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Sample records for solvent conditions influencing

  1. Organic Synthesis under Solvent-free Condition. An Environmentally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Organic Synthesis under Solvent-free Condition: An Environmentally Benign Procedure – II. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 64-69 ...

  2. Influences of surface and solvent on retention of HEMA/mixture components after evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fernanda C P; Wang, Linda; Pereira, Lúcia C G; de Andrade e Silva, Safira M; Júnior, Luiz M; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the retention of solvents within experimental HEMA/solvent primers after two conditions for solvent evaporation: from a free surface or from dentine surface. Experimental primers were prepared by mixing 35% HEMA with 65% water, methanol, ethanol or acetone (v/v). Aliquots of each primer (50 microl) were placed on glass wells or they were applied to the surface of acid-etched dentine cubes (2mm x 2mm x 2mm) (n=5). For both conditions (i.e. from free surface or dentine cubes), change in primers mass due to solvent evaporation was gravimetrically measured for 10min at 51% RH and 21 degrees C. The rate of solvent evaporation was calculated as a function of loss of primers mass (%) over time. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (pevaporation rate (%/min) depending on the solvent present in the primer and the condition for evaporation (from free surface or dentine cubes) (pevaporation for HEMA/acetone primer was almost 2- to 10-times higher than for HEMA/water primer depending whether evaporation occurred, respectively, from a free surface or dentine cubes. The rate of solvent evaporation varied with time, being in general highest at the earliest periods. The rate of solvent evaporation and its retention into HEMA/solvent primers was influenced by the type of the solvent and condition allowed for their evaporation.

  3. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  4. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    of these peaks or of increased physical activity during exposure could be detected. However, the importance of peek concentrations and of workload for the development of chronic solvent encephalopathy is still unknown. The influence of a 9-25 years occupational exposure to solvents was investigated. A group...

  5. Microwave Synthesis Under Solvent-Free Conditions and Spectral Studies of Some Mesoporphyrinic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of A3B and A4 type mesoporphyrinic complexes were synthesized with superior yields using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The structures of the complexes were confirmed using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and NMR spectral data. The influence of environmental polarity on spectral properties of the mesoporphyrinic complexes was investigated. The obtained results indicate that the shape of absorption and fluorescence spectra does not depend on the solvent polarity under the experimental conditions used. The small shifts of the absorption and emission maximums that occur by increasing of solvent polarity reflects the physical interaction between the porphyrinic substituents and the solvent molecules.

  6. Organic Synthesis under Solvent-free Condition. An Environmentally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Organic Synthesis under Solvent-free Condition. An Environmentally Benign Procedure - II. The author is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at. Bangalore University,. Bangalore. His main area of research is organosilicon chemistry with particular attention to developing new synthetic procedures and.

  7. Influence of solvent on micellar morphologies of semifluorinated block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Sang Jae; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Joo Hyun; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2009-12-01

    The influence of solvents on micellar architectures of block copolymers composed of poly(1H,1H-dihydroperfluorooctyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene oxide) was investigated. In this study, binary solvents with desired proportions were chosen, which had remarkable influence on the morphology of the resulting micelles. With simple adjusting the composition of the binary solvent of chloroform and trichlorofluoromethane, interesting shapes of micelle-like aggregates, such as core-shell, cylinder, worm-like and inverted micelles were formed with sizes of 15, 70, 30 and 250 nm, respectively. In the case of methanol/water system, core-shell spheres and vesicles were produced by varying the proportion of the contents. The morphologies were also tuned to honeycomb-like and bowl-shaped micelles as well as large planar lamellae with holes in DMF and water binary solvent.

  8. Influence of solvents on properties of solar selective coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of solvents on properties of solar selective coatings obtained by spray pyrolysis. MIHAELA DUDITA. ∗. , LUMINITA ISAC and ANCA DUTA. Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling Department, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29,. 500 036 Brasov, Romania. MS received 9 September 2011; revised 10 ...

  9. Organic Synthesis under Solvent-free Condition. An Environmentally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with particular attention to developing new synthetic procedures and reagents, and ... academic interest in solid-solid reactions have led them in recent times to develop methodologies for solvent-free ... ronment-friendly synthetic procedures has made them turn their attention to minimize or circumvent the use of solvents.

  10. Cyanuric Chloride-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Indoles to Nitroolefins under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanuric chloride is an inexpensive, efficient, and mild catalyst for the Michael addition of indoles to nitroolefins at 70°C under solvent-free conditions. The simple experimental procedure, solvent-free reaction conditions, utilization of an inexpensive and readily available catalyst, short period of conversion, and excellent yields are the advantages of the present method.

  11. Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents: influence of water content, solvent composition and temperature on Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniela; Peper, Stephanie; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2012-12-31

    In the present study the influence of water content, solvent composition and reaction temperature on the transesterification of 1-phenylpropan-2-ol catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase was examined. Reactions were carried out in different mixtures of hexane and tetrahydrofurane. The studies showed that an increasing water content of the organic solvent results in an increasing enzyme activity and a decreasing enantiomeric excess. Furthermore, a significant influence of the solvent hydrophilicity both on the enzyme activity and on the enantiomeric excess was found. An increase in solvent hydrophilicity leads to a decrease of enzyme activity and an increase of the enantiomeric excess. This indicates that the enzyme becomes more selective with decreasing flexibility. Similar effects were found by variation of the reaction temperature. Taken together, the decrease in conversion and the increase in selectivity with increasing solvent hydrophilicity are induced by the different water contents on the enzyme surface and not by the solvent itself. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of evaporation and solvent mixtures on the absorption of toluene and n-butanol in human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, A; Maibach, H I

    2000-03-01

    The influence of forced ventilation on the percutaneous absorption of butanol and toluene was studied in vitro. Human skin was exposed to the neat solvents and the solvents in binary mixtures with each other and in ternary mixtures with chloroform:methanol. The exposure was either unventilated or ventilated with various flow rates. At the ventilated exposure the skin absorption of all solvents and solvent mixtures was markedly reduced compared to unventilated exposure. Exposure with solvent mixtures increased the amounts of solvent absorbed as well as absorption rates. The absorption of the butanol component was most influenced. Increase in absorption was 11 to 9 times depending on whether toluene or chloroform/methanol was cosolvent. There was also an interindividual variation of absorption rate, varying with a factor of 3.5 for toluene and 4.3 for n-butanol within the 3 skin donors used. Skin absorption of volatile organic solvents at continuous ventilated conditions is related to their volatility and to the ventilation rate.A sufficient workplace ventilation is an important occupational hygienic measure not only to reduce exposure via respiration but to reduce absorption via the skin of volatile compounds as well.

