WorldWideScience

Sample records for solvent recycle displacement

  1. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  2. Viscous fingering effects in solvent displacement of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthiell, D. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Kissel, G.; Jackson, C.; Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Fisher, D. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based process that is analogous to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for the recovery of heavy oil. A cyclic solvent process is preferred for thin reservoirs, particularly primary-depleted reservoirs. In a cyclic steam stimulation process, a solvent is injected into the reservoir for a period of time before oil is produced from the well. Viscous fingering is a phenomena that characterizes several solvent-based processes for the recovery of heavy oil. A combined experimental and simulation study was conducted to characterize viscous fingering under heavy oil recovery conditions (high ratio of oil to solvent viscosity). Four experiments were conducted in heavy oil-saturated sand packs. Three involved injection of a miscible, liquid solvent at the bottom of the sand pack. The heavy oil in these experiments was displaced upwardly. The fourth experiment involved top-down injection of a gaseous solvent. The miscible liquid displacement was dominated by one solvent finger which broke through to a producing well at the other end of the sand pack. Breakthrough times were similar to that at lower viscosity. The fourth experiment showed fingering along with features of a gravity-driven VAPEX process. Key features of the experiment and realistic fingering patterns were numerically simulated using a commercial reservoir simulator. It was emphasized that accurate modelling of dispersion is necessary in matching the observed phenomena. The simulations should include the capillary effects because of their significance for gaseous fingering and the VAPEX processes. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  3. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  4. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  6. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  7. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  8. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  9. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. Current approaches to the decontamination of metals most often involve one of four basic process types: (1) chemical, (2) manual and mechanical, (3) electrochemical, and (4) ultrasonic. open-quotes Hardclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving decontamination factors (Df's) of 50 to 100, generally involve reagent concentrations in excess of 5%, tend to physically degrade the surface treated, and generate relatively large volumes of secondary waste. open-quotes Softclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving Df's of 5 to 10, normally consist of reagents at concentrations of 0.1 to 1%, generally leave treated surfaces in a usable condition, and generate relatively low secondary waste volumes. Under contract to the Department of Energy, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company is developing a chemical decontamination process using chelating agents to remove uranium compounds and other actinide species from process equipment

  10. PARALLEL MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR WASTE SOLVENT RECYCLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste solvents are of great concern to the chemical process industries and to the public, and many technologies have been suggested and implemented in the chemical process industries to reduce waste and associated environmental impacts. In this article we have developed a novel p...

  11. Investigation of degradation products produced by recycling the solvent during chemical degradation of fiber-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2017-01-01

    of the process. In this study, acetone has been used as the organic solvent. To increase the sustainability of the process, the solvent was recycled in eight consecutive batches using new glass fiber-reinforced composites in each recycling. No additional amount of acetone was added, resulting in a reduction...

  12. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  13. Nanofiltration-Enabled In Situ Solvent and Reagent Recycle for Sustainable Continuous-Flow Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodi, Tamas; Didaskalou, Christos; Kupai, Jozsef; Balogh, Gyorgy T; Huszthy, Peter; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-09-11

    Solvent usage in the pharmaceutical sector accounts for as much as 90 % of the overall mass during manufacturing processes. Consequently, solvent consumption poses significant costs and environmental burdens. Continuous processing, in particular continuous-flow reactors, have great potential for the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals but subsequent downstream processing remains challenging. Separation processes for concentrating and purifying chemicals can account for as much as 80 % of the total manufacturing costs. In this work, a nanofiltration unit was coupled to a continuous-flow rector for in situ solvent and reagent recycling. The nanofiltration unit is straightforward to implement and simple to control during continuous operation. The hybrid process operated continuously over six weeks, recycling about 90 % of the solvent and reagent. Consequently, the E-factor and the carbon footprint were reduced by 91 % and 19 %, respectively. Moreover, the nanofiltration unit led to a solution of the product eleven times more concentrated than the reaction mixture and increased the purity from 52.4 % to 91.5 %. The boundaries for process conditions were investigated to facilitate implementation of the methodology by the pharmaceutical sector. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Diclofenac Loaded Lipid Nanovesicles Prepared by Double Solvent Displacement for Skin Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M; Locher, F; Bonvallet, M; Agusti, G; Elaissari, A; Fessi, H

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we detail a promising strategy of nanovesicle preparation based on control of phospholipid self-assembly: the Double Solvent Displacement. A systematic study was conducted and diclofenac as drug model encapsulated. In vitro skin studies were carried out to identify better formulation for dermal/transdermal delivery. This method consists in two solvent displacements. The first one, made in a free water environment, has allowed triggering a phospholipid pre-organization. The second one, based on the diffusion into an aqueous phase has led to liposome formation. Homogeneous liposomes were obtained with a size close to 100 nm and a negative zeta potential around -40 mV. After incorporation of acid diclofenac, we obtained nanoliposomes with a size between 101 ± 45 and 133 ± 66 nm, a zeta potential between 34 ± 2 and 49 ± 3 mV, and the encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was between 58 ± 3 and 87 ± 5%. In vitro permeation studies showed that formulation with higher EE% dispayed the higher transdermal passage (18,4% of the applied dose) especially targeting dermis and beyond. Our results suggest that our diclofenac loaded lipid vesicles have significant potential as transdermal skin drug delivery system. Here, we produced cost effective lipid nanovesicles in a merely manner according to a process easily transposable to industrial scale. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl 2 at 850 0 C. The solvent CaCl 2 from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl 2 and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO 2 reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production

  16. Solvent recycle/contaminant reduction testing - Phase I, Task 3. Topical progress report, June 1994--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. This report describes the solvent recyle test program for EDTA/ammonium carbonate solvent

  17. Green Michael addition of thiols to electron deficient alkenes using KF/alumina and recyclable solvent or solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Trecha, Danusia O.; Ferreira, Patricia da C.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Geociencias. Lab. de Sintese Organica Limpa (LASOL)]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    A general, clean and easy method for the conjugated addition of thiols to citral promoted by KF/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under solvent-free or using glycerin as recyclable solvent at room temperature is described. It was found that the solvent-free protocol is applicable to the direct reaction of thiophenol with the essential oil of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) to afford directly 3,7-dimethyl-3-(phenylthio)oct-6-enal, a potential bactericide agent. The method was extended to other electron-poor alkenes with excellent results. For the solvent-free protocol, the use of microwave irradiation facilitated the procedure and accelerates the reaction. The catalytic system and glycerin can be reused up to three times without previous treatment with comparable activity. (author)

  18. Design of a sensitive aptasensor based on magnetic microbeads-assisted strand displacement amplification and target recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ji, Xiaoting; Song, Weiling; Guo, Yingshu

    2013-04-03

    A cross-circular amplification system for sensitive detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cancer cells was developed based on aptamer-target interaction, magnetic microbeads (MBs)-assisted strand displacement amplification and target recycling. Here we described a new recognition probe possessing two parts, the ATP aptamer and the extension part. The recognition probe was firstly immobilized on the surface of MBs and hybridized with its complementary sequence to form a duplex. When combined with ATP, the probe changed its conformation, revealing the extension part in single-strand form, which further served as a toehold for subsequent target recycling. The released complementary sequence of the probe acted as the catalyst of the MB-assisted strand displacement reaction. Incorporated with target recycling, a large amount of biotin-tagged MB complexes were formed to stimulate the generation of chemiluminescence (CL) signal in the presence of luminol and H2O2 by incorporating with streptavidin-HRP, reaching a detection limit of ATP as low as 6.1×10(-10)M. Moreover, sample assays of ATP in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma B cells were performed, which confirmed the reliability and practicality of the protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides using different oxidants in recycling solvent mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Milutin M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized laboratory synthesis of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides, starting from dialkyl amines and carbon disulfide in presence of three oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxodisulfate and sodium hypochlorite and appropriate reaction medium: two mixtures of isopropyl alcohol - water used in two consecutive syntheses, was presented in this work. First synthesis was performed in a recycled azeotropic mixture of isopropyl alcohol - water 87.7% - 12.3%, and second in a filtrate obtained after first synthesis, which was a mixture of isopropyl alcohol - water 70.4% - 29.6%. After the second synthesis and filtration, recycled azeotropic mixture isopropyl alcohol - water 87.7% - 12.3% was regenerated from the filtrate by rectification. Considering this, the technology for beneficial use of recycling isopropyl alcohol - water mixture as reaction medium for tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides synthesis was developed. Such concept contributes to extraordinary economical benefit of implemented optimal laboratory synthesis at semi-industrial level. High yields of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides syntheses were obtained at both laboratory and semiindustrial level. Structure and purity of synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, as well as FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, and MS spectral data.

  20. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  1. Synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) and functionalized polyaniline (F-PANI) nanoparticles with controlled size by solvent displacement method. Application in fluorescence detection and bacteria killing by photothermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni Abel, Silvestre; Yslas, Edith I.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Barbero, Cesar A.

    2018-03-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could be controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer’s nature. The functionalization and fluorescence of NPs were checked by spectroscopic techniques. Since polyaniline show only weak intrinsic luminescence, fluorescent groups were linked to the polyaniline chains prior to the nanoparticle formation using a linker. Polyaniline chains were functionalized by nucleophilic addition of cysteamine trough the thiol group thereby incorporating pendant primary aliphatic amine groups to the polyaniline backbone. Then, dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl), which could act as an extrinsic chromophore, was conjugated to the amine pendant groups. Later, the functionalized polyaniline was used to produce nanoparticles by solvent displacement. The optical and functional properties of fluorescent nanoparticles (F-PANI-NPs) were determined. F-PANI-NPs in the conductive state (pH causes bacterial death. Therefore, the F-PANI-NPs could be tracked and applied to inhibit different diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and resistant to antibiotics as well as a new disinfection method to surgical materials.

  2. An amplified graphene oxide-based fluorescence aptasensor based on target-triggered aptamer hairpin switch and strand-displacement polymerization recycling for bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Liu, Jinwen; Chen, Jia; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Tian, Jianniao; Zhang, Guohai

    2013-04-15

    An amplified graphene oxide (GO) based fluorescence aptasensor based on target-triggered aptamer hairpin switch and strand-displacement polymerization recycling is developed for bioassays. The dye-labeled single-strand DNA (aptamer hairpin) was adsorbed on the surface of GO, which result in the fluorescence quenching of dye, and exhibiting minimal background fluorescence. Upon the target, primer and polymerase, the stem of the aptamer hairpin was opened, and binds with the primer to triggers the circular target strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which produces huge amounts of duplex helixes DNA and lead to strong fluorescence emission due to shielding of nucelobases within its double-helix structure. During the polymerization reaction, the primer was extended, and target was displaced. And the displaced target recognizes and hybridizes with another hairpin probe, triggering the next round of polymerization reaction, and the circle process induces fluorescence signal amplification for the detection of analyte. To test the feasibility of the aptasensor systems, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was employed as a model analyte. A detection limit as low as 1.5 fM is obtained based on the GO aptasensor with a linear range of three orders of magnitude. The present method was successfully applied for the detection of IFN-γ in human plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent Phase I. Final report, September 1993--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment

  4. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  5. A Selenium-Based Ionic Liquid as a Recyclable Solvent for the Catalyst-Free Synthesis of 3-Selenylindoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder J. Lenardão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylselenite, [bmim][SeO2(OCH3], was successfully used as solvent in the catalyst-free preparation of 3-arylselenylindoles by the reaction of indole with ArSeCl at room temperature. The products were obtained selectively in good yields without the need of any additive and the solvent was easily reused for several cycles with good results.

  6. Controlled Crystal Grain Growth in Mixed Cation-Halide Perovskite by Evaporated Solvent Vapor Recycling Method for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Youhei; Kogo, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-07

    We developed a new and simple solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing (VA) procedure which can reduce grain boundaries in a perovskite film for fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By recycling of solvent molecules evaporated from an as-prepared perovskite film as a VA vapor source, named the pot-roast VA (PR-VA) method, finely controlled and reproducible device fabrication was achieved for formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) mixed cation-halide perovskite (FAPbI 3 ) 0.85 (MAPbBr 3 ) 0.15 . The mixed perovskite was crystallized on a low-temperature prepared brookite TiO 2 mesoporous scaffold. When exposed to very dilute solvent vapor, small grains in the perovskite film gradually unified into large grains, resulting in grain boundaries which were highly reduced and improvement of photovoltaic performance in PSC. PR-VA-treated large grain perovskite absorbers exhibited stable photocurrent-voltage performance with high fill factor and suppressed hysteresis, achieving the best conversion efficiency of 18.5% for a 5 × 5 mm 2 device and 15.2% for a 1.0 × 1.0 cm 2 device.

