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Sample records for solvent refined coal-ii

  1. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  2. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  3. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  4. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  5. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  6. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  7. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  8. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  9. Bitumen performance and chemistry in solvent refined bitumen blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Glynn; Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    In years gone past most oil companies in Australia and New Zealand (NZ) developed experts that bridged the divide between refining and paving. This was supported by laboratories in Australia and sometimes Asia. This is no longer the case and many refineries have ceased bitumen production or closed. With the market moving towards imports and control to supply companies disconnects on bitumen passing a national specification and performance on the road. This reduces both durability and increases costs. This has been addressed by development in NZ of a performance specification for hot mix asphalt binders (including modified) and work being done on sealing grades. This paper discusses the development of the HMA specification with respect to crude sources and the development of methodologies to assess imported binders for suitability in all applications including emulsion. The conclusion is that bitumen quality may be maintained by use of these methodologies that include, chromatographic analysis, measurement of thermodynamic internal stability (Heithaus), aging, and Dynamic Shear Rheometry testing and mix performance testing in the laboratory. This forms a regime capable of use in any context and this leads to better durability of surfaces and extended service life.

  10. Refinement of NMR structures using implicit solvent and advanced sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhan; Im, Wonpil; Brooks, Charles L

    2004-12-15

    NMR biomolecular structure calculations exploit simulated annealing methods for conformational sampling and require a relatively high level of redundancy in the experimental restraints to determine quality three-dimensional structures. Recent advances in generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent models should make it possible to combine information from both experimental measurements and accurate empirical force fields to improve the quality of NMR-derived structures. In this paper, we study the influence of implicit solvent on the refinement of protein NMR structures and identify an optimal protocol of utilizing these improved force fields. To do so, we carry out structure refinement experiments for model proteins with published NMR structures using full NMR restraints and subsets of them. We also investigate the application of advanced sampling techniques to NMR structure refinement. Similar to the observations of Xia et al. (J.Biomol. NMR 2002, 22, 317-331), we find that the impact of implicit solvent is rather small when there is a sufficient number of experimental restraints (such as in the final stage of NMR structure determination), whether implicit solvent is used throughout the calculation or only in the final refinement step. The application of advanced sampling techniques also seems to have minimal impact in this case. However, when the experimental data are limited, we demonstrate that refinement with implicit solvent can substantially improve the quality of the structures. In particular, when combined with an advanced sampling technique, the replica exchange (REX) method, near-native structures can be rapidly moved toward the native basin. The REX method provides both enhanced sampling and automatic selection of the most native-like (lowest energy) structures. An optimal protocol based on our studies first generates an ensemble of initial structures that maximally satisfy the available experimental data with conventional NMR software using a simplified

  11. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  12. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  13. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  14. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  15. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  16. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  17. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  18. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  20. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  1. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run

  2. A refined method for the calculation of the Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound emission estimate from Domestic Solvent Usage in Ireland from 1992 to 2014 - A case study for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Stephen; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new methodology to calculate Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds from Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides over the period 1992-2014. Improved emissions data compiled at a much more refined level can help policy-makers develop more effective policy's to address environmental issues. However, a number of problems were found when member states attempt to use national statistics for Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides. For instance, EMEP/EEA (2013) provides no guidance regarding which activity data should be used, resulting in emission estimates being potentially inconsistent and un-comparable. Also, previous methods and emission factors described in the EMEP/EEA (2013) guidebook do not exactly match data collected by state agencies. This makes using national statistics difficult. In addition, EMEP/EEA (2013) use broader categories than necessary (e.g. Cosmetics Aerosol/Non Aerosol) to estimate emissions while activity data is available at a more refined level scale (e.g. Personal Cleaning Products, Hair Products, Cosmetics, Deodorants and Perfumes). This can make identifying the drivers of emissions unclear. This study builds upon Tzanidakis et al. (2012) whereby it provides a method for collecting activity data from state statistics, developed country specific emission factors based on a survey of 177 Irish products and importantly, used a new method to account for the volatility of organic compounds found in commonly available domestic solvent containing products. This is the first study to account for volatility based on the characteristics of organic compounds and therefore is considered a more accurate method of accounting for emissions from this emission source. The results of this study can also be used to provide a simple method for other member parties to account for the volatility of organic compounds using sectorial adjustment factors described here. For comparison purposes, emission estimates were calculated using the

  3. Unambiguous Determination of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond of NMR Structure by Molecular Dynamics Refinement Using All-Atom Force Field and Implicit Solvent Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Jun Goo

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that AMD refinement is very useful for defining an intermolecular hydrogen bond in NMR structure calculation. The refined structure also provides a clue for explaining the pH dependence in Ub and UIM complexes. As reported by Choi et al., serine-mediated hydrogen bonds are the third most populated hydrogen bonds found in protein-protein intermolecular interactions, after the backbone-backbone and backbone-aspartate ones. The abundance imposes the requirement of an method to determine the interface of protein-protein complexes. The precise geometry is particularly important in the complex structures between Ub and UBDs. Ub recognizes various targets with the same surface, where both hydrophobic and hydrophobic interactions are involved. Hence, the details of the hydrophilic interactions are necessary to find the common binding modes. The structure determination of a biomolecule by NMR depends heavily on the distance restraints derived by the NOE cross peaks that are observed between two protons within 6 A through space. Therefore, the existence of the NOE peaks and their correct assignments to two corresponding protons are essential for an accurate and precise structure determination. Recent developments of NOE assignment and calculation algorithms have enabled the determination of protein 3D structures without any manual interpretation, provided chemical shifts are assigned in most atoms and sufficient NOE peaks exist. Along with these advances, the necessity of determining complicated structures such as complexes is increasing

  4. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  5. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 30. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. The fate of trace elements in the SRC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.R.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated for each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg 0 , H 2 Se, AsH 3 and SbH 3 ) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase

  6. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  7. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  8. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  10. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  11. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  12. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  14. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  15. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  16. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  17. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  18. Guessing unknown and disordered solvent molecules with squeeze in the structure validation platon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the assignment of the nature and number of solvent molecules in the refinement of several solvated crystal structures without a prior knowledge of the solvent system used for crystallization for the cases when the solvent molecule cannot be properly modeled. The solvent molecules can be assigned even for twinned crystal structures. (author)

  19. Technological studies on uranium refining at nuclear materials authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 nuclear materials authority (NMA) took a decision to establish yellow cake refining. Unit so as to study refining of El-Atshan yellow cake which recently produced by ion-exchange pilot plant, production sector. The research studies followed the conventional refining rout to produce nuclear grade UO 3 . This implies investigations on some common solvents to refine the cake viz. tri alkyl phosphates, tri alkyl phosphine oxides, dialkyl phosphoric acid as well as high-molecular weight long-chain tertiary amines. Moreover, non-conventional refining process has also been presented depending on the selectivity of uranyl ion to be dissolved by carbonate and to be precipitated by hydrogen peroxide. Most of the proposed processes were found feasible to refine El-Atshan yellow cake. however, the non- conventional refining process appears to be the most promising, owing to its superior performance and economy

  20. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  1. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  2. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  3. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  4. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  5. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  6. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  7. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  8. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  9. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  10. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  11. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  12. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  13. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  14. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  15. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  16. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  17. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  18. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  19. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  1. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  2. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  3. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  4. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  5. Solubilities of hydrogen and methane in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ho-mu; Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Chao, Kwang Chu

    1981-04-01

    The solubilities of hydrogen and methane in Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) and Solvent Refined Coal II (SRC-II) coal liquids are determined at 190 and 270 C and pressures to 250 atm. Two narrow boiling distillate cuts from EDS and three from SRC-II are studied.

  6. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  7. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  8. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  9. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  10. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  11. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  12. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  13. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  14. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  15. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  16. A new concept for product refining in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Marquardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    In actual Purex plants the products are refined in additional solvent extraction cycles. Crystallization of uranyl and plutonyl nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solution is proposed as a potentially simpler product refining concept. Suitable crystallization conditions are being investigated in the laboratory using simulated and actual process solutions. A thorough removal of mother liquor is an essential purification step and well washed crystals usually contain less than 1% of an individual impurity. Crystallization simultaneously comprises a product concentration step. Hexavalent uranium can be separated from lower-valent plutonium. An outline of an integrated processing concept is given. Product refining by crystallization is compact; recycling of mother liquor plus wash acid prevents product loss and the generation of additional waste streams. (orig.) [de

  17. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  18. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  19. Solvent - solute interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)

  20. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  1. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  2. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  3. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  4. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  5. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  6. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  7. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  8. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  9. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  10. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  11. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  12. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  13. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  14. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  15. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  16. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  17. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  18. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  19. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  20. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  1. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  2. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  3. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  4. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  5. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  6. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  7. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  8. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  9. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  10. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  11. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  12. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  13. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  14. Solvent effects in the synergistic solvent extraction of Co2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Ramadan, A.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of Co 2+ from a 0.1M ionic strength aqueous phase (Na + , CH 3 COOH) of pH = 5.1 was studied using thenoyltrifluoroacetone, HTTA, in eight different solvents and HTTA + trioctylphosphine oxide, TOPO, in the same solvents. A comparison of the effect of solvent dielectric constant on the equilibrium constant shows a synergism as a result of the increased hydrophobic character imparted to the metal complex due to the formation of the TOPO adduct. (author)

  15. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  16. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  17. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  18. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  19. Sterically hindered solvent extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solka, J.L.; Reis, A.H. Jr.; Mason, G.W.; Lewey, S.M.; Peppard, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Di-t-pentylphosphinic acid, [C(CH 3 ) 2 (CH 2 CH 3 )] 2 PO(OH), H[Dt-PeP], has been shown by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to be dimeric in the solid state. H[Dt-PeP] crystallizes in the centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group, Cmca, with unit cell parameters, a = 17.694(7), b = 11.021(4), and c = 13.073(5) A, and Z = 8, indicating that the molecule must conform to a crystallographic mirror plane or 2-fold axis. A measured density of 1.088 g/cm 3 is in good agreement with a calculated value of 1.074 g/cm 3 for a unit cell volume of 2549.3(A) 3 and a formula weight of 206.25 g. A total of 646 three-dimensional X-ray data were collected on an automated XRD-490 G.E. diffractometer. The structure was solved using a combination of direct methods, Patterson, Fourier, and least-squares refinement techniques. Refinement of the data indicates that H[Dt-PeP] is dimeric, and contains a mirror plane in which the hydrogen-bonded, eight-membered ring lies. A structural disorder involving principally the ethylene carbon but affecting the methyl carbons as well precluded a precise determination of the carbon positions and severely reduced the precision of the final refinement. In the liquid-liquid extraction system consisting of a solution of H[Dt-PeP] in benzene vs an acidic aqueous chloride phase, the extraction of UO 2 2+ follows the stoichiometry: UO 2 sub(A) 2+ + 2(HY) 2 subO = UO 2 (HY 2 ) 2 sub(O) + 2Hsub(A) + where (HY) 2 represents the dimer of H[Dt-PeP] and A and O represent the mutually equilibrated aqueous and organic phases. The expression for the distribution ratio, k, for UO 2 2+ is given. (author)

  20. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  1. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  2. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  3. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  5. Development of process simulation code for reprocessing plant and process analysis for solvent degradation and solvent washing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Keiki

    1999-01-01

    We developed a process simulation code for an entire nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The code can be used on a PC. Almost all of the equipment in the reprocessing plant is included in the code and the mass balance model of each item of equipment is based on the distribution factors of flow-out streams. All models are connected between the outlet flow and the inlet flow according to the process flow sheet. We estimated the amount of DBP from TBP degradation in the entire process by using the developed code. Most of the DBP is generated in the Pu refining process by the effect of α radiation from Pu, which is extracted in a solvent. On the other hand, very little of DBP is generated in the U refining process. We therefore propose simplification of the solvent washing process and volume reduction of the alkali washing waste in the U refining process. The first Japanese commercial reprocessing plant is currently under construction at Rokkasho Mura, Recently, for the sake of process simplification, the original process design has been changed. Using our code, we analyzed the original process and the simplified process. According our results, the volume of alkali waste solution in the low-level liquid treatment process will be reduced by half in the simplified process. (author)

  6. Solvent extraction of Zn and metals in Zn ores by nonphosphorous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, J.M.; Tostain, Jacqueline.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography follows a first work on Zn solvent extraction by organo-phosphorous compounds. The other solvents used in Zn extraction, are studied: oxygenated nonphosphorous solvents (ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, sulfonates), nitrogenous solvents and hydrocarbons [fr

  7. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D

    2006-01-01

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  8. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  9. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  10. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  12. Ecological fate and effects of solvent-refined-coal (SRC) materials: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A. III; Vaughan, B.E. (eds.)