  13. Multicomponent One-Pot Synthesis of Substituted Hantzsch Thiazole Derivatives Under Solvent Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar S. Dawane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiazole derivatives were prepared by one-pot procedure by the reaction of α-haloketones, thiourea and substituted o-hydroxybenzaldehyde under environmentally solvent free conditions.

  14. Influence of polar solvents on the enhancement of light-ends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil 'micelle' can be dispersed into fuels, oil and resin/asphalthene components using some hydrocarbon solvents. This can be adapted towards influencing/enhancing its product slates during the processing of crude oils. This research was carried out to investigate the effect of polar solvents (ethanol and acetone) in ...

  15. Influence of Solvent Composition on the Performance of Spray-Dried Co-Amorphous Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Jaya; Rades, Thomas; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2018-01-01

    Ball-milling is usually used to prepare co-amorphous drug–amino acid (AA) mixtures. In this study, co-amorphous drug–AA mixtures were produced using spray-drying, a scalable industrially preferred preparation method. The influence of the solvent type and solvent composition was investigated...

  16. Influence of solvent evaporation rate on crystallization of poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The processes for obtaining crystalline and smooth poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin films using. 2-butanone solvent are explored. The in-situ substrate temperature has been systematically controlled to observe the crystallization process. The in-situ substrate temperature is manipulated to control the rate of ...

  17. Influence of Extraction Solvent on Antioxidant Properties of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. [*Corresponding ... extraction solvents viz acetone, chloroform, ethanol, methanol (each at 50% and 75% concentrations) and water on the ..... Agricultural and Food Engineering, 7(5): 152–. 157. Baig, H.

  18. Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents in the presence of aromatic compounds under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.N.; Grbic-Galic, D.

    1993-01-01

    Transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was studied under methanogenic conditions, in the presence or absence of toluene, ethylbenzene, phenol, and benzoate. Microbial inoculate for the experiments were derived from three groundwater aquifers contaminated by jet fuel or creosote. CT and PCE were reductively dechlorinated in all the examined castes (CT to chloroform [CF]; PCE to trichloroethylene [TCE], trans-1,2-dichloroethylene [DCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]). In the aquifer microcosms, the electron donors used for the reductive transformations were most likely the unidentified organic compounds present on aquifer solids, or storage materials in microorganisms. Alternatively, molecular hydrogen from the anaerobic incubator atmosphere could have been used. The addition of benzoate caused a decrease in rates of dechlorination if benzoate was transformed. Phenol and ethylbenzene were not degraded and did not influence the transformation of CT or PCE. Toluene, in most of the studied cases, had no influence on reductive dechlorination of either CT or PCE. Only in microcosms derived from a JP-4 jet fuel-contaminated aquifer did the anaerobic degradation of toluene occur simultaneously with reductive dechlorination of PCE, suggesting that toluene might possibly have been used as an electron donor for reductive transformation of chlorinated solvents

  19. Effect of growth conditions and extraction solvents on enhancement of antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mashhadinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding increasing rate of drug resistance among microbial pathogens, a global search to find new antimicrobial agents from natural compounds with fewer side effects has been considered by many researchers worldwide. Bioactive compounds with good antimicrobial activity have been isolated from different algae and cyanobacteria. The current study was performed to determine antimicrobial potential and to characterize the effect of algal growth modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic and extraction solvents on antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris against four bacterial and one fungal pathogens. C. vulgaris was grown under different growth conditions and the biomass was harvested. Different extracts were prepared using acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate as extraction solvents and antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungal strain (Candida albicans using agar well diffusion assay. In addition, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined. Moreover, the total oil content and lipid productivity of C. vulgaris grown under different modes were determined. The heterotrophic growth resulted in stronger antimicrobial activity compared to the other growth conditions. In addition, the highest antimicrobial activity was observed for chloroform mediated extract and extraction using acetone resulted in minimum antimicrobial activity. Moreover, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth significantly increased the total lipid content and lipid productivity compared to the autotrophic growth. C. vulgaris exhibited good antimicrobial potential and the antimicrobial efficacy could be influenced by extraction solvents and growth conditions.

  20. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  1. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Percolation characteristics of solvent invasion in rough fractures under miscible conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfanta, M.; Babadagli, T.; Develi, K.

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis. In this exercise, two distinct zones are identified, namely the straight lines obtained for convective (early times) and diffusive (late times) flow. The bending point between these two lines is used to point the transition between the two zones. Finally, the slopes of the straight lines and the bending points are correlated to five different roughness parameters and the rate (Peclet number). It is observed that both surface roughness and flow rate have significant effect on solvent spatial distribution. The largest area covered is obtained at moderate flow rates and hence not only the average surface roughness characteristic is important, but coessentially total fracture surface area needs to be considered when evaluating fluid distribution. It is also noted that the rate effect is critically different for the fracture samples of large grain size (marbles and granite) compared to smaller grain sizes (limestones). Variogram fractal dimension exhibits the strongest correlation with the maximum area covered by solvent, and display increasing trend at the moderate flow rates. Equations with variogram surface fractal dimension in combination with any other surface fractal parameter coupled with Peclet number can be used to predict maximum area covered by solvent in a single fracture, which in turn can be

  3. Influence of solvent radiolysis on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlowska, W.; Nowak, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytically degraded TBP-n-paraffins solvent was used in the laboratory flow-sheet to study the influence of radiation exposure on decontamination of uranium. The influence of accumulated doses on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products has been discussed. (author)

  4. Description of the equilibrium conditions of chemical reactions in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehl, H.