  7. Effect of operational parameters and internal recycle on rhenium solvent extraction from leach liquors using a mixer-settler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseinzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of rhenium from molybdenite roasting dust leach solution was performed using a mixer-settler extractor by tributyl phosphate (TBP diluted in kerosene as the extractant. In the single-stage extraction experiments, effect of the aqueous to organic phase ratios, Qa/Qo, and the number of extraction stages, N, on the rhenium extraction was studied. It was found that using the phase ratio of 1:1 in a two-stage extraction, 87.5% depletion of rhenium was obtained. The comparison of experimental results with the continuous co-current extraction showed a good agreement. The effect of internal recycle of organic phase was investigated in the phase ratio of 1:1 by changing the flow rate ratio of recycle-to-fresh organic phase, Qro/Qfo. The optimum performance was achieved in the phase ratio, Qro/Qfo, equal to 3:7. It was found that improvement in the performance of the mixer-settler for the rhenium-TBP system can be obtained in the phase ratio of 1:1when Qro/Qfo = 3:7.

  8. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Jack; Rutledge, Veronica; Pereira, Candido; Copple, Jackie; Frey, Kurt; Krebs, John; Maggos, Laura; Nichols, Kevin; Wardle, Kent; Sadasivan, Pratap; DeAlmieda, Valmor; Depaoli, David

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated

  9. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets

  10. Magnetic amine-functionalized graphene oxide as a novel and recyclable bifunctional nanocatalyst for solvent-free synthesis of pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Rostamizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new magnetic amine-functionalized graphene oxide (Fe3O4-GO-NH2 nanocatalyst was prepared through the reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES with magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-GO. It was characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FT-IR and EDX techniques. The intrinsic carboxylic acids on the edges of Fe3O4-GO along with the amine groups post grafted to the surface of Fe3O4-GO led to preparation of an acid-base bifunctional magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst. It proved to be efficient nanocatalyst for solvent-free synthesis of pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine derivatives under mild reaction conditions with good to excellent yields. This heterogeneous catalyst also exhibited higher activities than acid or base functionalized mesoporous silica, magnetic GO or basic Al2O3 an even higher than some basic homogeneous catalysts such as triethylamine and piperazine. More importantly, due to the loaded iron oxide nanoparticles, this catalyst could be easily recovered from the reaction mixture using an external magnet and reused without significant decrease in activity even after 7 runs.

  11. Impact of the Formulation Pathway on the Colloidal State and Crystallinity of Poly-ε-caprolactone Particles Prepared by Solvent Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Carlotta; Cousin, Fabrice; Dole, François; Chapel, Jean-Paul; Schatz, Christophe

    2018-02-20

    The formulation pathway and/or the mixing method are known to be relevant in many out-of-equilibrium processes. In this work, we studied the effect of the mixing conditions on the physicochemical properties of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) particles prepared by solvent displacement. More specifically, water was added in one shot (fast addition) or drop by drop to PCL solution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to study the impact of the mixing process on particle properties including size, stability, and crystallinity. Two distinct composition maps representing the Ouzo domain characteristic of the presence of metastable nanoparticles have been established for each mixing method. Polymer nanoparticles are formed in the Ouzo domain according to a nucleation and growth (or aggregation) mechanism. The fast addition promotes a larger nucleation rate, thus favoring the formation of small and uniform particles. For the drop-by-drop addition, for which the polymer solubility gradually decreases, the composition trajectories systematically cross an intermediate unstable region between the solubility limit of the polymer and the Ouzo domain. This leads to heterogeneous nucleation as shown by the formation of larger and less stable particles. Particles formed in the Ouzo domain have semi-crystalline properties. The PCL melting point is decreased with the THF fraction trapped in particles in accordance with Flory's theory for melt crystallization. On the other hand, the degree of crystallinity is constant, around 20% regardless of the THF fraction. No difference between fast and slow addition could be detected on the semi-crystalline properties of the particles which emphasize that thermodynamic rather than kinetic factors drive the polymer crystallization in particles. The recovery of bulk PCL crystallinity after the removal of THF from particles tends to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  13. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  14. Potassium Hydroxide Impregnated Alumina (KOH-Alumina) as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Solvent-Free Multicomponent Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Substituted Pyridazines and/or Substituted Pyridazin-3(2H)-ones under Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecadon, Hormi; Myrboh, Bekington

    2011-01-01

    The work described herein employs potassium hydroxide impregnated alumina (KOH-alumina) as a mild, efficient, and recyclable catalyst for a one-pot solvent-free and environmentally safer synthesis of 3,4,6-triarylpyridazines and some substituted pyridazines from active methylene carbonyl species, 1,2-dicarbonyls, and hydrazine hydrate by microwave (MW) irradiation. The method offers highly convergent, inexpensive, and functionality-tolerable procedure for rapid access to important pyridazine compounds in good yields.

  15. Solids recycling in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)

  16. The use tri-n-butyl phosphate in plutonium extraction. Radiolysis and recycling of the solvent (1963); Le phosphate de tri-n-butyle dans l'extraction du plutonium. Radiolyse et recyclage du solvant (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The work concerns the radiolysis and recycling of tri-n-butyl phosphate used as extraction solvent for plutonium. The radiolysis is studied on an industrial solvent using a cobalt 60 source. Figures are given for the yield of the mono- and di-butyl-phosphoric acids formed from the dry and water-saturated solvents and the influence of nitric acid on the formation of dibutyl-phosphoric acid is indicated. The recycling treatment of the solvent is reconsidered with a view to lowering the residual contamination due to fission products. The tests carried out on a solvent from the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule show the efficiency of the sodium carbonate treatment. Of all the products studied, only caustic soda led to a better decontamination than sodium carbonate; in all cases however, the elimination of ruthenium is always incomplete. (author) [French] L'etude porte sur la radiolyse et le recyclage du phosphate de tri-n-butyle utilise comme solvant d'extraction du plutonium. La radiolyse est etudiee sur un solvant industriel a l'aide d'une source de cobalt 60. On donne les rendements de formation des acides mono- et dlbutylphosphoriques a partir de solvants secs et satures d'eau, et on montre l'influence de l'acide nitrique sur la formation de l'acide dibutylphosphorique. Le traitement de recyclage du solvant est repris en vue d'abaisser la contamination residuelle en produits de fission. Les essais, effectues sur un solvant provenant de l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, montrent l'efficacite du traitement au carbonate de sodium. De tous les reactifs etudies, seule la soude a donne une decontamination superieure au carbonate de sodium; mais dans tous les cas, l'elimination du ruthenium est toujours incomplete. (auteur)

  17. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  18. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as "Processing Solvent" for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB) is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently "dry" LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  19. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  20. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  1. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  2. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  3. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  4. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  5. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  7. Restoring solvent for nuclear separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation processes are used to recover usable nuclear materials from spent fuels. These processes involve the use of an extractant/diluent (solvent) for separation of the reusable actinides from unwanted fission products. The most widely used processes employ tributyl phosphate as an extractant diluted with a normal-paraffin hydrocarbon. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. In most processes, the solvent is recycled after cleaning. Solvent cleaning generally involves scrubbing with a sodium carbonate solution. Studies at the Savannah River Laboratory have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove more solvent-soluble binding ligands (formed by solvent degradation), which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of the solvent with a solid adsorbent after carbonate washing removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycled solvent performance. Laboratory work to establish the advantage of adsorbent cleaning and the development of a full-scale adsorption process is described. The application of this process for cleaning the first cycle solvent of a Savannah River Plant production process is discussed

  8. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  10. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  11. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  12. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  13. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  14. Steam and solvent injection as an advanced recovering method for heavy oil reservoirs; Injecao de vapor e solvente como um metodo de recuperacao avancada em reservatorios de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Edney Rafael V.P.; Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson F.; Barbosa, Janaina Medeiros D.; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes M.; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently a resource more and more used by the petroleum industry to increase the efficiency of steam flood mechanism is the addition of solvents. The process can be understood as a combination of a thermal method (steam injection) with a miscible method (solvent injection), promoting, thus, the reduction of interfacial tensions and oil viscosity. The mobility of the displaced fluid is then improved, resulting in an increase of oil recovery. To better understand this improved oil recovery method, a numerical study of the process was driven contemplating the effects of some operational parameters (distance between wells, injection fluids rate, kind of solvent and injected solvent volume) on the accumulated production of oil and recovery factor. Semisynthetic models were used in this study but reservoir data can be extrapolated for practical applications situations on Potiguar Basin. Simulations were performed in STARS (CMG, 2007.11). It was found that injected solvent volumes increased oil recovery and oil rates. Further the majority of the injected solvent was produced and can be recycled. (author)

  15. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  16. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  17. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, B.; Germain, M.; Puyou, M.; Rouyer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated [fr

  18. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  19. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D

    2006-01-01

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  20. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  1. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  2. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  3. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  4. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  5. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  6. Magnetic Nanoparticle Immobilized N-Propylsulfamic Acid as a Recyclable and Efficient Nanocatalyst for the Synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones in Solvent-Free Conditions: Comparison with Sulfamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Amin; Tahmasbi, Bahman; Yari, Ako [Univ. of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    N-Propylsulfamic acid supported onto magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (MNPs-PSA) was used as an efficient and magnetically recoverable catalyst for synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives from the three-component, one-pot condensation reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic 1,3-diones, in good to excellent yields at 100 .deg. C under solvent-free conditions. The catalyst was easily separated with the assistance of an external magnetic field from the reaction mixture and reused for several consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic efficiency. In order to compare, the synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives in the presence of catalytic amount of sulfamic acid (SA) under same reaction condition was also reported.

  7. Recyclable Keggin Heteropolyacids as an Environmentally Benign Catalyst for the Synthesis of New 2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide Derivatives under Microwave Irradiations at Solvent-Free Conditions and the Evaluation of Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighilahriz-Boubchir, Karima; Boutemeur-Kheddis, Baya; Rabia, Cherifa; Makhloufi-Chebli, Malika; Hamdi, Maamar; Silva, Artur M S

    2017-12-21

    2-Benzoylamino- N -phenyl-benzamide derivatives ( 5a - h ) were prepared from 2-phenyl-3,1-(4 H )-benzoxazin-4-one 3 and substituted anilines 4a - h in the presence of a Keggin-type heteropolyacids series (H₃PW 12 O 40 ·13H₂O; H₄SiW 12 O 40 ·13H₂O; H₄SiMo 12 O 40 ·13H₂O; and H₃PMo 12 O 40 ·13H₂O) as catalysts without solvent and under microwave irradiation. We found that the use of H₃PW 12 O 40 ·13H₂O acid coupled to microwave irradiation allowed obtaining a high-yielding reaction with a short time. The compound structures were established by ¹H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds exhibited an inhibition of the growth of bacteria and fungi.

  8. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  9. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  10. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  11. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  12. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  13. Uranium complex recycling method of purifying uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elikan, L.; Lyon, W.L.; Sundar, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium is separated from contaminating cations in an aqueous liquor containing uranyl ions. The liquor is mixed with sufficient recycled uranium complex to raise the weight ratio of uranium to said cations preferably to at least about three. The liquor is then extracted with at least enough non-interfering, water-immiscible, organic solvent to theoretically extract about all of the uranium in the liquor. The organic solvent contains a reagent which reacts with the uranyl ions to form a complex soluble in the solvent. If the aqueous liquor is acidic, the organic solvent is then scrubbed with water. The organic solvent is stripped with a solution containing at least enough ammonium carbonate to precipitate the uranium complex. A portion of the uranium complex is recycled and the remainder can be collected and calcined to produce U 3 O 8 or UO 2

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  15. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  16. Recyclable Keggin Heteropolyacids as an Environmentally Benign Catalyst for the Synthesis of New 2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide Derivatives under Microwave Irradiations at Solvent-Free Conditions and the Evaluation of Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Ighilahriz-Boubchir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide derivatives (5a–h were prepared from 2-phenyl-3,1-(4H-benzoxazin-4-one 3 and substituted anilines 4a–h in the presence of a Keggin-type heteropolyacids series (H3PW12O40·13H2O; H4SiW12O40·13H2O; H4SiMo12O40·13H2O; and H3PMo12O40·13H2O as catalysts without solvent and under microwave irradiation. We found that the use of H3PW12O40·13H2O acid coupled to microwave irradiation allowed obtaining a high-yielding reaction with a short time. The compound structures were established by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds exhibited an inhibition of the growth of bacteria and fungi.

