercial air conditioning. Furthermore, from the calculation of COP, the highest COP value is achieved by solar conditioning system with LiNO3-NH3 as working fluid where 55% of the composition is the refrigerant and 45% of absorbent.

  13. Development of a New Binary Solvent System Using Ionic Liquids as Additives to Improve Rotenone Extraction Yield from Malaysia Derris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is one of the prominent insecticidal isoflavonoid compounds which can be isolated from the extract of Derris sp. plant. Despite being an effective compound in exterminating pests in a minute concentration, procuring a significant amount of rotenone in the extracts for commercialized biopesticides purposes is a challenge to be attained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the best ionic liquid (IL which gives the highest yield of rotenone. The normal soaking extraction (NSE method was carried out for 24 hrs using five different types of binary solvent systems comprising a combination of acetone and five respective ionic liquids (ILs of (1 [BMIM] Cl; (2 [BMIM] OAc; (3 [BMIM] NTf2; (4 [BMIM] OTf; and (5 [BMPy] Cl. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w, and its concentration (mg/mL in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC and TLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems (P<0.05. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 2.69 ± 0.21% (w/w (4.04 ± 0.34 mg/mL at 14 hrs of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the ILs with a selective organic solvent has been proven to increase a significant amount of bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  14. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  15. Site utility system optimization with operation adjustment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Gai, Limei; Smith, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors. • Multi-period operation and recourses deal with uncertainty implementation. • Operation scheduling are specified at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. • Steam mains superheating affects steam distribution and power generation in the system. - Abstract: Utility systems must satisfy process energy and power demands under varying conditions. The system performance is decided by the system configuration and individual equipment operating load for boilers, gas turbines, steam turbines, condensers, and let down valves. Steam mains conditions in terms of steam pressures and steam superheating also play important roles on steam distribution in the system and power generation by steam expansion in steam turbines, and should be included in the system optimization. Uncertainties such as process steam power demand changes and electricity price fluctuations should be included in the system optimization to eliminate as much as possible the production loss caused by steam power deficits due to uncertainties. In this paper, uncertain factors are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors, and operation scheduling containing multi-period equipment load sharing, redundant equipment start up, and electricity import to compensate for power deficits, have been presented to deal with the happens of uncertainties, and are formulated as a multi-period item and a recourse item in the optimization model. There are two case studies in this paper. One case illustrates the system design to determine system configuration, equipment selection, and system operation scheduling at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. The other case provides operational optimization scenarios for an existing system, especially when the steam superheating varies. The proposed method can provide practical guidance to system energy efficiency improvement.

  16. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  17. Mobile integrated temporary utility system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Mobile Integrated Temporary Utility System (MITUS) integrates portable electrical power along with communications and emergency alarm and lighting capabilities to provide safe, centralized power to work areas that need to be de-energized for decommissioning work. MITUS consists of a portable unit substation; up to twenty portable kiosks that house the power receptacles, communications, and emergency alarm and lighting systems; and a central communications unit. This system makes sequential decommissioning efforts efficient and cost-effective by allowing the integrated system to remain intact while being moved to subsequent work sites. Use of the MITUS also eliminates the need to conduct zero-energy tests and implement associated lock-out/tag-out procedures at partially de-energized facilities. Since the MITUS is a designed system, it can be customized to accommodate unique facility conditions simply by varying kiosks and transformer configurations. The MITUS is an attractive alternate to the use of portable generators with stand-alone communications and emergency system. It is more cost-effective than upgrading or reconfiguring existing power distribution systems

  18. Insight into the Local Solvent Environment of Biologically Relevant Iron-nitroysl Systems through Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jennifer Faith

    Iron-nitrosyl systems, particularly in the form of heme proteins, with their iron metal active sites play an important role in biological systems. Heme proteins act as storage, transporters, and receptors for nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule that is important in immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems of mammals. By better understanding the local environment of the active site of NO binding heme proteins we can gain insight into disease in which the NO pathways have been implicated. This is an important step to being able to develop pharmaceuticals targeting NO pathways in humans. Sodium nitroprusside ((SNP, Na2[Fe(CN)5is NO]·2H 2O) investigated as a model system for the active site of nitric oxide binding heme proteins. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) to obtain dephasing dynamics of the nitrosyl stretch (nuNO) in a series of solvents we are able to better understand the local environment of the more complicated metalloproteins. Rigorous line shape analysis is performed by using nonlinear response theory to simulate 2D IR spectra which are then fit to experimental data in an iterative process to extract frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs). The time scales obtained are then correlated to empirical solvent polarity parameters. The analysis of the 2D IR lineshapes reveal that the spectral diffusion timescale of the nuNO in SNP varies from 0.8 -- 4 ps and is negatively correlated with the empirical solvent polarity scales. We continue to investigate NO binding of metalloproteins through 2D IR experiments on nitrophorin 4 (NP4). NP4 is a pH-sensitive NO transporter protein present in the salivary gland of the blood sucking insect Rhodius prolixus which undergoes a pH sensitive structural change between a closed and open conformation allowing for the storage and delivery of NO. The two structures are observed spectroscopically as two distinct pH-dependent nu NO frequencies at ~1904 and ~1917 cm-1. We obtain FFCFs by globally

  19. A Systems Approach to Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure Design for Utility Management Automation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fereidunian; H. Lesani; C. Lucas; M. Lehtonen; M. M. Nordman

    2006-01-01

    Almost all of electric utility companies are planning to improve their management automation system, in order to meet the changing requirements of new liberalized energy market and to benefit from the innovations in information and communication technology (ICT or IT). Architectural design of the utility management automation (UMA) systems for their IT-enabling requires proper selection of IT choices for UMA system, which leads to multi-criteria decision-makings (MCDM). In resp...

  20. Present Status of HTGR Utilization System Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are to be continuously devoted to establish and upgrade HTGR technology in the world. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted the R and D of HTGRs since the 1960's in Japan, focusing on mainly the construction of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) which is an HTGR with a maximum helium gas temperature of 950 o C at the reactor outlet and HTGR utilization systems. The HTTR achieved first criticality on November 10, 1998 and will restart from January in 2001. In the R and D program of HTGR utilization systems, JAERI has conducted hydrogen production systems with HTGR to demonstrate the applicability of nuclear heat for extensive energy demands besides the electric power generation. JAERI has developed a hydrogen production system by steam reforming process of natural gas using nuclear heat supplied from the HTTR. Prior to the demonstration test of HTTR hydrogen production system, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is under construction for safety review and detailed design of the system. The out-of-pile test facility will be started in 2001 and will be continued about 4 years. The hydrogen permeation and corrosion tests have been carried out since 1997. Check and review for the demonstration program in the HTTR hydrogen production system will be made in 2001. Then the HTTR hydrogen production system is scheduled to be constructed from 2003 and demonstratively operated from around 2006. In parallel with the R and D of the HTTR hydrogen production system, hydrogen production method by thermochemical water splitting, so-called IS process, has been studied in JAERI. The IS process is placed as one of future candidates of the heat utilization systems of the HTTR following the steam reforming system. Continuous and stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen for 48 hours was successfully achieved with a laboratory-scale apparatus mainly made of glass. Following this achievement, the study has been continued with a larger

  1. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, W. Wade; Adams, William L.; Callerame, Joseph; Grodzins, Lee; Rothschild, Peter J.; Schueller, Richard; Mishin, Andrey V.; Smith, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40 ' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  2. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Temperature dependence of charge-transfer fluorescence from extended and U-shaped donor-bridge-acceptor systems in glass-forming solvents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goes, M.; de Groot, M.; Koeberg, M.; Verhoeven, J.W.; Lokan, N.R.; Shephard, M.J.; Paddon-Row, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior is reported of three fluorescent D-bridge-A systems that display a fascinating temperature dependence in glass forming solvents over the temperature range between 77 and 293 K. In two of these systems, a rigid, saturated alkane bridge maintains an extended conformation, and as

  4. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  5. Phase equilibrium study of the binary systems (N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate ionic liquid + water, or organic solvent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Krolikowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Synthesis, DSC, and measurements of phase equilibrium of N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate. → Solvents used: water, alcohols, benzene, alkylbenzenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. → Correlation with UNIQUAC, Wilson and NRTL models. → Comparison with different tosylate-based ILs. - Abstract: The (solid + liquid) phase equilibrium (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium (LLE) for the binary systems ionic liquid (IL) N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate (p-toluenesulfonate), {([HM 3 Py][TOS] + water, or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol), or an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, or ethylbenzene, or propylbenzene), or an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane)} have been determined at ambient pressure using a dynamic method. Simple eutectic systems with complete miscibility in the liquid phase were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The phase equilibrium diagrams of IL and aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons exhibit eutectic systems with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature as for most of the ILs. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the UNIQUAC, Wilson and the non-random two liquid (NRTL) correlation equations. The results reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported by our group previously for systems containing the tosylate-based ILs.

  6. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE's underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE's environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE's environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design

  7. Evaluation of the utility of a glycemic pattern identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Erik A; Tannan, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing prevalence of systems allowing automated, real-time transmission of blood glucose data there is a need for pattern recognition techniques that can inform of deleterious patterns in glycemic control when people test. We evaluated the utility of pattern identification with a novel pattern identification system named Vigilant™ and compared it to standard pattern identification methods in diabetes. To characterize the importance of an identified pattern we evaluated the relative risk of future hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events in diurnal periods following identification of a pattern in a data set of 536 patients with diabetes. We evaluated events 2 days, 7 days, 30 days, and 61-90 days from pattern identification, across diabetes types and cohorts of glycemic control, and also compared the system to 6 pattern identification methods consisting of deleterious event counts and percentages over 5-, 14-, and 30-day windows. Episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were 120%, 46%, 123%, and 76% more likely after pattern identification, respectively, compared to periods when no pattern was identified. The system was also significantly more predictive of deleterious events than other pattern identification methods evaluated, and was persistently predictive up to 3 months after pattern identification. The system identified patterns that are significantly predictive of deleterious glycemic events, and more so relative to many pattern identification methods used in diabetes management today. Further study will inform how improved pattern identification can lead to improved glycemic control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. A potentiometric study of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetonitrile +1,4-dioxane) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2006-01-01

    By using the potentiometric method the following quantities have been determined: acidity constants of molecular acid, K a (HA), of cationic acid, K a (BH + ), anionic and cationic homoconjugation constants, K AHA - and K BHB + , respectively, as well as molecular heteroconjugation constants, K AHB , in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems without proton transfer in binary (acetonitrile+1,4-dioxane), AN+D, solvent mixtures. The results of these measurements have shown that the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants do not depend on the 1,4-dioxane content in the mixed solvent, i.e., on solvent polarity. It has also been found that in the (acid+base) systems without proton transfer, the manner of carrying out the titration (direct B+HA vs. reverse HA+B) does not affect the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants

  9. A potentiometric study of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetonitrile +1,4-dioxane) solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Malgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2006-05-15

    By using the potentiometric method the following quantities have been determined: acidity constants of molecular acid, K{sub a}(HA), of cationic acid, K{sub a}(BH{sup +}), anionic and cationic homoconjugation constants, K{sub AHA{sup -}} and K{sub BHB{sup +}}, respectively, as well as molecular heteroconjugation constants, K{sub AHB}, in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems without proton transfer in binary (acetonitrile+1,4-dioxane), AN+D, solvent mixtures. The results of these measurements have shown that the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants do not depend on the 1,4-dioxane content in the mixed solvent, i.e., on solvent polarity. It has also been found that in the (acid+base) systems without proton transfer, the manner of carrying out the titration (direct B+HA vs. reverse HA+B) does not affect the magnitudes of the molecular heteroconjugation constants.

  10. Overview of HTGR heat utilization system development at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Akino, N.; Shimizu, S.; Hada, K.; Inagaki, Y.; Onuki, K.; Takeda, T.; Nishihara, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted research and development of nuclear heat utilization systems of a High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), which are capable to meet a large amount of energy demand without significant CO 2 emission to relax the global warming issue. The High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) with thermal output of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg C, the first HTGR in Japan, is under construction on the JAERI site, and its first criticality is scheduled for mid-1998. After the reactor performance and safety demonstration tests for several years, a hydrogen production system will be connected to the HTTR. A demonstration program on hydrogen production started in January 1997, in JAERI, as a study consigned by the Science and Technology Agency. A hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR is designed to be able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas, using nuclear heat of 10 MW from the HTTR. The safety principle and standard are investigated for the HTTR hydrogen production system. In order to confirm safety, controllability and performance of key components in the HTTR hydrogen production system, an out-of-pile test facility on the scale of approximately 1/30 of the HTTR hydrogen production system is installed. It is equipped with an electric heater as a heat source instead of the HTTR. The out-of-pile test will be performed for four years after 2001. The HTTR hydrogen production system will be demonstratively operated after 2005 at its earliest plan. Other basic studies on the hydrogen production system using thermochemical water splitting, an iodine sulphur (IS) process, and technology of distant heat transport with microencapsulated phase change material have been carried out for more effective and various uses of nuclear heat. (author)

  11. A novel method for determining the solubility of small molecules in aqueous media and polymer solvent systems using solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Chen, Xin; Aburub, Aktham; Mishra, Dinesh; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the application of solution calorimetry for measuring drug solubility in experimentally challenging situations while providing additional information on the physical properties of the solute material. A semi-adiabatic solution calorimeter was used to measure the heat of dissolution of prednisolone and chlorpropamide in aqueous solvents and of griseofulvin and ritonavir in viscous solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and N-ethylpyrrolidone. Dissolution end point was clearly ascertained when heat generation stopped. The heat of solution was a linear function of dissolved mass for all drugs (solution of 9.8 ± 0.8, 28.8 ± 0.6, 45.7 ± 1.6 and 159.8 ± 20.1 J/g were obtained for griseofulvin, ritonavir, prednisolone and chlorpropamide, respectively. Saturation was identifiable by a plateau in the heat signal and the crossing of the two linear segments corresponds to the solubility limit. The solubilities of prednisolone and chlopropamide in water by the calorimetric method were 0.23 and 0.158 mg/mL, respectively, in agreement with the shake-flask/HPLC-UV determined values of 0.212 ± 0.013 and 0.169 ± 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. For the higher solubility and high viscosity systems of griseofulvin and ritonavir in NEP/PVP mixtures, respectively, solubility values of 65 and 594 mg/g, respectively, were obtained. Solution calorimetry offers a reliable method for measuring drug solubility in organic and aqueous solvents. The approach is complementary to the traditional shake-flask method, providing information on the solid properties of the solute. For highly viscous solutions, the calorimetric approach is advantageous.

  12. Production of 13C by chemical exchange reaction between amine carbamate and carbon dioxide in a solvent-carrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghate, M.R.; Taylor, T.I.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical exchange reaction between amine carbamate and CO 2 has been investigated for the purpose of using it as a practical method to concentrate 13 C. The effects of solvent, concentration of amines, catalysts, flow rate, and diameter of the column have been studied for a number of amines. Of the solutions studied, di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA) as a solvent proved to be the most favorable for use in the preparation of highly enriched 13 C. The overall separations obtained as a function of the concentration of DNBA using 2.5 cm i.d. x 100 cm column ranged from 2.05 at 1 M to 1.69 at 2.84 M. For 2 M DNBA the maximum separation was 1.94. At this concentration of DNBA the overall separation as a function of flow rate ranged from 1.94 at 0.845 ml/cm 2 -min to 1.31 at 2.9 ml/cm 2 -min. Neither the rate of exchange nor the overall separations were improved by use of catalysts. Increasing the diameter twofold resulted in little or no loss in overall separations. On the basis of the properties of the system and the data obtained with respect to the above variables, design calculations were made for a six-stage tapered cascade. These calculations were based on a flow of 40 ml/min of 2 M DNBA in TEA, giving a maximum transport of 7.1 x 10 -3 mmole/min or a maximum production rate of 130 mg 13 C/day. The cascade was operated for about 5 months during which period gram quantities of 67 percent 13 C were produced

  13. Processing of (in)tractable polymers using reactive solvents, 4: Structure development in the model system poly(ethylene)/styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, J.G.P.; Rastogi, S.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents provides a unique opportunity to extend the processing characteristics of both intractable and standard (tractable) polymers beyond existing limits. The polymer to be processed is dissolved in the reactive solvent (monomer) and the solution is transferred into a mould.

  14. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.