    1983-01-01

    Empirical knowledge is taken as the basis for establishing a method to predict the equilibrium conditions of reactions of macrocyclic polyethers and monovalent metal cations in various solvents. The reactions in the solvents under review can be well described by the donor number DN according to Gutmann, and by the parameters alpha and pi-asterisk for the H bonding donor and polarity/polarisability, respectively, using a three-parameter equation according to Kamlet/Taft. This applies to both protic and aprotic solvents. The calculations rely on data found in the literature and on own experimental results obtained by microcalorimetric examinations. The evaluation methods evolved for this purpose also allow, by means of additional dilution experiments, to convert the ''integral'', microcalorimetrically obtained complex stability constants, (i.e. those non-discriminating between different types of state such as ions or ion pairs) to the corresponding ''differentiating'' constants (referring to purely ionic quantities), and this applied to the various solvents used. The method does not use foreign ions and can thus also be applied to those cases for which the normal standardisation of reaction conditions published in the literature cannot be maintained (e.g. for reasons of solubility). In some cases it was possible to obtain additional information on the dissociation behaviour of the salts used, which revealed differently strong inclination to form higher aggregations in solution, as shown e.g. by the strong concentration dependence of the salt ion pair dissociation constants obtained. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  6. Influence of solvent on temperature and thermal peak broadening in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Simo P; Marziali, Ettore; Gas, Bohuslav; Kenndler, Ernst

    2003-05-01

    carried out with solutions of the same initial electric conductivity (about 0.5 S.m(-1) at 25.0 degrees C). Agreement is found for natural convection conditions, and the deviation between theoretical and experimental results for the forced air and circulated liquid cooling systems can be related to the poorly defined thermal conditions of the capillaries in commercial instrumentation (with a part in a thermostated cassette and a part outside). For given conditions the temperature gradients in the organic solvents exceed largely those in water, independent of the type of cooling. As a consequence, the thermal plate height is significantly larger in organic solvents, at least under conditions where the deviation from the Nernst-Einstein limiting case is not too high. However, even for the maximum applicable field strengths the thermal plate height contributions are negligible compared to longitudinal diffusion in all solvents.

  7. Influence of binder solvent on carbon-layer structure in electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This has a direct influence on the distribution of resistance and capacitance values within the electrode. As a result, preparation of electrodes remains a vital issue in realising high-performance EDLCs. Generally, carbon materials along with some binders are dispersed into a solvent and coated onto the current collectors.

  8. Quantification of interaction and topological parameters of polyisoprene star polymers under good solvent conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Rai, Durgesh K.

    2016-05-05

    Mass fractal scaling, reflected in the mass fractal dimension df, is independently impacted by topology, reflected in the connectivity dimension c, and by tortuosity, reflected in the minimum dimension dmin. The mass fractal dimension is related to these other dimensions by df=cdmin. Branched fractal structures have a higher mass fractal dimension compared to linear structures due to a higher c, and extended structures have a lower dimension compared to convoluted self-avoiding and Gaussian walks due to a lower dmin. It is found, in this work, that macromolecules in thermodynamic equilibrium display a fixed mass fractal dimension df under good solvent conditions, regardless of chain topology. These equilibrium structures accommodate changes in chain topology such as branching c by a decrease in chain tortuosity dmin. Symmetric star polymers are used to understand the structure of complex macromolecular topologies. A recently published hybrid Unified scattering function accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers along with polymer-solvent interaction for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension. Dilute solutions of linear, three-arm and six-arm polyisoprene stars are studied under good solvent conditions in deuterated p-xylene. Reduced chain tortuosity can be viewed as steric straightening of the arms. Steric effects for star topologies are quantified, and it is found that steric straightening of arms is more significant for lower-molecular-weight arms. The observation of constant df is explained through a modification of Flory-Krigbaum theory for branched polymers.

  9. Random Forest Approach to QSPR Study of Fluorescence Properties Combining Quantum Chemical Descriptors and Solvent Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiu; Tanaka, Kenichi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2018-04-22

    The Quantitative Structure - Property Relationship (QSPR) approach was performed to study the fluorescence absorption wavelengths and emission wavelengths of 413 fluorescent dyes in different solvent conditions. The dyes included the chromophore derivatives of cyanine, xanthene, coumarin, pyrene, naphthalene, anthracene and etc., with the wavelength ranging from 250 nm to 800 nm. An ensemble method, random forest (RF), was employed to construct nonlinear prediction models compared with the results of linear partial least squares and nonlinear support vector machine regression models. Quantum chemical descriptors derived from density functional theory method and solvent information were also used by constructing models. The best prediction results were obtained from RF model, with the squared correlation coefficients [Formula: see text] of 0.940 and 0.905 for λ abs and λ em , respectively. The descriptors used in the models were discussed in detail in this report by comparing the feature importance of RF.

  10. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaza, L.; Ben Youssef, N.; Manai, H.; Haddada, F.M.; Methenni, K.; Zarrouk, M.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  11. Influence of solvent on the morphology and microstructure of YSZ films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcade, T.; Oliveira, G.B.; Mueller, I.L.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of solvent used for the deposition of thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on porous substrate. The films were obtained directly on the porous LSM substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, which consists of spraying a precursor solution containing salts of zirconium (Zr (C 6 H 7 O 2 ) 4) and yttrium (YCl 3 .6H 2 O), dissolved in specific solvents, on the heated substrate. The use of solvents with different boiling points and viscosity aims the optimization of experimental operating parameters to obtain homogeneous and dense films suitable for application as electrolyte in fuel cells, solid oxide (SOFC). The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  12. Conformational dependence of hemoglobin reactivity under high viscosity conditions: the role of solvent slaved dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Uri; Roche, Camille J; Dantsker, David; Friedman, Joel M

    2007-10-24

    The concept of protein dynamic states is introduced. This concept is based on (i) protein dynamics being organized hierarchically with respect to solvent slaving and (ii) which tier of dynamics is operative over the time window of a given measurement. The protein dynamic state concept is used to analyze the kinetic phases derived from the recombination of carbon monoxide to sol-gel-encapsulated human adult hemoglobin (HbA) and select recombinant mutants. The temperature-dependent measurements are made under very high viscosity conditions obtained by bathing the samples in an excess of glycerol. The results are consistent with a given tier of solvent slaved dynamics becoming operative at a time delay (with respect to the onset of the measurement) that is primarily solvent- and temperature-dependent. However, the functional consequences of the dynamics are protein- and conformation-specific. The kinetic traces from both equilibrium populations and trapped allosteric intermediates show a consistent progression that exposes the role of both conformation and hydration in the control of reactivity. Iron-zinc symmetric hybrid forms of HbA are used to show the dramatic difference between the kinetic patterns for T state alpha and beta subunits. The overall results support a model for allostery in HbA in which the ligand-binding-induced transition from the deoxy T state to the high -affinity R state proceeds through a progression of T state intermediates.