  17. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure

  18. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  19. Reprocessing and Recycling of Highly Cross-Linked Ion-Conducting Networks through Transalkylation Exchanges of C-N Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Mona M; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Serghei, Anatoli; Montarnal, Damien; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2015-05-13

    Exploiting exchangeable covalent bonds as dynamic cross-links recently afforded a new class of polymer materials coined as vitrimers. These permanent networks are insoluble and infusible, but the network topology can be reshuffled at high temperatures, thus enabling glasslike plastic deformation and reprocessing without depolymerization. We disclose herein the development of functional and high-value ion-conducting vitrimers that take inspiration from poly(ionic liquid)s. Tunable networks with high ionic content are obtained by the solvent- and catalyst-free polyaddition of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer and simultaneous alkylation of the resulting poly(1,2,3-triazole)s with a series of difunctional cross-linking agents. Temperature-induced transalkylation exchanges of C-N bonds between 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links and halide-functionalized dangling chains enable recycling and reprocessing of these highly cross-linked permanent networks. They can also be recycled by depolymerization with specific solvents able to displace the transalkylation equilibrium, and they display a great potential for applications that require solid electrolytes with excellent mechanical performances and facile processing such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and separation membranes.

  20. Performance of thermal solvent process in Athabasca reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan [Marathon Oil (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, due to depletion of conventional resources and high demand operators are looking into heavy oil and bitumen production. Different recovery methods exist, some of them based on heating the reservoir and others on the use of solvent. Thermal solvent process is a combination of both: a small amount of heat is used to maintain a solvent vapor phase in the reservoir. This process has advantages, solvent is mostly recycled which increases bitumen recovery efficiency and reduces the need for fresh solvent, but it also poses challenges, such as maintaining a vapor chamber and the fact that solvent solubility might be affected by heating. The aim of this paper is to discuss these issues. Simulations and field tests were conducted on bitumen in the the Athabasca region. This paper presented a thermal solvent process and its application's results in Athabasca reservoir.

  1. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  2. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  3. Recovery of acid-degraded tributyl phosphate by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Holladay, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    During nuclear fuel reprocessing the organic solvent becomes loaded with various acidic degradation products, which can be effectively removed through solvent extraction. Studies have been made with a small bench-scale solvent extraction system to optimize such parameters as pH of aqueous phase, phase ratio, residence time, flow rates, and temperature. The necessary decontamination factors have been obtained for various degradation products during continuous solvent extraction in one stage, with the aqueous phase being recycled. The aqueous phase contains compounds that can be degraded to gases to minimize waste disposal problems

  4. Reusing and recycling in Saskatchewan: Environmental benefits of reusing and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction explaining the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling, as well as providing suggestions on minimizing waste and conserving energy, a directory of recyclers and handlers of various kinds of waste in Saskatchewan is presented. Names, addresses/telephone numbers, and types of materials accepted are given for recyclers of animal products, clothing or textiles, glass, compostable materials, industrial hardware, metals, office products, paper, plastic, and tires. Collection depots in the SARCAN recycling program for beverage containers are listed, giving town name, address, hours of operation, and telephone number. Receivers of waste dangerous goods are listed under the categories of ozone-depleting substances, waste batteries, solvents, lubricating oils and oil filters, paint, flammable liquids, antifreeze, drycleaning waste, and miscellaneous.

  5. Study on the effect of innovative leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily drilling cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Cha; Hao, Weiwei; Li, Mu; Huang, Zhao; Liu, Yushuang

    2018-02-01

    A new type of leaching solvent for oily drilling cuttings was developed, and the effect of leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily cuttings was investigated. The results indicated that the leaching solvent had good capacity of oil removal for oily cuttings, and the oil content of treated cuttings is less than 0.6%. The leaching solvent could be separated from the oil phase through distillation, and the recyclable solvent could be reused to treat other cuttings. Moreover, oil resources adsorbed on the oily cuttings could be recycled and reused to prepare new drilling fluids, so the drilling cost could be reduced greatly. As a result, the leaching solvent could treat the oily cuttings effectively, and recycle and reuse oil resources, and thus produce great economic benefits. It can play an essential role in safe drilling jobs and improvement of drilling efficiency in the future.

  6. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  7. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  8. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  9. Quantitative relationship between adsorbed amount of solute and solvent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Geng Xindu; Zebolsky, Don M.

    2003-01-01

    A new adsorption isotherm that relates the amount of solute adsorbed to the solvent concentration is proposed. The new equation is derived from Geng and Shi's stoichiometric displacement model for adsorption (SDM-A). The obtained equation may be simplified to an expression containing two parameters. The equation with two parameters, valid for low concentrations of solute, is a logarithmically linear relationship. The intercept contains a thermodynamic equilibrium constant of the solute displacing solvent from the adsorbent. The slope is the negative value of the stoichiometric displacement parameter (Z), the average total number of solvent molecules displaced from an active site on the adsorbent and from the solute. Tests with a homologous series of aromatic alcohols by frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography demonstrate that experimental results fit the equation well

  10. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  11. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  12. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  13. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  14. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  15. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  16. Recycling boosts profits and saves resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, D

    1980-05-01

    Current government regulations in the United Kingdom designed to protect the environment are discussed with regard to commercial wastes. It is pointed out that increasing cost and scarcity of raw materials, coupled with the stringent anti-dumping regulations, has made the recycling of waste economically viable. Energy from waste projects are discussed as well as processes for the reclaiming of organic solvents (e.g. point and printing ink manufacturers). Recovery of ammonia, wash solvents, industrial oils and chlorinated solvents are described briefly. The Bioenergy process for the treatment of effluents from brewing, food, and general distilling industry is discussed. Separation of solid from liquid is possible in a few days and a methane-rich fuel gas is obtained. The shredding and rubber recovery from tires is mentioned briefly. (MJJ)

  17. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  18. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265

  19. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  20. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  1. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  2. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  3. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  4. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  5. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  6. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  9. GRINDING SOLVENT-FREE PAAL-KNORR PYRROLE SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis on smectites as recyclable and green catalysts. Bull. Chem. Soc. .... 1-Propyl-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole (8a). Oil (reported as oil .... of pyrroles catalyzed by zirconium chloride under solvent-free conditions . Ultrason.

  10. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Green Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, ... and the reactions in water do not give good yields ... IR spectra were obtained ... pounds. 29 we report here a CAN catalysed procedure for the synthesis of .... Can. J. Chem. 86 1044. 26. Mobinikhaledi A, Forughifar N, Zendehdel M and.

  11. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  12. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  13. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  14. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  15. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  16. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  17. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  18. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  19. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  20. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  1. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  2. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  3. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  4. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  5. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  6. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  7. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  8. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  9. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  11. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  12. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  13. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  15. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Recycle and biodestruction of hazardous nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, J.M.; Kosinski, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plant is operated for DOE by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. One of the plant's functions involves the purification and recycling of uranium wastes. The uranium recycle operation uses nitric acid in a solvent extraction purification process, and a waste stream containing nitric acid and other impurities is generated. Before 1976 the wastes were discarded into four unlined percolation ponds. In 1976, processes were developed and installed to recycle 50% of the wastes and to biologically decompose the rest of the nitrates. In 1983 process development studies began for in situ treatment of the four percolation ponds, and the ponds were treated and discharged by May 1986. The treatment processes involved neutralization and precipitation to remove metallic impurities, followed by anaerobic denitrification to reduce the 40,000 ug/g nitrate concentration to less than 50 ug/g. The final steps included flocculation and filtration. Approximately 10 million gallons of water in the ponds were treated and discharged

  17. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  18. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  19. Solvent - solute interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)

  20. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  1. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  2. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  3. Overview of HTGR fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of HTGR fuel recycle is presented, with emphasis placed on reprocessing and fuel kernel refabrication. Overall recycle operations include (1) shipment and storage, (2) reprocessing, (3) refabrication, (4) waste handling, and (5) accountability and safeguards

  4. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  5. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...

  6. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  7. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  8. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  9. Resource conservation through beverage container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Wolsky, A M

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares resource use for new and recycled polyester soft drink bottles with the glass bottles they displace, to determine the alternatives with minimum resource burden. A mechanism is then suggested for encouraging one efficient alternative. Since the introduction of plastic soft-drink bottles in 1977, the 2 1. container has captured almost the entire U.S. market. The number of PET bottles used in 1981 was 2.4 billion, and could grow to 14 billion by 1990 if the penetration into the 0.5 1. market is as rapid as some experts predict (2). Consumers value the PET bottle's light weight and unbreakability. However, plastic bottles are made from oil and gas feedstocks which are imported and becoming more expensive. Recycling drastically reduces the oil and gas required to supply these bottles; recycling PET from bottles to other uses could save on the order of six million barrels of oil equivalent per year by 1990. A simple and economic technology is available for performing this recovery, yet only 5% of the bottles used in 1980 were returned. What is missing is an effective inducement for bottle return. The reverse-vending machines that we propose can provide part of that inducement by eliminating the inconvenience that now surrounds the sale of empty bottles to recyclers. These machines would dispense coins in return for empty PET bottles, and could be located in supermarkets or their parking lots. We believe the design, construction, and use of such machines is an opportunity that has been overlooked.

  10. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  11. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  12. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  13. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  14. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  15. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  16. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  17. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  18. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  19. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  20. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  1. Study of the solubility and stability of polystyrene wastes in a dissolution recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Maria Teresa; Gracia, Ignacio; Duque, Gema; Lucas, Antonio de; Rodriguez, Juan Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution with suitable solvents is one of the cheapest and more efficient processes for polystyrene waste management. In this work the solubility of polystyrene foams in several solvents benzene, toluene, xylene, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, 1,3-butanediol, 2-butanol, linalool, geraniol, d-limonene, p-cymene, terpinene, phellandrene, terpineol, menthol, eucalyptol, cinnamaldheyde, nitrobenzene, N,N-dimethylformamide and water has been determined. Experimental results have shown that to develop a 'green process' the constituents of essential oils, d-limonene, p-cymene, terpinene, phellandrene, are the most appropriate solvents. The action of these solvent does not produce any degradation of polymer chains. The solubility of the polymer in the mentioned solvents at different temperatures has been investigated. The solvent can be easily recycled by distillation.

  2. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  3. 1993/2003 recycling status; Bilan du recyclage 1993/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This book presents the status of wastes recycling in France for 5 families of materials (ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, paper-cardboard, glass, plastics) and 8 end-life products (scrapped vehicles, electric and electronic wastes, tyres, packing materials, battery cells and chargeable batteries, spent oils and solvents). The significant changes between 1993 and 2003, the amount of secondary materials used in the French industry, the cost of end-life products recycling, the main medium and long-term factors of development, the technical and economical limits of recycling and the actions foreseen to optimize its development are described. This document includes also a CD-Rom. (J.S.)