    1981-10-01

    Non-occupational health effects associated with SRC operation will be determined by environmental factors governing the form, transport, and persistence of SRC materials and wastes - factors which also mediate exposure to man. Accordingly, the research described is an attempt to determine the fate of disposed solid wastes and spilled SRC materials, and it necessarily focuses on water soluble, persistent materials with greatest potential for mobility and incorporation into water and food supplies. Initially, aqueous equilibrations of SRC-II liquid material and SRC-I nongasified mineral residue were subjected to chemical characterization. Subsequently, laboratory studies were performed on the interaction of aqueous equilibrates of SRC-II liquid and SRC-I non-gasified mineral residue with soil materials isolated suspended sediments, and bottom sediments. These studies were designed to identify effects of specific sorption reactions ion or induced-ion exchange reactions, and toxicity of water soluble, biologically active materials derived from liquid and solid wastes. Results of these experiments have applicability to the environmental fate and effects of biologically active compounds released under different scenarios from product spills and solid waste disposal.

  13. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  14. SRC-I solvent refined coal demonstration facility, Daviess County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This volume of the Environmental Information Document on SRC-I contains appendices I-P. Information is provided for the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement. Title listings of the appendices are: meteorology and air quality reports, December 1978 and March 1979; sound; economic, social, and cultural features; historical/architectural survey; archeological reports, 1979 and 1980; potential for burial and preservation of fossils; and alternate sites.

  15. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  16. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  17. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  18. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  19. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  20. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  1. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  2. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  3. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  5. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  6. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  7. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  8. Phase equilibria study of systems composed of refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipert, Erika C. D'Anton; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Refining of vegetable oils. → Deacidification of babassu oil by liquid-liquid extraction using ethanol as solvent. → Distribution coefficient values of lauric acid and neutral oil were evaluated. → The carbon chain length of the molecules influenced the solubility of the system. - Abstract: Deacidification of vegetable oils can be performed using liquid-liquid extraction as an alternative method to the classical chemical and physical refining processes. This paper reports experimental data for systems containing refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K with different water mass fractions in the alcoholic solvent (0, 0.0557, 0.1045, 0.2029, and 0.2972). The dilution of solvent with water reduced the distribution coefficient values, which indicates a reduction in the loss of neutral oil. The experimental data were used to adjust the NRTL equation parameters. The global deviation between the observed and the estimated compositions was 0.0085, indicating that the model can accurately predict the behavior of the compounds at different levels of solvent hydration.

  9. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  10. Summary of uranium refining and conversion pilot plant at Ningyo-toge works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Ichiro

    1981-01-01

    In the Ningyo-toge works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the construction of the uranium refining and conversion pilot plant was completed, and the operation will be started after the various tests based on the related laws. As for the uranium refining in Japan, the PNC process by wet refining method has been developed since 1958. The history of the development is described. It was decided to construct the refining and conversion pilot plant with 200 t uranium/year capacity as the comprehensive result of the development. This is the amount sufficient to supply UF 6 to the uranium enrichment pilot plant in Ningyo-toge. The building for the refining and conversion pilot plant is a three-story ferro-concrete building with the total floor area of about 13,000 m 2 . The raw materials are the uranium ore produced in Ningyo-toge and the yellow cakes from abroad. Uranyl sulfate solution is obtained by solvent extraction using an extraction tower or a mixer-settler. The following processes are electrolytic reduction, precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride, filtration, drying, dehydration and UF 6 conversion. The fluorine for UF 6 conversion is produced by the facility in the plant. The operation of the pilot plant will be started in the latter half of the fiscal year 1981, the batch operation is carrried out in 1982, and the continuous operation from 1983. (Kako, I.)

  11. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  13. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  14. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  15. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  16. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein.

  17. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...

  18. pH-zone-refining elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography: Separation of hydroxyanthraquinones from Cassiae semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhisi; Lv, Liqiong; Li, Xingnuo; Chu, Chu; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-11-01

    Seven hydroxyanthraquinones were successfully separated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Cassiae semen by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography with an environmentally friendly biphasic solvent system, in which elution-extrusion mode was investigated for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the first time. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (5:3:4:4, v/v/v/v) was used for the conventional countercurrent chromatography while the same system with a different volume ratio n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:5:2:6, v/v/v/v) was used for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, in which 20 mmol/L of trifluoroacetic acid was added in the organic phase as a retainer and 15 mmol/L of ammonia was added to the aqueous phase as an eluter. A 400 mg crude sample could be well separated by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, yielding 53 mg of aurantio-obtusin, 40 mg of chryso-obtusin, 18 mg of obtusin, 24 mg of obtusifolin, 10 mg of emodin, and 105 mg of the mixture of chrysophanol and physcion with a purity of over 95.8, 95.7, 96.9, 93.5, 97.4, 77.1, and 19.8%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the difference in elution sequence between conventional and pH-zone-refining mode was observed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  20. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  1. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  2. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  3. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  4. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  5. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  6. A prototype study with solvent extraction on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The need for uranium purification has generated the study of different methods in order for purification to be achieved, having had excellent results in the laboratory with ionic exchange methods, extraction by means of solvents and chromatography. Pilot experiments of the ionic exchange method have been performed, using as experimentation equipment the columns of ionic exchange, attaining some results without concreting the objectives. Likewise several experiments in mixer-settlers have been performed for the purification of uranium by the solvent extraction method, where there were serious problems with the formation of a third incontrollable phase, and also, due to the later, low purification of the uranium when distributing from one phase to the other. Knowing these problems brought on by the performed experiments in mixer-setters by groups of researchers interested in this part of the nuclear fuel, the task of designing a prototype of extraction with solvents of the mixer-settler type was undertaken in the project 'Models and simulation of equipment and processes of the refinement and conversion department'. The purification of uranium as uranyl nitrate [UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] was developed, establishing the conditions for the equipment operation, concluding that, with some relatively simple adjustements, it is possible to apply in different areas, taking note of the specific needs of mining, cosmetics, perfume and pharmaceutical areas. (Author)

  7. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine ...

  8. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  9. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  10. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  12. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  13. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  14. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  15. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  16. Recent solvent extraction experience at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Gray, J.H.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, D.L.; Macafee, I.M.; Reif, D.J.; Shook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate-based solvent extraction processes have been used at Savannah River for more than 30 years to separate and purify thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. This report summarizes the advancement of solvent extraction technology at Savannah River during the 1980's. Topics that are discussed include equipment improvements, solvent treatment, waste reduction, and an improved understanding of the various chemistries in the process streams entering, within, and leaving the solvent extraction processes

  17. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  18. Restoring solvent for nuclear separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation processes are used to recover usable nuclear materials from spent fuels. These processes involve the use of an extractant/diluent (solvent) for separation of the reusable actinides from unwanted fission products. The most widely used processes employ tributyl phosphate as an extractant diluted with a normal-paraffin hydrocarbon. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. In most processes, the solvent is recycled after cleaning. Solvent cleaning generally involves scrubbing with a sodium carbonate solution. Studies at the Savannah River Laboratory have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove more solvent-soluble binding ligands (formed by solvent degradation), which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of the solvent with a solid adsorbent after carbonate washing removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycled solvent performance. Laboratory work to establish the advantage of adsorbent cleaning and the development of a full-scale adsorption process is described. The application of this process for cleaning the first cycle solvent of a Savannah River Plant production process is discussed

  19. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  20. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of MARTINI Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Cunha, Ana V.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    We present adaptive resolution dynamics simulations of aqueous and apolar solvents coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field. As representatives of both classes solvents we have chosen liquid water and butane, respectively, at ambient temperature. The solvent

  1. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  2. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  3. Effect of dynamic surface polarization on the oxidative stability of solvents in nonaqueous Li-O 2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Abhishek; Pitsch, Heinz; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Polarization-induced renormalization of the frontier energy levels of interacting molecules and surfaces can cause significant shifts in the excitation and transport behavior of electrons. This phenomenon is crucial in determining the oxidative stability of nonaqueous electrolytes in high-energy density electrochemical systems such as the Li-O2 battery. On the basis of partially self-consistent first-principles Sc G W0 calculations, we systematically study how the electronic energy levels of four commonly used solvent molecules, namely, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethoxyethane (DME), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and acetonitrile (ACN), renormalize when physisorbed on the different stable surfaces of Li2O2 , the main discharge product. Using band level alignment arguments, we propose that the difference between the solvent's highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the surface's valence-band maximum (VBM) is a refined metric of oxidative stability. This metric and a previously used descriptor, solvent's gas phase HOMO level, agree quite well for physisorbed cases on pristine surfaces where ACN is oxidatively most stable followed by DME, THF, and DMSO. However, this effect is intrinsically linked to the surface chemistry of the solvent's interaction with the surface states and defects, and depends strongly on their nature. We conclusively show that the propensity of solvent molecules to oxidize will be significantly higher on Li2O2 surfaces with defects as compared to pristine surfaces. This suggests that the oxidative stability of a solvent is dynamic and is a strong function of surface electronic properties. Thus, while gas phase HOMO levels could be used for preliminary solvent candidate screening, a more refined picture of solvent stability requires mapping out the solvent stability as a function of the state of the surface under operating conditions.

  4. Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Zwart, Peter H.; Hung, Li-Wei; Read, Randy J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described. The procedure can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods. The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 Å, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution

  5. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2007-04-29

    The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.

  6. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  7. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  9. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  10. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  12. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  13. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  14. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection pr...

  15. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  16. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-12-12

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  19. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  20. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans.

  1. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...... and have indicated that more fundamental work is required to investigate and discover new organic solvents for EME....

  2. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  3. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  4. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  5. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  6. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  7. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  8. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  10. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  11. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  12. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  13. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  14. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  15. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  16. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  17. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  18. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  19. Theory of polyelectrolytes in solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitanvis, Shirish M

    2003-12-01

    Using a continuum description, we account for fluctuations in the ionic solvent surrounding a Gaussian, charged chain and derive an effective short-ranged potential between the charges on the chain. This potential is repulsive at short separations and attractive at longer distances. The chemical potential can be derived from this potential. When the chemical potential is positive, it leads to a meltlike state. For a vanishingly low concentration of segments, this state exhibits scaling behavior for long chains. The Flory exponent characterizing the radius of gyration for long chains is calculated to be approximately 0.63, close to the classical value obtained for second order phase transitions. For short chains, the radius of gyration varies linearly with N, the chain length, and is sensitive to the parameters in the interaction potential. The linear dependence on the chain length N indicates a stiff behavior. The chemical potential associated with this interaction changes sign, when the screening length in the ionic solvent exceeds a critical value. This leads to condensation when the chemical potential is negative. In this state, it is shown using the mean-field approximation that spherical and toroidal condensed shapes can be obtained. The thickness of the toroidal polyelectrolyte is studied as a function of the parameters of the model, such as the ionic screening length. The predictions of this theory should be amenable to experimental verification.