  15. FINAL TOPICAL REPORT FOR NOVEL SYSTEMS SEQUESTERING AND UTILIZATION OF CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson

    1999-04-30

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are increasing by about 0.5% each year, and there is serious concern that this will cause adverse climate change via the ''greenhouse effect.'' The principal sources of the increase are the utilization of fossil fuels and the deforestation of land. The capture of CO{sub 2} from flue gas or process streams has been demonstrated using chemical absorption with an ethanolamine solvent. However, the cost of releasing the CO{sub 2} by thermal stripping and recovering the solvent is very high, resulting in an energy penalty of 27% to 37 %, depending on the type of power plant (1). Alternatives that would result in energy penalties of 15% have been investigated. Sequestering schemes for CO{sub 2} produced from fossil fuels conversion to energy in utility plants could instead yield useful polymer products. Relatively concentrated CO{sub 2} by-product streams from fermentation of cellulose to fuel ethanol will also be available for conversion to useful polymers. As shown in Figure 1, this project offers two opportunities for mitigating the emission of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, depending on the source configuration and economic feasibility of the proposed processes: CO{sub 2} in a conventional utility-produced flue gas could be sequestered to form a reactive monomer using an amine (such as ethanolamine) that reacts with an aldehyde to form an amine intermediate, which subsequently copolymerizes with the CO{sub 2} to give a copolyurethane. Using a tertiary amine to trap the CO{sub 2} is also proposed. In this case the tertiary ammonium carbonate is reacted with the aldehyde to form the copolycarbonate, regenerating the tertiary amine. In an alternate scheme, a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream from an advanced energy system could be directly polymerized with aldehyde and catalyst to Polymer 2. Sources of concentrated CO{sub 2} include the water-gas shift reaction in an IGCC (integrated gasification combined-cycle) device

  16. Versatile solvent systems for the separation of betalains from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice using counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Ignatova, Svetlana; Garrard, Ian; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2013-12-15

    Two mixtures of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins from processed red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) juice were fractionated by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) producing a range of isolated components. Mixture 1 contained mainly betacyanins, 14,15-dehydro-betanin (neobetanin) and their decarboxylated derivatives while mixture 2 consisted of decarboxy- and dehydro-betacyanins. The products of mixture 1 arose during thermal degradation of betanin/isobetanin in mild conditions while the dehydro-betacyanins of mixture 2 appeared after longer heating of the juice from B. vulgaris L. Two solvent systems were found to be effective for the HPCCC. A highly polar, high salt concentration system of 1-PrOH-ACN-(NH4)2SO4 (satd. soln)-water (v/v/v/v, 1:0.5:1.2:1) (tail-to-head mode) enabled the purification of 2-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (all from mixture 1) plus 17-decarboxy-neobetanin, 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2-decarboxy-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (from mixture 2). The other solvent system included heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) as ion-pair reagent and consisted of tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME)-1-BuOH-ACN-water (acidified with 0.7% HFBA) (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) (head-to-tail mode). This system enabled the HPCCC purification of 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (from mixture 1) plus 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (mixture 2). The results of this research are crucial in finding effective isolation methods of betacyanins and their derivatives which are meaningful compounds due their colorant properties and potential health benefits regarding antioxidant and cancer prevention. The pigments were detected by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  18. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  19. Utility of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in hematology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Daniel; O'Leary, Heather A; Ebert, Benjamin L; Cowan, Chad A; Tremblay, Cedric S

    2017-10-01

    Since the end of the 20th century, novel approaches have emerged to manipulate experimental models of hematological disorders so that they more accurately mirror what is observed in the clinical setting. Despite these technological advances, the characterization of crucial genes for benign or malignant hematological disorders remains challenging, given the dynamic nature of the hematopoietic system and the genetic heterogeneity of these disorders. To overcome this limitation, genome-editing technologies have been developed to manipulate the genome specifically via deletion, insertion, or modification of targeted loci. These technologies have progressed swiftly, allowing their common use to investigate genetic function in experimental hematology. Among them, homologous-recombination-mediated targeting technologies have facilitated the manipulation of specific loci by generating knock-out and knock-in models. Despite promoting significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in hematology, these inefficient, time-consuming, and labor-intensive approaches did not permit the development of cellular or animal models, recapitulating the complexity of hematological disorders. On October 26, 2016, Drs. Ben Ebert and Chad Cowan shared their knowledge of and experience with the utilization of CRISPR for models of myeloid malignancy, disease, and novel therapeutics in an International Society for Experimental Hematology webinar titled "Utility of CRISPR/Cas9 Systems in Hematology Research." Here, we provide an overview of the topics they covered, including their insights into the novel applications of the technique and its strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a system utilizing data of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Aikawa, Tadashi; Hayase, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with a concrete method of utilizing data of risk assessment. First, the authors point out the necessity to assess all stages of jobs (planning, meeting with contractors, performing phase of task, etc.) in risk assessment bout jobs in electric power company, because most jobs are performed by contract system and risks of a job are distributed over electric company, contractors and subcontractors. Secondly, risks estimated from past accidents and near-miss events must be included. If these 2 requirements are fulfilled, data of risk assessment can be more useful. Then below 4 forms of present data of risk assessment were developed. A form to be used in job planning stage in electric companies for efficient investment planning in safety measures. A form to be used in meetings between electric companies and contractors for checking accident prevention methods. A form to be used in meetings between contractors and subcontractors for enhancing a shared awareness of risk. A form to be used in tool box meetings for confirming safe condition and inheriting of ability of risk perception. Additionally, a data base system of risk assessment about 4 jobs was developed. This system prints out about 4 forms for each job and is useful for PDCA of safety activities. (author)

  1. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  2. Potentiometric investigations of (acid+base) equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2005-01-01

    By using the potentiometric titration method, standard equilibrium constants have been determined of acid dissociation of molecular acid, K a (HA), cationic acid, K a (BH + ), of anionic and cationic homoconjugation, K AHA - andK BHB + , respectively, and of molecular heteroconjugation, K AHB (K BHA ), in (acid+base) systems without proton transfer consisting of n-butylamine and acetic acid in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures. The results have shown that both the pK a (HA) and pK a (BH + ), as well as lgK AHA - values change non-linearly as a function of composition of the solvent mixture. On the other hand, standard molecular heteroconjugation constants without proton transfer do not depend on the cyclohexane content in the mixture, i.e. on solvent polarity

  3. Potentiometric investigations of (acid+base) equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kozak, Anna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2005-08-15

    By using the potentiometric titration method, standard equilibrium constants have been determined of acid dissociation of molecular acid, K{sub a}(HA), cationic acid, K{sub a}(BH{sup +}), of anionic and cationic homoconjugation, K{sub AHA{sup -}}andK{sub BHB{sup +}}, respectively, and of molecular heteroconjugation, K{sub AHB} (K{sub BHA}), in (acid+base) systems without proton transfer consisting of n-butylamine and acetic acid in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures. The results have shown that both the pK{sub a}(HA) and pK{sub a}(BH{sup +}), as well as lgK{sub AHA{sup -}} values change non-linearly as a function of composition of the solvent mixture. On the other hand, standard molecular heteroconjugation constants without proton transfer do not depend on the cyclohexane content in the mixture, i.e. on solvent polarity.

  4. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction of Am(III) using novel solvent systems containing a tripodal diglycolamide ligand in room temperature ionic liquids: a 'green' approach for radioactive waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Verboom, Willem; Huskens, Jurriaan; Godbole, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of Am3+ from acidic feed solutions was investigated using novel solvent systems containing a tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) in three room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), viz. [C4mim][NTf2], [C6mim][NTf2] and [C8mim][NTf2]. Compared to the results obtained with N,N,N′,N′-tetra-n-octyl

  6. Modeling of the Mixed Solvent Electrolyte System CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-Monoethylene Glycol-Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    The extended UNIQUAC electrolyte activity coefficient model has been correlated to 751 experimental solid−liquid equilibrium (SLE), vapor−liquid equilibrium (VLE), and excess enthalpy data for the mixed solvent CO2−NaHCO3−Na2CO3−monoethylene glycol(MEG)−H2O electrolyte system. The model...

  7. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  8. Thorium utilization in heavy water moderated Accelerator Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, Anil; Degweker, S.B.; Ghosh, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    Research on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) is being carried out around the world primarily with the objective of waste transmutation. Presently, the volume of waste in India is small and therefore there is little incentive to develop ADS based waste transmutation technology immediately. With limited indigenous U availability and the presence of large Th deposits in the country, there is a clear incentive to develop Th related technologies. India also has vast experience in design, construction and operation of heavy water moderated reactors. Heavy water moderated reactors employing solid Th fuels can be self sustaining, but the discharge burnups are too low to be economical. A possible way to improve the performance such reactors is to use an external neutron source as is done in ADS. This paper discusses our studies on Th utilization in heavy water moderated ADSs. The study is carried out at the lattice level. The time averaged k-infinity of the Th bundle from zero burnup up to the discharge burnup is taken to be the same as the core (ensemble) averaged k-infinity. For the purpose of the analysis we have chosen standard PHWR and AHWR assemblies. Variation of the pitch and coolant (H 2 O/D 2 O) are studied. Both, the once through cycle and the recycling option are studied. In the latter case the study is carried out for various enrichments (% 233 U in Th) of the recycled Th fuel bundles. The code DTF as modified for lattice and burnup calculations (BURNTRAN) was used for carrying out the study. The once through cycle represents the most attractive ADS concept (Th burner ADS) possible for Th utilization. It avoids reprocessing of Th spent fuel and in the ideal situation the use of any fissile material either initially or for sustaining itself. The gain in this system is however rather low requiring a high power accelerator and a substantial fraction of the power generated to be fed back to the accelerator. The self sustaining Th-U cycle in a heavy moderated ADS

  9. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  10. Imprecise results: Utilizing partial computations in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Liu, Jane W.-S.

    1987-01-01

    In real-time systems, a computation may not have time to complete its execution because of deadline requirements. In such cases, no result except the approximate results produced by the computations up to that point will be available. It is desirable to utilize these imprecise results if possible. Two approaches are proposed to enable computations to return imprecise results when executions cannot be completed normally. The milestone approach records results periodically, and if a deadline is reached, returns the last recorded result. The sieve approach demarcates sections of code which can be skipped if the time available is insufficient. By using these approaches, the system is able to produce imprecise results when deadlines are reached. The design of the Concord project is described which supports imprecise computations using these techniques. Also presented is a general model of imprecise computations using these techniques, as well as one which takes into account the influence of the environment, showing where the latter approach fits into this model.

  11. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  12. Stratified systems without organic solvent - new extraction type of macro- and microquantities of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyogtev, M.I.; Alikina, E.N.; Popova, O.N.; Amindjanov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of studies on solubility in four component systems: di anti pyril methane-benzoic (salicylic) acid-HCl-H 2 O, hexyl di anti pyril methane-benzoic (salicylic) acid-HCl-H 2 O at 298 and 323 K. It is defined that stable stratification appears by addition of hydrochloric acid in the concentration range of 3.0-4.9 wt.% HCl. At substitution of di anti pyril methane on hexyl di anti pyril methane the wide range of stratification in the cut of hexyl di anti pyril methane-benzoic (salicylic) acid - 5 wt.% HCl is observes. The possibility of using of stratified systems for quantitative extraction of copper, cadmium, iron, thallium and tin is proposed.

  13. On-line micro-volume introduction system developed for lower density than water extraction solvent and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N.; Mitani, Constantina; Balkatzopoulou, Paschalia; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dispersive liquid–liquid micro extraction method for lead and copper determination. ► A micro-volume transportation system for extractant solvent lighter than water. ► Analysis of natural water samples. - Abstract: A simple and fast preconcentration/separation dispersive liquid–liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method for metal determination based on the use of extraction solvent with lower density than water has been developed. For this purpose a novel micro-volume introduction system was developed enabling the on-line injection of the organic solvent into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system were demonstrated for lead and copper preconcentration in environmental water samples using di-isobutyl ketone (DBIK) as extraction solvent. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for lead and copper was 187 and 310 respectively. For a sample volume of 10 mL, the detection limit (3 s) and the relative standard deviation were 1.2 μg L −1 and 3.3% for lead and 0.12 μg L −1 and 2.9% for copper respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and it was applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples.

  14. Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems: PNNL FY 2014 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pence, Natasha K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop predictive modeling capabilities for advanced fuel cycle separation processes by gaining a fundamental quantitative understanding of non-ideality effects and speciation in relevant aqueous and organic solutions. Aqueous solutions containing actinides and lanthanides encountered during nuclear fuel reprocessing have high ionic strength and do not behave as ideal solutions. Activity coefficients must be calculated to take into account the deviation from ideality and predict their behavior. In FY 2012-2013, a convenient method for determining activity effects in aqueous electrolyte solutions was developed. Our initial experiments demonstrated that water activity and osmotic coefficients of the electrolyte solutions can be accurately measured by the combination of two techniques, a Water Activity Meter and Vapor Pressure Osmometry (VPO). The water activity measurements have been conducted for binary lanthanide solutions in wide concentration range for all lanthanides (La-Lu with the exception of Pm). The osmotic coefficients and Pitzer parameters for each binary system were obtained by the least squares fitting of the water activity data. However, application of Pitzer model for the quantitative evaluation of the activity effects in the multicomponent mixtures is difficult due to the large number of the required interaction parameters. In FY 2014, the applicability of the Bromley model for the determination of the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients was evaluated. The new Bromley parameters for the binary Ln(NO3)3 electrolytes were obtained based on the available literature and our experimental data. This allowed for the accurate prediction of the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients for the binary Ln(NO3)3 electrolytes. This model was then successfully implemented for the determination of the Ln(NO3)3 activity

  15. Liquid heat capacity of the solvent system (piperazine + n-methyldiethanolamine + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Soriano, Allan N.; Li, M.-H.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of values for the heat capacity of aqueous mixtures of piperazine (PZ) and n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) at different concentrations and temperatures are reported in this paper. The differential scanning calorimetry technique was used to measure the property over the range T = 303.2 K to T = 353.2 K for mixtures containing 0.60 to 0.90 mole fraction water with 15 different concentrations of the system (PZ + MDEA + H 2 O). Heat capacity for four concentrations of the binary system (PZ + MDEA) was also measured. A Redlich-Kister-type equation was adopted to estimate the excess molar heat capacity, which was used to predict the value of the molar heat capacity at a particular concentration and temperature, which would then be compared against the measured value. A total of 165 data points fit into the model resulted in a low overall average absolute deviation of 4.6% and 0.3% for the excess molar heat capacity and molar heat capacity, respectively. Thus, the results presented here are of acceptable accuracy for use in engineering process design.

  16. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve ...