  4. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  5. Solvent cleanup using base-treated silica gel solid adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-06-01

    A solvent cleanup method using silica gel columns treated with either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or lithium hydroxide (LiOH) has been investigated. Its effectiveness compares favorably with that of traditional wash methods. After treatment with NaOH solution, the gels adsorb HNO 3 , dibutyl phosphate (DBP), UO 2 2+ , Pu 4+ , various metal-ion fission products, and other species from the solvent. Adsorption mechanisms include neutralization, hydrolysis, polymerization, and precipitation, depending on the species adsorbed. Sodium dibutyl phosphate, which partially distributes to the solvent from the gels, can be stripped with water; the stripping coefficient ranges from 280 to 540. Adsorption rates are diffusion controlled such that temperature effects are relatively small. Recycle of the gels is achieved either by an aqueous elution and recycle sequence or by a thermal treatment method, which may be preferable. Potential advantages of this solvent cleanup method are that (1) some operational problems are avoided and (2) the amount of NaNO 3 waste generated per metric ton of nuclear fuel reprocessed would be reduced significantly. 19 references, 6 figures, 12 tables

  6. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  8. Solvent extraction for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Jinichi

    1986-01-01

    The purex process provides a solvent extraction method widely used for separating uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution containing spent fuel. The Tokai Works has adopted the purex process with TPB-n dodecane as the extraction agent and a mixer settler as the solvent extraction device. The present article outlines the solvent extraction process and discuss the features of various extraction devices. The chemical principle of the process is described and a procedure for calculating the number of steps for countercurrent equilibrium extraction is proposed. Discussion is also made on extraction processes for separating and purifying uranium and plutonium from fission products and on procedures for managing these processes. A small-sized high-performance high-reliability device is required for carrying out solvent extraction in reprocessing plants. Currently, mixer settler, pulse column and centrifugal contactor are mainly used in these plants. Here, mixer settler is comparted with pulse column with respect to their past achievements, design, radiation damage to solvent, operation halt, controllability and maintenance. Processes for co-extraction, partition, purification and solvent recycling are described. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  10. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  12. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  13. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  14. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  15. Recycling and Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bányai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the notion that for environmental and legislative reasons improvements The national environmental policies and practice, including recycling strategies, are desirable and in many cases might be economically beneficial has been gaining ground. Although according to recent surveys the state of the environment in Hungary is in line with average values of the European Union, the main challenge for the country is to achieve sustainability in economic, environmental and technological terms. With a view to accession to the European Union, a harmonisation strategy must be worked out and implemented. This harmonisation strategy includes not only legislative aspects, but also social, technological, financial and logistic considerations.Because of the high logistic costs of achieving closed loop recycling systems, the author focuses on logistic aspects and tasks of the improvement phases and concentrates on the possibilities of networking and co-operation. The paper describes some possible alternative solutions for co-operative recycling processes, to improve the following logistic parameters: delivery times, accuracy of supply, running times, utilization of capacities, stock quantities, flexibility, transparency of the system, high forwarding capability, quality of product. The logistic aspects of co-operation will be analysed from the viewpoint of a closed loop economy.

  16. Economics and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlin, J A

    1977-06-01

    The current state of recycling technology could appear to be a question of supply and demand, first for storage, disposal, and reclamation facilities, and secondly, for reclaimed materials. If supply and demand are to be relied upon as an environmental policy tool, several conditions need to exist within the economy: supply data for storage and disposal facilities should reflect the full social cost of their use for this purpose relative to any other; demand data for the use of storage facilities must reflect the full social benefit of having waste go through one channel rather than some other; demand for and supply of reclaimed materials for recycling must reflect the full costs and benefits of rechanneling them back into production or consumption; and the markets for products competitive to recycled raw materials (mainly virgin raw materials) should reflect full social costs and benefits, as should the markets for the alternative uses of storage and disposal facilities. If these conditions are met (in addition to a few technical ones), then the problem of waste management will not arise. (MCW)

  17. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  18. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  19. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  20. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  1. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  2. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  3. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  4. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  5. Management of spent solvents of reprocessing origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, S.; Srinivas, C.; Vincent, T.; Wattal, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Spent solvents of reprocessing origin constitute a major portion of radioactive liquid organic wastes arising from nuclear activity. An in-depth study of this waste stream has led to the evolution of a complete management option, which addresses not only the concern of radioactivity but also its organic nature. This is based on alkaline hydrolysis of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), which converts it into aqueous soluble products, viz. sodium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid and butanol. During the process of alkaline hydrolysis almost all the activity associated with the waste gets transferred into the aqueous phase. The recovered diluent virtually free of activity and TBP can be recycled, and in case of it not meeting reprocessing standards, can be incinerated. The process generated aqueous waste is found compatible with cement and can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  6. Recycling of spent hydroprocessing catalysts: EURECAT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrebi, G.; Dufresne, P.; Jacquier, Y. (EURECAT-European Reprocessing Catalysts, La Voulte sur Rhone (France))

    1994-04-01

    Disposal of spent catalyst is a growing concern for all refiners. Environmental regulations are becoming stricter and stricter and there are State recommendations to develop disposal routes which would emphasize recycling as much as possible, and processing the wastes as near as possible to the production center. In this context, EURECAT has developed a recycling process for the hydroprocessing catalysts used in the oil refineries (NiMo, CoMo, NiW on alumina or mixed alumina silica). The process starts with a regeneration of the catalyst to eliminate hydrocarbons, carbon and sulfur. After a caustic roasting, the material is leached to obtain a solution containing mainly molybdenum (or tungsten) and vanadium, and a solid containing essentially alumina, cobalt and/or nickel. Molybdenum and vanadium are separated by an ion exchange resin technique. The solid is processed in an arc furnace to separate the alumina. Nickel and cobalt are separated by conventional solvent extraction to obtain pure metal. Alumina is disposed of as an inert slag. The strength of the process lies in the combination of proven technologies applied by companies whose reliability in their respective field is well known. The aspects concerning spent catalyst handling, packaging and transport are also discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Environmental aspects of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, R.; Van Gemert, F.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced recycling options were studied. Emphasis was on the production of high-level waste. All other impacts, e.g. emissions, were considered to be of minor importance, since from a technical point of view they can be limited to any desired extent. An objective was to gather data from the industry and to use them in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of several fuel cycle options. It was necessary to complete our data set with literature data. At the end of our project we could benefit from the results of several Expert Working Groups of OECD/NEA. Detailed information was available for the once-through fuel cycle (OFC) and the fuel cycle with mono recycling of MOX. For the other more advanced fuel cycle options information was of a more qualitative nature. The established set of data was sufficient to conduct a streamlined LCA with focus on waste production for final disposal. Some remarks should be made before comparing the various fuel cycle options studied. The first relates to plutonium that contributes to more than 90% of the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel for more than 1000 centuries. Large concern for transmutation of minor actinides will disproportional if plutonium itself is not eliminated. The second remark is that the fission products contribute potentially very little to the radiotoxicity especially when some long-lived radionuclides after separation are imprisoned in stable matrices to prevent them to be carried by underground water. From all nuclear fuel cycles considered, the MIX cycle in LWRs, with recycling of plutonium and minor actinides has the lowest minor actinides production (0.018 kg/TW e h) and the plutonium production is also quite low (0.06 kg/TW e h). The MIX cycle without minor actinides recycling performs a little better with respect to plutonium production (0.04 kg/TW e h) but has a relatively high minor actinides production (8.7 kg/TW e h). Another conclusion is that burning of minor actinides in fast reactors (MA 0.28 kg/TW e h, Pu 0

  8. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  9. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  10. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  11. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  12. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  13. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  14. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-23

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb(2+) cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  15. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  16. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  17. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  18. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  19. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  20. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  1. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  2. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  3. Dissolution of covalent adaptable network polymers in organic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yang, Hua; Dao, Binh H.; Shi, Qian; Yakacki, Christopher M.

    2017-12-01

    It was recently reported that thermosetting polymers can be fully dissolved in a proper organic solvent utilizing a bond-exchange reaction (BER), where small molecules diffuse into the polymer, break the long polymer chains into short segments, and eventually dissolve the network when sufficient solvent is provided. The solvent-assisted dissolution approach was applied to fully recycle thermosets and their fiber composites. This paper presents the first multi-scale modeling framework to predict the dissolution kinetics and mechanics of thermosets in organic solvent. The model connects the micro-scale network dynamics with macro-scale material properties: in the micro-scale, a model is developed based on the kinetics of BERs to describe the cleavage rate of polymer chains and evolution of chain segment length during the dissolution. The micro-scale model is then fed into a continuum-level model with considerations of the transportation of solvent molecules and chain segments in the system. The model shows good prediction on conversion rate of functional groups, degradation of network mechanical properties, and dissolution rate of thermosets during the dissolution. It identifies the underlying kinetic factors governing the dissolution process, and reveals the influence of different material and processing variables on the dissolution process, such as time, temperature, catalyst concentration, and chain length between cross-links.

  4. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  5. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  6. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  7. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  8. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  9. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  10. Solvent extraction of noble metals by formazans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, M.; Hueppe, U.; Kettrup, A.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction properties of ion-pairs composed of quaternary ammonium cations and a sulphonated formazan were compared with those of an unsulphonated formazan, for various solvent media. In dichloromethane the combined system behaves as a 'coloured anion-exchanger', with displacement of the sulphonated formazan, whereas in toluene Pd(II) and Ag(I) are extracted as the metal formazan chelates from aqueous medium. The rates of extraction are remarkably higher than with the simple extractants. Because of the higher stability only the simple chelating extraction systems afford satisfactory separation of Pd(II) from excess of Pt(IV) and of Ag(I) from Cu(II). The extracted metals can be stripped and the extractant regenerated. (author)

  11. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  12. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  13. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  14. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  15. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  17. Direct regeneration of recycled cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Zhang, Jin; Song, Dawei; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2017-03-01

    A new green recycling process (named as direct regeneration process) of cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries is designed for the first time. Through this direct regeneration process, high purity cathode material mixture (LiFePO4 + acetylene black), anode material mixture (graphite + acetylene black) and other by-products (shell, Al foil, Cu foil and electrolyte solvent, etc.) are recycled from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries with high yield. Subsequently, recycled cathode material mixture without acid leaching is further directly regenerated with Li2CO3. Direct regeneration procedure of recycled cathode material mixture from 600 to 800 °C is investigated in detail. Cathode material mixture regenerated at 650 °C display excellent physical, chemical and electrochemical performances, which meet the reuse requirement for middle-end Li-ion batteries. The results indicate the green direct regeneration process with low-cost and high added-value is feasible.

  18. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  19. Solvent effects in the synergistic solvent extraction of Co2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Ramadan, A.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of Co 2+ from a 0.1M ionic strength aqueous phase (Na + , CH 3 COOH) of pH = 5.1 was studied using thenoyltrifluoroacetone, HTTA, in eight different solvents and HTTA + trioctylphosphine oxide, TOPO, in the same solvents. A comparison of the effect of solvent dielectric constant on the equilibrium constant shows a synergism as a result of the increased hydrophobic character imparted to the metal complex due to the formation of the TOPO adduct. (author)

  20. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  1. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  2. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  3. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  4. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  7. Impact of solvent extraction organics on bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hualong; Liu, Xiaorong; Shen, Junhui; Chi, Daojie

    2017-03-01

    Solvent extraction organics (SX organics) entrained and dissoluted in the raffinate during copper SX operation, can impact bioleaching in case of raffinate recycling. The influence of SX organics on bioleaching process by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) has been investigated. The results showed that, cells of At. ferrooxidans grew slower with contaminated low-grade chalcopyrite ores in shaken flasks bioleaching, the copper bioleaching efficiency reached 15%, lower than that of 24% for uncontaminated minerals. Obviously, the SX organics could adsorb on mineral surface and hinder its contact with bacterials, finanlly lead to the low bioleaching efficiency.

  8. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  9. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds

  10. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  11. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  12. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  13. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  14. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  15. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  16. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  17. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  18. Comparative environmental and human health evaluations of thermolysis and solvolysis recycling technologies of carbon fiber reinforced polymer waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Y F

    2018-06-01

    This quantitative research aims to compare environmental and human health impacts associated with two recycling technologies of CFRP waste. The 'baseline' recycling technology is the conventional thermolysis process via pyrolysis and the 'alternative' recycling technology is an emerging chemical treatment via solvolysis using supercritical water (SCW) to digest the thermoset matrix. Two Gate-to-Gate recycling models are developed using GaBi LCA platform. The selected functional unit (FU) is 1 kg CFRP waste and the geographical boundary of this comparative LCIA is defined to be within the U.S. The results of this comparative assessment brought to light new insights about the environmental and human health impacts of CFRP waste recycling via solvolysis using SCW and, therefore, helped close a gap in the current state of knowledge about sustainability of SCW-based solvolysis as compared to pyrolysis. Two research questions are posed to identify whether solvolysis recycling offers more environmental and human health gains relative to the conventional pyrolysis recycling. These research questions lay the basis for formulating two null hypotheses (H 0,1 and H 0,2 ) and their associated research hypotheses (H 1,1 and H 1,2 ). LCIA results interpretation included 'base case' scenarios, 'sensitivity studies,' and 'scenarios analysis.' The results revealed that: (a) recycling via solvolysis using SCW exhibits no gains in environmental and human health impacts relative to those impacts associated with recycling via pyrolysis and (b) use of natural gas in lieu of electricity for pyrolyzer's heating reduces the environmental and human health impacts by 37% (lowest) and up to 95.7% (highest). It is recommended that on-going experimental efforts that focus only on identifying the best solvent for solvolysis-based recycling should also consider quantification of the energy intensity as well as environmental and human health impacts of the proposed solvents. Copyright © 2018

  19. Continuous cell recycle fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R K; Hill, G A; MacDonald, D G

    1991-10-01

    A cell recycle fermentor using a cross-flow membrane filter has been operated for extended periods. Productivities as high as 70 g/l/h were obtained at a cell concentration of 120 g/l and a product concentration of 70 g/l. The experimental results were then fitted to previously derived biokinetic models (Warren et al., 1990) for a continuous stirred tank fermentor. A good fit for growth rate was found and the cell yield was shown to decrease with product concentration. The product yield, however, was found to remain nearly constant at all cell, substrate and product concentrations. These biokinetics, along with a previous model for the membrane filter (Warren et al., 1991) were then used in a simulalation to estimate the costs of producing ethanol in a large scale system. This simulation was optimized using a variant of the steepest descent method from which a fermentor inlet substrate concentration of 150 g/l and a net cost of $CAN 253.5/1000 L ethanol were projected. From a sensitivity analysis, the yield parameters were found to have the greatest effect on ethanol net cost of the fermentor parameters, while the operating costs and the profit was found to be most sensitive to the wheat raw material cost and to the dried grains by-product value. 55 refs., 11 tabs., 7figs.