  20. Protein structure modeling and refinement by global optimization in CASP12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Joung, InSuk; Flores-Canales, Jose C; Manavalan, Balachandran; Cheng, Qianyi; Heo, Seungryong; Kim, Jong Yun; Lee, Sun Young; Nam, Mikyung; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2018-03-01

    For protein structure modeling in the CASP12 experiment, we have developed a new protocol based on our previous CASP11 approach. The global optimization method of conformational space annealing (CSA) was applied to 3 stages of modeling: multiple sequence-structure alignment, three-dimensional (3D) chain building, and side-chain re-modeling. For better template selection and model selection, we updated our model quality assessment (QA) method with the newly developed SVMQA (support vector machine for quality assessment). For 3D chain building, we updated our energy function by including restraints generated from predicted residue-residue contacts. New energy terms for the predicted secondary structure and predicted solvent accessible surface area were also introduced. For difficult targets, we proposed a new method, LEEab, where the template term played a less significant role than it did in LEE, complemented by increased contributions from other terms such as the predicted contact term. For TBM (template-based modeling) targets, LEE performed better than LEEab, but for FM targets, LEEab was better. For model refinement, we modified our CASP11 molecular dynamics (MD) based protocol by using explicit solvents and tuning down restraint weights. Refinement results from MD simulations that used a new augmented statistical energy term in the force field were quite promising. Finally, when using inaccurate information (such as the predicted contacts), it was important to use the Lorentzian function for which the maximal penalty arising from wrong information is always bounded. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  2. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  3. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  4. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  5. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  6. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  7. Government will shape China's refining boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-01-01

    China's refining system is undergoing a major overhaul. New refineries are being built as existing ones are upgraded and expanded. The success of refineries funded completely or partially by non-chinese companies will depend in part on Chinese government policy. There will be demand for products from third-party processing facilities, but hard current is necessary for the investors to repatriate profits and for china Petrochemical Corp. (Sinopec) to bid on the products from such facilities. The limited convertibility of chinese current constitutes a major central control over the country's entire economy. This control can be affected by limiting product exchange participants and the volumes to be traded. Such a limitation, however, will reduce access of non-Chinese companies to China's markets, and is not likely to occur in the next 10 years. The paper discusses the current situation in capacity and in refining, capacity, expansion, refinery planning, construction projects, third-party processing, and the prospects for change

  8. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  9. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  10. The big shedding of the European refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  11. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  12. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  13. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  14. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  16. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  17. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  18. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  19. Refining glass structure in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  20. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  1. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  2. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  3. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  4. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  5. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  6. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  7. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  8. Derivation of Reliable Geometries in QM Calculations of DNA Structures: Explicit Solvent QM/MM and Restrained Implicit Solvent QM Optimizations of G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkionis, Konstantinos; Kruse, Holger; Šponer, Jiří

    2016-04-12

    Modern dispersion-corrected DFT methods have made it possible to perform reliable QM studies on complete nucleic acid (NA) building blocks having hundreds of atoms. Such calculations, although still limited to investigations of potential energy surfaces, enhance the portfolio of computational methods applicable to NAs and offer considerably more accurate intrinsic descriptions of NAs than standard MM. However, in practice such calculations are hampered by the use of implicit solvent environments and truncation of the systems. Conventional QM optimizations are spoiled by spurious intramolecular interactions and severe structural deformations. Here we compare two approaches designed to suppress such artifacts: partially restrained continuum solvent QM and explicit solvent QM/MM optimizations. We report geometry relaxations of a set of diverse double-quartet guanine quadruplex (GQ) DNA stems. Both methods provide neat structures without major artifacts. However, each one also has distinct weaknesses. In restrained optimizations, all errors in the target geometries (i.e., low-resolution X-ray and NMR structures) are transferred to the optimized geometries. In QM/MM, the initial solvent configuration causes some heterogeneity in the geometries. Nevertheless, both approaches represent a decisive step forward compared to conventional optimizations. We refine earlier computations that revealed sizable differences in the relative energies of GQ stems computed with AMBER MM and QM. We also explore the dependence of the QM/MM results on the applied computational protocol.

  9. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  10. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. [degradation of silicone polymers by amine solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, Y. C.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Spore recovery form cured silicone potting compounds using amine solvents to degrade the cured polymers was investigated. A complete list of solvents and a description of the effect of each on two different silicone polymers is provided.

  11. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  12. Implicit solvent simulations of DNA and DNA-protein complexes: Agreement with explicit solvent vs experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chocholoušová, Jana; Feig, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 34 (2006), s. 17240-17251 ISSN 1520-6106 Keywords : implicit solvent * explicit solvent * protein DNA complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.115, year: 2006

  13. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  14. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  15. Hybrid-hybrid matrix structural refinement of a DNA three-way junction from 3D NOESY-NOESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Luxon, Bruce A.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Illangasekare, Nishantha; Donne, David G.; Gorenstein, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Homonuclear 3D NOESY-NOESY has shown great promise for the structural refinement of large biomolecules. A computationally efficient hybrid-hybrid relaxation matrix refinement methodology, using 3D NOESY-NOESY data, was used to refine the structure of a DNA three-way junction having two unpaired bases at the branch point of the junction. The NMR data and the relaxation matrix refinement confirm that the DNA three-way junction exists in a folded conformation with two of the helical stems stacked upon each other. The third unstacked stem extends away from the junction, forming an acute angle (∼60 deg.) with the stacked stems. The two unpaired bases are stacked upon each other and are exposed to the solvent. Helical parameters for the bases in all three strands show slight deviations from typical values expected for right-handed B-form DNA. Inter-nucleotide imino-imino NOEs between the bases at the branch point of the junction show that the junction region is well defined. The helical stems show mobility (± 20 deg.) indicating dynamic processes around the junction region. The unstacked helical stem adjacent to the unpaired bases shows greater mobility compared to the other two stems. The results from this study indicate that the 3D hybrid-hybrid matrix MORASS refinement methodology, by combining the spectral dispersion of 3D NOESY-NOESY and the computational efficiency of 2D refinement programs, provides an accurate and robust means for structure determination of large biomolecules. Our results also indicate that the 3D MORASS method gives higher quality structures compared to the 2D complete relaxation matrix refinement method

  16. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  17. Into the depths of deep eutectic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Kroon, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been successfully tested in a wide range of applications; however, their high price and complicated synthesis make them infeasible for large scale implementation. A decade ago, a new generation of solvents so called deep eutectic solvents (DESs) was reported for the first

  18. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  19. Structuring of polymer solutions upon solvent evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; van der Schoot, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Michels, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of solution-cast, phase-separated polymers becomes finer with increasing solvent evaporation rate. We address this observation theoretically for a model polymer where demixing is induced by steady solvent evaporation. In contrast to what is the case for a classical, thermal quench

  20. Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique

  1. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  2. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  3. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  4. Local adaptive mesh refinement for shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.; Colella, P.; Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, 94550 California)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an automatic, adaptive mesh refinement strategy for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in two dimensions. There are two main difficulties in doing this. The first problem is due to the presence of discontinuities in the solution and the effect on them of discontinuities in the mesh. The second problem is how to organize the algorithm to minimize memory and CPU overhead. This is an important consideration and will continue to be important as more sophisticated algorithms that use data structures other than arrays are developed for use on vector and parallel computers. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  5. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  6. Method of decomposing radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  8. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  9. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  11. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  12. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  13. Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation

  14. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  15. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  16. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  17. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  18. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  19. Solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.; Naylor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction techniques have been used in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle in three main areas; concentration of uranium from ore leach liquor, purification of ore concentrates and fuel reprocessing. Solvent extraction has been extended to the removal of transuranic elements from active waste liquor, the recovery of uranium from natural sources and the recovery of noble metals from active waste liquor. Schemes are presented for solvent extraction of uranium using the Amex or Dapex process; spent fuel reprocessing and the Purex process. Recent and future developments of the techniques are outlined. (UK)

  20. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  1. Spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Effect of strontium on the grain refining efficiency of Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun; Yang Jian; Kuwabara, Mamoru; Li Wenfang; Peng Jihua

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Sr on the grain refining efficiency of the Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation has been investigated in the present study. A significant grain refinement was obtained for the Mg-3Al alloy treated with either 0.2% C or 0.2% Sr. The Al-C-O particles were found in the sample refined by 0.2% C, and the element O should come from reaction between Al 4 C 3 nuclei of Mg grains and water during the process of sample preparation. The grain size of the sample refined by carbon inoculation was further decreased after the combined addition of Sr. The grain size decreased with increasing Sr content. Much higher refining efficiency was obtained when the Sr addition was increased to 0.5%. Sr is an effective element to improve the grain refining efficiency for the Mg-Al alloys refined by carbon inoculation. The number of Al 4 C 3 particles in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and Sr was more than that in the sample refined by only carbon. No Al-C-O-Sr-rich particles were obviously found in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and a little (<0.5%) Sr addition

  4. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  5. Refining the ideas of "ethnic" skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vicente; Herane, Maria Isabel; Costa, Adilson; Martin, Jaime Piquero; Troielli, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Skin disease occur worldwide, affecting people of all nationalities and all skin types. These diseases may have a genetic component and may manifest differently in specific population groups; however, there has been little study on this aspect. If population-based differences exist, it is reasonable to assume that understanding these differences may optimize treatment. While there is a relative paucity of information about similarities and differences in skin diseases around the world, the knowledge-base is expanding. One challenge in understanding population-based variations is posed by terminology used in the literature: including ethnic skin, Hispanic skin, Asian skin, and skin of color. As will be discussed in this article, we recommend that the first three descriptors are no longer used in dermatology because they refer to nonspecific groups of people. In contrast, "skin of color" may be used - perhaps with further refinements in the future - as a term that relates to skin biology and provides relevant information to dermatologists.

  6. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  7. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  8. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  9. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  10. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  11. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Marmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world′s literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures.

  12. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  13. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  14. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  15. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Chemical hazards when working with solvent glues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, Wojciech; Makles, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Solvent glues are used in a wide variety of industries, e.g., textile, footwear and rubber. The problem of workers' exposure to solvent vapors is rarely tackled within the area of occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to assess exposure to solvents, organic solvents emitted by glues were identified in the samples of workplace air. The concentration of acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, butyl acetate and toluene were determined. The obtained results evidenced the presence of cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, ethylcyclohexane, heptane, n-hexane, o-xylene, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, butyl acetate and toluene in workplace air. The concentration of those compounds in workplace air was low, usually below 0.15 of MAC. At some workstations the presence of benzene was also observed. Occupational risk was assessed at workstations where gluing took place. It showed that the risk at those workstations was medium or low.

  17. Organic solvents from sugar cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H

    1970-01-01

    The production of organic solvents by fermentation of low priced cane molasses is discussed. Processes described and illustrated in detail include the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate.

  18. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael A., E-mail: mroger09@uoguelph.ca [Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N3C3X9 (Canada); Corradini, Maria G. [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Emge, Thomas [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  19. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michael A.; Corradini, Maria G.; Emge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  20. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  1. Enantioselective solvent-free Robinson annulation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    solvents to effect an asymmetric synthesis is an important step forward towards ... In continuation of our preliminary communication 2, we wish to ..... formation of chiral enamine 74 from the reaction of S-proline with pro-R carbonyl group.

  2. STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthesized through glucose degradation (glycolysis) to lactic acid. ... g sample into a well stoppered plastic bottle and mixed with 20 mL of distilled .... Recovery of used solvent is necessary because methylchloroform is toxic to the bacteria.