  18. Discrete and continuum modeling of solvent effects in a twisted intramolecular charge transfer system: The 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Borges, Itamar

    2018-08-05

    The 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) molecule is a prototypical system displaying twisted intramolecular (TICT) charge transfer effects. The ground and the first four electronic excited states (S 1 -S 4 ) in gas phase and upon solvation were studied. Charge transfer values as function of the torsion angle between the donor group (dimethylamine) and the acceptor moiety (benzonitrile) were explicitly computed. Potential energy curves were also obtained. The algebraic diagrammatic construction method at the second-order [ADC(2)] ab initio wave function was employed. Three solvents of increased polarities (benzene, DMSO and water) were investigated using discrete (average solvent electrostatic configuration - ASEC) and continuum (conductor-like screening model - COSMO) models. The results for the S 3 and S 4 excited states and the S 1 -S 4 charge transfer curves were not previously available in the literature. Electronic gas phase and solvent vertical spectra are in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. In the twisted (90°) geometry the optical oscillator strengths have negligible values even for the S 2 bright state. Potential energy curves show two distinct pairs of curves intersecting at decreasing angles or not crossing in the more polar solvents. Charge transfer and electric dipole values allowed the rationalization of these results. The former effects are mostly independent of the solvent model and polarity. Although COSMO and ASEC solvent models mostly lead to similar results, there is an important difference: some crossings of the excitation energy curves appear only in the ASEC solvation model, which has important implications to the photochemistry of DMABN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  20. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    of a mobile juice harvester is not economically viable due to low sugar recovery. The addition of front-end stalk processing/pressing equipment into existing ethanol facilities was found to be economically viable when combined with the plants' use of residuals as a natural gas fuel replacement. Because of high loss of fermentable carbohydrates during ensilage, storage of sweet sorghum in bunkers was not found to be economically viable. The fourth section looks at double cropping winter triticale with late-planted summer corn and compares these scenarios to traditional single cropped corn. Double cropping systems show particular promise for co-production of grain and biomass feedstocks and potentially can allow for greater utilization of grain crop residues. However, additional costs and risks associated with producing two crops instead of one could make biomass-double crops less attractive for producers despite productivity advantages. Detailed evaluation and comparisons show double cropped triticale-corn to be at a significant economic disadvantage relative to single crop corn. The cost benefits associated with using less equipment combined with availability of risk mitigating crop insurance and government subsidies will likely limit farmer interest and clearly indicate that traditional single-crop corn will provide greater financial returns to management. To evaluate the various sweet sorghum, single crop corn and double cropped triticale-corn production scenarios, a detailed but generic model was developed. The primary goal of this generic approach was to develop a modeling foundation that can be rapidly adapted, by an experienced user, to describe new and existing biomass and crop production scenarios that may be of interest to researchers. The foundation model allows input of management practices, crop production characteristics and utilizes standardized machinery performance and cost information, including farm-owned machinery and implements, and machinery and

  1. Formation of zinc-peptide spherical microparticles during lyophilization from tert-butyl alcohol/water co-solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Ni, Nina; Chen, Jia-Wen; Desikan, Sridhar; Naringrekar, Vijay; Hussain, Munir A; Barbour, Nancy P; Smith, Ronald L

    2008-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of spherical microparticle formation during lyophilizing a tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA)/water solution of a zinc peptide adduct. A small peptide, PC-1, as well as zinc PC-1 at (3:2) and (3:1) ratios, were dissolved in 44% (wt.%) of TBA/water, gradually frozen to -50 degrees C over 2 h ("typical freezing step"), annealed at -20 degrees C for 6 h ("annealing step"), and subsequently lyophilized with primary and secondary drying. Zinc peptide (3:1) lyophile was also prepared with quench cooling instead of the typical freezing step, or without the annealing step. Other TBA concentrations, i.e., 25%, 35%, 54% and 65%, were used to make the zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophile with the typical freezing and annealing steps. The obtained lyophile was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The zinc peptide solutions in TBA/water were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The surface tension of the TBA/water co-solvent system was measured by a pendant drop shape method. With typical freezing and annealing steps, the free peptide lyophile showed porous network-like structure that is commonly seen in lyophilized products. However, with increasing the zinc to peptide ratio, uniform particles were gradually evolved. Zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophiles obtained from 25%, 35% and 44% TBA exhibit a distinctive morphology of uniform and spherical microparticles with diameters of approximately 3-4 microm, and the spherical zinc peptide particles are more predominant when the TBA level approaches 20%. Adopting quench cooling in the lyophilization cycle leads to irregular shape fine powders, and eliminating the annealing step causes rough particles surface. When TBA concentration increases above 54%, the lyophiles demonstrate primarily irregular shape particles. A proposed mechanism of spherical particle formation of the 3:1 zinc peptide encompasses the freezing of a TBA/water solution (20-70% TBA) causing the formation of a TBA hydrate

  2. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A computer code for calculation of solvent-extraction separation in a multicomponent system with reference to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Liuzzo, G.; Morelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear technology development pointed out the need for a new assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing is known as one of the problems not yet satisfactorily solved, together with separation process of uranium and plutonium from fission products in highly irradiated fuels. Aim of this work is to present an improvement of the computer code for solvent extraction process calculation previously designed by the authors. The modeling of the extraction system has been modified by introducing a new method for calculating the distribution coefficients. The new correlations were based on deriving empirical functions for not only the apparent equilibrium constants, but also the solvation number. The mathematical model derived for calculating separation performance has been then tested for up to ten components and twelve theoretical stages with minor modifications to the convergence criteria. Suitable correlations for the calculation of the distribution coefficients of Uranium, Plutonium, Nitric Acid and fission products were constructed and used to successfully simulate several experimental conditions. (Author)

  4. Optimization of 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production using lipozyme RM IM as catalyst in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetti, Aline; Leite, Selma G F; Antunes, Octávio A C; de Souza, Andrea L F; Lerin, Lindomar A; Dallago, Rogério M; Paroul, Natalia; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the application of a lipase in the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate esterification in a solvent-free system with an immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). A sequential strategy was used applying two experimental designs to optimize the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production. An empirical model was then built so as to assess the effects of process variables on the reaction conversion. Afterwards, the operating conditions that optimized 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production were established as being acid/alcohol molar ratio 1:3, temperature of 70 degrees C, stirring rate of 150 rpm, 10 wt.% of enzyme, leading to a reaction conversion as high as 95%. From this point, a kinetic study was carried out evaluating the effect of acid:alcohol molar ratio, the enzyme concentration and the temperature on product conversion. The results obtained in this step permit to verify that an excess of alcohol (acid to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6), relatively low enzyme concentration (10 wt.%) and temperature of 70 degrees C, led to conversions next to 100%.

  5. Stabilization and activation of alpha-chymotrypsin in water-organic solvent systems by complex formation with oligoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena V; Artemova, Tatiana M; Vinogradov, Alexei A; Gladilin, Alexander K; Mozhaev, Vadim V; Levashov, Andrey V

    2003-04-01

    Formation of enzyme-oligoamine complexes was suggested as an approach to obtain biocatalysts with enhanced resistance towards inactivation in water-organic media. Complex formation results in broadening (by 20-40% v/v ethanol) of the range of cosolvent concentrations where the enzyme retains its catalytic activity (stabilization effect). At moderate cosolvent concentrations (20-40% v/v) complex formation activates the enzyme (by 3-6 times). The magnitude of activation and stabilization effects increases with the number of possible electrostatic contacts between the protein surface and the molecules of oligoamines (OA). Circular dichroism spectra in the far-UV region show that complex formation stabilizes protein conformation and prevents aggregation in water-organic solvent mixtures. Two populations of the complexes with different thermodynamic stabilities were found in alpha-chymotrypsin (CT)-OA systems depending on the CT/OA ratio. The average dissociation constants and stoichiometries of both low- and high-affinity populations of the complexes were estimated. It appears that it is the low-affinity sites on the CT surface that are responsible for the activation effect.

  6. Optimization and application of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction in preconcentration of copper (II) in a ternary solvent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: farajzade@yahoo.com; Bahram, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zorita, Saioa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mehr, Behzad Ghorbani [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-30

    In this study a homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction based on the Ph-dependent phase-separation process was investigated using a ternary solvent system (water-acetic acid-chloroform) for the preconcentration of Cu{sup 2+} ions. 8-Hydroxy quinoline was used as the chelating agent prior to its extraction. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using acetylene-air flame was used for the quantitation of analyte after preconcentration. The effect of various experimental parameters in extraction step was investigated using two optimization methods, one variable at a time and central composite design. The experimental design was done at five levels of operating parameters. Nearly the same optimized results were obtained using both methods: sample size, 5 mL; volume of NaOH 10 M, 2 mL; chloroform volume, 300 {mu}L; 8-hydroxy quinoline concentration more than 0.01 M and salt amount did not affect the extraction significantly. Under the optimum conditions the calibration graph was linear over the range 10-2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation was 7.6% for six repeated determinations (C = 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Furthermore, the limit of detection (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) of the method were obtained as 1.74 and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  7. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  8. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Sangi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  9. An electronic record system in nursing education: evaluation and utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel González-Chordá

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to analyze the results of the utilization and evaluation of the LORETO Record System (LRS, providing improvement areas in the teaching-learning process and technology, in second year nursing students. A descriptive, prospective, cross sectional study using inferential statics has been carried out on all electronic records reported by 55 nursing students during clinical internships (April 1º-June 26º, 2013. Electronic record average rated 7.22 points (s=0.6; CV=0.083, with differences based on the clinical practice units (p<0,05. Three items assessed did not exceed the quality threshold set at 0.7 (p<0.05. Record Rate exceeds the quality threshold set at 80% for the overall sample, with differences based on the practice units.  Only two clinical practice units rated above the minimum threshold (p <0.05. Record of care provision every 3 days did not reach the estimated quality threshold (p <0.05. There is a dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative results of LRS. Improvement areas in theoretical education have been identified. The LRS seems an appropriate learning and assessment tool, although the development of a new APP version and the application of principles of gamification should be explored.

  10. Development of a Neutron Spectroscopic System Utilizing Compressed Sensing Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to neutron detection capable of gathering spectroscopic information has been demonstrated. The approach relies on an asymmetrical arrangement of materials, geometry, and an ability to change the orientation of the detector with respect to the neutron field. Measurements are used to unfold the energy characteristics of the neutron field using a new theoretical framework of compressed sensing. Recent theoretical results show that the number of multiplexed samples can be lower than the full number of traditional samples while providing the ability to have some super-resolution. Furthermore, the solution approach does not require a priori information or inclusion of physics models. Utilizing the MCNP code, a number of candidate detector geometries and materials were modeled. Simulations were carried out for a number of neutron energies and distributions with preselected orientations for the detector. The resulting matrix (A consists of n rows associated with orientation and m columns associated with energy and distribution where n < m. The library of known responses is used for new measurements Y (n × 1 and the solver is able to determine the system, Y = Ax where x is a sparse vector. Therefore, energy spectrum measurements are a combination of the energy distribution information of the identified elements of A. This approach allows for determination of neutron spectroscopic information using a single detector system with analog multiplexing. The analog multiplexing allows the use of a compressed sensing solution similar to approaches used in other areas of imaging. A single detector assembly provides improved flexibility and is expected to reduce uncertainty associated with current neutron spectroscopy measurement.

  11. Integrated manure utilization system life-cycle value assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Neabel, D. [Pembina Inst. for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    A life-cycle assessment of the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Highmark Renewables' development of an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) were presented. The assessment focused on an evaluation of factors of primary importance to government, investors and the livestock industry. IMUS technology uses manure as a resource to produce electricity, heat, bio-based fertilizer and reusable water. Results of the assessment indicated that IMUS plants have the potential to be financially viable if a power purchase of $90 MWh on average can be purchased from a 30,000 head livestock operation. A capital cost of under $11 million is necessary, and an established biofertilizer price of $50 per tonne should be established. An IMUS plant was estimated to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 80 per cent when compared to land spreading. Reductions are accomplished through displacing electricity from the provincial grid and reducing nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from spreading of manure The IMUS plants lessen environment impacts by reducing the extraction and consumption of non-renewable resources, and by displacing an estimated 11,700 GJ of coal and natural gas per 1000 head of cattle per year. In addition, various pathogens within manure are eliminated. The plants have the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with the disposal of deadstock. The systems reduce manure odour, lessen truck traffic and are expected to contribute to rural economic diversification. Barriers to further implementation of IMUS were discussed, as well as emerging opportunities for IMUS developers. It was concluded that the initial assessments of the IMUS were positive. Further investigation is needed to determine actual life-cycle performance of the operations. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    the attenuation capacity. The mass balance approach is controlled by a combination of boundary conditions (e.g., water inputs and outputs), flow dynamics, and contaminant concentrations. As a result, long term monitoring might be improved while reducing costs by measuring fewer point concentrations and simultaneously adding large-scale measurements of boundary conditions, using weather data, remote sensing of evapotranspiration, stream-flow monitoring, etc. Because there are no specific regulatory drivers for performance-monitoring, regulators are not accustomed to participating in monitoring system design. A partnership with the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) has been formed to promote communication and develop advanced guidance for MNA. Early and continued communication among technology developers, end users, regulators and the public has been essential to this progress.

  13. Solvent-assisted multistage nonequilibrium electron transfer in rigid supramolecular systems: Diabatic free energy surfaces and algorithms for numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskov, Serguei V.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2018-03-01

    An approach to the construction of diabatic free energy surfaces (FESs) for ultrafast electron transfer (ET) in a supramolecule with an arbitrary number of electron localization centers (redox sites) is developed, supposing that the reorganization energies for the charge transfers and shifts between all these centers are known. Dimensionality of the coordinate space required for the description of multistage ET in this supramolecular system is shown to be equal to N - 1, where N is the number of the molecular centers involved in the reaction. The proposed algorithm of FES construction employs metric properties of the coordinate space, namely, relation between the solvent reorganization energy and the distance between the two FES minima. In this space, the ET reaction coordinate zn n' associated with electron transfer between the nth and n'th centers is calculated through the projection to the direction, connecting the FES minima. The energy-gap reaction coordinates zn n' corresponding to different ET processes are not in general orthogonal so that ET between two molecular centers can create nonequilibrium distribution, not only along its own reaction coordinate but along other reaction coordinates too. This results in the influence of the preceding ET steps on the kinetics of the ensuing ET. It is important for the ensuing reaction to be ultrafast to proceed in parallel with relaxation along the ET reaction coordinates. Efficient algorithms for numerical simulation of multistage ET within the stochastic point-transition model are developed. The algorithms are based on the Brownian simulation technique with the recrossing-event detection procedure. The main advantages of the numerical method are (i) its computational complexity is linear with respect to the number of electronic states involved and (ii) calculations can be naturally parallelized up to the level of individual trajectories. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated for a model

  14. Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaic Modules Fabricated via Halogen-Free Solvent System with Roll-to-Roll Compatible Scalable Printing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Youn-Jung; Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sehyun; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Donmin; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, the photovoltaic modules composed of small molecule were successfully fabricated by using roll-to-roll compatible printing techniques. In this study, blend films of small molecules, BTR and PC 71 BM were slot-die coated using a halogen-free solvent system. As a result, high efficiencies of 7.46% and 6.56% were achieved from time-consuming solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment and roll-to-roll compatible solvent additive approaches, respectively. After successful verification of our roll-to-roll compatible method on small-area devices, we further fabricated large-area photovoltaic modules with a total active area of 10 cm 2 , achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.83%. This demonstration of large-area photovoltaic modules through roll-to-roll compatible printing methods, even based on a halogen-free solvent, suggests the great potential for the industrial-scale production of organic solar cells (OSCs).

  15. Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soliman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

  16. The development and utilization of in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Serres, F.J.; Matsushima, Taijiro.

    1986-01-01

    The 13th Joint Conference on the Development and Utilization of in vivo Short-Term Tests for Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity was attended by five scientists from Japan and 21 scientists from the U.S.A. A total of five sessions were held under the topics (1) In vivo Genetic Tests: Development-Utilization; (2) Activation of Oncogenes; (3) Progress Reports in Cancer Epidemiology and Food Mutagen Research. (Auth.)

  17. Safety equipment list for the light duty utility arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The initial issue (Revision 0) of this Safety Equipment List (SEL) for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) requires an explanation for both its existence and its being what it is. All LDUA documentation leading up to creation of this SEL, and the SEL itself, is predicated on the LDUA only being approved for use in waste tanks designated as Facility Group 3, i.e., it is not approved for use in Facility Group 1 or 2 waste tanks. Facility Group 3 tanks are those in which a spontaneous or induced hydrogen gas release would be small, localized, and would not exceed 25% of the LFL when mixed with the remaining air volume in the dome space; exceeding these parameters is considered unlikely. Thus, from a NFPA flammable gas environment perspective the waste tank interior is not classified as a hazardous location. Furthermore, a hazards identification and evaluation (HNF-SD-WM-HIE-010, REV 0) performed for the LDUA system concluded that the consequences of actual LDUA system postulated accidents in Flammable Gas Facility Group 3 waste tanks would have either NO IMPACT or LOW IMPACT on the offsite public and onsite worker. Therefore, from a flammable gas perspective, there is not a rationale for classifying any of SSCs associated with the LDUA as either Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) SSCs, which, by default, categorizes them as General Service (GS) SSCs. It follows then, based on current PHMC procedures (HNF-PRO-704 and HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Section 5.2) for SEL creation and content, and from a flammable gas perspective, that an SEL is NOT REQ at sign D HOWEVER exclamation point exclamation point exclamation point There is both a precedent and a prudency to capture all SSCS, which although GS, contribute to a Defense-In-Depth (DID) approach to the design and use of equipment in potentially flammable gas environments. This Revision 0 of the LDUA SEL has been created to capture these SSCs and they are designated as GS-DID in this document. The specific reasons for

  18. Report on the operation and utilization of general purpose use computer system 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Kamimura, Tetsuo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    The General Purpose Use Computer System of National Institute for Fusion Science was replaced in January, 2001. The System is almost fully used after the first three months operation. Reported here is the process of the introduction of the new system and the state of the operation and utilization of the System between January and March, 2001, especially the detailed utilization of March. (author)

  19. Maximize Minimum Utility Function of Fractional Cloud Computing System Based on Search Algorithm Utilizing the Mittag-Leffler Sum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum min utility function (MMUF problem is an important representative of a large class of cloud computing systems (CCS. Having numerous applications in practice, especially in economy and industry. This paper introduces an effective solution-based search (SBS algorithm for solving the problem MMUF. First, we suggest a new formula of the utility function in term of the capacity of the cloud. We formulate the capacity in CCS, by using a fractional diffeo-integral equation. This equation usually describes the flow of CCS. The new formula of the utility function is modified recent active utility functions. The suggested technique first creates a high-quality initial solution by eliminating the less promising components, and then develops the quality of the achieved solution by the summation search solution (SSS. This method is considered by the Mittag-Leffler sum as hash functions to determine the position of the agent. Experimental results commonly utilized in the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm competes approvingly with the state-of-the-art algorithms both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency.