  13. Influence of solvent quality on the mechanical strength of ethylcellulose oleogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, A J; Davidovich-Pinhas, M; Zetzl, A K; Barbut, S; Marangoni, A G

    2016-01-01

    Ethylcellulose (EC) is the only known food-grade polymer able to structure edible oils. The gelation process and gel properties are similar to those of polymer hydrogels, the main difference being the nature of the solvent. The present study examines the influence of solvent quality on the large deformation mechanical behavior of EC oleogels. Two alternative strategies for manipulating the mechanical response of these gels were evaluated; manipulating the bulk solvent polarity and the addition of surface active small molecules. Gel strength was positively correlated to solvent polarity when blending soybean oil with either mineral oil or castor oil. This behavior was attributed to the ability of the polar entities present in the oil phase to interact with the EC gel network. The addition of the small molecules oleic acid and oleyl alcohol resulted in a substantial enhancement in gel strength up to 10wt% addition, followed by a gradual decrease with increasing proportions. Binding interactions between EC and these molecules were successfully modeled using a Langmuir adsorption isotherm below 10wt% addition. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of stearic acid and stearyl alcohol also indicated a direct interaction between these molecules and the EC network. Differences in the mechanical behavior of gels prepared using refined, bleached, and deodorized canola or soybean oils, and those made with cold-pressed flaxseed oil could be attributed to both oil polarity, and the presence of minor components (free fatty acids). Shorter pulsed NMR T2 relaxation times were observed for stronger gels due to the more restricted mobility of the solvent when interacting with the polymer. This work has demonstrated the strong influence of the solvent composition on the mechanical properties of EC oleogels, which will allow for the tailoring of mechanical properties for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of solvent and soil type on the pressurised fluid extraction of PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, O; Fitzpatrick, L J; Etxebarria, N; Dean, J R

    2000-12-01

    Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a certified reference material (CRM) 524 has been firstly optimised following a central composite design. The instrumental parameters of the PFE (pressure, temperature, extraction time and number of solvent cycles) were studied in order to obtain maximum extraction yields. Neither pressure nor extraction time or temperature seemed to have any significant effect on the extraction yield, therefore one extraction cycle was enough to exhaustively extract all the PAHs from CRM 524. Once the instrumental conditions were established, the extraction yields obtained with eight different solvents or solvent mixtures [acetone, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, acetone-dichloromethane (1 + 1 v/v), acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v), isohexane, methanol and toluene] from the CRM 524 were compared and showed that the best recoveries were obtained with acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v). Finally, the effect of sand, silt, clay and the organic matter content of soil was investigated with respect to recovery of PAHs by PFE with different solvents or solvent mixtures for aged soil samples. In this case, eight soils with different sand, silt, clay and organic matter contents were slurry spiked with PAHs and aged for 19 days. Three aliquots of each slurry spiked soil were extracted with the previously mentioned solvents and the results were studied by means of principal component analysis (PCA) of the whole data set (soil composition, solubility parameter of the solvent and recoveries of all PAHs) and partial least squares (PLS). Clay and organic matter content and the squared solubility parameter have the highest correlation with the recovery of PAHs from soil samples.

  15. Archaeal Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Displays Robust Activity under High-Salt Conditions and in Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lana J; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2016-01-15

    Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPAs) that hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to orthophosphate (Pi) are commonly used to accelerate and detect biosynthetic reactions that generate PPi as a by-product. Current PPAs are inactivated by high salt concentrations and organic solvents, which limits the extent of their use. Here we report a class A type PPA of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii (HvPPA) that is thermostable and displays robust PPi-hydrolyzing activity under conditions of 25% (vol/vol) organic solvent and salt concentrations from 25 mM to 3 M. HvPPA was purified to homogeneity as a homohexamer by a rapid two-step method and was found to display non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Vmax of 465 U · mg(-1) for PPi hydrolysis (optimal at 42°C and pH 8.5) and Hill coefficients that indicated cooperative binding to PPi and Mg(2+). Similarly to other class A type PPAs, HvPPA was inhibited by sodium fluoride; however, hierarchical clustering and three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling revealed HvPPA to be distinct in structure from characterized PPAs. In particular, HvPPA was highly negative in surface charge, which explained its extreme resistance to organic solvents. To demonstrate that HvPPA could drive thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to completion under conditions of reduced water activity, a novel coupled assay was developed; HvPPA hydrolyzed the PPi by-product generated in 2 M NaCl by UbaA (a "salt-loving" noncanonical E1 enzyme that adenylates ubiquitin-like proteins in the presence of ATP). Overall, we demonstrate HvPPA to be useful for hydrolyzing PPi under conditions of reduced water activity that are a hurdle to current PPA-based technologies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Silica Gel-Mediated Organic Reactions under Organic Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoaki Onitsuka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel was found to be an excellent medium for some useful organic transformations under organic solvent-free conditions, such as (1 the Friedel-Crafts-type nitration of arenes using commercial aqueous 69% nitric acid alone at room temperature, (2 one-pot Wittig-type olefination of aldehydes with activated organic halides in the presence of tributyl- or triphenylphosphine and Hunig’s base, and (3 the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction of aldehydes with methyl acrylate. After the reactions, the desired products were easily obtained in good to excellent yields through simple manipulation.

  17. Indium(III)-catalyzed synthesis of N-substituted pyrroles under solvent-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiu-Xi; Liu, Miao-Chang; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Ding, Jin-Chang; Wu, Hua-Yue

    2008-01-01

    A variety of N-substituted pyrroles have been synthesized by reacting γ-diketones (R¹C(O)CH2CH2C(O)R²: R¹, R² = Me, Ph) with amines (RNH2: R=Alkyl, Aryl, TsNH) or diamines (1,6-diaminohexane and 1,2-diaminoethane) in the presence of indium tribromide, indium trichloride or indium trifluoromethanesulfonate at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. The experiment protocol features simple operations, and the products are isolated in high to excellent yields (81-98%). Vários pirróis N...