  3. Green and Bio-Based Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco G; Monteagudo-Arrebola, María José; Dobado, José A; Isac-García, Joaquín

    2018-04-24

    Chemical reactions and many of the procedures of separation and purification employed in industry, research or chemistry teaching utilize solvents massively. In the last decades, with the birth of Green Chemistry, concerns about the employment of solvents and the effects on human health, as well as its environmental impacts and its dependence on non-renewable raw materials for manufacturing most of them, has drawn the attention of the scientific community. In this work, we review the concept of green solvent and the properties and characteristics to be considered green. Additionally, we discuss the different possible routes to prepare many solvents from biomass, as an alternative way to those methods currently applied in the petrochemical industry.

  4. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  5. An overview of industrial solvent use or is there life after chlorinated solvents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1991-01-01

    Everyone using industrial chemicals has been affected by the fire- storm of new regulations governing solvent use. How will companies currently using hazardous solvents prepare for the changes ahead? What will the impact be on commonly used industrial solvents? What effect are environmental pressures having on solvent use and disposal? Are the responsible individuals in your company up-to-date on phase-out schedules? This paper is written for an audience of compliance coordinators, consultants, production engineers and corporate management. In it, the either addresses the above questions and discusses the specific products affected. The author reviews currently available alternatives to chlorinated and hazardous solvents and introduces a simple system for rating alternatives. The program also includes a discussion of solvent minimization programs and worker reeducation

  6. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  7. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    constrained properties related to chemical reaction equilibrium, substrate and product solubility, water solubility, boiling points, toxicity and others. Two examples are provided, covering the screening of solvents for lipase-catalyzed transesterification of octanol and inulin with vinyl laurate....... Esterification of acrylic acid with octanol is also addressed. Solvents are screened and candidates identified, confirming existing experimental results. Although the examples involve lipases, the method is quite general, so there seems to be no preclusion against application to other biocatalysts....

  8. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, B.; Germain, M.; Puyou, M.; Rouyer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated [fr

  9. Effect of process distillation on mutagenicity and cell-transformation activity of solvent-refined, coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Frazier, M.E.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-05-01

    Blended SRC-II process streams, representing a full boiling range distillate material, were fractionally distilled into non-overlapping 50 F cuts with bp between 300 and 850 C and another set with bp ranging between 138 and 1055 F. Distillate cuts were assayed for mutagenic activity using the histidine reversion assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, as well as for mammalian-cell transformation (mct) activity in the Syrian hamster embryo test, and DNA damage in the prophage induction assay (pia). Samples were also separated into chemical class fractions by alumina column chromatography and analysed by high resolution gas chromatography. In the met and microbial mutagenicity assays, significant activity was found almost exclusively in cuts with bp> above 700 F, with the highest activity in the mct assay observed for cuts above 800 F. All of the cuts showed increased levels of DNA damage as expressed by lambda pia in Escherichia coli 8177. However, the greatest activity was associated with cuts with bp in the 800 F+ range. Chemical analysis of the 50 F cuts showed a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and amino-PAH compounds to be present in the cuts with bp> above 700 F and essentially absent from cuts with bp< 700 F. The sample set of non-overlapping (50 F) cuts were reblended according to the proportions of each cut found in the original blend material. These reblended composites were then assayed to compare their activity with that predicted from the activities of the component cuts. The results indicated the microbial mutagenicity response was essentially additive. Met activities were non-additive, indicating a compositional effect on the expression of transforming agents in the complex mixture. 18 references.

  10. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  11. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nascentes dos Santos Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD. PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM, in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C.

  12. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  13. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  14. Flow induced/ refined solution crystallization of a semiconducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc A.

    Organic photovoltaics, a new generation of solar cells, has gained scientific and economic interests due to the ability of solution-processing and potentially low-cost power production. Though, the low power conversion efficiency of organic/ plastic solar cells is one of the most pertinent challenges that has appealed to research communities from many different fields including materials science and engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, physics and chemistry. This thesis focuses on investigating and controlling the morphology of a semi-conducting, semi-crystalline polymer formed under shear-flow. Molecular structures and processing techniques are critical factors that significantly affect the morphology formation in the plastic solar cells, thus influencing device performance. In this study, flow-induced solution crystallization of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a poor solvent, 2-ethylnapthalene (2-EN) was utilized to make a paint-like, structural liquid. The polymer crystals observed in this structured paint are micrometers long, nanometers in cross section and have a structure similar to that formed under quiescent conditions. There is pi-pi stacking order along the fibril axis, while polymer chain folding occurs along the fibril width and the order of the side-chain stacking is along fibril height. It was revealed that shear-flow not only induces P3HT crystallization from solution, but also refines and perfects the P3HT crystals. Thus, a general strategy to refine the semiconducting polymer crystals from solution under shear-flow has been developed and employed by simply tuning the processing (shearing) conditions with respect to the dissolution temperature of P3HT in 2-EN. The experimental results demonstrated that shear removes defects and allows more perfect crystals to be formed. There is no glass transition temperature observed in the crystals formed using the flow-induced crystallization indicating a significantly different

  15. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  16. A refinement methodology for object-oriented programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tafat , Asma; Boulmé , Sylvain; Marché , Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Refinement is a well-known approach for developing correct-byconstruction software. It has been very successful for producing high quality code e.g., as implemented in the B tool. Yet, such refinement techniques are restricted in the sense that they forbid aliasing (and more generally sharing of data-structures), which often happens in usual programming languages. We propose a sound approach for refinement in presence of aliases. Suitable abstractions of programs are d...

  17. Solving the Sophistication-Population Paradox of Game Refinement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...

  18. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  19. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  20. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  1. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  2. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a process for systematically refining an enterprise system architecture to resist recognize and recover from deliberate, malicious attacks by applying reusable design primitives...

  3. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  4. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  5. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  6. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN left-reversible cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 ± 10 K and 5.9 ± 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 ± 20 K and p = 400 ± 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures

  7. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  8. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.32 - Toxic cleaning solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic cleaning solvents. 1915.32 Section 1915.32 Labor... Preservation § 1915.32 Toxic cleaning solvents. (a) When toxic solvents are used, the employer shall employ one or more of the following measures to safeguard the health of employees exposed to these solvents. (1...

  11. COMPUTER-AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: PARIS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvent substitution is an attractive way of elijminating the use of regulated solvents because it usually does not require major chanages in existing processes, equipment or operations. Successful solvent substitution is dependent on finding solvents that are as effective or be...

  12. Effects of the organic solvents addition about crude oil rheological behavior from 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brazil); Efeito da adicao de solventes organicos sobre o comportamento reologico do petroleo cru oriundo do 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Luis A.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Vieira, Jacyara M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Minas; Almeida, Yeda M.B.; Sarmento, Sandra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The crude oil rheological properties are quite important in its transport and refining processes. They can affect the head losses and, thus, the pressure within a refining unit. These properties can be affected by the temperature and the chemical composition as well as by solvents added to the crude oil. The current work studied the rheological behaviour of both a crude oil from the Reconcavo Baiano (Brazil) and mixture of this crude oil with organic solvents (toluene and xylene). The solvent type and concentration effects on the rheological parameters, were studied. The Brookfield viscometer, model LDVD-II, was used. The results brought to light that the crude oil and the crude oil-solvent mixtures behaved, discretely, as thixotropic fluids. The model of Herschel-Bulkley for viscoplastic fluid was the best in fitting the experimental data for both crude oil and crude oil - solvent mixture. The toluene was found to be more efficient in reducing both the apparent viscosity and apparent yield stress of the crude oil than the xylene for a given concentration. The solvent concentration affects indirectly the rheological properties of the crude oil. (author)

  13. Formation of Polyphenol-Denatured Protein Flocs in Alcohol Beverages Sweetened with Refined Cane Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-11-08

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white cane sugars in alcohol beverages remains a technical problem for both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. Cane invert sugars mixed with 60% pure alcohol and water increased light scattering by up to ∼1000-fold. Insoluble and soluble starch, fat, inorganic ash, oligosaccharides, Brix, and pH were not involved in the prevailing floc-formation mechanism. Strong polynomial correlations existed between the haze floc and indicator values (IVs) (color at 420 nm pH 9.0/color at pH 4.0-an indirect measure of polyphenolic and flavonoid colorants) (R 2 = 0.815) and protein (R 2 = 0.819) content of the invert sugars. Ethanol-induced denaturation of the protein exposed hydrophobic polyphenol-binding sites that were further exposed when heated to 80 °C. A tentative mechanism for floc formation was advanced by molecular probing with a haze (floc) active protein and polyphenol as well as polar, nonpolar, and ionic solvents.

  14. Structure of Insulin: Results of joint neutron and X-ray refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodawer, A; Savage, H; Dodson, G

    1989-02-01

    Neutron diffraction data for porcine 2Zn insulin were collected to 2.2 A resolution from a single crystal deuterated by slow exchange of mother liquor. A joint neutron/X-ray restrained-least-squares refinement was undertaken using the neutron data, as well as the 1.5 A resolution X-ray data collected previously. The final R factors were 0.182 for the X-ray data and 0.191 for the neutron data. Resulting atomic coordinates were compared with the initial X-ray model, showing a total r.m.s. shift of 0.36 A for the protein and 0.6 A for the solvent. Protonation of a number of individual amino acids was investigated by analysis of the neutron maps. No D atoms were found between the carboxylates of Glu B13 which make an intermolecular contact, suggesting nonbonded interaction rather than the predicted hydrogen bond. Amide hydrogen exchange was investigated in a refinement of their atomic occupancies. Regions of unexchanged amide groups were found in the center of the B helices. The results of this study emphasize the limited amount of information available in neutron diffraction studies of proteins at resolution lower than 2 A.

  15. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  16. Measurement and correlation of solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinxiu; Xie, Chuang; Yin, Qiuxiang; Tao, Linggang; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yongli; He, Fang; Hao, Hongxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure and binary solvents was determined. • The experimental solubility data were correlated by thermodynamic models. • A model was employed to calculate the melting temperature of cefmenoxime hydrochloride. • Mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured at temperatures from (283.15 to 313.15) K by using the UV spectroscopic method. The results reveal that the solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride increases with increasing temperature in all solvent selected. The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride reaches its maximum value when the mole fraction of isopropanol is 0.2 in the binary solvent mixtures of (isopropanol + water). The modified Apelblat equation and the NRTL model were successfully used to correlate the experimental solubility in pure solvents while the modified Apelblat equation, the CNIBS/R–K model and the Jouyban–Acree model were applied to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. In addition, the mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in different solvents were also calculated based on the NRTL model and experimental solubility data.