  20. B-DNA model systems in non-terran bio-solvents : Implications for structure, stability and replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamlin, Trevor A.; Poater, Jordi; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We have computationally analyzed a comprehensive series of Watson-Crick and mismatched B-DNA base pairs, in the gas phase and in several solvents, including toluene, chloroform, ammonia, methanol and water, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory and implicit solvation. Our analyses

  1. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  2. Homogeneous solutions of hydrophilic enzymes in nonpolar organic solvents. New systems for fundamental studies and biocatalytic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V V; Poltevsky, K G; Slepnev, V I; Badun, G A; Levashov, A V

    1991-11-04

    A typical hydrophilic enzyme, CT, can be dissolved in nonpolar organic solvents (n-octane, cyclohexane and toluene) up to microM concentrations. In the homogeneous solution obtained, the enzyme possesses catalytic activity and enormously high thermostability. It does not lose this activity even after several hours refluxing in octane (126 degrees C) or cyclohexane (81 degrees C).

  3. Dissolution of covalent adaptable network polymers in organic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yang, Hua; Dao, Binh H.; Shi, Qian; Yakacki, Christopher M.

    2017-12-01

    It was recently reported that thermosetting polymers can be fully dissolved in a proper organic solvent utilizing a bond-exchange reaction (BER), where small molecules diffuse into the polymer, break the long polymer chains into short segments, and eventually dissolve the network when sufficient solvent is provided. The solvent-assisted dissolution approach was applied to fully recycle thermosets and their fiber composites. This paper presents the first multi-scale modeling framework to predict the dissolution kinetics and mechanics of thermosets in organic solvent. The model connects the micro-scale network dynamics with macro-scale material properties: in the micro-scale, a model is developed based on the kinetics of BERs to describe the cleavage rate of polymer chains and evolution of chain segment length during the dissolution. The micro-scale model is then fed into a continuum-level model with considerations of the transportation of solvent molecules and chain segments in the system. The model shows good prediction on conversion rate of functional groups, degradation of network mechanical properties, and dissolution rate of thermosets during the dissolution. It identifies the underlying kinetic factors governing the dissolution process, and reveals the influence of different material and processing variables on the dissolution process, such as time, temperature, catalyst concentration, and chain length between cross-links.

  4. Investigation of an inventory calculation model for a solvent extraction system and the development of its computer programme - SEPHIS-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-11-01

    In order to improve the applicability of near-real-time materials accountancy (N.R.T.MA) to a reprocessing plant, it is necessary to develop an estimation method for the nuclear material inventory at a solvent extraction system under operation. For designing the solvent extraction system, such computer codes as SEPHIS, SOLVEX and TRANSIENTS had been used. Accuracy of these codes in tracing operations and predicting inventories in the extraction system had been discussed. Then, much better codes, e.g., SEPHIS Mod4 and PUBG, were developed. Unfortunately, SEPHIS Mod4 was not available in countries other than the USA and PUBG was not suitable for use with a mini-computer which would be practical as a field computer because of quite a lot of computing time needed. The authors investigated an inventory estimation model compatible with PUBG in functions and developed the corresponding computer programme, SEPHIS-J, based on the SEPHIS Mod3 code, resulting in a third of computing time compared with PUBG. They also validated the programme by calculating a static state as well as a dynamic one of the solvent extraction process and by comparing them among the programme, SEPHIS Mod3 and PUBG. Using the programme, it was shown that the inventory changes due to changes of feed flow and concentration were not so small that they might be neglected although the changes of feed flow and concentration were within measurement errors. (author)

  5. New solvent systems for gradient counter-current chromatography in separation of betanin and its derivatives from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Garrard, Ian; Ignatova, Svetlana; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2015-02-06

    Betalains, natural plant pigments, are beneficial compounds due to their antioxidant and possible chemoprotective properties. A mixture of betalains: betanin/isobetanin, decarboxybetanins and neobetanin from processed red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) juice was separated in food-grade, gradient solvent systems using high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC). The decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betanins were obtained by thermal degradation of betanin/isobetanin from processed B. vulgaris L. juice under mild conditions. Two solvent systems (differing in their composition by phosphoric acid and ethanol volume gradient) consisting of BuOH-EtOH-NaClsolution-H2O-H3PO4 (v/v/v/v/v, 1300:200-1000:1300:700:2.5-10) in the 'tail-to-head' mode were run. The flow rate of the mobile phase (organic phase) was 1.0 or 2.0 ml/min and the column rotation speed was 1,600 rpm (20°C). The retention of the solvent system stationary phase (aqueous phase) was ca. 80%. The system with the acid and ethanol volume gradient consisting of BuOH-EtOH-NaClsolution-H2O-H3PO4 (v/v/v/v/v, 1300:200-240:1300:700:2.5-4.5) pumped at 2.0 ml/min was the most effective for a separation of betanin/isobetanin, 17-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin, 2-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin pairs as well as neobetanin. The pigments were detected by LC-DAD and LC-MS. The results are crucial in the application of completely food-grade solvent systems in separation of food-grade compounds as well, and the systems can possibly be extended to other ionizable and polar compounds with potential health benefits. In particular, the method is applicable for the isolation and purification of betalains present in such rich sources as B. vulgaris L. roots as well as cacti fruits and Amaranthaceae flowering plants due to modification possibilities of the solvent systems polarity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental determination of the LLE data of systems consisting of {hexane + benzene + deep eutectic solvent} and prediction using the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Nerea; Gerlach, T.; Scheepers, Daniëlle; Kroon, M.C.; Smirnova, I.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have proven to be excellent extracting agents in the separation of aromatic components from their mixtures with aliphatic compounds. The tunable properties of the DESs allow to tailor-make optimal solvents for this application. In this work type III DESs,

  7. Implementations of Sensor Webs Utilizing Uninhabited Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the web services, processes, communication protocols and ad-hoc service chains utilized in the late summer and early fall 2007 Ikhana UAS response to the wildfires burning in southern California. Additionally, we describe the lessons learned that will be applied to the upcoming Global Hawk UAS Aura Satellite Validation Experiment planned for early 2009.

  8. Diffuse Solar System Design and Utilization in Agriculture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse solar radiation is a component of total solar radiation that is good for low temperature grade heating. Since the portion of the scattered radiation from the sun, which consists of short and long waves, that reaches the earth is diffused, its utilization in Agriculture as this paper suggested, has multiple phase change ...

  9. Aqueous biphasic systems formed by deep eutectic solvent and new-type salts for the high-performance extraction of pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Chen, Jing; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Panli

    2018-05-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG 400) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was combined with a series of new-type salts such as quaternary ammonium salts, amino acid and polyols to form Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs). Phase-forming ability of the salts was investigated firstly. The results showed that polyols had a relatively weak power to produce phases within studied scopes. And the shorter of carbon chain length of salts, the easier to obtain phase-splitting. Then partitioning of three pigments in PPG 400/betaine-based ABSs was addressed to investigate the effect of pigments' hydrophobicity on extraction efficiency. It was found that an increase in hydrophobicity contributed to the migration of pigments in the DES-rich phase. On the other hand, with a decline in phase-forming ability of salts, the extraction efficiency of the whole systems started to go down gradually. Based on the results, selective separation experiment was conducted successfully in the PPG 400/betaine-based systems, including more than 93.00% Sudan Ⅲ in the top phase and about 80.00% sunset yellow FCF/amaranth in the bottom phase. Additionally, ABSs constructed by DES/betaine for partitioning amaranth were further utilized to explore the performances of influence factors and back extraction. It can be concluded that after the optimization above 98.00% amaranth was transferred into the top phase. And 67.98% amaranth can be transferred into the bottom phase in back-extraction experiment. At last, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were applied to probe into extraction mechanism. The results demonstrated that hydrophobicity played an important role in the separation process of pigments. Through combining with new-type DES, this work was devoted to introducing plentiful salts as novel compositions of ABSs and providing an eco-friendly extraction way for partitioning pigments, which boosted development of ABSs in the

  10. The influence of system interactivity and technical support on learning management system utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Baleghi-Zadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing increase in using Learning Management System (LMS by universities. However, its utilization by students is limited in Malaysia. The main purpose of the present study is to develop and test a model that predicts LMS utilization by Malaysian higher education students. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, the study investigated the relationships among six constructs (system interactivity, technical support, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, behavioral intention to use and LMS use through structural equation modelling. The participants were 216 undergraduate students from a local university in Malaysia. The result of the study revealed that system interactivity had a significant effect on perceived usefulness, but not on perceived ease of use; technical support had a significant effect on perceived ease of use, but not on perceived usefulness.

  11. Impact on a utility, utility customers and the environment of an ensemble of solar domestic hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragan, K.E.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of the installation of a large number of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are identified and quantified. The benefits of SDHW systems include reduced energy use, reduced electrical demand, and reduced pollution. The avoided emissions, capacity contribution, energy and demand savings were evaluated using the power generation schedules, emissions data and annual hourly load profiles from a Wisconsin utility. It is shown that each six square meter solar water heater system can save annually: 3,560 kWh of energy, 0.66 kW of peak demand, and over four tons of pollution

  12. Proposing and Planning the Rehabilitation Works of Mechanical Utility System in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusnan Hasim; Mohamad Suhaimi Yahaya; Abdul Razak Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has 2 complex located in Bangi and Jalan Dengkil. The utility in Nuclear Malaysia consists of civil, mechanical and electrical system that has been managed by Bahagian Kejuruteraan (BKJ). The mechanical utilities system has been divided to three main groups which are the main system, supporting system and safety equipment's. The objectives of this paper are to propose and plan the rehabilitation works of mechanical utility system in Nuclear Malaysia and also to explain working procedures in maintaining and repairing the mechanical utility system. The study suggest the rehabilitation works on the mechanical utilities system especially on Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and domestic water system needs to be done which involve process of design, procurement, installation and commissioning. (author)

  13. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  14. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  15. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  16. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  17. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  18. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  19. Utilization of Health Information System at District Level in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, in-service training and updating of staff involved in health information system (HIS) at district, strengthening health information system inputs, timely and concrete feedbacks with establishment of functional health management information system (HMIS). KEY WORDS: Health Management Information System, ...

  20. Systemic study of solvent-assisted active loading of gambogic acid into liposomes and its formulation optimization for improved delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Lun; Tang, Wei-Hsin; Szeitz, Andras; Kulkarni, Jayesh; Cullis, Pieter; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2018-06-01

    The solvent-assisted active loading technology (SALT) was developed for encapsulating a water insoluble weak base into the liposomal core in the presence of 5% DMSO. In this study, we further examined the effect of various water miscible solvents in promoting active loading of other types of drugs into liposomes. To achieve complete drug loading, the amount of solvent required must result in complete drug solubilization and membrane permeability enhancement, but must be below the threshold that induces liposomal aggregation or causes bilayer disruption. We then used the SALT to load gambogic acid (GA, an insoluble model drug that shows promising anticancer effect) into liposomes, and optimized the loading gradient and lipid composition to prepare a stable formulation (Lipo-GA) that displayed >95% drug retention after incubation with serum for 3 days. Lipo-GA contained a high drug-to-lipid ratio of 1/5 (w/w) with a mean particle size of ∼75 nm. It also displayed a prolonged circulation half-life (1.5 h vs. 18.6 h) and enhanced antitumor activity in two syngeneic mice models compared to free GA. Particularly, complete tumor regression was observed in the EMT6 tumor model for 14 d with significant inhibition of multiple oncogenes including HIF-1α, VEGF-A, STAT3, BCL-2, and NF-κB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electric system reliability considerations in a changing utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility industry is presently experiencing a number of diverse factors which may alter the way that it operates and in many cases the way in which it is configured. These factors reflect a variety of circumstances including increased competitive pressures and political perception. While many of these changes may result in long term economic and service benefits to the industry and customer alike, it is important to recognize the desirability of orderly change. There is need to implement change in a reasoned manner. In this paper technical as well as economic and political considerations are addressed

  2. PEP cooling water systems and underground piped utilities design criteria report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.; Robbins, D.

    1975-10-01

    This paper discusses the cooling systems required by the PEP Storage Ring. Particular topics discussed are: Cooling tower systems, RF cavity and vacuum chamber LCW cooling systems, klystron and ring magnet LLW cooling systems, Injection magnet LCW Cooling Systems; PEP interaction area detector LCW Cooling Systems; and underground piped utilities. 1 ref., 20 figs

  3. Utilization of excitation signal harmonics for control of nonlinear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    signal together with Fourier analysis to generate a feedback signal and simulations have shown that different system gains and time constants does not change the global equilibrium/operating point. An evaporator in a refrigeration system was used as example in the simulations, however, it is anticipated...... that the method is applicable in a wide variety of systems satisfying the sigmoid function properties....

  4. Parameters affecting incorporation and by-product formation during the production of structured phospholipids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in solvent free system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    By-product formation is a serious problem in the lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of phospholipids (PL). By-products are formed due to parallel hydrolysis reactions and acyl migration in the reaction system. A clear elucidation of these side reactions is important for practical operation in order...... to minimize by-products during reaction. In the present study we examined the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phospholipids between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid in the solvent free system. A five-factor response surface design was used to evaluate...

  5. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering

  6. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  7. Technology evaluation of control/monitoring systems for MIUS application. [utility services management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, L. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing control and monitoring for the Modular Integrated Utility System (MIUS) program are elaborated. Control and monitoring hardware and operational systems are described. The requirements for the MIUS program and the development requirements are discussed.

  8. Highly efficient secondary dewatering of dewatered sewage sludge using low boiling point solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chena, Chia-Lung; Xu, Zhirong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge is imperative to make conventional drying and incineration of sludge more economically feasible. In this study, a secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge with selected solvents (i.e. acetone and ethanol) followed by vacuum filtration and nature drying was investigated to achieve in-depth dewatering. After the entire secondary dewatering process, the sludge was shown to be odourless and the organic matter content was greatly retained. Increased mean particle size of sludge after solvent contact improved solid-liquid separation. With an acetone/sludge ratio of 3:1 (mL:g) in solvent contact and subsequent nature drying at ambient temperature after 24 h, the moisture content of sludge can be reduced to a level less than 20%. It is found that the polysaccharides were mainly precipitated by acetone, whereas the release ratios of protein and DNA were increased significantly as the added acetone volumes were elevated. During nature drying, accumulated evaporation rates of the sludge after solvent contact were 5-6 times higher than original dewatered sludge. Furthermore, sludge after acetone contact had better nature drying performance than ethanol. The two-stage dewatering involves solvent contact dewatering and solvent enhanced evaporation dewatering. Through selecting an appropriate solvent/sludge ratio as well as economical solvents and minimizing the solvent loss in a closed-pilot system, this dewatering process can be competitive in industrial applications. Therefore, this solvent-aided secondary dewatering is an energy-saving technology for effective in-depth dewatering of dewatered sludge and subsequent sludge utilization.