  20. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This task aims toward the development of efficient solvent-extraction processes for the removal of the fission products 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs from alkaline tank wastes. Processes already developed or proposed entail direct treatment of the waste solution with the solvent and subsequent stripping of the extracted contaminants from the solvent into a dilute aqueous solution. Working processes to remove Tc(and SR) separately and Cs separately have been developed; the feasibility of a combined process is under investigation. Since Tc, Sr, and Cs will be vitrified together in the high-level fraction, however, a process that could separate Tc, Sr, and Cs simultaneously, as opposed to sequentially, potentially offers the greatest impact. A figure presents a simplified diagram of a proposed solvent-extraction cycle followed by three possible treatments for the stripping solution. Some degree of recycle of the stripping solution (option a) is expected. Simple evaporation (option c) is possible prior to vitrification; this offers the greatest possible volume reduction with simple operation and no consumption of chemicals, but it is energy intensive. However, if the contaminants are concentrated (option b) by fixed-bed technology, the energy penalty of evaporation can be avoided and vitrification facilitated without any additional secondary waste being produced

  1. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  2. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  3. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  4. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  5. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  6. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  7. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  8. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  9. Solvent extraction of Zn and metals in Zn ores by nonphosphorous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, J.M.; Tostain, Jacqueline.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography follows a first work on Zn solvent extraction by organo-phosphorous compounds. The other solvents used in Zn extraction, are studied: oxygenated nonphosphorous solvents (ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, sulfonates), nitrogenous solvents and hydrocarbons [fr

  10. Recycled concrete with coarse recycled aggregate. An overview and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. González-Fonteboa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction field has contributed to environmental degradation, producing a high amount of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste and consuming large volumes of natural resources. In this context, recycled concrete (RC has been recognised as a means to preserve natural resources and reduce space for waste storage. During the last decades, many researchers have developed works studying different recycled concrete properties. This review focuses on structural RC made with coarse recycled aggregate from concrete waste. The main objective is to provide a state of the art report on RC’s properties and an analysis on how to predict them taking into account relevant research works. Moreover, the study tries to collect and update RC findings, proposing equations to define RC’s performance, in terms of mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, stress-strain, creep and shrinkage.

  11. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  12. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives

  13. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  14. Techno-economic comparison of combined cycle gas turbines with advanced membrane configuration and MEA solvent at part load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Bonalumi, Davide; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André P.C.

    2018-01-01

    This work compares the part load techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from a CCGT using a membrane configuration with selective CO2 recycle and using MEA solvent, under the assumption of flexible power plant dispatch. This is the first time that the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture

  15. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  16. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  17. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  18. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  19. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  1. Simulation and optimization of continuous extractive fermentation with recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Rofiqah, Umi; Airlangga, Bramantyo

    2017-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is continuous fermentation method which is believed to be able to substitute conventional fermentation method (batch). The recovery system and ethanol refinery will be easier. Continuous process of fermentation will make the productivity increase although the unconverted sugar in continuous fermentation is still in high concentration. In order to make this process more efficient, the recycle process was used. Increasing recycle flow will enhance the probability of sugar to be re-fermented. However, this will make ethanol enter fermentation column. As a result, the accumulated ethanol will inhibit the growth of microorganism. This research aims to find optimum conditions of solvent to broth ratio (S:B) and recycle flow to fresh feed ratio in order to produce the best yield and productivity. This study employed optimization by Hooke Jeeves method using Matlab 7.8 software. The result indicated that optimum condition occured in S: B=2.615 and R: F=1.495 with yield = 50.2439 %.

  2. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  3. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  4. Subthreshold displacement damage in copper--aluminum alloys during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosd, R.; Kosel, T.; Washburn, J.

    1976-12-01

    During electron irradiation at low energies which results in a negligible damage rate in a pure material, lighter solute atoms are displaced, which may in turn indirectly displace solvent atoms by a focussed replacement collision or an interstitial diffusion jump. The extent to which lighter solute atoms contribute to the subthreshold damage rate has been examined by irradiating copper--aluminum alloys at high temperatures in a high voltage electron microscope. The damage rate, as measured by monitoring the growth rate of dislocation loops, at 300 kV was found to increase linearly with the aluminum concentration

  5. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  6. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  7. "We Was Regenerated Out": Regeneration, Recycling and Devaluing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Glucksberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at well documented processes of urban regeneration and community displacement in the inner-city through an innovative anthropological perspective focused on concepts of waste and value. Using the notion of symbolic devaluation of the working classes developed by Skeggs (1997; 2004, it traces their exclusion from recycling practices while at the same time the estates they live on are being regenerated. Raising questions about the parallels and contradictions between regeneration and recycling, it shows how symbolic devaluation of specifi c areas and their inhabitants are necessary precursors of the physical demolition and removal that characterize regeneration processes. Through an ethnographic approach, the deep connections between people and their waste, and people as waste, are exposed and questioned, showing how valuable middle class selves are produced through appropriate waste management procedures, i.e. individualized recycling, while inner-city, estate dwellers are remade into uncaring, unworthy citizens who cannot take part in this value-producing circuit.

  8. UREP: gateway to uranium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Durret, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial experience accumulated in France on recycling makes their conversion service fully reliable technically and economically. Problems associated with chemical and radiochemical behavior have been solved satisfactorily in order to offer customers flexible options for their personal optimization. Economically, a price reduction by a significant factor (up to two) has been proposed by UREP as a firm commitment for the coming years. This is the result of technical experience coupled with favorable scaling effect for the large conversion plant proposed. It is believed that such a positive approach greatly helps customers in managing recycling of their material and generating savings in their fuel cycle economics. This flow of recycled uranium, on top of the 40000 t of natural uranium consumed each year, is a valuable asset available to those utilities which have selected the reprocessing route. 2 figs

  9. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  10. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  11. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  12. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  13. Analysis of cesium extracting solvent using GCMS and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Herman, C.C.; Crump, S.L.; Marinik, A.R.; Lambert, D.P.; Eibling, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) remediation process scheduled to begin in 2007 at the Savannah River Site is the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The MCU will use a hydrocarbon solvent (diluent) containing a cesium extractant, a calix[4]arene compound, to extract radioactive cesium from caustic HLW. The resulting decontaminated HLW waste or raffinate will be processed into grout at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The cesium containing CSSX stream will undergo washing with dilute nitric acid followed by stripping of the cesium nitrate into a very dilute nitric acid or the strip effluent stream and the CSSX solvent will be recycled. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will receive the strip effluent stream and immobilize the cesium into borosilicate glass. Excess CSSX solvent carryover from the MCU creates a potential flammability problem during DWPF processing. Bench-scale DWPF process testing was performed with simulated waste to determine the fate of the CSSX solvent components. A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify the modifier (which is used to increase Cs extraction and extractant solubility) and extractant within the DWPF process. The diluent and trioctylamine (which is used to suppress impurity effect and ion-pair disassociation) were determined using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). To close the organic balance, two types of sample preparation methods were needed. One involved extracting aqueous samples with methylene chloride or hexane, and the second was capturing the off gas of the DWPF process using carbon tubes and rinsing the tubes with carbon disulfide for analysis. This paper addresses the development of the analytical methods and the bench-scale simulated waste study results. (author)

  14. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  15. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  16. A relationship between solvent viscosity and biomolecule picosecond thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornicchi, E.; De Francesco, A.; Marconi, M.; Onori, G.; Paciaroni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Through elastic neutron scattering measurements, we investigated the picosecond dynamics of DNA in the hydrated powder state or embedded in glycerol glassy matrix from 20 K to 300 K. We calculated the relaxational contribution of the mean square displacements (MSD) of DNA hydrogen atoms. We found the existence of a linear relationship between the inverse of the biomolecule relaxational MSD and the logarithm of the bulk viscosity of the surrounding environment. From the comparison with the case of lysozyme in the same environments, for which the validity of the relationship was already verified, possible differences and analogies concerning the biomolecule-to-solvent dynamical coupling can be stressed

  17. The recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 update to the Uranium Institute's report ''Uranium Market Issues'', presented to this Symposium last year (1990) stated that the impact of recycled reprocessing products on uranium demand would be limited in the near future to that due to MOX fuel fabrication. The report stated that the recycling of reprocessed uranium was still at an early discussion stage, rather than being a short-term prospect. This paper will set out to challenge this assertion, on the basis both of facts and of economic and environmental incentives. (author)

  18. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... analyze how outsourcing the planning and transportation of the service can result in conflicts of interest and as a consequence cause unsustainable solutions. Finally, we suggest an alternative payment structure which can lead to a common goal, overall economic sustainability, and an improved financial...

  19. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  1. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  2. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.; Le Saulnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced [fr

  3. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  4. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  5. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  6. Fe–Al/clay as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for solvent-free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SiO2,27 amberlyst-15,28 etc. ... tometer, using Ni-filtered Cu Ka (0.15418 nm) radia- ... The spectral data of some ... C).29 1H NMR ... 3.99(q, j = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 5.12 (s,1H), 7.23 (d, j = 8.35 .... Recyclability was studied in both solvent-free and.

  7. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  8. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  9. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  10. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  11. Low energy recycling of ionic liquids via freeze crystallization during cellulose spinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi

    2018-01-01

    recycling method. EmimAc + 12.5 wt% H2O and EmimDep + 4 wt% H2O were selected for a quantitative mass and energy analysis of the cellulose spinning and IL recycling process (the maximal initial H2O levels in the ILs + H2O mixtures for cellulose dissolution were determined experimentally). The energy......Dep recycling. We also show that compared to a classical Lyocell fiber production method using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent, use of ILs is energy saving in itself. Hence, significantly less H2O is required in the cellulose spinning process with ILs than with NMMO, and in turn less H2O has...

  12. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  13. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Tui Chen; Fu-Chiang Yang; Shih-Heng Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator t...

  14. Reuse of organobentonites with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ling-Yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Li-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Synthesized organobentonite (SOB), montmorillonite (MMT), and commercial organobentonite (COB) were used as adsorbents for paraffin oil, a model pollutant in land-based oil spills and oil pipeline rupture. The characterization of clays was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adsorption, oil was separated from adsorbents with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and DMCHA was subsequently separated from paraffin oil upon CO 2 bubbling instead of distillation with high energy cost. The adsorption capacity of oil to SOB, MMT, and COB was 0.686, 1.124, and 1.239 g/g, respectively. It was found that the adsorption capacity and rinsed amount of the adsorbents depended on the d-spacing, which is related to surfactant content. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements suggested that the separation process occurred via two steps. Firstly, during the initial 35 min, carbonate ions coexisted with bicarbonate ions. Then, only bicarbonate ions existed after the introduction of CO 2 gas for 120 min. Thus, organobentonites were feasible for hydrocarbon adsorption and could be simply reused by an amine-based responsive solvent. This work provided a cost-effective and sustainable method of recycling of organobentonites and the responsive solvent, which can be used to deal with leaked oil and oil spills.