  17. Solvent/non-solvent sintering: a novel route to create porous microsphere scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin L; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-08-01

    Solvent/non-solvent sintering creates porous polymeric microsphere scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering purposes with control over the resulting porosity, average pore diameter, and mechanical properties. Five different biodegradable biocompatible polyphosphazenes exhibiting glass transition temperatures from -8 to 41 degrees C and poly (lactide-co-glycolide), (PLAGA) a degradable polymer used in a number of biomedical settings, were examined to study the versatility of the process and benchmark the process to heat sintering. Parameters such as: solvent/non-solvent sintering solution composition and submersion time effect the sintering process. PLAGA microsphere scaffolds fabricated with solvent/non-solvent sintering exhibited an interconnected porosity and pore size of 31.9% and 179.1 mum, respectively which was analogous to that of conventional heat sintered PLAGA microsphere scaffolds. Biodegradable polyphosphazene microsphere scaffolds exhibited a maximum interconnected porosity of 37.6% and a maximum compressive modulus of 94.3 MPa. Solvent/non-solvent sintering is an effective strategy for sintering polymeric microspheres, with a broad spectrum of glass transition temperatures, under ambient conditions making it an excellent fabrication route for developing tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Solvent extraction studies in miniature centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siczek, A.A.; Meisenhelder, J.H.; Bernstein, G.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature short-residence-time centrifugal solvent extraction contactor and an eight-stage laboratory minibank of centrifugal contactors were used for testing the possibility of utilizing kinetic effects for improving the separation of uranium from ruthenium and zirconium in the Purex process. Results of these tests showed that a small improvement found in ruthenium and zirconium decontamination in single-stage solvent extraction tests was lost in the multistage extraction tests- in fact, the extent of saturation of the solvent by uranium, rather than the stage residence time, controlled the extent of ruthenium and zirconium extraction. In applying the centrifugal contactor to the Purex process, the primary advantages would be less radiolytic damage to the solvent, high troughput, reduced solvent inventory, and rapid attainment of steady-state operating conditions. The multistage mini contactor was also tested to determine the suitability of short-residence-time contactors for use with the Civex and Thorex processes and was found to be compatible with the requirements of these processes. (orig.) [de

  19. Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  3. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  4. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  5. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.; Hureau, G.; Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2015 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Changes in oil and gas prices; - Investment in Exploration/Production: the end of an upward cycle; - Drilling and the global drilling market, upstream activities and markets; - 2015, a breath of fresh air for refining

  6. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from the both plant seeds was evaluated (both before and after refining) for different physico-chemical parameters like free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Oil yield (30-35 %) in both plants was found average. After refining, per cent reduction ...

  7. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  8. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  9. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  10. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  11. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  12. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  13. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al 3 Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate α-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al 3 Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified

  14. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yuecel [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: yucel.birol@mam.gov.tr

    2006-09-28

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al{sub 3}Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate {alpha}-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al{sub 3}Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified.

  15. Integration with U.S. refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslett, T.

    2007-01-01

    The production of crude in western Canada is expected to increase significantly in the next 10 to 15 years as the development of oil sands leases continues. In particular, large-scale investments by major oil sands producers have focused on upgrading bitumen to light synthetic crude oil. Major refinery projects in the United States will take advantage of substantially lower capital costs to increase bitumen processing capabilities. In addition, by 2008, new pipeline projects will provide western Canada with more export capacity. The BP Energy Company is investing US$3 billion to increase the refining capacity of Canadian heavy crude at its refinery in Whiting, Indiana, which already has pipeline connectivity and long-term product placement capabilities. The project, which is scheduled to begin in 2011, will increase heavy blend processing capability to 260 thousand barrels per day and produce more than 1.7 million gallons of motor fuel per day. BP's investment has focused on the hydrogen unit, gas oil hydrotreater, hydrotreater revamps, a coker, a modular sulfur recovery unit, a sour water stripper complex, and 62 miles of piping. The refinery in Indiana has an experienced workforce and a greater availability of labor than in western Canada. Production forecasts indicate varying levels of heavy and light production, depending on the amount of condensate imports available. The project team will ensure that the refinery can handle the various levels of total acid number (TAN), sulfur and solids contained in Canadian heavy oils. The project risks are associated with uncertainties regarding production growth and quality; inflation risk as developments costs continue to rise for projects in Alberta; and regulatory risk that can impact bitumen cost. tabs., figs

  16. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  17. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  18. Preparative Separation of Alkaloids from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don Benn. by Conventional and pH-Zone-Refining Countercurrent Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC modes were compared by separation of major alkaloids from crude extract of Picrasma quassioides. The conventional HSCCC separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:4.5:5.5, v/v/v/v with 200 mg loading. pH-Zone-refining CCC was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–n-butanol–water (3:2:7:9, v/v/v/v where triethylamine (10 mM was added to the upper organic stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (5 mM was added to the lower aqueous phase with 2 g loading. From 2 g of crude extract, 87 mg of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one (a, 38 mg of 1-methoxy-β-carboline (b, 134 mg of 1-ethyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (c, 74 mg of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (d, 56 mg of 1-vinyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (e and 26 mg of 1-vinyl-4-dimethoxy-β-carboline (f were obtained with purities of over 97.0%. The results indicated that pH-zone-refining CCC is an excellent separations tool at the multigram level.

  19. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  20. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  1. Force field refinement from NMR scalar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: We show that two classes of H-bonds are sufficient to quantitatively describe scalar NMR coupling constants in small proteins. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present force field refinements based on explicit MD simulations using scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This leads to {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.03 Hz at best compared to experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A classification of H-bonds according to secondary structure is not sufficiently robust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grouping H-bonds into two classes and reparametrization yields an RMSD of 0.07 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is an improvement of 50. - Abstract: NMR observables contain valuable information about the protein dynamics sampling a high-dimensional potential energy surface. Depending on the observable, the dynamics is sensitive to different time-windows. Scalar coupling constants {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} reflect the pico- to nanosecond motions associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bond network. Including an explicit H-bond in the molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) potential allows us to reproduce experimentally determined {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.02 Hz at best for ubiquitin and protein G. This is based on taking account of the chemically changing environment by grouping the H-bonds into up to seven classes. However, grouping them into two classes already reduces the RMSD between computed and observed {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings by almost 50%. Thus, using ensemble-averaged data with two classes of H-bonds leads to substantially improved scalar couplings from simulations with accurate force fields.

  2. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnest, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  3. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  4. Solvent polarity controls the helical conformation of short peptides rich in Calpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanda, Massimo; Mammi, Stefano; Geremia, Silvano; Demitri, Nicola; Randaccio, Lucio; Broxterman, Quirinus B; Kaptein, Bernard; Pengo, Paolo; Pasquato, Lucia; Scrimin, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The two peptides, rich in C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted amino acids, Ac-[Aib-L-(alphaMe)Val-Aib](2)-L-His-NH(2) (1) and Ac-[Aib-L-(alphaMe)Val-Aib](2)-O-tBu (2 a) are prevalently helical. They present the unique property of changing their conformation from the alpha- to the 3(10)-helix as a function of the polarity of the solvent: alpha in more polar solvents, 3(10) in less polar ones. Conclusive evidence of this reversible change of conformation is reported on the basis of the circular dichroism (CD) spectra and a detailed two-dimensional NMR analysis in two solvents (trifluoroethanol and methanol) refined with molecular dynamics calculations. The X-ray diffractometric analysis of the crystals of both peptides reveals that they assume a prevalent 3(10)-helix conformation in the solid state. This conformation is practically superimposable on that obtained from the NMR analysis of 1 in methanol. The NMR results further validate the reported CD signature of the 3(10)-helix and the use of the CD technique for its assessment.

  5. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  6. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  7. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  8. Solvent-tolerant bacteria in biocatalysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The toxicity of fine chemicals to the producer organism is a problem in several biotechnological production processes. In several instances, an organic phase can be used to extract the toxic product from the aqueous phase during a fermentation. With the discovery of solvent-tolerant bacteria, more

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION SOLVENT FREE PREPARATION OF N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEYWORDS: Solvent free, Maleanilic acids, Maleic anhydride, Aniline derivatives ... associated with the carboxylic group between 3275-2877 cm-1, the weak –NH .... Chemical shifts (σ/ppm) relative to TMS*. O-H N-H Ha. Hb. Hc. Hd. He. Hf.

  10. Simulation of solvent extraction in reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, S B [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    A SIMulation Program for Solvent EXtraction (SIMPSEX) has been developed for simulation of PUREX process used in nuclear fuel reprocessing. This computer program is written in double precision structured FORTRAN77 and at present it is used in DOS environment on a PC386. There is a plan to port it to ND supermini computers in future. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneelil, Paul; Pack, Min; Cui, Chunxiao; Han, Li-Hsin; Sun, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing cellular scaffolds using bioinks is gaining popularity due to the advancement of printing technology as well as the growing demands of regenerative medicine. Numerous studies have been conducted on printing scaffolds of biomimetic structures that support the cell production of human tissues. However, the underlying physics of the deposition dynamics of bioinks remains elusive. Of particular interest is the unclear deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks, which is often used to tune the micro-architecture formation. Here we systematically studied the effects of jetting frequency, solvent properties, substrate wettability, and temperature on the three-dimensional deposition patterns of bioinks made of Methacrylated Gelatin and Carboxylated Gelatin. The microflows inside the inkjet-printed picolitre drops were visualized using fluorescence tracer particles to decipher the complex processes of multi-solvent evaporation and solute self-assembly. The evolution of droplet shape was observed using interferometry. With the integrated techniques, the interplay of solvent evaporation, biopolymer deposition, and multi-drop interactions were directly observed for various ink and substrate properties, and printing conditions. Such knowledge enables the design and fabrication of a variety of tissue engineering scaffolds for potential use in regenerative medicine.

  12. Double Solvent for Extracting Rare Earth Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, AN; Bambang EHB

    2007-01-01

    An extraction process to rare earth concentrate which contain elements were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) which were dissolved in to nitric acid has been done. The experiment of the extraction by double solvent in batch to mix 10 ml of the feed with 10 ml solvent contained the pair of solvent was TBP and TOA, D2EHPA and TOA, TBP and D2EHPA in cyclohexane as tinner. It was selected a right pairs of solvent for doing variation such as the acidity of the feed from 2 - 6 M and the time of stirring from 5 - 25 minutes gave the good relatively extraction condition to Dy element such as using 10 % volume of TOA in D2EHPA and cyclohexane, the acidity of the feed 3 M and the time stirring 15 minutes produced coefficient distribution to dysprosium = 0.586 and separation factor Dy-Ce = ∼ (unlimited); Dy-Nd = 4.651. (author)

  13. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Koch, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent

  14. Solvent (acetone-butanol: ab) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities, such as corn and molasses, was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  15. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Processing of thermoplastic polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Venderbosch, R.W.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents offers an interesting and flexible route to extent the processing characteristics of thermoplastic polymers beyond their existing limits. This holds for both intractable and tractable polymers. The first mainly applies for amorphous high-Tg polymers where processing may

  17. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  18. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

  19. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1989-04-25

    There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

  20. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.; Brown, Jed; Knepley, Matt; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  1. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  2. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  3. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  4. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Yang, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  5. Biodiesel production from ethanolysis of palm oil using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, R.; Winarta, A.; Taslim; Indra, L.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel produced from ethanolysis is more renewable and have better properties (higher oxidation stability, lower cloud and pour point) compared to methanolysis, but it has a disadvantage such as complicated purification. To improve ethanolysis process, deep eutectic solvent (DES) can be prepared from choline chloride and glycerol and used as co-solvent in ethanolysis. The deep eutectic solvent is formed from a quaternary ammonium salt (choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (Glycerol), it is a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent compared to a conventional volatile organic solvent such as hexane. The deep eutectic solvent is prepared by mixing choline chloride and glycerol with molar ratio 1:2 at temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 300 rpm for 1 hour. The DES is characterized by its density and viscosity. The ethanolysis is performed at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt. DES as co-solvent with concentration 0.5 to 3 wt. stirring speed 400 rpm, and a reaction time 1 hour. The obtained biodiesel is then characterized by its density, viscosity, and ester content. The oil - ethanol phase condition is observed in the reaction tube. The oil - ethanol phase with DES tends to form meniscus compared to without DES, showed that oil and ethanol become more slightly miscible, which favors the reaction. Using DES as co-solvent in ethanolysis showed increasing in yield and easier purification. The esters properties meet the international standards ASTM D6751, with the highest yield achieved 83,67 with 99,77 conversion at DES concentration 2 . Increasing DES concentration above 2 in ethanolysis decrease the conversion and yield, because of the excessive glycerol in the systems makes the reaction equilibrium moves to the reactant side.