  9. Development and utilization of simulator training replay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Noji, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    The BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) has introduced an advanced training system called the Simulator Training Replay System. The intention of introducing this system is to enhance the effectiveness of simulator training synthetically by means of; (i) sufficient analytical pre- and post-studies in the classroom, thus, enabling instructors to use the classroom as a means of explanation and discussion with an optimized system which is closely correlated with the full-scope simulator and (ii) sufficient practical operation training using a full-scope simulator without excessive suppression of time. With this system, operational data and video images during simulator training can be reproduced in the classroom. Instructors use this system with their trainees before and after simulator training for pre- and post-studies in the classroom. (author)

  10. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  11. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  12. Utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) in Robot Vision and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Palmer, “Development of a navigation system for semi-autonomous operation of wheelchairs,” in Proc. of the 8th IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Mechatronic ...and Embedded Systems and Applications, Suzhou, China, 2012, pp. 257-262. [30] G. Grisetti, C. Stachniss, and W. Burgard, “Improving grid-based SLAM...OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples

  13. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  14. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  15. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  16. UTILIZATION OF MOODLE WEB SERVICE BASED SYSTEM TO SYSTEM WITH SIAKAD AND SSO UNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristu Saptono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology in education allows for integration between systems so every system can be optimized. Elearning, SIAKAD, and SSO UNS are education system in UNS (Universitas Sebelas Maret but they are not integrated yet. Course data for elearning is still manual and SSO which can not be used to log into SIAKAD. In this study the integration of elearning, SIAKAD, and SSO utilizing REST web service and exchange data using JSON. As a result, the integration of additional system must use a bridge application as a customizer data between elearning and SIAKAD. While the results of the testing to include one course, 40 lecturers, and 40 students, including automatically enroll is 60.22 seconds, while the time required for unenroll lecturers and students is 2:13 seconds. To enroll course, lecturers and students when there are previously data was 28.5 seconds.

  17. A utility perspective on radiation worker access control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.; Goff, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of the current commercial Radiation Worker Access Control Software Systems, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has elected to design and develop a site specific access control and accountability system for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The vendor provided systems allow for radiation worker access control based on training and external exposure records and authorizations. These systems do not afford internal exposure control until after bioassay measurements or maximum permissible concentration-hours are tabulated. The vendor provided systems allow for data trending for ALARA purposes, but each software package must be modified to meet site specific requirements. Unlike the commercial systems, the Calvert Cliffs Radiological Controls and Accountability System (RCAS) will provide radiation worker exposure control, both internal and external. The RCAS is designed to fulfill the requirements by integrating the existing Radiation Safety, Dosemetry, and Training data bases with a comprehensive radiological surveillance program. Prior to each worker's entry into the Radiological Control Area; his training and qualifications, radiation exposure history and authorization, will be compared with administrative controls, such as radiation work permits, and respiratory protection requirements and the radiological conditions in the work area. The RCAS, a computer based applied health physics access control system is described as it is presently configured for development. The mechanisms for enhancing worker internal and external exposure controls are discussed. Proposed data application to both the Calvert Cliffs ALARA and outage planning programs is included

  18. A new infusion pathway monitoring system utilizing electrostatic induced potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Alien W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new infusion pathway monitoring system employing linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer. The system is available for hospital and home use and it constantly monitors the intactness of the pathway. The sensor is an electro-conductive polymer electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride infusion tube. This records an AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltage and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone System).

  19. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  20. Conformational and bioactivity analysis of insulin: freeze-drying TBA/water co-solvent system in the presence of surfactant and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Deng, Yingjie; Wang, Xueli; Xu, Jinghua; Li, Zhengqiang

    2009-04-17

    Despite the extensive research into the freeze-drying of aqueous solutions of proteins, it remains unknown whether proteins can survive the lyophilization process in a water-organic co-solvent system and how the process and additives affect the structural stability and activity of the proteins. In the present study, a conformational analysis of insulin in the absence/presence of bile salt and trehalose was carried out, before and after freeze-drying of a tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)/water co-solvent system at volume ratios of TBA to water ranging from 50/50 to 0/100. The study involved the use of ultraviolet derivative and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also the bioactivity of insulin was evaluated in vivo using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice as an animal model. Initial investigations indicate that the extent of the structural change of insulin depends significantly both on the TBA content and on the concentration of additives, such as sodium deoxycholate, prior to lyophilization. This could be accounted for by the phase behavior properties of the TBA/water co-solvent system, surface denaturation together with the selective and/or forced dispersion of insulin during phase separation. Lyophilized insulin in the presence of bile salt and trehalose retained more of its bioactivity and native-like structure in the solid state compared with that in the absence of additives at various TBA/water ratios, although in all cases there was a major and reversible rearrangement of secondary structure after rehydration, except for insulin at 50% TBA (v/v). Furthermore, both lyophilization in non-eutectic systems and less structural changes in the formulation process lead to more bioactivity.

  1. Development of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum: A useful tool for strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjun; Tao, Wenwen; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol) producing bacterium. However, a stringent, effective, and convenient-to-use inducible gene expression system that can be used for regulating the gene expression strength in C. acetobutylicum is currently not available. Here, we report an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing bacterium C. acetobutylicum. This system consists of a functional chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene promoter containing tet operators (tetO), Pthl promoter (thiolase gene promoter from C. acetobutylicum) controlling TetR repressor expression cassette, and the chemical inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc). The optimized system, designated as pGusA2-2tetO1, allows gene regulation in an inducer aTc concentration-dependent way, with an inducibility of over two orders of magnitude. The stringency of TetR repression supports the introduction of the genes encoding counterselective marker into C. acetobutylicum, which can be used to increase the mutant screening efficiency. This aTc-inducible gene expression system will thus increase the genetic manipulation capability for engineering C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  3. Antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrs, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Remote photovoltaic systems are an important niche market in the development of a viable photovoltaics industry. Electric utilities in the US have started offering remote photovoltaic service. Utilities have the potential to use their monopoly power in regulated markets to unfair competitive advantage in competitive markets. Therefore, utility participation in remote photovoltaic markets raises potentially significant issues of antitrust law and policy. This paper describes some of the legal and factual criteria that US courts and regulatory agencies are likely to use in assessing the antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems

  4. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  5. On linear correlation between interfacial tension of water-solvent interface solubility of water in organic solvents and parameters of diluent effect scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, Eh.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of linear correlation between water solubility in nonmiscible with it organic solvents, interfacial tension of water-solvent interface, on the one hand, and solvent effect scale parameters and these solvents π* - on the other hand, is established. It allows, using certain tabular parameters of solvent effect or each solvent π*, to predict values of interfacial tension and water solubility for corresponding systems. It is shown, that solvent effect scale allows to predict values more accurately, than other known solvent scales, as it in contrast to other scales characterizes solvents, which are in equilibrium with water

  6. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  7. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  8. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....

  9. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  10. Pulse design for multilevel systems by utilizing Lie transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-03-01

    We put forward a scheme to design pulses to manipulate multilevel systems with Lie transforms. A formula to reverse construct a control Hamiltonian is given and is applied in pulse design in the three- and four-level systems as examples. To demonstrate the validity of the scheme, we perform numerical simulations, which show the population transfers for cascaded three-level and N -type four-level Rydberg atoms can be completed successfully with high fidelities. Therefore, the scheme may benefit quantum information tasks based on multilevel systems.

  11. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  12. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  13. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  14. The Utility of Open Source Software in Military Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esperon, Agustin I; Munoz, Jose P; Tanneau, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    .... The companies involved were THALES and GMV. The MILOS project aimed to demonstrate benefits of Open Source Software in large software based military systems, by casting off constraints inherent to traditional proprietary COTS and by taking...

  15. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  16. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  17. The Utility of Open Source Software in Military Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esperon, Agustin I; Munoz, Jose P; Tanneau, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    The MILOS (Military Systems based on Open-source Software) project was a European research program in the Eurofinder framework, attached to the CEPA 6 and co-financed by the Ministry of Defence of France and Spain...

  18. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foruotan, Masumeh; Zarrabi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others

  19. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  20. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  1. System study methodology development and potential utilization for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerassi, H.; Rouillard, J.; Leger, D.; Sarto, S.; Zappellini, G.; Gambi, G.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this new methodology is to combine systemics with heuristics for engineering applications. The system method considers as a whole a set of dynamically interacting elements, organized for tasks. Heuristics tries to describe the rules to apply in scientific research. This methodology is a powerful tool for evaluating the options, compared with conventional analytical methods as a higher number of parameters can be taken into account, with a higher quality standard while comparing the possible options. The system method takes into account interacting data or random relationships by means of simulation modelling. Thus, a dynamical approach can be deduced and a sensitivity analysis can be performed for a very high number of options and basic data. This method can be limited to a specific objective such as a fusion reactor safety analysis, taking into account other major constraints such as the economical environment. The sophisticated architecture of a fusion reactor includes a large number of interacting systems. The new character of the fusion domain and the wide spectrum of the possible options strongly increase the advantages of a system study as a complete safety analysis can be defined before starting with the design. (orig.)

  2. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  3. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm's tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers

  4. System study methodology. Development and potential utilization for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerassi, H.; Rouillard, J.; Leger, D.; Zappellini, G.; Gambi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this new methodology is to combine systemics with heuristics for engineering applications. The system method considers as a whole a set of dynamically interacting elements, organized for tasks. Heuristics tries to explicit the rules to apply in scientific research. This methodology is a powerful tool to evaluate the options to be made, compared with conventional analytical methods as a higher number of parameters can be taken into account, with higher quality standard while comparing the possible options. The system method takes into account interacting data or random relationships, by means of simulation modelling. Thus, a dynamical approach can be deduced and a sensitivity analysis can be performed for a very high number of options and basic data. Experimental values collection, analysis of the problem, search of solutions, sizing of the installation from defined functions, cost evaluation (planning and operating) and ranking of the options as regard all the constraints are the main points considered for the system's application. This method can be limited to a specific objective such as a fusion reactor safety analysis. The possibility of taking into account all the options, possible accidents, quality assurance, exhaustivity of the safety analysis, identification of the residual risk and modelisation of the results are the main advantages of this approach. The sophisticated architecture of a fusion reactor includes a large number of interacting systems. The new character of the fusion domain and the wide spectrum of the possible options strongly increase the advantages of a system study as a complete safety analysis can be defined before starting with the design

  5. Military clouds: utilization of cloud computing systems at the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süleyman, Sarıkürk; Volkan, Karaca; İbrahim, Kocaman; Ahmet, Şirzai

    2012-05-01

    Cloud computing is known as a novel information technology (IT) concept, which involves facilitated and rapid access to networks, servers, data saving media, applications and services via Internet with minimum hardware requirements. Use of information systems and technologies at the battlefield is not new. Information superiority is a force multiplier and is crucial to mission success. Recent advances in information systems and technologies provide new means to decision makers and users in order to gain information superiority. These developments in information technologies lead to a new term, which is known as network centric capability. Similar to network centric capable systems, cloud computing systems are operational today. In the near future extensive use of military clouds at the battlefield is predicted. Integrating cloud computing logic to network centric applications will increase the flexibility, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility of network-centric capabilities. In this paper, cloud computing and network centric capability concepts are defined. Some commercial cloud computing products and applications are mentioned. Network centric capable applications are covered. Cloud computing supported battlefield applications are analyzed. The effects of cloud computing systems on network centric capability and on the information domain in future warfare are discussed. Battlefield opportunities and novelties which might be introduced to network centric capability by cloud computing systems are researched. The role of military clouds in future warfare is proposed in this paper. It was concluded that military clouds will be indispensible components of the future battlefield. Military clouds have the potential of improving network centric capabilities, increasing situational awareness at the battlefield and facilitating the settlement of information superiority.

  6. Utilizing media arts principles for developing effective interactive neurorehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how interactive neurorehabilitation systems can increase their effectiveness through systematic integration of media arts principles and practice. Media arts expertise can foster the development of complex yet intuitive extrinsic feedback displays that match the inherent complexity and intuitive nature of motor learning. Abstract, arts-based feedback displays can be powerful metaphors that provide re-contextualization, engagement and appropriate reward mechanisms for mature adults. Such virtual feedback displays must be seamlessly integrated with physical components to produce mixed reality training environments that promote active, generalizable learning. The proposed approaches are illustrated through examples from mixed reality rehabilitation systems developed by our team.

  7. Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    In certain circumstances, such as cyanotic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot (4) or cyanotic patients with. Tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries. (5), better outcomes are obtained if definitive surgery. (total correction or palliation) is preceded by creation of a systemic arterial-to-pulmonary artery shunt (SAPAS).

  8. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    The following paper provides an overview of GE's H System{trademark} technology, and specifically, the design, development, and test activities associated with the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. There was intensive effort expended in bringing this revolutionary advanced technology program to commercial reality. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System{trademark} technology, this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE, this paper discusses several technologies that were essential to the introduction of the H System{trademark}. Also included are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials, components and subsystems that necessarily preceded full scale field testing of the H System{trademark}. This paper validates one of the basic premises with which GE started the H System{trademark} development program: exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimized risk at every step of this process, and increase the probability of success when the H System{trademark} is introduced into commercial service. In 1995, GE, the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century, in conjunction with the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's ATS program, introduced its new generation of gas turbines. This H System{trademark} technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant, an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired, combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. The H System{trademark} is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. It is an advanced, integrated, combined-cycle system in which every

  9. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  10. Utilizing Mass Customization Methods for Modular Manufacturing System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Jacobsen, Alexia; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Markets today have become dynamic and demand rapid product changes, product variety, and customized products. In order to operate under and taking advantages of such conditions requires, amongst other aspects, manufacturing processes robust to product changes - a contradiction to traditional...... manufacturing systems developed as dedicated engineer-to-order solutions, tailored to production of a specific product or a limited product assortment. In response, modular manufacturing concepts are evolving, which are aimed at possessing the needed responsiveness and aimed at being the manufacturing paradigm...... of Mass Customization (MC). Research focus has been on the basic principles and enabling technologies, while modular architectures and system design have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying selected design theories and methods of MC have been seen. Based on a communality...

  11. Distributed generation with photovoltaic systems: A utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.

    1998-01-01

    Today PV power systems are already cost-effective and commonly employed in a wide range of remote applications such as electricity supply to isolated users and small communities; water pumping and desalination; powering of service equipment such as radio repeaters; pipelines and well-heads cathodic protection. PV systems can easily cover a broad range of power requirements, allowing them to take advantage of new niche markets as they develop. Besides such applications a ''non-power'', low performance, consumer market also exists (watches, calculators, gadgets) that has already reached a stable growth condition. In the last decade, an increase has been experienced of about three times in the amount of module shipments (103 MW expected in 1997), a more balanced regional manufacturer share has developed, crystalline technology has maintained its lead, and a more market-oriented application share has appeared (at present most applications are for stand-alone)

  12. Innovating the Standard Procurement System Utilizing Intelligent Agent Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    systems support, and such strong political backing. [Ref. 27 :p. v] b. Security Questions about EC security are justified due to frequent privacy and...17. "Federal Government Implements Acquisition Reform," Government ECommerce , http://www.oakland.ecrc.org/gov 18. Department of Navy memorandum, "FAR...34 Federal Computer Weekly, http://www.fcw.com, 28 May 1999. 48. Interview between Kuntz, Pauline, eCommerce Manager, AMS, Fairfax, VA, and the researcher

  13. Utilizing an Intelligent Tutoring System in Tactical Action Officer Sandbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and attractiveness could be crucial to the student’s acceptance of the system. Secondly, progress in media technology is increasingly providing more...message off ship either communicating a situation report (SITREP) or a battle damage assessment ( BDA ) to higher authority. 44 Figure 4. Scenario 1...observations, each from an underlying normal distribution (Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning (CCNMTL), 2003). There are certain

  14. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  15. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.

  16. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  17. Implementation & Analysis of Integrated Utility System in Developing Nation like India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Public utility systems are prevalent around the world but are struggling in developing nations like India to work efficiently. Integration of different utilities can be a possible solution on the technology front, so that more requests can be handled with lesser problems. This study provides the implementation design and benefits of an already proposed integration system by the same authors. It is found that Data Storage, Access Time, Transaction Cost, security cost and server’s busy time can become more effective if the implementation of integration system can be put in place. The working prototype is based on three utilities (Gas, Power & Water of Delhi-NCR, India.

  18. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  19. Optimization of Utility-Scale Wind-Hydrogen-Battery Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, L. J.

    2004-07-01

    Traditional utility-scale wind energy systems are not dispatchable; that is, the utility cannot instantaneously control their power output. Energy storage, which can come in many forms, is needed to add dispatchability to a wind farm. This study investigates two options: batteries and hydrogen.

  20. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  1. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  2. Utilizing Brain-Computer Interfaces for Human-Machine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Thorsten Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Verbindet man ein menschliches Gehirn über eine Hirn-Rechner-Schnittstelle (BCI) mit einer Maschine, so kann das resultierende Mensch-Maschine-System (MMS) Informationen über die Hirnaktivität des Nutzers ableiten. Um diese Verbindung aufbauen zu können, werden Methoden aus dem Bereich des Maschinellen Lernens und Grundlagenwissen über die Interpretation des Elektroenzephalogramms (EEG) miteinander verknüpft. Dieser Ansatz erlaubt automatisierte Analysen der Hirnaktivität in Echtzeit, deren E...