  15. Ionic Liquids in Selective Oxidation: Catalysts and Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chengna; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Chongpin; Lei, Zhigang

    2017-05-24

    Selective oxidation has an important role in environmental and green chemistry (e.g., oxidative desulfurization of fuels and oxidative removal of mercury) as well as chemicals and intermediates chemistry to obtain high-value-added special products (e.g., organic sulfoxides and sulfones, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, epoxides, esters, and lactones). Due to their unique physical properties such as the nonvolatility, thermal stability, nonexplosion, high polarity, and temperature-dependent miscibility with water, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention as reaction solvents and media for selective oxidations and are considered as green alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Moreover, for easy separation and recyclable utilization, IL catalysts have attracted unprecedented attention as "biphasic catalyst" or "immobilized catalyst" by immobilizing metal- or nonmetal-containing ILs onto mineral or polymer supports to combine the unique properties of ILs (chemical and thermal stability, capacity for extraction of polar substrates and reaction products) with the extended surface of the supports. This review highlights the most recent outcomes on ILs in several important typical oxidation reactions. The contents are arranged in the series of oxidation of sulfides, oxidation of alcohols, epoxidation of alkenes, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction, oxidation of alkanes, and oxidation of other compounds step by step involving ILs as solvents, catalysts, reagents, or their combinations.

  16. An investigation of sustainable and recyclable composites for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Johannes Paul

    compression molding) was successfully demonstrated for epoxy vitrimers and epoxy vitrimer composites. Dynamic thermomechanical and quasi-static tensile data vs. particle size indicate that the finest powder yielded the best results. In addition to mechanical recycling, a new approach to chemical recycling via fiber reclamation was introduced. Here, removal of the matrix was achieved via high temperature transesterification of the resin in a large excess of an alcohol solvent, and new continuously reinforced composites were succesfully prepared from the reclaimed fibers.

  17. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  18. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  19. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  20. The Fulton School Recycling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a school recycling project that started as a newspaper collection for library funds and evolved into a community service. Discusses problems that were overcome, strategies for implementation of the project, and related cross-curricular studies and activities. Contains two curriculum mind maps. (LZ)

  1. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  2. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A; Murtazina, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  3. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A.; Murtazina, Anna M.

    2011-05-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  4. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  5. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  6. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... electronics annually, and without following proper recycling and management practices, the disposal of our old..., and prevent the recovery and reuse of valuable resources. For the well- being of our people and our..., management, and recycling that will accelerate our burgeoning electronics recycling market and create jobs...

  7. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  8. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  9. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  10. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  11. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  12. On the logistics of recycling : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, S.D.P.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the different logistic aspects of recycling, where recycling denotes "All the activities required for the reuse of materials and (semi-)finished products after they are no longer used by their last user." Special attention is paid to the forced recycling of durable

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  14. Solvents interactions with thermochromic print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interactions between different solvents (benzene, acetone, cyclohexanone, various alcohols and water and thermochromic printing ink were investigated. Thermochromic printing ink was printed on metal surface. Components of thermochromic printing inks are polymeric microcapsules and classic yellow offset printing ink. Below its activation temperature, dye and developer within the microcapsules form a blue coloured complex. Therefore, thermochromic print is green. By heating above the activation temperature, blue colour of the complex turns into the leuco dye colourless state and the green colour of the prints turns into the yellow colour of the classic offset pigment. The results of the interaction with various solvents show that the thermochromic print is stable in all tested solvents except in ethanol, acetone and cyclohexanone. In ethanol, the green colour of the print becomes yellow. SEM analysis shows that microcapsules are dissolved. In acetone and cyclohexanone, the green colour of the print turns into blue, and the microcapsules become significantly more visible. Thus, the yellow pigment interacts with examined ketones. Based on the obtained interactions it can be concluded that the microcapsules have more polar nature than the classical pigment particles. Solvent-thermocromic print interactions were analysed using Hansen solubility parameters that rank the solvents based on their estimated interaction capabilities.

  15. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  16. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  17. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  18. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  19. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  20. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  1. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  2. An industry response to recycle 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE's position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this 'Recycle 2000' initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality

  3. Carambola optics for recycling of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-20

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  4. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  5. Extensive experimental investigation of the effect of drainage height and solvent type on the stabilized drainage rate in vapour extraction (VAPEX) process

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mohammadpoor; Farshid Torabi

    2015-01-01

    The low cost of the injected solvent, which can be also recovered and recycled, and the applicability of VAPEX technique in thin reservoirs are among the main advantages of VAPEX process compared to thermal heavy oil recovery techniques. In this research, an extensive experimental investigation is carried out to first evaluate the technical feasibility of utilization of various solvents for VAPEX process. Then the effect of drainage height on the stabilized drainage rate in VAPEX process was ...

  6. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  7. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  8. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  9. Feedwater recycling system in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactor safety by preventing thermal stresses and cracks generated in structural materials due to the fluctuations in the temperature for high temperature water - low temperature water mixture near the feedwater nozzle. Method: Feedwater pipes are connected to a pressure vessel not directly but by way of a flow control valve. While the recycled water is circulated from an inlet nozzle to an outlet nozzle through a recycle pump, flow control valve and recycling pipeways, feedwater is fed from the feedwater pipes to the recycling pipeways by way of the flow control valve. More specifically, since the high temperature recycle water and the low temperature recycle water are mixed within the pipeways, the temperature fluctuations resulted from the temperature difference between the recycle water and the feedwater is reduced to prevent thermal fatigue and generation of cracks thereby securing the reactor safety. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  11. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lar solvents as an effective single component dipo- lar liquid that is characterized ... and time (t) dependent solvation energy of mobile dipo- lar solute with density ..... Even though this way for modification of C is purely ad- hoc, the observation ...

  13. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  14. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  15. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  16. Sustainable and Low Viscous 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate + PEG Solvent for Cellulose Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airong Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable, low viscous and efficient solvents are always advantageous to the processing/fabricating of cellulose materials in practical applications. To this end, in this work novel solvents were developed; ([Amim][CH3COO]/PEG by dissolving polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG-200 in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Amim][CH3COO]. The solubilities of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvents were determined as a function of temperature, and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent was investigated. The novel solvent exhibits outstanding advantages for good dissolution capacity of cellulose, such as low viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, and recycling capability. The [CH3COO]− anion and the [Amim]+ cation of [Amim][CH3COO] in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG-10 are the driving force for cellulose dissolution verified by the 13C NMR spectra. In addition, the regenerated cellulose films from [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to estimate their morphologies and structures.

  17. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... for several batches of hydrolysis, and thereby reduces the overall cost associated with the hydrolysis. Research on this subject has been ongoing for many years and several promising technologies and methods have been developed and demonstrated. But only in a very few cases have these technologies been...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...

  18. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  19. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ''hands-on'' refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided

  20. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  1. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  2. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  3. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  4. Background study on increasing recycling of end-of-life mercury-containing lamps from residential and commercial sources in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilkene, C. [Hilkene International Policy, Toronto, ON (Canada); Friesen, K. [Pollution Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-31

    The state of recycling of mercury-containing lamps in Canada was studied. Developing an efficient recovery and recycling infrastructure for mercury-containing lamps offers several benefits such as environmental protection from releases of mercury; displacing virgin materials required for production of new lamps; and increasing the sustainability associated with the use of these energy efficient products. This study summarized international experience with respect to recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps. It also summarized the material composition of these lamps, and provided an inventory of Canadian fluorescent lamp recycling and recovery initiatives. It provided estimates of quantities of end-of-life bulbs and tubes being disposed of in Canada; quantities of metals and other materials recovered through lamp recycling; the tonnage of metals and other materials being lost to disposal systems and energy savings and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions from substitution of recycled fluorescent lamp materials for virgin materials in manufacturing operations. The report also identified other environmental benefits arising from current or potential recycling and recovery initiatives as well as recovery opportunities and barriers to fluorescent lamp recovery and recycling initiatives. Last, the report presented options for stimulating greater recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps and presented critical factors for a meaningful cost benefit analysis on enhanced recovery. 76 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs., 6 appendices.

  5. The Displaced ‘Dispositif’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edmonds

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dispositif” is a term used in film studies since the 1970s to describe the entire system of mechanical and human factors which together bring about the cinema experience. It therefore refers to (amongst other things the space of the auditorium, the screen, the projection technology and the physiology of the spectator. Many of its qualifying components are masked from the view of participants in the system. The dispositif’s purpose is to set up the conditions for a specific type of cognitive experience, one which mirrors and extends (and in some readings, controls the experience of its participants. The Displaced Dispositif is a performance designed for the space of a cinema theatre, but featuring the projection of fragments of early silent cinema on a coeval (1910s film projector from the auditorium. The film fragments are live-scored by the sound artist, Shaun Lewin, using a combination of closely mic’d sources on the projector itself, luminance data from the projected image and EEG brainwave data recorded from participants during previous projections of the film. Displacing elements in the dispositif in this way, by shifting modalities, situating in parallel, feeding back and layering, draws attention to its hidden existence and creates the potential for a more knowing and informed participation in the cinema experience. It also serves to demonstrate the degree to which dispositifs of modern cinema spectatorship, which have morphed and proliferated since the widespread digitization of film heritage, have radically altered both the technological and experiential qualities of the medium. By integrating EEG data, the performance adds the dimension of electrophysiological experience to the long tradition within experimental cinema of artists calling attention to Cinema’s hidden structures. As well as challenging the dominance of the worldview propagated by the film industry, the performance also signals a means of re-engaging with the

  6. Control device for recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to control the recycling flow rate by the variation coefficient of the recycling flow rate corresponding to the state of the reactor power. Constitution: A number of rotation of an electric power generator for supplying a driving power to recycling pump is calculated in a rotational number setting section such that the deviation between the actual measurement signal for the flow rate of steams from the reactor and an instruction signal for the steam flow rate is reduced to zero. The velocity ratio of the fluid coupling for connecting the motor with the electric power generator is calculated in a rotational number adjusting section such that the deviation between the output signal from the setting section and the measuring signal from the electric power generator is reduced to zero, and a set velocity ratio signal is outputted. The set velocity ratio signal, set velocity ratio measurement signal from the fluid coupling and the rotational number measuring signal for the electric power generator are inputted into a velocity ratio control section to control the velocity ratio of the fluid coupling such that the deviation between both of the velocity ratio signal inputs is reduced to zero by the variation coefficient depending on the number of rotation of the electric power generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Recycle flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain stable low hydraulic power operation with no abnormal changes in the reactor water level by smoothly varying the speed control for the recycling pump for regulating the reactor core flowrate in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a recycling control system equipped with an internal pump having a response characteristic higher by ten and several times or more than that of prior pump, a previously programed recycling run-back signal is inputted to a speed regulator upon load interruption of the electric generator to thereby control the operation of the internal pump driving motor such that the speed is decreased rapidly at the initial state and smoothly thereafter. The run-back singal is passed through a primary delay circuit so that the interruption of the motor operation does not directly performed by the signal interruption upon failure. As the result, the amount of void produced is also made smooth and the reactor water level varies smoothly as well, whereby the reactor power can be reduced with a sufficient margin. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  9. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  10. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  11. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  12. On the Coulomb displacement energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)

  13. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  14. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  15. Deep water recycling through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity ( v s ), slab age ( a ) and mantle temperature (T m ). Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. We parameterize the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle, W (×10 5 kg/m 2 ), as a function of v s (cm/yr), a (Myrs), and T m (°C):[Formula: see text]. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ∼15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ∼2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ∼2.2×10 5 kg/m 2 of H 2 O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ∼26% of the global influx water, or 7×10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5-3.7 × 10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga. Deep water recycling might be possible even in early Earth conditions We provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of H 2 O flux deep into the mantle Subduction velocity has a a major control on the crustal dehydration pattern.

  16. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  17. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  18. Chemical recycling of semi-rigid polyurethane foams by using an eco-friendly and green method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of integral skin polyurethane foams (ISPUFs was performed using diethylene glycol (DEG/-sorbitol/water ternary green solvent system as an effective polyurethane bond destroying agent in combination with basic catalysts, namely sodium and potassium hydroxides, sodium acetate and sodium carbonate. The effects of studied catalysts were investigated and data showed the high performances of sodium hydroxide in recycling process. After completion of the reactions, appeared split phases contained recycled polyols in the upper phase. Reactions were studied using various DEG/-sorbitol/water ratios and the recovered polyols were characterized and data compared with an authentic sample.