  6. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    -liquid equilibria). The application of the developed model-based framework is highlighted through several cases studies published in the literature. In the current state, the framework is suitable for problems where the original solvent is exchanged by distillation. A solvent selection guide for fast of suitable......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  7. Linear correlation of interfacial tension at water-solvent interface, solubility of water in organic solvents, and SE* scale parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, E.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A linear correlation has been established between the solubility of water in water-immiscible organic solvents and the interfacial tension at the water-solvent interface on the one hand and the parameters of the SE* and π* scales for these solvents on the other hand. This allows us, using the known tabulated SE* or π* parameters for each solvent, to predict the values of the interfacial tension and the solubility of water for the corresponding systems. We have shown that the SE* scale allows us to predict these values more accurately than other known solvent scales, since in contrast to other scales it characterizes solvents found in equilibrium with water

  8. A new process of electron beam refining of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic equilibrium, the kinetic theory and experimental results of the metal-gas interaction in refractory metals is presented. N 2 , H 2 and CO absorption and desorption take place by a reversible process while O 2 takes place by a irreversible process with atom absorption and metal oxide desorption. A new technology of electron beam refining of Niobium is proposed based on four points: 1) preparation of the aluminothermic reduced electrode, 2) zone refining in the first melt, 3) kinetic theory of refining in the following melts and 4) design of a compact furnace. Experimental results in a pilot plant of 300 KW have shown complete agreement with the proposed technology yielding a productivity 2.4 times larger than the value predicted by the conventional technology of electron beam refining of Niobium. (Author) [pt

  9. Modified process for refining niobium by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Takano, C.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results, thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic theory of the metal/gas interaction in refractory metals are reviewed. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, hydrogen and CO are reversible, whereas those of oxygen are irreversible, with adsorption of an oxygen atom and volatilisation of the metal oxide. Based upon this fact, a new electron beam refining technology is proposed for niobium, consisting of four points: preparation of an electrode by aluminothermic reduction; zone refining in the first melt; kinetic refining in subsequent melts and compact design of the refining plant. Experimental results from a 300 kW pilot plant were in complete agreement with the technology proposed, giving 2.4 times the productivity predicted by the conventional technology. (Author) [pt

  10. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  11. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jožica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2011-01-01

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, 3 J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  12. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jozica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van, E-mail: wfvgn@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, {sup 3}J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  13. Refined isogeometric analysis for a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, D.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2018-01-01

    Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA) introduces C0 hyperplanes that act as separators for the direct LU factorization solver. As a result, the total computational cost

  14. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  15. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural ... transducers in medical and solar applications (Obmann ..... Prince 1985 in Structure and statistics in crystallography (ed.).

  16. P-Refinement and P-Threads (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Steven; Karniadakis, George E

    2002-01-01

    ...]) in d dimensions, which is higher than lower-order methods. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing multi-threading within MPI processes we manage to counter- balance the cost increase associated with P-refinement...

  17. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  18. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ...; that is, have no central administration and no unified security policy. The survivable architecture refinement is an iterative risk-driven process which adopts the structure of Boehm's Spiral Model Boehm 88...

  19. Flanking region sequence information to refine microRNA target ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (SVM)-based target prediction refinement approach has been introduced through .... are kernel-based statistical learning machines, where a discriminant ...... Cox T and Cuff J 2002 The Ensembl genome database project;. Nucleic Acids Res.

  20. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    River through the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Company (KRPC) plants and .... Other less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth ..... Water is polluted by the fallout from air pollution and by refinery.

  1. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  2. Effects of solvent evaporation conditions on solvent vapor annealed cylinder-forming block polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Meagan; Jakubowski, William; Nelson, Gunnar; Drapes, Chloe; Baruth, A.

    Solvent vapor annealing is a less time and energy intensive method compared to thermal annealing, to direct the self-assembly of block polymer thin films. Periodic nanostructures have applications in ultrafiltration, magnetic arrays, or other structures with nanometer dimensions, driving its continued interest. Our goal is to create thin films with hexagonally packed, perpendicular aligned cylinders of poly(lactide) in a poly(styrene) matrix that span the thickness of the film with low anneal times and low defect densities, all with high reproducibility, where the latter is paramount. Through the use of our computer-controlled, pneumatically-actuated, purpose-built solvent vapor annealing chamber, we have the ability to monitor and control vapor pressure, solvent concentration within the film, and solvent evaporation rate with unprecedented precision and reliability. Focusing on evaporation, we report on two previously unexplored areas, chamber pressure during solvent evaporation and the flow rate of purging gas aiding the evaporation. We will report our exhaustive results following atomic force microscopy analysis of films exposed to a wide range of pressures and flow rates. Reliably achieving well-ordered films, while occurring within a large section of this parameter space, was correlated with high-flow evaporation rates and low chamber pressures. These results have significant implications on other methods of solvent annealing, including ``jar'' techniques.

  3. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  4. Refined Fuchs inequalities for systems of linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontsov, R R

    2004-01-01

    We refine the Fuchs inequalities obtained by Corel for systems of linear meromorphic differential equations given on the Riemann sphere. Fuchs inequalities enable one to estimate the sum of exponents of the system over all its singular points. We refine these well-known inequalities by considering the Jordan structure of the leading coefficient of the Laurent series for the matrix of the right-hand side of the system in the neighbourhood of a singular point

  5. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  6. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  7. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  8. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  9. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2017-03-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2016 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Trends in oil and gas prices; - Investment in exploration/production: in sharp decline for the second consecutive year - the first time this has happened since 1986; - The global drilling market; - Geophysical: global activity and markets; - Offshore construction: market and business; - A significant reduction in refining projects (atmospheric distillation and conversion)

  10. Method for Predicting Solubilities of Solids in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximatio...

  11. Thin porphyrin composite membranes with enhanced organic solvent transport

    KAUST Repository

    Phuoc, Duong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Extending the stability of polymeric membranes in organic solvents is important for applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Thin-film composite membranes with enhanced solvent permeance are proposed, using porphyrin as a building block

  12. Effects of polar protic solvents on dual emissions of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Figure 1. Scheme of the ESIPT reaction of 3-hydroxy- chromone, 1. Chart 1. Chemical structures of the studied ... Materials and methods. Absorption and ... 85. Table 1. Spectroscopic properties of 3HC dyes in different polar solvents.a. Solvent.

  13. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Caprolactam Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  14. Selection and evaluation of alternative solvents for caprolactam extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  15. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  16. Organic Solvent Tropical Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-06-21

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines.

  17. Structural transition of a homopolymer in solvents mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettari, Moez [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunisia (Tunisia)], E-mail: gtarimoez@yahoo.fr; Aschi, Adel; Gomati, Riadh; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunisia (Tunisia)

    2008-07-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a polymer in solvents mixture. Dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M{sub w} = 360,000 g/mol), in water/methanol solvents mixture, versus the mixed solvents composition at 25 deg. C. Then, we show that the polymer conformation adopts the Coil-Globule-Coil structure when the methanol molar fraction X{sub A} is varied. This transition is attributed to solvent quality change which result from water and methanol complex formation. The polymer contraction rate calculated for each composition takes its maximum value at X{sub A} = 0.17. Hildebrand theory assuming the solvents mixture as an equivalent solvent was used to analyze the change in mixed solvents quality. These changes can be attributed to dispersive forces in solvents mixture.

  18. Structural transition of a homopolymer in solvents mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettari, Moez; Aschi, Adel; Gomati, Riadh; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a polymer in solvents mixture. Dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M w = 360,000 g/mol), in water/methanol solvents mixture, versus the mixed solvents composition at 25 deg. C. Then, we show that the polymer conformation adopts the Coil-Globule-Coil structure when the methanol molar fraction X A is varied. This transition is attributed to solvent quality change which result from water and methanol complex formation. The polymer contraction rate calculated for each composition takes its maximum value at X A = 0.17. Hildebrand theory assuming the solvents mixture as an equivalent solvent was used to analyze the change in mixed solvents quality. These changes can be attributed to dispersive forces in solvents mixture

  19. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  20. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution with interatomic scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lunin, Vladimir Y. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGMBC, 1 Rue L. Fries, 67404 Illkirch and IBMC, 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Faculty of Sciences, Nancy University, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Modelling deformation electron density using interatomic scatters is simpler than multipolar methods, produces comparable results at subatomic resolution and can easily be applied to macromolecules. A study of the accurate electron-density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution (better than ∼1.0 Å) requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool that is conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8–1.0 Å, the number of experimental data is insufficient for full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark data sets gave results that were comparable in quality with the results of multipolar refinement and superior to those for conventional models. Applications to several data sets of both small molecules and macromolecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  1. Strategic issues and implications for the refining and marketing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffe, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Refiners have faced a challenging business environment for the past decade. During this period, the industry has made approximately $25 billion of capital expenditures primarily to comply with increased governmental mandates, faced highly volatile petroleum product prices and garnered a return to equity of only 5%. While worldwide and US refining capacity has been flat in recent years, demand for refined petroleum products has been on the upswing and domestic supplies have also increased due to improved US capacity utilization rates (76% in 1984 and 93% in 1994) and increased imports (gasoline sales up 11% since 1984). The result has been highly volatile and generally weak refining margins (net Gulf Coast crack spread ranging from ($.95)/bbl in 1984 to $1.84/bbl in 1990 and averaging $.81/bbl since 1984). In response to the sustained difficulties in the marketplace, one has recently witnessed some strategic realignment in the industry. Several of the integrated companies, frustrated with the required capital expenditures and meager returns, have decided to shed non-core, non-strategic refining assets. For the most part, these assets have been bought by independents at, by historical measures, very attractive terms. This paper will provide an overview of the economics of the refining business, discuss the recent trends in refinery M and A activity and summarize possible implications of the recent strategic realignment

  2. A solvent/non-solvent system for achieving solution-processed multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Lin; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-08-31

    We developed a solvent/non-solvent system to fabricate the multilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) by solution-process. This solvent system consists of both the solvent and non-solvent of PVK, in which fluorescent small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on top of the PVK layer; it could effectively avoid the redissolution of PVK during the spin-coating process of small molecules emitting layer. In the further investigation of this system, we also demonstrated the three-component solvent system, and found out that the third component, a less volatile solvent of PVK, was crucial for preparing a smoother interface between PVK and emitting layer. Compared with OLEDs through the vacuum deposition, the devices fabricated by solution-process from the solvent/non-solvent system showed comparable efficiency, which indicate that the solvent/non-solvent system can be used as an alternative process to prepare the polymer and small molecule multilayer devices through all-solution-process. - Highlights: • We fabricate the multilayer OLEDs by solution-process using a novel system. • We develop a solvent/non-solvent system of polymer (PVK) to avoid redissolution. • Small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on PVK layer. • The devices fabricated by the system and vacuum deposition show comparable efficiency.

  3. Sensibilidade do carrapato Boophilus microplus a solventes Sensibility of Boophilus microplus tick to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos envolvendo o uso de acaricidas sintéticos ou naturais, geralmente necessitam da utilização de um solvente. Com a finalidade de verificar a sensibilidade do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus a diferentes solventes, larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas deste ectoparasito foram expostas a sete solventes em cinco diferentes concentrações, na ausência e presença de azeite de oliva. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização do azeite de oliva não produz resultados diferentes estatisticamente em testes de larvas com papel impregnado, fato não verificado em testes de imersão de adultos com compostos hidrofílicos. A mortalidade média causada pelos solventes foi menor nos testes com papel impregnado, aumentando nos testes de imersão de larvas e de adultos. Solventes de baixo peso molecular e pouca viscosidade como o álcool metílico e o álcool etílico, não interferiram na mortalidade média em testes biológicos de B. microplus, principalmente em concentrações inferiores a 76%.Experiments carried out with synthetic or natural acaricides usually use a solvent. To investigate the sensitivity of Boophilus microplus cattle tick to different solvents, larvae and engorged female were subjected to seven solvents in five different concentrations. It was done in the presence and absence of olive oil. The results showed that the utilization of olive oil doesn't produce different statistical results in impregnated paper larvae test. It did not happen in adults immersion test with hydrophilic compounds. The mean mortality caused by solvents was small in impregnated paper larvae test, increasing in immersion tests of larvae and adults. Solvents with low molecular weight and viscosity like ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol did not cause interference in the mortality of B. microplus in biological tests, mainly in concentrations below 76%.