  3. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  4. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  5. Mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection based on collecting and utilizing environment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Nobuyasu; Asama, Hajime; Kita, Nobuyuki; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes about development of a mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection. In our system, the robot is an agent for collecting the environment data and is also teleoperated by the operator utilizing such accumulated environment data which is displayed on the operation interface. The robot equips many sensors for detecting the state of the robot and the environment. Such redundant sensory system can be also utilized to collect the working environment data on-site while the robot is patrolling. Here, proposed system introduces the framework of collecting and utilizing environment data for adaptive plant inspection using the teleoperated robot. A view simulator is primarily aiming to facilitate evaluation of the visual sensors and algorithms and is also extended as the Environment Server, which is the core technology of the digital maintenance field for the plant inspection. In order to construct detailed seamless digital maintenance field mobile robotic technology is utilized to supply environment data to the server. The sensory system on the robot collect the environment data on-site and such collected data is uploaded to the Environment Server for compiling accurate digital environment data base. The robot operator also can utilize accumulated environment data by referring to the Environment Server. In this paper, we explain the concept of our teleoperation system based on collecting and utilizing environment data. Using developed system, inspection patrol experiments were attempted in the plant mock-up. Experimental results are shown by using an omnidirectional mobile robot with sensory system and the Environment Server. (author)

  6. Modeling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  7. Modelling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  8. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  9. Oligoquinolines under Solvent-free Microwave Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwi-Jeon; Kwon, Tae-Woo [Kyungsung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Quinolines are thermally stable and can be used as an excellent n-type semiconducting materials. Since quinolines are also known to be electron acceptor molecules, combination of various electron donor building blocks can be utilized in photonic and electronic organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. For example, donor.acceptor systems with phenothiazine (or carbazole) molecules as electron donors and the phenylquinoline group as an electron acceptor provide an efficient approach for the design of new materials exhibiting highly efficient charge-transfer photophysics and electroluminescence in OLEDs. We have described the Friedlander quinoline synthesis between aminobenzophenones and symmetrical diacetyl compounds having phenothiazine, carbazole, biphenyl, and phenyl moieties under solvent-free microwave irradiation in 12.98% isolated yields.

  10. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  11. An informatics approach to assess pediatric pharmacotherapy: design and implementation of a hospital drug utilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Athena; Vijayakumar, Sundararajan; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Patel, Dimple; Narayan, Mahesh; Vijayakumar, Kalpana; Mondick, John T; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2007-09-01

    Drug utilization in the inpatient setting can provide a mechanism to assess drug prescribing trends, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of hospital formularies and examine subpopulations for which prescribing habits may be different. Such data can be used to correlate trends with time-dependent or seasonal changes in clinical event rates or the introduction of new pharmaceuticals. It is now possible to provide a robust, dynamic analysis of drug utilization in a large pediatric inpatient setting through the creation of a Web-based hospital drug utilization system that retrieves source data from our accounting database. The production implementation provides a dynamic and historical account of drug utilization at the authors' institution. The existing application can easily be extended to accommodate a multi-institution environment. The creation of a national or even global drug utilization network would facilitate the examination of geographical and/or socioeconomic influences in drug utilization and prescribing practices in general.

  12. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time-dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. Accordingly, the public control authorities would be able to use these results to choose alternatives or initiate corrective actions, depending on the indicated environmental consequences

  13. MR imaging of the pediatric central nervous system utilization review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Prince, J.R.; Galloway, D.C.; Ross-Duggan, J.; Lester, P.D.; Yamanashi, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    MR has been done in over 500 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 5 days to 20 years) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (brain, n = 331; spine, n = 218), including high-field and special coil application in 362 cases. T1-weighted, multiplanar MR imaging provides superior anatomic delineation of organogenetic CNS malformations, while multiparameter (T1, T2, p) MR is usually necessary for more complete characterization of histogenetic malformations, as well as acquired conditions. MR imaging is a desirable method for the initial and definitive evaluation of many cranial and spinal conditions of childhood (more-invasive procedures were obviated in 164 patients). CT or other modalities may be added when MR imaging does not satisfy the clinical query

  14. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  16. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  17. Utilization of Self-Healing Materials in Thermal Protection System Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the Utilization of Self-Healing Materials for Thermal Protection System (TPS) Applications. Currently, the technology for repairing TPS from...

  18. Enhancement of Palmarumycin C12 and C13 Production by the Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 in an Aqueous-Organic Solvent System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan; Xu, Dan; Mao, Ziling; Dong, Xuejiao; Lin, Fengke; Wang, Ali; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Xie, Bingyan

    2015-11-12

    The endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis, was found to produce palmarumycins C12 and C13 which possess a great variety of biological activities. Seven biocompatible water-immiscible organic solvents including n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, 1-hexadecene, liquid paraffin, dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid were evaluated to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production in suspension culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Among the chosen solvents both butyl oleate and liquid paraffin were the most effective to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production. The addition of dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid to the cultures of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 significantly enhanced palmarumycin C12 production by adsorbing palmarumycin C12 into the organic phase. When butyl oleate was fed at 5% (v/v) in medium at the beginning of fermentation (day 0), the highest palmarumycin C12 yield (191.6 mg/L) was achieved, about a 34.87-fold increase in comparison with the control (5.3 mg/L). n-Dodecane, 1-hexadecene and liquid paraffin had a great influence on the production of palmarumycin C13. When liquid paraffin was added at 10% (v/v) in medium on day 3 of fermentation, the palmarumycin C13 yield reached a maximum value (134.1 mg/L), which was 4.35-fold that of the control (30.8 mg/L). Application of the aqueous-organic solvent system should be a simple and efficient process strategy for enhancing palmarumycin C12 and C13 production in liquid cultures of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.

  19. Enhancement of Palmarumycin C12 and C13 Production by the Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 in an Aqueous-Organic Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis, was found to produce palmarumycins C12 and C13 which possess a great variety of biological activities. Seven biocompatible water-immiscible organic solvents including n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, 1-hexadecene, liquid paraffin, dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid were evaluated to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production in suspension culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Among the chosen solvents both butyl oleate and liquid paraffin were the most effective to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production. The addition of dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid to the cultures of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 significantly enhanced palmarumycin C12 production by adsorbing palmarumycin C12 into the organic phase. When butyl oleate was fed at 5% (v/v in medium at the beginning of fermentation (day 0, the highest palmarumycin C12 yield (191.6 mg/L was achieved, about a 34.87-fold increase in comparison with the control (5.3 mg/L. n-Dodecane, 1-hexadecene and liquid paraffin had a great influence on the production of palmarumycin C13. When liquid paraffin was added at 10% (v/v in medium on day 3 of fermentation, the palmarumycin C13 yield reached a maximum value (134.1 mg/L, which was 4.35-fold that of the control (30.8 mg/L. Application of the aqueous-organic solvent system should be a simple and efficient process strategy for enhancing palmarumycin C12 and C13 production in liquid cultures of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.

  20. Reflection effects in multimode fiber systems utilizing laser transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Harry E.

    1991-11-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at NASA-Kennedy for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Now, all of these channels use a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 or 1550 nm. Engineering tests in the past have given indications of the growth of systematic and random noise in the RF spectrum of a fiber network as the number of connector pairs is increased. This noise seems to occur when a laser transmitter is used instead of a LED. It has been suggested that the noise is caused by back reflections created at connector fiber interfaces. Experiments were performed to explore the effect of reflection on the transmitting laser under conditions of reflective feedback. This effort included computer integration of some of the instrumentation in the fiber optic lab using the Lab View software recently acquired by the lab group. The main goal was to interface the Anritsu Optical and RF spectrum analyzers to the MacIntosh II computer so that laser spectra and network RF spectra could be simultaneously and rapidly acquired in a form convenient for analysis. Both single and multimode fiber is installed at Kennedy. Since most are multimode, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  1. Telemetry System Utilization for Stress Monitoring of Pilots During Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.

  2. Etiology of cutaneous vasculitis: utility of a systemic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanussot-Deprez, Caroline; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Flores-Suárez, Luis; Ríos-Romero, Celia; Cabiedes-Contreras, Javier; Reyes, Edgardo; Rangel-Gamboa, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Cutaneous vasculities (CV) represents a diagnostic challenge, occurs as primary cutaneous disorder or as a manifestation of other entities. To search the cause of CV. Methods: Patients with CV were prospectively evaluated. In all patients, skin biopsies were drawn, and direct immunofluorescence was done in most of the patients. American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Criteria (CHCC) were used for classification. 32 patients were studied. There was female predominance (71.8%). Children presented drug-associated CV or Schönlein-Henoch púrpura (SHP). Adults presented more frequently SHP, systemic lupus erythematosus or paraneoplastic vasculitis, other diagnosis as polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, thrombotic vasculitis (post-puerperal), antiphospholipid syndrome, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and drug-associated CV were presented. Using the ACR and CHCC criteria, 50% of cases were classified. In our institution, during this work the etiologic diagnostic of CV increased more than twice. However, in the case of HSV or LA and SHP none of the proposed criteria had high specificity; other parameters were used to discern between both. Six patients remained as not classified. In our view, cryoglobulins and hepatitis serology do not seem useful unless patient’s history supports they need to be done. Unclassified patients were followed-up closely for 2 years. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  3. Tunable solvation effects on the size-selective fractionation of metal nanoparticles in CO2 gas-expanded solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Madhu; McLeod, M Chandler; Bell, Philip W; Roberts, Christopher B

    2005-12-08

    This paper presents an environmentally friendly, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient process for size-selective fractionation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle dispersions into multiple narrow size populations. The dispersibility of ligand-stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles is controlled by altering the ligand tails-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as an antisolvent, thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength. This is accomplished by adjusting the CO2 pressure over the liquid, resulting in a simple means to tune the nanoparticle precipitation by size. This study also details the influence of various factors on the size-separation process, such as the types of metal, ligand, and solvent, as well as the use of recursive fractionation and the time allowed for settling during each fractionation step. The pressure range required for the precipitation process is the same for both the silver and gold particles capped with dodecanethiol ligands. A change in ligand or solvent length has an effect on the interaction between the solvent and the ligand tails and therefore the pressure range required for precipitation. Stronger interactions between solvent and ligand tails require greater CO2 pressure to precipitate the particles. Temperature is another variable that impacts the dispersibility of the nanoparticles through changes in the density and the mole fraction of CO2 in the gas-expanded liquids. Recursive fractionation for a given system within a particular pressure range (solvent strength) further reduces the polydispersity of the fraction obtained within that pressure range. Specifically, this work utilizes the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO2 solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (2 to 12 nm) into more monodisperse fractions (+/-2 nm). In addition to providing efficient separation of the particles, this process also allows all of the solvent and

  4. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  5. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  6. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  7. TMI-2 in-vessel hydraulic systems utilize high water and high boron content fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Hofman, L.A.; Gallagher, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Choice of a hydraulic fluid for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel defueling equipment required consideration of the following constraints for the hydraulic fluid given an accidental spill into the reactor coolant system (RCS). The TMI-2 RCS hydraulic fluid utilized in the hydraulic operations utilized a solution composition of 95 wt% water and 5 wt% of the above base fluid. The TMI-2 hydraulic system utilizes pressures up to 3500 psi. The selected hydraulic fluid has been in use since December 1986 with minimal operational difficulties

  8. Green and Bio-Based Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco G; Monteagudo-Arrebola, María José; Dobado, José A; Isac-García, Joaquín

    2018-04-24

    Chemical reactions and many of the procedures of separation and purification employed in industry, research or chemistry teaching utilize solvents massively. In the last decades, with the birth of Green Chemistry, concerns about the employment of solvents and the effects on human health, as well as its environmental impacts and its dependence on non-renewable raw materials for manufacturing most of them, has drawn the attention of the scientific community. In this work, we review the concept of green solvent and the properties and characteristics to be considered green. Additionally, we discuss the different possible routes to prepare many solvents from biomass, as an alternative way to those methods currently applied in the petrochemical industry.

  9. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  10. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    1984-02-01

    The successful application of organic and aquo-organic solvents in lithium batteries and in zinc bromine batteries is discussed. Results are presented for a comparison of propylene carbonate and 50 percent propylene carbonate/acetonitrile for lithium intercalation cells at 25 C 1 M LiAsF6 as electrolyte and discharge at 2 mA/sq cm. Higher cathode utilization and energy efficiencies are achieved in PC/AN. It was found that the self-discharge problem of the zinc/bromine battery may be overcome by dissolving bromine and bromide salt in water-immiscible dipolar aprotic solvent-proprionitrile (PN). Cells using this PN/H2O two-phase system have an energy efficiency above 75 percent and coulombic efficiency above 85 percent.

  11. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowicz, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to `foster the exchange of scientific and technical information`, and `encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world`. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  12. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, I.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to 'foster the exchange of scientific and technical information', and 'encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world'. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  13. Linear correlation of interfacial tension at water-solvent interface, solubility of water in organic solvents, and SE* scale parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, E.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A linear correlation has been established between the solubility of water in water-immiscible organic solvents and the interfacial tension at the water-solvent interface on the one hand and the parameters of the SE* and π* scales for these solvents on the other hand. This allows us, using the known tabulated SE* or π* parameters for each solvent, to predict the values of the interfacial tension and the solubility of water for the corresponding systems. We have shown that the SE* scale allows us to predict these values more accurately than other known solvent scales, since in contrast to other scales it characterizes solvents found in equilibrium with water

  14. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  15. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  16. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF Production from Hexoses: Limits of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Hydrothermal Conditions and Potential of Concentrated Aqueous Organic Acids as Reactive Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Essayem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose. The treatment at 150–250 °C of glucose or fructose in pure water and batch conditions, with catalytic amounts of most of the usual acid-basic solid catalysts, gave limited yields in 5-HMF, due mainly to the fast formation of soluble oligomers. Niobic acid, which possesses both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, gave the highest 5-HMF yield, 28%, when high catalyst/glucose ratio is used. By contrast, we disclose in this work that the reaction of fructose in concentrated aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids, formic, acetic or lactic acids, used as reactive solvent media, leads to the selective dehydration of fructose in 5-HMF with yields up to 64% after 2 hours at 150 °C. This shows the potential of such solvent systems for the clean and easy production of 5-HMF from carbohydrates. The influence of adding solid catalysts to the carboxylic acid media was also reported, starting from glucose.

  17. Effective Interfacially Polymerized Polyester Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane from Bioderived Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Mohamed H.; Perez Manriquez, Liliana; Puspasari, Tiara; Scholes, Colin A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of sustainable and environmentally friendly solvents for the preparation of membranes has attracted growing interest in recent years. In this work, a polyester thin film composite solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membrane

  18. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  19. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  20. An overview of industrial solvent use or is there life after chlorinated solvents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1991-01-01

    Everyone using industrial chemicals has been affected by the fire- storm of new regulations governing solvent use. How will companies currently using hazardous solvents prepare for the changes ahead? What will the impact be on commonly used industrial solvents? What effect are environmental pressures having on solvent use and disposal? Are the responsible individuals in your company up-to-date on phase-out schedules? This paper is written for an audience of compliance coordinators, consultants, production engineers and corporate management. In it, the either addresses the above questions and discusses the specific products affected. The author reviews currently available alternatives to chlorinated and hazardous solvents and introduces a simple system for rating alternatives. The program also includes a discussion of solvent minimization programs and worker reeducation

  1. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  2. Use of multiattribute utility theory for formulary management in a health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seonyoung; Kim, Sooyon; Kim, Jeongmee; Sohn, Kieho

    2010-01-15

    The application, utility, and flexibility of the multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) when used as a formulary decision methodology in a Korean medical center were evaluated. A drug analysis model using MAUT consisting of 10 steps was designed for two drug classes of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). These two drug classes contain the most diverse agents among cardiovascular drugs on Samsung Medical Center's drug formulary. The attributes identified for inclusion in the drug analysis model were effectiveness, safety, patient convenience, and cost, with relative weights of 50%, 30%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. The factors were incorporated into the model to quantify the contribution of each attribute. For each factor, a utility scale of 0-100 was established, and the total utility score for each alternative was calculated. An attempt was made to make the model adaptable to changing health care and regulatory circumstances. The analysis revealed amlodipine besylate to be an alternative agent, with the highest total utility score among the dihydropyridine CCBs, while barnidipine hydrochloride had the lowest score. For ARBs, losartan potassium had the greatest total utility score, while olmesartan medoxomil had the lowest. A drug analysis model based on the MAUT was successfully developed and used in making formulary decisions for dihydropyridine CCBs and ARBs for a Korean health system. The model incorporates sufficient utility and flexibility of a drug's attributes and can be used as an alternative decision-making tool for formulary management in health systems.