  19. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  20. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  1. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  2. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  3. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  4. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  5. Silver recovery aqueous techniques from diverse sources: Hydrometallurgy in recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, S

    2016-04-01

    The demand of silver is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high grade silver ores are retreating. However, there exist large stashes of low and lean grade silver ores that are yet to be exploited. The main impression of this work was to draw attention to the most advance technologies in silver recovery and recycling from various sources. The state of the art in recovery of silver from different sources by hydrometallurgical and bio-metallurgical processing and varieties of leaching, cementing, reducing agents, peeling, electro-coagulants, adsorbents, electro-dialysis, solvent extraction, ion exchange resins and bio sorbents are highlighted in this article. It is shown that the major economic driver for recycling of depleted sources is for the recovery of silver. In order to develop an nature-friendly technique for the recovery of silver from diverse sources, a critical comparison of existing technologies is analyzed for both economic viability and environmental impact was made in this amendment and silver ion toxicity is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling of Ammonia Wastewater During Vanadium Extraction from Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In the vanadium metallurgical industry, massive amounts of ammonia hydroxide or ammonia salt are added during the precipitation process to obtain V2O5; therefore, wastewater containing a high level of NH4 + is generated, which poses a serious threat to environmental and hydrologic safety. In this article, a novel process was developed to recycle ammonia wastewater based on a combination of ammonia wastewater leaching and crystallization during vanadium extraction from shale. The effects of the NH4 + concentration, temperature, time and liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching efficiencies of vanadium, aluminum and potassium were investigated, and the results showed that 93.2% of vanadium, 86.3% of aluminum and 96.8% of potassium can be leached from sulfation-roasted shale. Subsequently, 80.6% of NH4 + was separated from the leaching solution via cooling crystallization. Vanadium was recovered via a combined method of solvent extraction, precipitation and calcination. Therefore, ammonia wastewater was successfully recycled during vanadium extraction from shale.

  7. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  8. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  9. ZZ WPPR, Pu Recycling Benchmark Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.; Mattes, M.; Delpech, Marc; Juanola, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The NEA NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling has commissioned a series of benchmarks covering: - Plutonium recycling in pressurized-water reactors; - Void reactivity effect in pressurized-water reactors; - Fast Plutonium-burner reactors: beginning of life; - Plutonium recycling in fast reactors; - Multiple recycling in advanced pressurized-water reactors. The results have been published (see references). ZZ-WPPR-1-A/B contains graphs and tables relative to the PWR Mox pin cell benchmark, representing typical fuel for plutonium recycling, one corresponding to a first cycle, the second for a fifth cycle. These computer readable files contain the complete set of results, while the printed report contains only a subset. ZZ-WPPR-2-CYC1 are the results from cycle 1 of the multiple recycling benchmarks

  10. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  11. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Design and construction of an interceptor system for radioactively contaminated solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Blickwedehl, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the conduct of fuel reprocessing operations at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972, the site operator disposed of spent solvent by shallow land burial in the area used for disposal of solid radioactive waste. The spent solvent was placed in twenty-two 3785 liter (1000-gallon) steel tanks which were then placed in eight 6-meter-deep burial holes. With the passage of time groundwater entered the tanks displacing the solvent (a mixture of tributyl phosphate and n-dodecane) and allowing it to enter the surrounding groundwater system. The solvent, which is lighter than water, floated to the surface of the groundwater within the burial holes and began to migrate laterally through cracks caused by weathering. In 1983, after the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated efforts for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), trace amounts of solvent were encountered in a monitoring well near the perimeter of the burial area. Since the initial discovery, extensive studies and continued monitoring have been conducted of the solvent migration. In the fall of 1989, this monitoring showed evidence of further on-site migration of the solvent within the disposal area. In response, the DOE authorized West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS) to proceed with the design and construction of a trench system to intercept the flow of solvent and prevent it from discharging to nearby streams. Since the solvent and the contaminated groundwater samples taken in the area exhibited high levels of Iodine-129 in an organic complex, it was necessary to construct a pretreatment facility. An important aspect of the trench construction was the management of contaminated soil and construction water. Contaminated soils were placed into storage containers and held for future treatment and disposal. All water pumped from the trench during construction was stored in large bladder tanks, analyzed for hazardous constituents, and upon finding none, was discharged

  13. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  15. Implementing a campus wide recycling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The University of Windsor is currently expanding its recycling program to include all buildings on campus, but faces two challenges: 1) uncertainty about the current waste composition and distribution on campus; and 2) uncertainty about the effectiveness of increased recycling. This project assesses the current waste composition and the attitudes of the students towards recycling, and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed recycling activities. At present, paper is the only material that is collected throughout the entire campus. Except for two buildings, all other potentially recyclable materials within buildings, such as metal, glass, and plastic beverage containers, are discarded. The main focus of this research is on beverage containers as they represent clearly identifiable materials, but other materials were examined as well. To quantify the waste, different buildings on campus were classified according to their function: academic,operational and administrative. The waste composition study indicated that approximately 33% of the campus waste which is landfilled is composed of potentially recyclable material. A survey was then conducted to gauge the campus population's views on recycling issues that could affect the design of a recycling program. Interestingly, 97% of the respondents indicated a high willingness to recycle, but were uncertain as to how and where to recycle on campus. The project is currently assessing potential diversion rates using new, clearly identifiable recycling receptacles placed within selected classrooms for all major materials. There is a significant tradeoff however because the cost for new receptacles is considerable: multiple materials containers are often placed in high pedestrian traffic locations (e.g., hallways) and not always in classrooms,of which there are often many. This project will evaluate the basic benefits and costs of implementing a more comprehensive recycling program, and recommend how other

  16. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  17. Axis vibration detection device for reactor recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Katsuki.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for detecting, in a contactless manner, vibrations of a recycling pump shaft disposed in a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. Namely, the vibration detector comprises an eddy current type displacement gauge having a sensing portion at one end of a linear tube type metal holder. It also comprises a rotational member made of an electroconductive material rotating integrally with a rotational pump shaft. The vibration detector is inserted into an attaching hole passing through a pump casing at a position where the sensing portion faces the outer circumference of the rotational member. The attaching hole is closed by a holder of the oscillation detector and a metal cap integrated to one end of the holder. A high pressure hermetic seal connector is disposed at a position outer side of the attaching hole of the vibration detector for electrically connecting the inside and the outside thereof. The device of the present invention can directly detect the vibration of the pump shaft. As a result, an abnormality, if should occur, in the recycling pump can be found in an early stage. Since the vibration detector is covered with a metal and shielded by the high pressure hermetic seal connector, it can sufficiently ensure pressure resistance. (I.S.)

  18. Recent solvent extraction experience at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Gray, J.H.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, D.L.; Macafee, I.M.; Reif, D.J.; Shook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate-based solvent extraction processes have been used at Savannah River for more than 30 years to separate and purify thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. This report summarizes the advancement of solvent extraction technology at Savannah River during the 1980's. Topics that are discussed include equipment improvements, solvent treatment, waste reduction, and an improved understanding of the various chemistries in the process streams entering, within, and leaving the solvent extraction processes

  19. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  20. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  1. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  2. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  3. Safety confirmation study of TRUEX solvent by accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiko; Hirumachi, Suguru; Takeda, Shinso; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Sasaya, Shinji

    1999-02-01

    In order to confirm the engineering safety on the TRUEX solvent (mixed solvent of CMPO/TBP/n-dodecane) for separating the transuranics from high-level activity liquid waste in advanced nuclear fuel recycling technological R and D, thermal behavior and pressure behavior in heating PUREX solvent (mixed solvent of 30% TBP-n-dodecane), TRUEX solvent and in the exothermic reaction of TRUEX solvent etc. and nitric acid in sealed adiabatic system which was severer condition than actual plant were measured by using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). The Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) which are necessary for the evaluation of reaction rate was examined from the measurement data in ARC. Analytical method and analysis condition of reaction products were examined in order to clarify chemical form of reaction products in exothermic reaction between solvent and nitric acid in ARC, and the qualitative evaluation was carried out. Main results are shown in the following. 1) TBP, CMPO, n-dodecane and 10 M nitric acid hardly exothermed in the simple substance. 2) On the solvent phase after the solvent contacted with 10 M nitric acid and the equilibrium has been attained (single-phase sample), the heat quantity per unit sample weight of the TRUEX solvent tended to be bigger than that of the PUREX solvent when heat quantity was evaluated in ARC. However, on the mixed sample of solvent and 10 M nitric acid enclosed in a sample container simultaneously (two phase system sample), the heat quantity per unit solvent weight was almost equivalent for PUREX solvent and TRUEX solvent. 3) The kinetic analysis was carried out, and on the TBP-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample, the activation energy of the reaction was evaluated to be 118 kJ/mol. Its activation energy was approximately equal to 112 kJ/mol by Nichols. The reaction rate constant was calculated, and it was shown that reaction rate constants of PUREX solvent-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample and

  4. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  5. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  6. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of MARTINI Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Cunha, Ana V.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    We present adaptive resolution dynamics simulations of aqueous and apolar solvents coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field. As representatives of both classes solvents we have chosen liquid water and butane, respectively, at ambient temperature. The solvent

  7. Recycler

    OpenAIRE

    Déniz García, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    En este trabajo final de máster se propone la creación de una aplicación para dispositivos móviles Android, cuyo objetivo es, mediante la gamificación, motivar a la ciudadanía a reciclar. La idea nace principalmente de la necesidad de mantener la sostenibilidad en las ciudades para las generaciones futuras. Esta idea resulta más atractiva y sencilla de implementar si unimos las tecnologías de la información y comunicación con las transparencia de algunos organismos públicos con el Open dat...

  8. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    introduction of sustainable principles in creative processes may influence expansion of aesthetic spaces of opportunity, and how glass craft and design may contribute to sustainable development. To connect scientific and artistic research with glass craft and design practice and education, I have engaged...... in a practice-based research method in combination with elements of education-based research and action research. The dissertation presents a discussion of theories, methods and practices around glass craft and design and sustainability in relation to a series of activities including personal experiments...... Arts. In order to ensure relevance within this format, a premise for the project has been to develop as holistic a foundation as possible for creative experimentation using the facilities and resources available at this institution. The outcomes of the project include practical, artistic and scientific...

  9. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  10. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  11. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilias, D.S.; Roupakias, C.; Megalokonomos, P.; Lappas, A.A.; Antonakou, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    The recycling of either model polymers or waste products based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) is examined using the dissolution/reprecipitation method, as well as pyrolysis. In the first technique, different solvents/non-solvents were examined at different weight percent amounts and temperatures using as raw material both model polymers and commercial products (packaging film, bags, pipes, food-retail outlets). The recovery of polymer in every case was greater than 90%. FT-IR spectra and tensile mechanical properties of the samples before and after recycling were measured. Furthermore, catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor with an FCC catalyst using again model polymers and waste products as raw materials. Analysis of the derived gases and oils showed that pyrolysis gave a mainly aliphatic composition consisting of a series of hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), with a great potential to be recycled back into the petrochemical industry as a feedstock for the production of new plastics or refined fuels

  12. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilias, D S; Roupakias, C; Megalokonomos, P; Lappas, A A; Antonakou, Epsilon V

    2007-11-19

    The recycling of either model polymers or waste products based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) is examined using the dissolution/reprecipitation method, as well as pyrolysis. In the first technique, different solvents/non-solvents were examined at different weight percent amounts and temperatures using as raw material both model polymers and commercial products (packaging film, bags, pipes, food-retail outlets). The recovery of polymer in every case was greater than 90%. FT-IR spectra and tensile mechanical properties of the samples before and after recycling were measured. Furthermore, catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor with an FCC catalyst using again model polymers and waste products as raw materials. Analysis of the derived gases and oils showed that pyrolysis gave a mainly aliphatic composition consisting of a series of hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), with a great potential to be recycled back into the petrochemical industry as a feedstock for the production of new plastics or refined fuels.

  13. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  14. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection pr...

  15. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  16. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  17. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  18. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  19. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans.

  20. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...... and have indicated that more fundamental work is required to investigate and discover new organic solvents for EME....

  1. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  2. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  3. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  4. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our..., including the recycling of electronic products. The increased use of electronics and technology in our homes... harmful effects of the improper handling and disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded...