  18. Quantification of interaction and topological parameters of polyisoprene star polymers under good solvent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Durgesh K; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2016-05-01

    Mass fractal scaling, reflected in the mass fractal dimension d_{f}, is independently impacted by topology, reflected in the connectivity dimension c, and by tortuosity, reflected in the minimum dimension d_{min}. The mass fractal dimension is related to these other dimensions by d_{f}=cd_{min}. Branched fractal structures have a higher mass fractal dimension compared to linear structures due to a higher c, and extended structures have a lower dimension compared to convoluted self-avoiding and Gaussian walks due to a lower d_{min}. It is found, in this work, that macromolecules in thermodynamic equilibrium display a fixed mass fractal dimension d_{f} under good solvent conditions, regardless of chain topology.  These equilibrium structures accommodate changes in chain topology such as branching c by a decrease in chain tortuosity d_{min}. Symmetric star polymers are used to understand the structure of complex macromolecular topologies. A recently published hybrid Unified scattering function accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers along with polymer-solvent interaction for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension. Dilute solutions of linear, three-arm and six-arm polyisoprene stars are studied under good solvent conditions in deuterated p-xylene. Reduced chain tortuosity can be viewed as steric straightening of the arms. Steric effects for star topologies are quantified, and it is found that steric straightening of arms is more significant for lower-molecular-weight arms. The observation of constant d_{f} is explained through a modification of Flory-Krigbaum theory for branched polymers.

  19. Influence of the Solvent on the Thermal Back Reaction of One Spiropyran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piard, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The solvent influence on the absorption spectra and the kinetics of the back reaction of the 1',3'-dihydro-1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro(2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-2H-indole) (6-NO2-BIPS) has been investigated by means of temperature-controlled, UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The back reaction process was proved to follow first-order kinetics…

  20. Influence of organic solvent treatment on elasticoluminescent property of europium-doped strontium aluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujio, Yuki; Xu, Chao-Nan; Terasaki, Nao; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    The influence of an organic solvent treatment on elasticoluminescent (ELS) characteristics of mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor using the composite film consisting of an ELS material and epoxy resin was investigated. We used strontium aluminate doped with a small amount of europium (SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu, SAOE) as an ELS material in this study. After evaluating the ELS characteristics of the fabricated ML sensors using SAOE treated with/without various organic solvents, SAOE treated with methanol and ethanol showed lower ELS intensities than that of untreated SAOE. In contrast, the ELS response curves against strain for the ML sensors using SAOE treated with acetone and toluene, overlapped with that of untreated SAOE. From the characterization of SAOE treated with alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, we can hypothesize that poor ELS characteristics is due to the degradation of the SAOE grain surfaces by the hydrolyze reaction of SAOE with hydroxyl group of alcohol. Thus, on the basis of the obtained results, we can conclude that the selection of organic solvent used in the preparation of SAOE film is of considerable importance in the development of ML sensor with a highly-reliable ELS characteristic. -- Highlights: • Influence of organic solution treatment on the sensing characteristics of a mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor using SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu has been investigated. • An alcohol treatment of SAOE powder has considerable effect on its ML characteristic. • There is almost no influence of acetone and toluene treatments on ML characteristics

  1. Effects of adsorption to plastics and solvent conditions in the analysis of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyenstrand, P; Metcalf, J S; Beattie, K A; Codd, G A

    2001-10-01

    Effects of adsorption to plastics and solvent conditions in the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR were investigated. Aqueous microcystin-LR readily adsorbed to the disposable polypropylene pipette tips commonly used in laboratory manipulations. This was not affected by the pH or salinity of the solution. Furthermore, dilutions of microcystin-LR in varying concentrations of methanol and acetonitrile influenced the quantification of the microcystin-LR concentration by high performance liquid chromatography.

  2. Influence of Mixed Solvent on the Electrochemical Property of Hybrid Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunggwan; Yoon, J R

    2015-11-01

    The hybrid capacitors (2245 size, cylindrical type) were prepared by using activated carbon cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode. In order to improve the cell operation at high temperature range, propylene carbonate (PC) was used in combination with acetonitrile (AN) with volume ratio of 7:3, 5:5, and 3:7, respectively. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of the hybrid capacitors that enabled cell operation with stability at high temperature. The organic electrolyte of hybrid capacitor containing PC and AN with a volume ratio 7:3 intended to exhibit highly reversible cycle performance with good capacity retention at 60 degrees C after 2200 cycles. From this study, it has been found that the very strong influence of the solvent nature on the characteristics of hybrid capacitor, and the difference in performance associated with the two solvents.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations to study the solvent influence on protein structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Hector

    2016-05-01

    Molecular simulations were carried out to study the influence of different water models in two protein systems. Most of the solvents used in protein simulations, e.g., SPC/E or TIP3P, fail to reproduce the bulk water static dielectric constant. Recently a new water model, TIP4P/ɛ, which reproduces the experimental dielectric constant was reported. Therefore, simulations for two different proteins, Lysozyme and Ubiquitin with SPC/E, TIP3P and TIP4P/ɛ solvents were carried out. Dielectric constants and structural properties were calculated and comparisons were conducted. The structural properties between the three models are very similar, however, the dielectric constants are different in each case.

  4. The influence of the solvent on the toxicity and radioprotective effect of thiophosphate WR 2721 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of various solvents on the toxicity as well as the protective of thiophosphate WR 2721 in X-irradiated male mice is described. The use of Soerensen buffer as solvent with a pH-value of 7.4 leads to a statistically significant lower lethality in animals than aqua bidest. However, the radiation efficacy of thiophosphate with respect to the acute lethality within 30 days after irradiation is not influenced by the choice of the solvent used. A dose reduction factor of 2.49 ± 0.03 is gained for the LD 50/30 d at 500 mg WR 2721 per kg animal weight. (orig.) [de

  5. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  6. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... percentile reflects the central tendency estimate of the risk distribution.\\13\\ For this analysis, the target... contaminated with the F001-F005 listed solvents.\\11\\ We estimated the potential risks from exposure to the F001... exposure. This methodology uses a probabilistic risk analysis of solvent-contaminated wipes to produce a...