  3. Functions and requirements for the light duty utility arm integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Integrated System is a mobile robotic system designed to remotely deploy and operate a variety of tools in uninhabitable underground radiological and hazardous waste storage tanks. The system primarily provides a means to inspect, survey, monitor, map and/or obtain specific waste and waste tank data in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission at Hanford and remediation programs at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites

  4. Functions and requirements for the Light-Duty Utility Arm Integrated System. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Integrated System is a mobile robotic system designed to remotely deploy and operate a variety of tools in uninhabitable underground radiological and hazardous waste storage tanks. The system primarily provides a means to inspect, survey, monitor, map and/or obtain specific waste and waste tank data in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission at Hanford and remediation programs at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites

  5. Utility-DOE interface considerations of the universal container systems concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.; Smith, M.; Jordan, J.; Supko, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the utility-DOE interface issues that must be addressed by the DOE, the utility industry, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prior to implementation of a universal container system (UCS) as an alternative to the current Reference Waste Management System. A brief background is presented discussing the reasons a UCS appears to benefit the waste management system, including a reduction in spent fuel handling, simplified DOE storage and transportation systems, and simplified repository design and operation. In December 1992, the Secretary of Energy announced that the current negotiated siting process is not expected to lead to an operational monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility by January 1998. Therefore, DOE outlined a strategy for initiating spent fuel acceptance from utilities in 1998 that includes the use of federal government sites for interim storage and the development of the UCS concept

  6. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  7. Social cost considerations and legal constraints in implementing modular integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lede, N. W.; Dixon, H. W.; King, O.; Hill, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Social costs associated with the design, demonstration, and implementation of the Modular Integrated Utility System are considered including the social climate of communities, leadership patterns, conflicts and cleavages, specific developmental values, MIUS utility goal assessment, and the suitability of certian alternative options for use in a program of implementation. General considerations are discussed in the field of socio-technological planning. These include guidelines for understanding the conflict and diversity; some relevant goal choices and ideas useful to planners of the MIUS facility.

  8. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative...

  9. Integrated outage management: Leveraging utility system assets including GIS and AMR for optimum outage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finamore, E. P.

    2004-02-01

    The control of electrical system outages is discussed. The principal argument advanced is that traditional stand-alone methods of outage response will no longer get the job done without utility companies integrating their outage management systems with other system assets such as GIS (geographic information system) and AMR (advanced metering systems). Many meter reading systems, while primarily supporting customer billing, can also provide outage alarm and some are also capable of service restoration notification, which is an invaluable benefit to service operators since it obviates the need for verifying system restoration by labour-intensive on-site visits or customer call-backs. If successfully leveraged, optimization of all utility assets and improvements in labour productivity can results in improved outage management performance gains without affecting performance in other areas.

  10. Solvent - solute interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)

  11. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the effectiveness of ProTaper universal rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal with or without a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Cristiane Midori; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Silveira, Cláudia Fernandes M; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    Effective removal of gutta-percha in endodontic retreatment is a significant factor to ensure a favorable outcome from failed procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nickel-titanium rotary instrument system with or without a solvent versus stainless steel hand files for gutta-percha removal. Forty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and filled. They were divided into 4 groups: Gates-Glidden and K-files, Gates-Glidden and K-files with chloroform, ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system, and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with chloroform. The operating time was recorded. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned and photographed. The images were analyzed and the filling remnants were quantified by using the IMAGE TOOL software. With Kruskall-Wallis test, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the techniques in regard to the amount of the endodontic filling remnants (P ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system was faster than the hand files (P ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system without chloroform was faster.

  13. Effect of pKa on the extraction behavior of Am(III) in organo phosphorus acid and diglycolamide solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, K. Rama; Antony, M.P.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of neutral and acidic extractant has been proposed for the single-cycle separation of trivalent actinides from high-level liquid waste (HLLW). The nature of acidic extractant in the combined solvent formulation plays a profound role in deciding the extraction and stripping of trivalent actinides. Therefore, the extraction behavior of Am(III) in a solution of tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-diglycolamide (TEHDGA) and acidic extractant (HA) was studied from nitric acid medium. The acidic extractants chosen were bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid (PC88A) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (CYANEX-272) whose pKa values were 3.24, 4.51 and 6.37, respectively. The distribution ratio of Am(III) was measured as a function of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid, TEHDGA, HA etc. The data were compared with those obtained in individual solvent systems namely 0.1 M TEHDGA/n-DD and HA/n-DD. Slope analysis of the extraction data indicated the synergic participation of both TEHDGA and HDEHP in the extraction of Am(III) at all acidities. However, antagonistic effect was observed at lower acidity when TEHDGA was mixed to PC88A or CYANEX-272 present in n-DD. Accordingly, a suitable mechanism has been proposed for the extraction of Am(III) at all acidities using these combined solvent formulation. Studies with fast reactor simulated high level liquid waste indicated that extraction of Am(III) was accompanied by co-extraction of lanthanides and unwanted metal ions such as Zr(IV), Mo(VI), Y(III) and Pd(II). However, addition of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N,N ' -tetraaceticacid (CyDTA) reduced the extraction of unwanted metal ions. Batch extraction and stripping studies indicated the possibility of using 0.1 M TEHDGA+0.25 M HDEHP in n-dodecane for the single cycle separation of Am(III) from FR-SHLLW.

  14. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  15. Safety assessment of envisaged systems for automotive hydrogen supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landucci, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi n.2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Mineraria e delle Tecnologie Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum - Universita di Bologna, via Terracini n.28, 40131 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    A novel consequence-based approach was applied to the inherent safety assessment of the envisaged hydrogen production, distribution and utilization systems, in the perspective of the widespread hydrogen utilization as a vehicle fuel. Alternative scenarios were assessed for the hydrogen system chain from large scale production to final utilization. Hydrogen transportation and delivery was included in the analysis. The inherent safety fingerprint of each system was quantified by a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Rules for KPIs aggregation were considered for the overall assessment of the system chains. The final utilization stage resulted by large the more important for the overall expected safety performance of the system. Thus, comparison was carried out with technologies proposed for the use of other low emission fuels, as LPG and natural gas. The hazards of compressed hydrogen-fueled vehicles resulted comparable, while reference innovative hydrogen technologies evidenced a potentially higher safety performance. Thus, switching to the inherently safer technologies currently under development may play an important role in the safety enhancement of hydrogen vehicles, resulting in a relevant improvement of the overall safety performance of the entire hydrogen system. (author)

  16. Concept of automated system for spent fuel utilization ('Reburning') from compact nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianovski, V.V.; Lozhkin, O.V.; Nesterov, M.M.; Tarasov, N.A.; Uvarov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    On the basic concept of an automated system of nuclear power installation safety is developed the utilization project of spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors. The main features of this project are: 1. design and creation of the mobile model-industrial installation; 2. development of the utilization and storage diagram of the spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors, with the specific recommendation for the natatorial means using both for the nuclear fuel reburning, for its transportation in places of the storage; 3. research of an opportunity during the utilization process to obtain additional power resources, ozone and others to increase of justifying expenses at the utilization; 4. creation of new generation engineering for the automation of remote control processes in the high radiation background conditions. 7 refs., 1 fig

  17. The importance of utility systems in today's biorefineries and a vision for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Tim; Verser, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Heat and power systems commonly found in today's corn processing facilities, sugar mills, and pulp and paper mills will be reviewed. We will also examine concepts for biorefineries of the future. We will show that energy ratio, defined as the ratio of renewable energy produced divided by the fossil energy input, can vary widely from near unity to values greater than 12. Renewable-based utility systems combined with low-fossil input agricultural systems lead to high-energy ratios.

  18. Post delivery test report for light duty utility arm optical alignment system (OAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1996-04-18

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the Optical Alignment System (OAS) LDUA system, designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project. The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the optical alignment system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank.

  19. Post delivery test report for light duty utility arm optical alignment system (OAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the Optical Alignment System (OAS) LDUA system, designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project. The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the optical alignment system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank

  20. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, 'Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System' (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence

  1. Advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems--potentials and limitations for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Williams, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential benefits and limitations of advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems for United States utilities. The results of the review of advanced technologies show that for the near and midterm, the only advance reactor and fuel-cycle system with significant potential for United States utilities is the current LWR, and evolutionary, not revolutionary, enhancements. For the long term, the liquid-metal breeder reactor continues to be the most promising advance nuclear option. The major factors leading to this conclusion are summarized

  2. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus

  3. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  4. Solvent Optimization for Efficient Enzymatic Monoacylglycerol Production Based on a Glycerolysis Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, Marianne; Jensen, Tine; Sparsø, Flemming V.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at screening solvent systems of varying polarities to identify suitable solvents for efficient and practical enzymatic glycerolysis. Several pure solvents and solvent mixtures were screened in a batch reaction system consisting of glycerol, sunflower oil, and Novozymo (R) 435...

  5. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  6. Lbs Augmented Reality Assistive System for Utilities Infrastructure Management Through Galileo and Egnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianidis, E.; Valaria, E.; Smagas, K.; Pagani, A.; Henriques, J.; Garca, A.; Jimeno, E.; Carrillo, I.; Patias, P.; Georgiadis, C.; Kounoudes, A.; Michail, K.

    2016-06-01

    There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures' data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  7. LBS AUGMENTED REALITY ASSISTIVE SYSTEM FOR UTILITIES INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT THROUGH GALILEO AND EGNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stylianidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures’ data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  8. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  9. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  10. Utilities for developing HITAC 10-2 program with U-400 and M-190 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kenzo.

    1979-06-01

    At the time of developing ''On-line experimental data processing system for JIPP (Japan Institute of Plasma Physics) T-2'', a number of utilities have been developed, which can develop the programs on the HITAC 10-2 side through the PANAFACOM U-400 and the FACOM M-190 computer systems. The HITAC 10-2 is a computer mainly composed of core memories, whose performances of processing speed, peripherals and softwares are considerably different from large and medium size computers. For this reason, it requires tremendous time and labor to develop large scale programs or systems by utilizing only the HITAC 10-2. Accordingly, some utilities have been developed with the U-400 and M-190 systems in order to shorten the developing time and improve the developing efficiency. In the example of above ''On-line experimental data processing system for JIPP T-2'', the time required for one debugging can be reduced to 20 minutes from former 5 to 6 hours. In this report, first, the program development by the HITAC 10-2, and next, the bind processing with U-400 and the cross-assembling with M-190 are described. Then the functions and the method for use of the utilities are explained. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  12. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  13. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  14. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  15. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Volume two. Technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice versa, interactions of photovoltaic and electrical storage systems, effects on end-use reliability, and the ultimate limitations on photovoltaic penetration into electric grids are presented. Photovoltaic system economic issues are considered. Discussions of the high first cost and the Program plans and strategies to reduce costs (and PV prices), expected evolution of photovoltaic technology, effects of various financial incentives on photovoltaics, implications of utility vs non-utility ownership of photovoltaics, likelihood that sufficient capital will be available to adequately finance the deployment of photovoltaic systems, current status and expected evolution of the photovoltaic supply industry, and the programmatic activities directed at aiding the evolution of a healthy, competitive industry are presented. The basic issues of photovoltaic market development are studied. The potential of various market segments and the complexity involved in defining and identifying the various segments; issues to be faced in deployment of dispersed photovoltaic systems including innovation acceptance on the part of the building industry, building codes, zoning, insurance, information dissemination, public acceptance, solar access, state and local solar photovoltaic incentives, and the implications for urban and suburban land use; and the need for, and method of development of, photovoltaic standards and warranties on photovoltaic systems are discussed. The conclusions of the report with respect to the information requested by Congress are summarized, and findings for congressional action are presented. (WHK)

  16. FGD systems: What utilities chose in phase 1 and what they might choose in phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.

    1995-07-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from electric power plants. The Act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program defined in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having, the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. The central focus of this paper is the identification of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options being implemented by the electric utility industry, current compliance trends, synergistic control issues and a discussion of the implications of Phase I decisions for Phase II.

  17. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  19. Study on the use of solid electrodes for potentiometric titrations in non-aqueous solvents-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatibello Filho, O.; Carvalho, W.M. de; Capelato, M.D.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.; Almeida Neves, E.F. de

    1984-01-01

    Fatty acids and ethanolamines were titrated potentiometrically with tetrabutylammnonium hydroxide in methyl isobutyl ketone-isopropyl alcohol and with perchloric acid in ethanol, respectively. A study of utilization of Sb, Sn, W, PbO 2 , Ti and 316L stainless steel oxides - Ag/AgBr/Bu 4 NBr (x M)/solvent electrode systems have been investigated in comparison with the glass - Ag/AgBr/Bu 4 NBr (x M)/solvent system. The best performance was obtained using W, Sb, PbO 2 and Ti electrodes have yielded a larger potential shift than glass electrode for acid-base titration. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of protaper universal rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal with or without a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Sita Ram; Sajjan, Girija S; Satish, Kalyan; Varma, K Madhu

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with or without solvent and stainless steel hand files for endodontic filling removal from root canals and also to compare retreatment time for each system. Thirty extracted mandibular premolars with single straight canals were endodontically treated. Teeth were divided into three major groups, having 10 specimens each. Removal of obturating material in group 1 by stainless steel hand files with RC Solve, group 2 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments and group 3 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments along with RC solve was done. Retreatment was considered complete for all groups when no filling material was observed on the instruments. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth. All specimens were grooved longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The split halves were examined under a stereomicroscope and images were captured and analyzed. The remaining filling debris area ratios were considered for statistical analysis. With ANOVA test, statistical analysis showed that there was statistically no significant difference regarding the amount of filling remnants between the groups (P ProTaper Universal retreatment system files alone proved to be faster than the other experimental groups.

  1. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of protaper universal rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal with or without a solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sita Ram Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with or without solvent and stainless steel hand files for endodontic filling removal from root canals and also to compare retreatment time for each system. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular premolars with single straight canals were endodontically treated. Teeth were divided into three major groups, having 10 specimens each. Removal of obturating material in group 1 by stainless steel hand files with RC Solve, group 2 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments and group 3 by ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments along with RC solve was done. Retreatment was considered complete for all groups when no filling material was observed on the instruments. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth. All specimens were grooved longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The split halves were examined under a stereomicroscope and images were captured and analyzed. The remaining filling debris area ratios were considered for statistical analysis. Results: With ANOVA test, statistical analysis showed that there was statistically no significant difference regarding the amount of filling remnants between the groups (P < 0.05. Differences between the means of groups are statistically significant regarding the retreatment time. Conclusion: Irrespective of the technique used, all the specimens had some remnants on the root canal wall. ProTaper Universal retreatment system files alone proved to be faster than the other experimental groups.

  2. A Multicase Study: Exploring Human Resource Information System Implementation and Utilization in Multinational Corporations in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzyoka Yongo, Cyd W.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation and utilization of human resource information system (HRIS) though a very desirable prospect for many organizations, still remains a daunting task for many. This has been daunting because of prohibitive costs, security risks, top management resistance, employee attitudes, and so forth. Trends globally show that, organizations that…

  3. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation and utilization of the bridge management system (BMS) of the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape Provincial Government. The implementation of the BMS as well as the visual assessment...