  5. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  6. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  7. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  8. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  9. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  10. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  11. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  12. Idea Notebook: Recycling with an Educational Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Tom; Wilson, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Four students at St. Louis University High School developed a project to clean up the environment while saving energy and natural resources. Aluminum and steel cans were recycled and the money was used to buy and plant trees. Students learned about recycling, organization, money management, and improving the environment. (JMM)

  13. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  14. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  15. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  16. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  17. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  18. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  19. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  20. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  1. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  2. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  3. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  4. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  5. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  6. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  7. MOX recycling-an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, G.D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing and plutonium recycling have now attained industrial maturity in France and Europe. Specifically, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is fabricated and used in light water reactors (LWRs) in satisfactory operating conditions. The utilities and the fuel cycle industry experience no technical difficulties, and European recycling programs are growing steadily, from 18 reactors in operation today up to 50 expected around the year 2000, putting the system reprocessing-recycling in coherence: 25 t of plutonium will then be used each year to produce the electricity equivalence of 25 millions tons of oil. Plutonium recycling in MOX fuel in current LWRs proves to be technically safe and economically competitive and meets natural resource savings and environmental protection objectives. And recycling responds properly to the nonproliferation concerns. Such an industrial experience gives a unique reference for weapons plutonium disposition through MOX use in reactors

  8. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  9. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  10. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  11. Pretreatment of eucalyptus with recycled ionic liquids for low-cost biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jikun; Liu, Bingchuan; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping

    2017-06-01

    It is urgent to develop recycled ionic liquids (ILs) as green solvents for sustainable biomass pretreatment. The goal of this study is to explore the availability and performance of reusing 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([amim]Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim]OAc) for pretreatment, structural evolution, and enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus. Cellulose enzymatic digestibility slightly decreased with the increased number of pretreatment recycles. The hydrolysis efficiencies of eucalyptus pretreated via 4th recycled ILs were 54.3% for [amim]Cl and 72.8% for [bmim]OAc, which were 5.0 and 6.7-folds higher than that of untreated eucalyptus. Deteriorations of ILs were observed by the relatively lower sugar conversion and lignin removal from eucalyptus after 4th reuse. No appreciable changes in fundamental framework and thermal stability of [amim]Cl were observed even after successive pretreatments, whereas the anionic structure of [bmim]OAc was destroyed or replaced. This study suggested that the biomass pretreatment with recycled ILs was a potential alternative for low-cost biorefinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  13. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  14. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  15. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  17. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  19. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  20. Improvement of liquefaction solvent. Increase of light oil yield with a reduction in catalyst addition; Ekika yozai no kairyo kenkyu. Sekitan ekikayu no keishitsuka to shokubai tenkaryo no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, N.; Yasumuro, M.; Sato, K.; Komatsu, N.; Okui, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For developing coal liquefaction processes, it is an important problem to improve the light oil yield with increased oil yield. It was previously reported that distillate mainly containing lighter fraction can be produced with high oil yield by reducing the iron/sulfur catalyst addition in slurry, by recycling gas in the process operation, by utilizing these effects, and by using heavy oil as recycling solvent. In this study, the maximum distillate yield of Victorian brown coal was investigated through continuous liquefaction using a bench scale unit. In addition, operation conditions for obtaining sufficient oil yield were investigated under the reduced catalyst addition into one-third. Consequently, it was confirmed that the maximum content of lighter fraction in distillate product was obtained with reduced catalyst addition by using heavy oil as recycling solvent, by adopting new catalyst, and by utilizing effects of CLB recycling and gas recycling in maximum. It was also revealed that lighter distillate can be produced compared with the oil product obtained by recycling conventional solvent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Theory of polyelectrolytes in solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitanvis, Shirish M

    2003-12-01

    Using a continuum description, we account for fluctuations in the ionic solvent surrounding a Gaussian, charged chain and derive an effective short-ranged potential between the charges on the chain. This potential is repulsive at short separations and attractive at longer distances. The chemical potential can be derived from this potential. When the chemical potential is positive, it leads to a meltlike state. For a vanishingly low concentration of segments, this state exhibits scaling behavior for long chains. The Flory exponent characterizing the radius of gyration for long chains is calculated to be approximately 0.63, close to the classical value obtained for second order phase transitions. For short chains, the radius of gyration varies linearly with N, the chain length, and is sensitive to the parameters in the interaction potential. The linear dependence on the chain length N indicates a stiff behavior. The chemical potential associated with this interaction changes sign, when the screening length in the ionic solvent exceeds a critical value. This leads to condensation when the chemical potential is negative. In this state, it is shown using the mean-field approximation that spherical and toroidal condensed shapes can be obtained. The thickness of the toroidal polyelectrolyte is studied as a function of the parameters of the model, such as the ionic screening length. The predictions of this theory should be amenable to experimental verification.

  2. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  4. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH and S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for “green economy”

  5. Impact of solvent extraction organics on adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hualong, Yu; Xiaorong, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Copper solvent extraction entrained and dissoluted organics (SX organics) in the raffinate during SX operation can contaminated chalcopyrite ores and influence bioleaching efficiency by raffinate recycling. The adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum with contaminated ores were investigated. The results showed that, A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum cells could adsorb quickly on minerals, the adsorption rate on contaminated ores were 83% and 60%, respectively, larger than on uncontaminated ores. However, in the bioleaching by the two kinds of acid bacterias, contaminated ores presented a lower bioleaching efficiency.

  6. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  8. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  9. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  10. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  11. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  12. Recycling systems for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akio; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Fukumoto, Ryuji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To stabilize the coolant flowing characteristics and reactor core reactivity. Constitution: The recycling system in a BWR type reactor comprises a recycling pump disposed to the outside of a reactor pressure vessel, a ring header connected to the recycling pump through main pipe ways, and a plurality of pipes branched from and connected with the ring header and connected to a plurality of jet pumps within the pressure vessel. Then, by making the diameter for the pipeways of each of the branched pipes different from each other, the effective cross-sectional area is varied to thereby average the coolant flow rate supplied to each of the jet pumps. (Seki, T.)

  13. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  14. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of MSE's Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less

  15. Supporting Sustainability through Recycling on Office Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Quiros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about recycling at the Deloitte office. Recycling of office material can be considered as a rather easy way to influence aspects of sustainability. The starting point for this thesis was to give support to Deloitte´s Green Agenda team, who’s aim is to consider recycling and sustainability from business perspectives. One of the main objectives in this thesis is to provide Deloitte with a frame of solutions for them to establish clear rules, policies and norms that encourage...

  16. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  17. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  18. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  19. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  20. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  1. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  2. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  3. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  4. Aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Farnum, Rachel Lizabeth; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2018-02-13

    The present invention is directed to aminosilicone solvent recovery methods and systems. The methods and systems disclosed herein may be used to recover aminosilicone solvent from a carbon dioxide containing vapor stream, for example, a vapor stream that leaves an aminosilicone solvent desorber apparatus. The methods and systems of the invention utilize a first condensation process at a temperature from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. and a second condensation process at a temperature from about 5.degree. C. to about 75.degree. C. The first condensation process yields recovered aminosilicone solvent. The second condensation process yields water.

  5. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  6. Food packaging in South Africa: reducing, re-using and recycling.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available types of responses to these problems. One response has been from government, who have identified plastic, glass and steel cans as ‘priority wastes’ that need to be kept away from landfill sites through reduction, re-use and recycling (the others being... of potentially valuable materials, such as steel, glass, and plastics, which could otherwise have been re-processed into new products, thereby displacing the need to exploit virgin raw materials. How Have Government and Industry Responded? There have been two...

  7. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  8. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  9. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  10. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  11. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. [degradation of silicone polymers by amine solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, Y. C.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Spore recovery form cured silicone potting compounds using amine solvents to degrade the cured polymers was investigated. A complete list of solvents and a description of the effect of each on two different silicone polymers is provided.

  12. Implicit solvent simulations of DNA and DNA-protein complexes: Agreement with explicit solvent vs experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chocholoušová, Jana; Feig, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 34 (2006), s. 17240-17251 ISSN 1520-6106 Keywords : implicit solvent * explicit solvent * protein DNA complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.115, year: 2006

  13. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  14. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  15. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  16. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  17. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  18. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  19. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  20. Characterization and Modeling of Recycled Pavement Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Because of its documented cost and environmental benefits, cold central plant recycling (CCPR) has attracted the interest of local and state departments of transportation. In 2015 two test pavement sections with CCPR as base layers were constructed a...

  1. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  2. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  3. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  4. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  5. Hydrogen recycle modeling in transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen recycling models now used in Tokamak transport codes are reviewed and the method by which realistic recycling models are being added is discussed. Present models use arbitrary recycle coefficients and therefore do not model the actual recycling processes at the wall. A model for the hydrogen concentration in the wall serves two purposes: (1) it allows a better understanding of the density behavior in present gas puff, pellet, and neutral beam heating experiments; and (2) it allows one to extrapolate to long pulse devices such as EBT, ISX-C and reactors where the walls are observed or expected to saturate. Several wall models are presently being studied for inclusion in transport codes

  6. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...

  7. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  8. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  9. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  10. Irradiation performance of HTGR recycle fissile fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The irradiation performance of candidate HTGR recycle fissile fuel under accelerated testing conditions is reviewed. Failure modes for coated-particle fuels are described, and the performance of candidate recycle fissile fuels is discussed in terms of these failure modes. The bases on which UO 2 and (Th,U)O 2 were rejected as candidate recycle fissile fuels are outlined, along with the bases on which the weak-acid resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel was selected as the reference recycle kernel. Comparisons are made relative to the irradiation behavior of WAR-derived fuels of varying stoichiometry and conclusions are drawn about the optimum stoichiometry and the range of acceptable values. Plans for future testing in support of specification development, confirmation of the results of accelerated testing by real-time experiments, and improvement in fuel performance and reliability are described

  11. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  12. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  14. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  16. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  17. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  18. Development of solvent-free ambient mass spectrometry for green chemistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengyuan; Forni, Amanda; Chen, Hao

    2014-04-15

    Green chemistry minimizes chemical process hazards in many ways, including eliminating traditional solvents or using alternative recyclable solvents such as ionic liquids. This concept is now adopted in this study for monitoring solvent-free reactions and analysis of ionic liquids, solids, and catalysts by mass spectrometry (MS), without using any solvent. In our approach, probe electrospray ionization (PESI), an ambient ionization method, was employed for this purpose. Neat viscous room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in trace amounts (e.g., 25 nL) could be directly analyzed without sample carryover effect, thereby enabling high-throughput analysis. With the probe being heated, it can also ionize ionic solid compounds such as organometallic complexes as well as a variety of neat neutral solid chemicals (e.g., amines). More importantly, moisture-sensitive samples (e.g., [bmim][AlCl4]) can be successfully ionized. Furthermore, detection of organometallic catalysts (including air-sensitive [Rh-MeDuPHOS][OTf]) in ionic liquids, a traditionally challenging task due to strong ion suppression effect from ionic liquids, can be enabled using PESI. In addition, PESI can be an ideal approach for monitoring solvent-free reactions. Using PESI-MS, we successfully examined the alkylation of amines by alcohols, the conversion of pyrylium into pyridinium, and the condensation of aldehydes with indoles as well as air- and moisture-sensitive reactions such as the oxidation of ferrocene and the condensation of pyrazoles with borohydride. Interestingly, besides the expected reaction products, the reaction intermediates such as the monopyrazolylborate ion were also observed, providing insightful information for reaction mechanisms. We believe that the presented solvent-free PESI-MS method would impact the green chemistry field.

  19. Carbon nanotube embedded PVDF membranes: Effect of solvent composition on the structural morphology for membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid population increase, growth in industrial and agricultural sectors and global climate change have added significant pressure on conventional freshwater resources. Tapping freshwater from non-conventional water sources such as desalination and wastewater recycling is considered as sustainable alternative to the fundamental challenges of water scarcity. However, affordable and sustainable technologies need to be applied for the communities to benefit from the treatment of non-conventional water source. Membrane distillation is a potential desalination technology which can be used sustainably for this purpose. In this work multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes for application in membrane distillation desalination were prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation method. The casting solution was prepared using mixed solvents (N, N-dimethylacetamide and triethyl phosphate) at varying ratios to study the effect of solvent composition on membrane morphological structures. Membrane morphological features were studied using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, SAXSpace tensile strength analysis, membrane thickness, porosity and contact angle measurements. It was revealed that membrane hydrophobicity, thickness, tensile strength and surface roughness were increasing as the composition of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was increasing with maximum values obtained between 40 and 60% N, N-dimethylacetamide. Internal morphological structures were changing from cellular structures to short finger-like and sponge-like pores and finally to large macro void type of pores when the amount of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was changed from low to high respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes of desired morphological structures and physical properties can be synthesized by regulating the composition of solvents used to prepare the

  20. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.