  4. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B{sub sn}, versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35{Angstrom} and 3.85{Angstrom}. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased.

  5. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  6. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  7. Measuring solvent barrier properties of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollström, Roger; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Toivakka, Martti; Räty, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    New methods for measuring barrier properties against solvents, acids and bases on dispersion coated paper were developed and investigated. Usability, reliability and repeatability were compared both between the new methods and with the standardized method for measuring barrier properties against water vapor. Barrier properties could be measured with all methods and the results obtained by the different methods were in correlation with each other. A qualitative method based on a trace color provided an indicative result, whereas further developed methods also took into account the durability. The effective barrier lifetime could be measured by measuring the conductivity through the substrate as a function of time, or by utilizing a glass prism where the change in refractive index caused by penetrated liquid was monitored, also as a function of time. Barrier properties against water and humidity were also measured and were found not to be predictors for barrier properties against either solvents, or acids or bases, which supports the need to develop new methods

  8. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  9. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B sn , versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35 Angstrom and 3.85 Angstrom. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased

  10. The disposal of radioactive solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Baker, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    As the use of radioisotope techniques increases, laboratories are faced with the problem of disposing of considerable quantities of organic solvent and aqueous liquid wastes. Incineration or collection by a waste contractor both raise problems. Since most of the radiochemicals are preferentially water soluble, an apparatus for washing the radiochemicals out into water and discharging into the normal drainage system in a high diluted form is described. Despite the disadvantages (low efficiency, high water usuage, loss of solvent in presence of surface active agents, precipitation of phosphors from dioxan based liquids) it is felt that the method has some merit if a suitably improved apparatus can be designed at reasonable cost. (U.K.)

  11. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  12. 40 CFR 52.254 - Organic solvent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic solvent usage. 52.254 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.254 Organic solvent usage. (a) This... (d) of this section and the architectural coatings and solvent disposal emission limitations...

  13. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  14. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  15. Comparative studies with n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and furfural as solvents for extraction of lube distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, R.; Singh, H.; Kishore, K.; Choudhary, G.S.; Kaushik, R.S.

    Solvent extraction of spindle raw lube distillate from Oman crude using n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) containing 1.5 wt.% water has been studied using a six-stage all-glass mixer-settler. Results of three operating temperatures with NMP are reported. A 65-55/sup 0/C extraction temperature appears to be most appropriate for this stock. Data obtained at this temperature have been compared with those for furfural on the basis of phase boundary curves, extraction and lube refining indices and selectivity. Comparison of the results shows NMP to be more selective as far as raffinate yield is concerned. It requires lower operating solvent-to-feed ratios and lower temperatures. 14 refs.

  16. Salinity and solvent effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids from Athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Peru, K.; Barrow, M.; Derrick, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the salinity and solvent effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids (NA) in oil sands. The mass spectra of NA were obtained using an electrospray ionization method combined with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The study showed that while monocarboxylic compounds (C n H 2n+z O 2 ) in the z=-4, -6, and -12 of the 2,3 and 6-ring NA in the carbon number range of 13 to 19 were prevalent in the dichloromethane and acetonitrile co-solvent systems, the addition of salt resulted in a reduction of the observed species, the complete elimination of dicarboxylic acids, and an 80 per cent reduction in O 3 species with similar carbon number range and z values. The dicarboxylic acids were also less toxic than monocarboxylic acids. Results of the study will be used to refine methods of remediating oil sands and process water contaminated soils.

  17. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  19. ACETANILIDA: SÍNTESE VERDE SEM SOLVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cunha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We described herein a solvent-free synthesis of acetanilide developed in the context of green chemistry. The synthetic approach consisted of the reaction of aniline with acetic anhydride without additives, while using smaller amounts of reagents and water than previously described for this undergraduate experiment. The E Factor was 0.6 by experienced chemists and 0.9 by students.

  20. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  1. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  2. Research on mechanism of and catalysts for extraction liquefaction of coal using coal-based solvents; Sekitankei yozai ni yoru sekitan no chushutsu ekika kiko to shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    Papers of Professor Yoshio Kamiya of Tokyo University are compiled into this report. The list of the papers includes (1) Synthesis of heavy fuel oils from coal; (2) Research and development of coal liquefaction; (3) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (I); (4) Effect of hydrogen-donor solvent on the liquefaction of coal; (5) Recent studies on the chemical structure of solvent refined coal; (6) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (II); (7) Future of coal as energy material; (8), (9), (10) same as (6) in the subject discussed; (11) Recent studies on coal liquefaction catalysts; (12) Environmental problems and drain treatment to accompany processes of converting fossil resources into fuels; (13) Chemistry of coal oxidation; (14) Fractionation and analysis of solvent refined coal by gel permeation chromatography; (15) Current state of research and development of coal liquefaction; (16) Properties and components of coal oils from coal liquefaction processes under development; (17) Solvent effect of coal derived aromatic compounds on the liquefaction of Akabira coal; (18) Chemistry of coal liquefaction; (19) Research and development of coal liquefaction in the U.S.; (20) Thermal treatment of coal-related aromatic ethers in tetralin solution; (21) Recent technology of utilizing heavy carbon resources; (22) Chemical properties and reactivity of coal; (23) Current state and future of development of coal liquefaction processes; and (24) Development of overseas coal liquefaction projects. (NEDO)

  3. Solvent-assisted polymer micro-molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN LuLu; ZHOU Jing; GONG Xiao; GAO ChangYou

    2009-01-01

    The micro-molding technology has played an important role in fabrication of polymer micro-patterns and development of functional devices.In such a process,suitable solvent can swell or dissolve the polymer films to decrease their glass transition temperature (Tg) and viscosity and thereby improve flowing ability.Consequently,it is easy to obtain the 2D and 3D patterns with high fidelity by the solvent-assisted micro-molding.Compared with the high temperature molding,this technology overcomes some shortcomings such as shrinking after cooling,degradation at high temperature,difficulty in processing some functional materials having high Tg,etc.It can be applied to making patterns not only on polymer monolayers but also on polyelectrolyte multilayers.Moreover,the compressioninduced patterns on the multilayers are chemically homogenous but physically heterogeneous.In this review,the controlling factors on the pattern quality are also discussed,including materials of the mold,solvent,pressure,temperature and pattern density.

  4. Dynamics of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The diffusivity and structural relaxation characteristics of oligomer-grafted nanoparticles have been investigated with simulations of a previously proposed coarse-grained model at atmospheric pressure. Solvent-free, polymer-grafted nanoparticles as well as grafted nanoparticles in a melt were compared to a reference system of bare (ungrafted) particles in a melt. Whereas longer chains lead to a larger hydrodynamic radius and lower relative diffusivity for grafted particles in a melt, bulk solvent-free nanoparticles with longer chains have higher relative diffusivities than their short chain counterparts. Solvent-free nanoparticles with short chains undergo a glass transition as indicated by a vanishing diffusivity, diverging structural relaxation time and the formation of body-centered-cubic-like order. Nanoparticles with longer chains exhibit a more gradual increase in the structural relaxation time with decreasing temperature and concomitantly increasing particle volume fraction. The diffusivity of the long chain nanoparticles exhibits a minimum at an intermediate temperature and volume fraction where the polymer brushes of neighboring particles overlap, but must stretch to fill the interparticle space. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a non swelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration is measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method had also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 mn). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  6. A comparison of choline:urea and choline:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents at 338 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Moura, Leila M.; Turner, Adam H.; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Callear, Samantha K.; McCune, Jade A.; Scherman, Oren A.; Holbrey, John D.

    2018-05-01

    1:2 choline chloride:urea and 1:1 choline chloride:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents are compared at 338 K using liquid-phase neutron diffraction with H/D isotopic substitution to obtain differential neutron scattering cross sections and fitting of models to the experimental data using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. In comparison to the previously reported study of choline chloride:urea at 303 K, we observed significant weakening and lengthening of choline-OH⋯Cl- and choline-OH⋯hydrogen-bond acceptor correlations.

  7. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  8. Electromyogram refinement using muscle synergy based regulation of uncertain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji

    2018-04-27

    Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass fraction...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction.... If a solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass...

  11. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  12. Porous fiber formation in polymer-solvent system undergoing solvent evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Kyu, Thein

    2006-08-01

    Temporal evolution of the fiber morphology during dry spinning has been investigated in the framework of Cahn-Hilliard equation [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] pertaining to the concentration order parameter or volume fraction given by the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing [P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1953), p. 672] in conjunction with the solvent evaporation rate. To guide the solvent evaporation induced phase separation, equilibrium phase diagram of the starting polymer solution was established on the basis of the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing. The quasi-steady-state approximation has been adopted to account for the nonconserved nature of the concentration field caused by the solvent loss. The process of solvent evaporation across the fiber skin-air interface was treated in accordance with the classical Fick's law [R. B. Bird et al., Transport Phenomena (J. Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 780]. The simulated morphologies include gradient type, hollow fiber type, bicontinuous type, and host-guest type. The development of these diverse fiber morphologies is explicable in terms of the phase diagram of the polymer solution in a manner dependent on the competition between the phase separation dynamics and rate of solvent evaporation.

  13. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractive solvent in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlet, B.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a reprocessing plant using the Purex process is recalled and analytical controls for optimum performance are specified. The aim of this thesis is the development of analytical methods using gas chromatography required to follow the evolution of the extraction solvent during spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent at different concentrations, is analysed along the reprocessing lines in organic or aqueous phases. Solvent degradation interferes with extraction and decomposition products are analysed. The solvent becomes less and less efficient, also it is distilled and quality is checked. Traces of solvent should also be checked in waste water. Analysis are made as simple as possible to facilitate handling of radioactive samples [fr

  14. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  15. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  16. The future of refining industry is in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The decision of Total Group to close down the refining activity of its Flandres' site at Dunkerque (France) is a testimony of the deep restructuring that is affecting this sector. The migration of the refining activity towards Middle-East and Asia has started several years ago. The World capacities are increasing: in 2009 4.36 billion tons of petroleum products were refined in the world, representing a 1.9% rise with respect to 2008. 661 refineries exist in the world, among which 6 were inaugurated in 2009, 115 are located in Europe and 12 in France. The bad health of the European refining activity is beneficial to Middle and Asia where investments in new production capacities follow on from one another. From now to 2030, these areas will benefit from 70% of the worldwide investments compared to 11% only for Europe and North America. The decline of the European refining industry is directly linked to decay of the automotive fuel consumption and to the increase of the diesel fuel share with respect to gasoline. On the other hand, Asia, and in particular China and India, follow the exactly opposite trend thanks to their population and economic growths. Therefore, European oil companies try to invest in Asia and are looking for new production capacities in China and India. (J.S.)

  17. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  18. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  19. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  20. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  1. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  2. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W

    1995-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for measuring the steady state rate of permeation of commercial solvents through living human skin. To get the most consistent results, it was necessary with some solvents to normalize the solvent permeation rate of a given skin sample with its [3H]water permeation...... rate. For other solvents this was not necessary, so the un-normalized data were used. High [3H]water permeation rate also was used as a criterion for "defective" skin samples that gave erroneous permeability rates, especially for solvents having slow permeability. The linearity of the steady state data...... of DMSO and octyl acetate were measured. No octyl acetate was detected and the permeability of DMSO was proportional to its mole fraction in the mixture. The effect of two hours of solvent exposure on the viability of skin (based on DNA synthesis) was measured and found to be very dependent on the solvent....