  7. Influence of solvent absorption on the migration of Irganox 1076 from LDPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of solvent absorption on additive migration was studied by relating the diffusion coefficient (D) of Irganox 1076 to the maximum solvent absorption of different solvents in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Solvents tested were ethanol, isopropanol, isooctane, ethylacetate,

  8. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  9. Noticeable facilitation of the bismuth-mediated Barbier-type allylation of aromatic carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shinobu; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hitomi

    2003-06-21

    When milled together with bismuth shot in the presence of allyl halide, aromatic aldehydes readily underwent a Barbier-type allylation to afford the corresponding homoallyl alcohols in good yield. In contrast to the failure in solution reaction, aromatic ketones also underwent allylic carbonyl addition under solvent-free conditions to give the expected tertiary homoallyl alcohols in moderate to good yield.

  10. Three Component Synthesis of Substituted 4H-[1,3]Dioxin Derivatives Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hosseini-Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction between aryl aldehydes, acetylacetone and alkyl isocyanides in solvent-free conditions provided a simple and efficient one-pot route for the synthesis of 1-(2-alkylamino-6-methyl-4-aryl-4H-[1,3]dioxin-5-ylethanone derivatives in excellent yields.

  11. Final Rule: 2013 Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a regulation page for the final rule EPA issued on July 31, 2013 that modifies the hazardous waste management regulations for solvent-contaminated wipes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  12. The effect of some processing conditions on the characteristics of biodegradable microspheres obtained by an emulsion solvent evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Maia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unloaded microspheres were prepared from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV polymers using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The study was conducted to evaluate how the polymer and some process parameters affect properties of the final microspheres such as particle size, superficial area, zeta potential, surface morphology and microsphere degradation. The variables included surfactant concentration in the emulsion water phase and solvent composition. From the results, it was found that the parameters affecting microsphere size the most were surfactant concentration in the emulsion water phase and solvent composition. Properties such as zeta potential, surface area and surface morphology remained pratically unchanged over the range of the processing conditions studied here.

  13. Influence of binder solvent on carbon-layer structure in electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    performance EDLCs. Generally, carbon materials along with some binders are dispersed into a solvent and coated onto the current collectors. This study examines the role of binder solvents used for the carbon-ink preparation on the microstructure ...

  14. Photoreactivity of biologically active compounds. XVII. Influence of solvent interactions on spectroscopic properties and photostability of primaquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, S

    2005-06-01

    The influence of solvent interactions on absorption properties, fluorescence properties (emission spectra and quantum yields) and relative photochemical degradation rates of primaquine has been investigated, in order to evaluate photochemical reaction mechanisms and chemical properties of the compound. The first absorption band (n - pi*) of primaquine is only slightly dependent on properties of the solvent, which can be ascribed to a strong, intramolecular hydrogen bond between the quinoline N and amine group in the ground state (S0). Amphiprotic solvents with predominant acidic properties (water and methanol) will to some extent stabilize the molecule and initiate hypsochromic shifts of the absorption band by protic interactions, while the other solvents (amphiprotic, basic and neutral) influence the absorption spectrum by general solvent effects only. The excited singlet (S1*) state of primaquine interacts more efficiently with the surrounding solvents than the S0 state, as evaluated by the Stokes shifts. The pKa value of the quinoline N is likely to increase in the S1* state, which is important for the observed protic interactions with amphiprotic solvents of predominant acidity. Specific solvent effects are highly important for the efficiency of the fluorescence (fluorescence quantum yields; phi f). The fluorescence is quenched by amphiprotic solvents, likely due to a rupture of the intramolecular bond and protonation of the quinolone N, and enhanced by polar, non-protic (basic) solvents, probably by stabilization of the delta intramolecular hydrogen bond. The observed photochemical degradation rates of primaquine in amphiprotic media are positively correlated with phi f, indicating that the photochemical degradation of primaquine is dependent on intramolecular hydrogen bonding and non protonated lone-pair electrons at the quinoline N. The intramolecular ring-formation with a subsequent increased lipophilic character and (lack of) interactions with the

  15. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn C Stirling

    Full Text Available Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  16. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  17. E-Factor minimized hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes catalyzed by polystyryl-BEMP under solvent-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Tommaso; Bonollo, Simona; Lanari, Daniela; Pizzo, Ferdinando; Vaccaro, Luigi

    2013-08-14

    An efficient protocol for the hydrophosphonylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes catalyzed by PS-BEMP under solvent-free conditions (SolFC) has been reported. Addition reactions were performed by using equimolar amounts of reagents and the resulting α-hydroxyphosphonates were isolated with simple workup procedures. A large scale protocol for the preparation of a representative α-hydroxyphosphonate 3a has been also set up using a flow reactor.

  18. An Organocatalyzed and Ultrasound Accelerated Expeditious Synthetic Route to 1,5-Benzodiazepines under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Pravin V.; Shingate, Bapurao B.; Shingare, Murlidhar S. [Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurngabad (India)

    2011-04-15

    In the present work, successful implementation of ultrasound irradiations for the rapid synthesis of 1,5- benzodiazepine derivatives under solvent-free conditions is demonstrated. Use of a novel catalyst i.e. camphor sulphonic acid in combination with ultrasound technique is reported for the first time. Comparative study for the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines using conventional as well as ultrasonication method is discussed.

  19. Nanocrystalline copper(II oxide-catalyzed one-pot four- component synthesis of polyhydroquinoline derivativesunder solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Safaei-Ghomi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficient and environmentally friendly method for the one-pot synthesis of polyhydroquinolines has been developed in the presence of CuO nanoparticles. The multi-component reactions of aldehydes, dimedone, ethyl acetoacetate andammonium acetate were carried out under solvent-free conditions to afford some polyhydroquinoline derivatives. This method provides several advantages including high yields, low reaction times and little catalyst loading.

  20. Metallocene catalyzed synthesis of fungistatic vicinal aminoalcohols under solvent free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Gabriela; Durán-Patrón, Rosa M; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Collado, Isidro G

    2010-11-15

    Group 4 and 5 metallocenes, Cp(2)TiCl(2), Cp(2)ZrCl(2) and Cp(2)VCl(2), have been evaluated as catalyst in the solvent free, room temperature, preparation of vicinal aminoalcohols. The regioselectivity of the reaction and the fungistatic activity of the prepared compounds against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Solvent Composition on the Performance of Spray-Dried Co-Amorphous Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Jaya; Rades, Thomas; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2018-01-01

    of these solvents were chosen to study the effect of solvent mixtures on co-amorphous formulation. Residual crystallinity, thermal properties, salt/partial salt formation, and powder dissolution profiles of the IND–AA mixtures were investigated and compared to pure crystalline and amorphous IND. It was found...