  4. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  5. Environmental assessment for the electric utility system distribution, replacements and upgrades at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental effects resulting from the distribution of new electrical service, replacement of inadequate or aging equipment, and upgrade of the existing electrical utility system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The projects assessed herein do not impact cultural or historic resources, sensitive habitats or wetlands and are not a source of air emissions. The potential environmental effects that do result from the action are fugitive dust and noise from construction and the disposal of potentially contaminated soil removed from certain limited areas of the LLNL site as a result of trenching for underground transmission lines. The actions described in this assessment represent an improved safety and reliability to the existing utility system. Inherent in the increased reliability and upgrades is a net increase in electrical capacity, with future expansion reserve. As with any electrical device, the electrical utility system has associated electric and magnetic fields that present a potential source of personnel exposure. The potential is not increased, however, beyond that which already exists for the present electrical utility system

  6. Diagnostic Utility of the Social Skills Improvement System Performance Screening Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Wang, Ye; Mohammadiamin, Houra; Cirks, Christen K.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers investigated the diagnostic utility of the Social Skills Improvement System: Performance Screening Guide (SSIS-PSG). Correlational, regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and conditional probability analyses were run to compare ratings on the SSIS-PSG subscales of Prosocial Behavior, Reading Skills, and Math Skills, to…

  7. Human action pattern monitor for telecare system utilizing magnetic thin film infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, H.; Chiba, S.; Oka, H.; Seki, K.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic thin film infrared sensor (MFI) is an infrared sensing device utilizing a temperature-sensitive magnetic thin film with marked temperature dependence in the room temperature range. We propose a human action pattern monitor (HPM) constructed with the MFI, without a monitor camera to save the clients' privacy, as a telecare system

  8. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System for Digital Video Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  9. Bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with stoddard solvent and mop oil using the PetroClean bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.K.; Lieberman, M.T.; Caplan, J.A.; Blaes, D.; Keating, P.; Richards, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Environmental Science and Engineering Inc. (ESE) was contracted by a confidential industrial client to perform a three-phased project. Phase I involved characterizing the site and delineating the extent of subsurface contamination. Phase II included biofeasibility and pilot-scale evaluations, determining remedial requirements, and designing the full-scale treatment system. Phase III involved implementing and operating the designed in situ bioremediation system (i.e., PetroClean 4000) to achieve site closure

  10. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  11. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  12. Mobile Virtual Network Operator Information Systems for Increased Sustainability in Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Hallur Leivsgard; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    sales from efficiency of business processes, underlying information systems, and the ability to make the link from consumption to cost visual and transparent to consumers. The conclusion is that the energy sector should look into other sectors and learn from information systems which ease up business......, sales and buying processes are separated from physical networks and energy production. This study aims to characterise and evaluate information systems supporting the transformation of the free market-orientation of energy and provision of utilities in a cross-sectorial proposition known as Mobile...... Virtual Network Operator (MVNO). Emphasis is particularly on standardised information systems for automatically linking consumers, sellers and integration of network infrastructure actors. The method used is a feasibility study assessing business and information processes of a forthcoming utilities market...

  13. Utilization of the series resonant dc link converter as a conditioning system for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschke, K.W.; Caldeira, P.P.A.; Lipo, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a new superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system utilizes a high-frequency series resonant dc link power converter of high efficiency as the conditioning converter is presented. This system generates a high-frequency (20 kHz or more) resonant current in a series link and switching is done at zero current instants, reducing switching losses to a minimal value. Through the utilization of an adequate control strategy, the input power factor can be fully adjusted during the charging, storing, and discharging modes of the SMES, improving the overall system efficiency. Different semiconductor devices are employed as the switching elements of the resonant converter and switching losses are established for each case. Experimental results from a monophase and three-phase system verified the results obtained from digital simulation

  14. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  15. Development of a utility system for charged particle nuclear reaction data by using intelligentPad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF2, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the IntelligentPad architecture. By using the system, we can search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction of NRDF. Furthermore, we also see the experimental data by using graphic pads which was made through the CONTIP project. (author)

  16. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  17. Utilization of design data on conventional system to building information modeling (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Boyke M.; Z. R., Dewi Larasati

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays infrastructure development becomes one of the main priorities in the developed country such as Indonesia. The use of conventional design system is considered no longer effectively support the infrastructure projects, especially for the high complexity building design, due to its fragmented system issues. BIM comes as one of the solutions in managing projects in an integrated manner. Despite of the all known BIM benefits, there are some obstacles on the migration process to BIM. The two main of the obstacles are; the BIM implementation unpreparedness of some project parties and a concerns to leave behind the existing database and create a new one on the BIM system. This paper discusses the utilization probabilities of the existing CAD data from the conventional design system for BIM system. The existing conventional CAD data's and BIM design system output was studied to examine compatibility issues between two subject and followed by an utilization scheme-strategy probabilities. The goal of this study is to add project parties' eagerness in migrating to BIM by maximizing the existing data utilization and hopefully could also increase BIM based project workflow quality.

  18. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  19. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  20. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  1. Optimization of the production of biodiesel by a commercial immobilized lipase in a solvent-free system using a response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA KNEZEVIC

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of the effects of various factors on the synthesis of biodiesel catalyzed with immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in a solvent-free system. The production of biodiesel was optimized and model response equations were obtained, enabling the prediction of biodiesel production from the values of the four main factors. It would seem that the reaction temperature and the amount of water predominantly determined the conversion process while the methanol/oil molar ratio had no significant influence on the reaction rate. The temperature and amount of water showed negative interactive effects on the observed reaction rate per amount of enzyme. However, there were no significant interactions among the other variables according to the test of statistical significance. The highest yield of 10.15 mol kg-1 enzyme was observed at 45 °C with a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and with no added water in the system.

  2. Extensive Evaluation of the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents Method in Predicting Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Ionic Liquids with Molecular Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil

    2018-04-12

    A conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is nowadays one of the most popular and commonly applied tools for the estimation of thermodynamic properties of complex fluids. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the performance of this approach in calculating liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) phase diagrams in ternary systems composed of ionic liquid and two molecular compounds belonging to diverse families of chemicals (alkanes, aromatics, S/N-compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acid, esters, and water). The predictions are presented for extensive experimental database, including 930 LLE data sets and more than 9000 data points (LLE tie lines) reported for 779 unique ternary mixtures. An impact of the type of molecular binary subsystem on the accuracy of predictions is demonstrated and discussed on the basis of representative examples. The model's capability of capturing qualitative trends in the LLE distribution ratio and selectivity is also checked for a number of structural effects. Comparative analysis of two levels of quantum chemical theory (BP-TZVP-COSMO vs BP-TZVPD-FINE) for the input molecular data for COSMO-RS is presented. Finally, some general recommendations for the applicability of the model are indicated based on the analysis of the global performance as well as on the results obtained for systems relevant from the point of view of important separation problems.

  3. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. TGF-β3 encapsulated PLCL scaffold by a supercritical CO2-HFIP co-solvent system for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jung, Youngmee

    2015-05-28

    Mimicking the native tissue microenvironment is critical for effective tissue regeneration. Mechanical cues and sustained biological cues are important factors, particularly in load-bearing tissues such as articular cartilage or bone. Carriers including hydrogels and nanoparticles have been investigated to achieve sustained release of protein drugs. However, it is difficult to apply such carriers alone as scaffolds for cartilage regeneration because of their weak mechanical properties, and they must be combined with other biomaterials that have adequate mechanical strength. In this study, we developed the multifunctional scaffold which has similar mechanical properties to those of native cartilage and encapsulates TGF-β3 for chondrogenesis. In our previous work, we confirmed that poly(lactide-co-caprolacton) (PLCL) did not foam when exposed to supercritical CO2 below 45°C. Here, we used a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) co-solvent system to facilitate processing under mild conditions because high temperature causes protein denaturation and decreases bioactivity of the protein. This processing made it possible to fabricate a TGF-β3 encapsulated elastic porous PLCL scaffold at 37°C. We investigated the tissue regeneration efficiency of the TGF-β3 encapsulated PLCL scaffold using human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo (Groups; i. PLCL scaffold+Fibrin gel+TGF-β3, ii. TGF-β3 encapsulated PLCL scaffold+Fibrin gel, iii. TGF-β3 encapsulated PLCL scaffold). We evaluated the chondrogenic abilities of the scaffolds at 4, 8, and 12weeks after subcutaneous implantation of the constructs in immune-deficient mice. Based on TGF-β3 release studies, we confirmed that TGF-β3 molecules were released by 8weeks and remained in the PLCL matrix. Explants of TGF-β3 encapsulated scaffolds by a co-solvent system exhibited distinct improvement in the compressive E-modulus and deposition of extracellular matrix

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of load-leveling hyper energy converting and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Load-leveling hyper energy converting and utilization system (LHECUS) is a hybrid cycle which utilizes ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid in a combined power generation and refrigeration cycle. The power generation cycle functions as a Kalina cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is combined with it as a bottoming cycle. LHECUS is designed to utilize the waste heat from industry to produce cooling and power simultaneously. The refrigeration effect can be either transported to end-use sectors by means of a solution transportation absorption chiller (STA) as solution concentration difference or stored for demand load leveling. This paper shows a simulation of the LHECUS cycle. A computer model was written to balance the cycle and key parameters for optimizing the cycle were identified

  6. Solvent extraction studies in miniature centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siczek, A.A.; Meisenhelder, J.H.; Bernstein, G.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature short-residence-time centrifugal solvent extraction contactor and an eight-stage laboratory minibank of centrifugal contactors were used for testing the possibility of utilizing kinetic effects for improving the separation of uranium from ruthenium and zirconium in the Purex process. Results of these tests showed that a small improvement found in ruthenium and zirconium decontamination in single-stage solvent extraction tests was lost in the multistage extraction tests- in fact, the extent of saturation of the solvent by uranium, rather than the stage residence time, controlled the extent of ruthenium and zirconium extraction. In applying the centrifugal contactor to the Purex process, the primary advantages would be less radiolytic damage to the solvent, high troughput, reduced solvent inventory, and rapid attainment of steady-state operating conditions. The multistage mini contactor was also tested to determine the suitability of short-residence-time contactors for use with the Civex and Thorex processes and was found to be compatible with the requirements of these processes. (orig.) [de

  7. PHOBINS: an index file of photon production cross section data and its utility code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Koyama, Kinji; Ido, Masaru; Hotta, Masakazu; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi

    1978-08-01

    The code System PHOBINS developed for reference of photon production cross sections is described in detail. The system is intended to grasp the present status of photon production data and present the information of available data. It consists of four utility routines, CREA, UP-DT, REF and BACK, and data files. These utility routines are used for making an index file of the photon production cross sections, updating the index file, searching the index file and producing a back-up file of the index file. In the index file of the photon production cross sections, a data base system is employed for efficient data management in economical storage, ease of updating and efficient reference. The present report is a reference manual of PHOBINS. (author)

  8. An Analysis/Synthesis System of Audio Signal with Utilization of an SN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rozinaj

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An SN (sinusoids plus noise model is a spectral model, in which theperiodic components of the sound are represented by sinusoids withtime-varying frequencies, amplitudes and phases. The remainingnon-periodic components are represented by a filtered noise. Thesinusoidal model utilizes physical properties of musical instrumentsand the noise model utilizes the human inability to perceive the exactspectral shape or the phase of stochastic signals. SN modeling can beapplied in a compression, transformation, separation of sounds, etc.The designed system is based on methods used in the SN modeling. Wehave proposed a model that achieves good results in audio perception.Although many systems do not save phases of the sinusoids, they areimportant for better modelling of transients, for the computation ofresidual and last but not least for stereo signals, too. One of thefundamental properties of the proposed system is the ability of thesignal reconstruction not only from the amplitude but from the phasepoint of view, as well.

  9. Evaluation of Embedded System Component Utilized in Delivery Integrated Design Project Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Hussaini, Yusnira; Nazmie Osman, Fairul; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the embedded system component utilized in delivering the integrated electronic engineering design project course. The evaluation is conducted based on the report project submitted as to fulfil the assessment criteria for the integrated electronic engineering design project course named; engineering system design. Six projects were assessed in this evaluation. The evaluation covers the type of controller, programming language and the number of embedded component utilization as well. From the evaluation, the C-programming based language is the best solution preferred by the students which provide them flexibility in the programming. Moreover, the Analog to Digital converter is intensively used in the projects which include sensors in their proposed design. As a conclusion, in delivering the integrated design project course, the knowledge over the embedded system solution is very important since the high density of the knowledge acquired in accomplishing the project assigned.

  10. Safety study on nuclear heat utilization system - accident delineation and assessment on nuclear steelmaking pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Mizuno, M.; Tsuruoka, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents accident delineation and assessment on a nuclear steelmaking pilot plant as an example of nuclear heat utilization systems. The reactor thermal energy from VHTR is transported to externally located chemical process plant employing helium-heated steam reformer by an intermediate heat transport loop. This paper on the nuclear steelmaking pilot plant will describe (1) system transients under accident conditions, (2) impact of explosion and fire on the nuclear reactor and the public and (3) radiation exposure on the public. The results presented in this paper will contribute considerably to understanding safety features of nuclear heat utilization system that employs the intermediate heat transport loop and the helium-heated steam reformer

  11. Perspectives on utilization of community based health information systems in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Otieno Careena; Margaret, Kaseje; Dan, Kaseje

    2017-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) are considered fundamental for the efficient delivery of high quality health care. However, a large number of legal and practical constraints influence the design and introduction of such systems. The inability to quantify and analyse situations with credible data and to use data in planning and managing service delivery plagues Africa. Establishing effective information systems and using this data for planning efficient health service delivery is essential to district health systems' performance improvement. Community Health Units in Kenya are central points for community data collection, analysis, dissemination and use. In Kenya, data tend to be collected for reporting purposes and not for decision-making at the point of collection. This paper describes the perspectives of local users on information use in various socio-economic contexts in Kenya. Information for this study was gathered through semi-structured interviews. The interviewees were purposefully selected from various community health units and public health facilities in the study area. The data were organized and analysed manually, grouping them into themes and categories. Information needs of the community included service utilization and health status information. Dialogue was the main way of information utilization in the community. However, health systems and personal challenges impeded proper collection and use of information. The challenges experienced in health information utilization may be overcome by linkages and coordination between the community and the health facilities. The personal challenges can be remedied using a motivational package that includes training of the Community Health Workers.

  12. Determining utility values in patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears using clinical scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szucs Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several instruments and clinical scoring systems have been established to evaluate patients with ligamentous knee injuries. A comparison of individual articles in the literature is challenging, not only because of heterogeneity in methodology, but also due to the variety of the scoring systems used to document clinical outcomes. There is limited information about the correlation between used scores and quality of life with no information being available on the impact of each score on the utility values. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used scores for evaluating patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, and to establish corresponding utility values. These values will be used for the interpretation and comparison of outcome results in the currently available literature for different treatment options. Methods Four hypothetical vignettes were defined, based on different levels of activities after rupture of the ACL to simulate typical situations seen in daily practice. A questionnaire, including the Health Utility Index (HUI for utility values, the IKDC subjective score, the Lysholm and the Tegner score, was created and 25 orthopedic surgeons were asked to fill the questionnaire for each hypothetical patient as proxies for all patients they had treated and who would fit in that hypothetical vignette. Results The utility value as an indicator for quality of life increased with the level of activity. Having discomforts already during normal activities of daily living was rated with a mean utility value of 0.37 ± 0.19, half of that of a situation where mild sport activity was possible without discomfort (0.78 ± 0.11. All investigated scores were able to distinguish clearly (p Conclusions Here we report the correlation between the most commonly used scores for the assessment of patients with a ruptured ACL and utility values as an indicator of quality of life. Assumptions were based on expert

  13. Are US utility standby rates inhibiting diffusion of customer-owned generating systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    New, small-scale electric generation technologies permit utility customers to generate some of their own electric power and to utilize waste heat for space heating and other applications at the building site. This combined heat and power (CHP) characteristic can provide significant energy-cost savings. However, most current US utility regulations leave CHP standby rate specification largely to utility discretion resulting in claims by CHP advocates that excessive standby rates are significantly reducing CHP-related savings and inhibiting CHP diffusion. The impacts of standby rates on the adoption of CHP are difficult to determine; however, because of the characteristically slow nature of new technology diffusion. This study develops an agent-based microsimulation model of CHP technology choice using cellular automata to represent new technology information dispersion and knowledge acquisition. Applying the model as an n-factorial experiment quantifies the impacts of standby rates on CHP technologies under alternative diffusion paths. Analysis of a sample utility indicates that, regardless of the likely diffusion process, reducing standby rates to reflect the cost of serving a large number of small, spatially clustered CHP systems significantly increases the adoption of these technologies

  14. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  15. Guessing unknown and disordered solvent molecules with squeeze in the structure validation platon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the assignment of the nature and number of solvent molecules in the refinement of several solvated crystal structures without a prior knowledge of the solvent system used for crystallization for the cases when the solvent molecule cannot be properly modeled. The solvent molecules can be assigned even for twinned crystal structures. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  17. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  18. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  19. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  20. Enhancement of Palmarumycin C12 and C13 Production by the Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 in an Aqueous-Organic Solvent System

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Yan; Xu, Dan; Mao, Ziling; Dong, Xuejiao; Lin, Fengke; Wang, Ali; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Xie, Bingyan

    2015-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis, was found to produce palmarumycins C12 and C13 which possess a great variety of biological activities. Seven biocompatible water-immiscible organic solvents including n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, 1-hexadecene, liquid paraffin, dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid were evaluated to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production in suspension culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Among the chosen solvents bot...