  3. Performance of thermal solvent process in Athabasca reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan [Marathon Oil (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, due to depletion of conventional resources and high demand operators are looking into heavy oil and bitumen production. Different recovery methods exist, some of them based on heating the reservoir and others on the use of solvent. Thermal solvent process is a combination of both: a small amount of heat is used to maintain a solvent vapor phase in the reservoir. This process has advantages, solvent is mostly recycled which increases bitumen recovery efficiency and reduces the need for fresh solvent, but it also poses challenges, such as maintaining a vapor chamber and the fact that solvent solubility might be affected by heating. The aim of this paper is to discuss these issues. Simulations and field tests were conducted on bitumen in the the Athabasca region. This paper presented a thermal solvent process and its application's results in Athabasca reservoir.

  4. Collapse in two good solvents, swelling in two poor solvents: defying the laws of polymer solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Kremer, Kurt

    2018-01-17

    In this work we discuss two mirror but distinct phenomena of polymer paradoxical properties in mixed solvents: co-non-solvency and co-solvency. When a polymer collapses in a mixture of two miscible good solvents the phenomenon is known as co-non-solvency, while co-solvency is a phenomenon that is associated with the swelling of a polymer in poor solvent mixtures. A typical example of co-non-solvency is provided by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in aqueous alcohol, while poly(methyl methacrylate) in aqueous alcohol shows co-solvency. We discuss these two phenomena to compare their microscopic origins and show that both can be understood within generic universal concepts. A broad range of polymers is therefore expected to exhibit these phenomena where specific chemical details play a lesser role than the appropriate combination of interactions between the trio of molecular components.

  5. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  6. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  7. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  8. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  9. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  10. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for ∼4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of ∼30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper

  11. Grain refinement through severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izairi, N.; Vevecka - Priftaj, A.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable current interest in processing metallic samples through procedures involving the imposition of severe plastic deformation (SPD). These procedures lead to very significant grain refinement to the submicrometer or even the nanometer level, resulting in advanced physical properties. Among various SPD processes, Equal Channel Angular Pressing, High pressure Torsion and Accumulated Roll Bonding have been widely used for many metals and alloys. In the present work, we present an overview of the most used methods of SPD for grain refinement and the production of bulk nano structured materials with enhancement in their mechanical and functional properties. In order to examine the potential for using ECAP to refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties, two commercial 5754 Al alloy and AA 3004 , were selected for study. Processing by ECAP gives a reduction in the grain size and an increase in the microhardness. (Author)

  12. The changing face of U.S. refining: Ominous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As environmental protection comes of age in the US, a complex series of structural changes is also expected - in enforcement bureaucracy, manufacturing, and in energy consumption. It is already quite obvious in the petroleum refining industry. A side effect may be the export of jobs. Buyouts and closures are expected, as is increased refined product import dependency. This issue updates expected changes in gasoline and distillate product requirements in the US, and reports some ominous statements from some of the oil industry's affected parties. This issue also presented the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 24, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition

  13. State of European refining industry is less bleak than reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to pick up a trade publication without reading of the imminent demise of the European refining industry. Major oil companies are combining operations to minimize costs. Refineries are being shuttered, and analysts are calling for the immediate closure of many more plants. There is little doubt that European cracking margins have fallen since the early 1990s, in step with the rest of the world. However, the refining industry in Europe does not, in the opinion of Pace Consultants Inc., suffer from some overriding fundamental flaw that dooms it to low margins forever. The intent of this article is to put some of the industry's recent events in perspective, to discuss some of the fundamental differences between American and European operations, and to perhaps lay to rest the idea that refining is somehow dead in Europe

  14. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  15. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results

  16. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  17. Compound forming extractants, solvating solvents and inert solvents IUPAC chemical data series

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y; Kertes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions, Part III: Compound Forming Extractants, Solvating Solvents, and Inert Solvents focuses on the compilation of equilibrium constants of various compounds, such as acids, ions, salts, and aqueous solutions. The manuscript presents tables that show the distribution reactions of carboxylic and sulfonic acid extractants and their dimerization and other reactions in the organic phase and extraction reactions of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The book also states that the inorganic anions in these solutions are irrelevant, since they d

  18. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  19. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

    2007-02-28

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  20. On linear correlation between interfacial tension of water-solvent interface solubility of water in organic solvents and parameters of diluent effect scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, Eh.A.; Khananashvili, N.L.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of linear correlation between water solubility in nonmiscible with it organic solvents, interfacial tension of water-solvent interface, on the one hand, and solvent effect scale parameters and these solvents π* - on the other hand, is established. It allows, using certain tabular parameters of solvent effect or each solvent π*, to predict values of interfacial tension and water solubility for corresponding systems. It is shown, that solvent effect scale allows to predict values more accurately, than other known solvent scales, as it in contrast to other scales characterizes solvents, which are in equilibrium with water

  1. Anodic Oxidation of Furans in Aprotic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-06

    dissolved in 70 mL acetonitrile (0.003% water , K.F. titration) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAF). The solution was...solvent evaporated on a rotary evaporator at 25°C ( water bath temperature). The residue was extracted with 3 x 20 mL portions of diethylether, and the...results for a clean electrode in the same solution after presaturation with oxygen. To make the film conductive for the electrolyses , the voltage was

  2. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  3. EXPTIME-Completeness of Thorough Refinement on Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS), a specification formalism introduced more than 20 years ago, has recently received a considerable attention in several different areas. Many of the fundamental questions related to MTSs have already been answered. However, the problem of the exact computational...... complexity of thorough refinement checking between two finite MTSs remained unsolved. We settle down this question by showing EXPTIME-completeness of thorough refinement checking on finite MTSs. The upper-bound result relies on a novel algorithm running in single exponential time providing a direct goal...

  4. Demand, deregulation may attract more refiners to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of rapidly increasing demand, major oil companies are eyeing Asian oil and gas markets more closely than ever. Higher earnings can be expected there than in the US or Europe, where product markets--especially light products--are expected to tighten long-term. Of the nations with growing requirements for refined products, China and India offer greater opportunity for foreign investors to enter downstream projects. Also offering excellent business prospects are Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The paper discusses oil demand, products, refining capacity, and capacity additions in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and China

  5. National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining

  6. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okimoto, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  7. Limit of grain refinement during ECAP process. Temperature influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvil'deev, V.N.; Kopylov, V.I.; Nokhrin, A.V.; Makarov, I.M.; Lopatin, Yu.G.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical study results are reported for the process of deformation grain refinement under severe plastic deformation. A generalization is made for experimental study results on deformation dispersing of unalloyed metals and aluminium and magnesium base alloys. The model is built that allows calculating the value of minimum grain size attained by the method of equal-channel angular pressing. The expressions are derived which describe the dependence of grain refinement limit on the nature of material and the temperature of severe plastic deformation [ru

  8. The limit of grain refinement on equal channel angular deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, V.I.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical study results on the process of strain-induced grain refinement under severe plastic deformation are described. A generalization is made for experimental results on deformation dispersing of copper, magnesium and aluminium base alloys as well as unalloyed metals. The model is developed which allows calculating the minimal grain size being able to result from equal channel angular pressing. The expressions describing the dependence of the limit of grain refinement on the nature of the material and severe plastic deformation rate and temperature are obtained [ru

  9. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its conse...

  10. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, fractionation, and thin film processing of nanoparticles using the tunable solvent properties of carbon dioxide gas expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Madhu

    Nanoparticles have received significant attention because of their unusual characteristics including high surface area to volume ratios. Materials built from nanoparticles possess unique chemical, physical, mechanical and optical properties. Due to these properties, they hold potential in application areas such as catalysts, sensors, semiconductors and optics. At the same time, CO 2 in the form of supercritical fluid or CO2 gas-expanded liquid mixtures has gained significant attention in the area of processing nanostructures. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and processing of nanoparticles using CO2 tunable solvent systems. Nanoparticle properties depend heavily on their size and, as such, the ability to finely control the size and uniformity of nanoparticles is of utmost importance. Solution based nanoparticle formation techniques are attractive due to their simplicity, but they often result in the synthesis of particles with a wide size range. To address this limitation, a post-synthesis technique has been developed in this dissertation to fractionate polydisperse nanoparticles ( s . = 30%) into monodisperse fractions ( s . = 8%) using tunable physicochemical properties of CO 2 expanded liquids, where CO2 is employed as an antisolvent. This work demonstrates that by controlling the addition of CO2 (pressurization) to an organic dispersion of nanoparticles, the ligand stabilized nanoparticles can be size selectively precipitated within a novel high pressure apparatus that confines the particle precipitation to a specified location on a surface. Unlike current techniques, this CO2 expanded liquid approach provides faster and more efficient particle size separation, reduction in organic solvent usage, and pressure tunable size selection in a single process. To improve our fundamental understanding and to further refine the size separation process, a detailed study has been performed to identify the key parameters enabling size separation of various

  12. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  13. 19F NMR spectroscopy in monitoring fluorinated-solvent regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, V.D.; Bordunov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive use is made of solvents such as trichloroethylene, freon-133, and perchloroethylene because they are good solvents for inorganic, plant, and animal greases, while the solvents can be recovered and there is no fire hazard. In this paper, the authors examined methods to monitor spent solution regeneration rapidly and with high accuracy. The authors tested perfluorinated telomeric alcohols as solvents for cleaning engineering components which have melting points of 60-120 degrees celsius. The higher working temperatures and the increased energy consumption are disadvantages of these solvents, but these are compensated for by the scope for using them virtually in the solid, liquid, and vapor states. The authors' proposed technology is based on solvents with melting points over 40 degrees celsius which produce virtually no wastes. The telomeric alcohols are recovered after cooling to normal conditions by separation from the oil by filtration and centrifugation, and they can be used in the next purification cycle. When the solvents have been regenerated, the petroleum products such as industrial oils can be reused for their original purpose. However, quantitative data are required on the solvent contents in the oil and the oil contents in the solvent in order to determine the degree of regeneration and the modes to be used. The authors have also proposed a quantitative method of determining traces of these alcohols in oils and residual oils in the solvent by fluorine NMR. All measurements were made with a BS497 NMR spectrometer

  14. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  15. 40 CFR 80.1142 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all of the following criteria: (i) The refiner produced gasoline at its refineries by processing crude... Standard § 80.1142 What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program? (a)(1) Gasoline produced by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a)), is exempt from the renewable fuel...

  16. Solvents, Ethanol, Car Crashes and Tolerance: How Risky is Inhalation of Organic Solvents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research program in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA has led to some surprising considerations regarding the potential hazard of exposure to low concentrations of solvent vapors. This program involved conducting experiments to ch...

  17. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    system engineering view that emphasizes a systematic and generic solution framework to solvent selection problems is presented. The framework integrates different methods and tools to manage the complexity and solve a wide range of problems in efficient and flexible manner. Its software implementation...

  18. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  19. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  20. Recovery of plutonium from solvent wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of potential alternatives to the acid hydrolysis recovery of Pu were investigated. The most promising alternative for short-term use appears to be an anion exchange process that would eliminate the long boiling times and the multiple-pass concentration steps needed with the solvent extraction process because it separates the Pu from the dibutyl phosphate (DBP) while at the same time concentrating the Pu. However, restart of the Primary Recovery Column (PRC) to process this solution would require significant administrative effort. The original boiling recovery by acid hydrolysis followed by solvent extraction is probably the most expedient way to process the Pu-DBP-carbonate solution currently stored in tank 13.5 even with its long processing times and dilute product concentration. Anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution is a more efficient process, but requires restart of the PRC. Extended-boiling acid hydrolysis or anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution provide two well developed alternatives for recovery of the Pu from the tank 13.5 carbonate. Further work defining additional recovery processes is not planned at this time