  2. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  3. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  4. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 35–50 days, depending on the solvent and a slower second stage. The highest degradation rates were observed in extracts prepared with linoleic acid rich solvents (sunflower oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil, while the lowest were found in oil with saturated fatty acids (Myritol 312® and paraffin oil. These results confirm the connection between the degradation of carotenoids and lipid autoxidation, and suggest that the influence of the oil solvents on the stability of oil extracts of Calendula officinalis is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solvent for the production of marigold oil extracts.

  5. Lyotropic Mesomorphisms of a Lamellar Liquid Crystalline Phase in Non-hydrous Condition: A Phospholipid Hydrated by Different Polar Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu [Korea Kolmar Corporation, Yongi (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kwan Young [Chung-buk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The lyotropic mesomorphism of lamellar liquid crystalline phase was examined by observing the swelling behavior of Distearoylphosphatidylcholine(DSPC) in glycerin and panthenol without water. The lyotropic mesomorphism was examined by using DSC, XRDs and Cryo-SEM. Increase of two polar solvents under non-hydrous condition showed distinctive differences in the lyotropic mesomorphism from forming different anisotropic structures with DSPC. Glycerin did not affect to the crystalline region of lamellar phase, whereas typical swelling mesomorphism was shown in the noncrystalline region. In contrast, panthenol showed some effect on the crystalline region, but common swelling mesomorphism was found in the non-crystalline region. In this case, the isopropyl and propyl groups in panthenol were the main factor to affect to the lipophilic domain in the crystalline region of lamellar phase. Also, it was found that the formation of well-arranged lamellar structure only by introducing glycerin and panthenol as a solvent without water, was possible. These results were confirmed by examination of the swelling mesomorphism of liquid crystal membrane triggered by introducing the two polar solvents.

  6. Green and red upconverted emission of hydrothermal synthesized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} nanophosphors using different solvent ratio conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A., E-mail: amartinez@correo.azc.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, DCBI-Ciencias Basicas, Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada. Sn Pablo 180, D. F., 02200 (Mexico); Morales, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, DCBI-Ciencias Basicas, Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada. Sn Pablo 180, D. F., 02200 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. P. 1-948, Leon, Gto., 37160 (Mexico); Salas, P., E-mail: psalas@fata.unam.mx [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro., 7600 (Mexico); De la Rosa, E.; Oliva, J.; Desirena, H. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. P. 1-948, Leon, Gto., 37160 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    The solvent effect on the green and red upconversion luminescence of hydrothermal synthesized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} nanophosphors is analyzed. To that purpose, five different ethanol/water solvent ratios 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 and 1:10 with 1 mol% of Er{sup 3+} and 2 mol% of Yb{sup 3+}, were considered. According to results, the intensity of the visible emission depends on the SR synthesis conditions; the highest intensity of green and red emission, from a 970 nm excitation, is presented by the sample obtained using a 1:5 solvent ratio. In order to explain the results, an analysis of decaying times was done, the influence of the solvent effect on the material structure was investigated by a diffuse reflectance characterization and the upconverted emission mechanism was derived from a power pumping study. Characterization data indicated that the solvent ratio influences the luminescence properties of nanostructured materials.

  7. Influence of occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on contrast sensitivity in printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckelmann, Irina; Pfister, Eberhard Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Contrast sensitivity measurement accurately evaluates the sensitivity of all human visual channels, even in a more detailed manner than simple acuity measures can. This is a study of visual contrast sensitivity in a series of subjects occupationally exposed to organic solvents. Contrast sensitivity was measured for 42 printers and 28 age-stratified controls using the Vistech VCTS 6500 chart. The exposed workers distinguished between following three groups of printers: "low exposed," "middle exposed," and "high exposed." Abnormal contrast sensitivity results were recorded for the right eye in 38% of the printers and 11% of the controls and for the left eye in 38% of the printers and 7% of the controls. Especially, we found a reduced contrast sensitivity in all three groups exposed to solvents for both eyes. We conclude that contrast sensitivity is abnormal in workers exposed to organic solvents. The reduced contrast sensitivity in printers seems to be an indicator of visual defects induced in response to organic solvents exposure.

  8. An efficient Hantzsch synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines using p-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent-free condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Hantzsch synthesis of various substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines from an aldehyde, a β-dicarbonyl compound and ammonium acetate using p-toluenesulfonic acid in a solvent-free condition in the absence of any other co-catalyst is described. The process is simple and environmentally benign and the catalyst is commercially available and inexpensive. This method has the advantages of excellent yield (80–96% and short reaction time (5-20 min.. Irradiation of a typical 1,4-dihydropyridine leads to the corresponding pyridine.

  9. Chemoselective Synthesis of Dithioacetals from Bio-aldehydes with Zeolites under Ambient and Solvent-free Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Yang, Tingting; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Dithioacetals are an important class of versatile compounds extensively applied in pharmaceuticals, separations, electrochemistry, and organic synthesis, but few heterogeneous catalytic systems are reported to be generally applicable for their synthesis from a wide range of substrates. A series...... of commercial and modified zeolites are excellent catalysts for thioacetalization of different thiols with carbonyl compounds, including biomass-derived aldehydes, at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. A near quantitative yield of dithioacetal was obtained over H-beta(19) at room temperature...

  10. YCl3-Catalyzed Highly Selective Ring Opening of Epoxides by Amines at Room Temperature and under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Natongchai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very effective, with several aromatic and aliphatic oxiranes and amines. A mere 1 mol % concentration of YCl3 is enough to deliver β-amino alcohols in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity.

  11. Infrared Assisted Production of 3,4-Dihydro-2(1H)-pyridones in Solvent-Free Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguez, M. Olivia; Marcelino, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Martín, Osnieski; Martínez, Joel O.; Arroyo, Gabriel A.; Pérez, Francisco J.; Suárez, Margarita; Miranda, René

    2011-01-01

    A green approach for the synthesis of a set of ten 4-aryl substituted-5-alcoxy carbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridones using Meldrum’s acid has been devised, the absence of solvent and the activation with infrared irradiation in addition to a multicomponent protocol are the main reaction conditions. The transformations proceeded with moderated yields (50–75%) with a reasonable reaction rate (3 h). It is worth noting that two novel molecules of the new class of the bis-3,4-dihydropyridones were also obtained. In addition, a comparison without the use of infrared irradiation was performed. PMID:21731463

  12. Influence of Chemical Conditions on the Nanoporous Structure of Silicate Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Sinkó

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica or various silicate aerogels can be characterized by highly porous, open cell, low density structures. The synthesis parameters influence the three-dimensional porous structures by modifying the kinetics and mechanism of hydrolysis and condensation processes. Numerous investigations have shown that the structure of porous materials can be tailored by variations in synthesis conditions (e.g., the type of precursors, catalyst, and surfactants; the ratio of water/precursor; the concentrations; the medium pH; and the solvent. The objectives of this review are to summarize and elucidate the effects of chemical conditions on the nanoporous structure of sol-gel derived silicate aerogels.

  13. Influence of the solvents on the γ-ray polymerization of acrylic acid. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborie, F.

    1977-01-01

    The presence of plurimolecular H-bonded aggregates in the acrylic acid allows the polymer to involve some stereoregular sequences. This effect is made easier when some polymer is already formed in the reacting medium: the aggregates are stabilized by hydrogen bonds with the polymer which gives rise to a matrix effect. Two groups of solvents have been characterized by examination of the monomer's association forms in solution. In a first group of solvents (methanol--dioxan--water), the aggregates are maintained and reinforced; in the second one, acrylic acid exists only as cyclic dimers (hydrocarbons--chlorinated solvents). The difference between the association forms of the monomer involves some important modifications on the kinetics of polymerization and the structure of the obtained polymers. In the solvents of the first group, the obtained polymers are crystallizable and may involve syndiotactic sequences, while in the presence of the solvents of the second group no crystallization or stereoregularity of the polymer can occur. A very close correlation is thus found between the aggregated structure of the monomer, the polymerization kinetics, and the structure of the polymers

  14. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF Production from Hexoses: Limits of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Hydrothermal Conditions and Potential of Concentrated Aqueous Organic Acids as Reactive Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Essayem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose. The treatment at 150–250 °C of glucose or fructose in pure water and batch conditions, with catalytic amounts of most of the usual acid-basic solid catalysts, gave limited yields in 5-HMF, due mainly to the fast formation of soluble oligomers. Niobic acid, which possesses both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, gave the highest 5-HMF yield, 28%, when high catalyst/glucose ratio is used. By contrast, we disclose in this work that the reaction of fructose in concentrated aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids, formic, acetic or lactic acids, used as reactive solvent media, leads to the selective dehydration of fructose in 5-HMF with yields up to 64% after 2 hours at 150 °C. This shows the potential of such solvent systems for the clean and easy production of 5-HMF from carbohydrates. The influence of adding solid catalysts to the carboxylic acid media was also reported, starting from glucose.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLVENT ON THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ION ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Chumak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Some approaches which allow to divide thermodynamic functions of the ion associationprocess in two components have been developed. The first component belongs to the process, the second oneis caused by the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. The theory is confirmedby numerous examples of the ion association process of different electrolytes in the binary mixed solvents.Keywords: covalent part of the constant of ionic association, electrostatic part of the constant of ionicassociation, enthalpy of the chemical equilibria in solution, enthropy of the chemical equilibria in solution,ionic association, ionic equilibrias, the equilibrium constant.

  16. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  17. Influence of solvents in the preparation of cobalt sulfide for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, Yedluri; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Punnoose, Dinah; Venkata Tulasivarma, Chebrolu; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

    2017-09-01

    In this study, cobalt sulfide (CoS) electrodes are synthesized using various solvents such as water, ethanol and a combination of the two via a facile chemical bath deposition method on Ni foam. The crystalline nature, chemical states and surface morphology of the prepared CoS nanoparticles are characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CoS electrodes are also evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. When used as an electrode for a supercapacitor, CoS prepared with ethanol as a solvent exhibits a capacitance of 41.36 F g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, which is significantly better than that prepared using water and water/ethanol-based solvents (31.66 and 18.94 F g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, respectively). This superior capacitance is attributed to the ideal surface morphology of the solvent, which allows for easy diffusion of electrolyte ions into the inner region of the electrode. High electrical conduction enables a high rate capability. These results suggest that CoS nanoparticles are highly promising for energy storage applications as well as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, water splitting and solar cells, among others. These results show that CoS is a promising positive electrode material for practical supercapacitors.

  18. Facile synthesis of 1-naphthol azo dyes with nano SiO2/HIO4 under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Pourali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-silica supported periodic acid (nano-SPIA has been utilized as a heterogeneous reagent for a highly efficient and one pot synthesis of azo dyes based on 1-naphthol under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This method has some advantages, the reaction workup is very easy and the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and one-pot procedure. The related products have been obtained in good to excellent yields, high purity and short reaction times. The structures of the products have been characterized by several techniques using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.13

  19. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  20. The influence of solvent stress on MMS-induced genetic change in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F K; Rohlfs, A

    1991-01-01

    MMS induced mitotic recombination but not mitotic chromosome loss when tested in pure form in strain D61.M of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, confirming previous results of Albertini (1991), whereas in Aspergillus nidulans it also induced chromosomal malsegregation in addition to mitotic recombination (Käfer, 1988). However, induction of mitotic chromosome loss was observed in combination with strong inducers of chromosome loss such as the aprotic polar solvents ethyl acetate and to a lesser extent methyl ethyl ketone but not with gamma-valerolactone and propionitrile. In addition to this, 4 solvents, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane and pyridine, enhanced the MMS-induced mitotic recombination in strain D61.M. An enhancement of MMS-induced mitotic recombination and reverse mutation could be demonstrated for ethyl acetate and gamma-valerolactone in yeast strain D7.

  1. Influence of solvent composition on the miscibility and physical stability of naproxen/PVP K 25 solid dispersions prepared by cosolvent spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influence of solvent properties on the phase behavior and physical stability of spray-dried solid dispersions containing naproxen and PVP K 25 prepared from binary cosolvent systems containing methanol, acetone and dichloromethane. The viscosity, polymer globular size and evaporation rate of the spray-drying feed solutions were characterized. The solid dispersions were prepared by spray-drying drug-polymer solutions in binary solvent blends containing different proportions of each solvent. The phase behavior was investigated with mDSC, pXRD, FT-IR and TGA. Further, physical stability of solid dispersions was assessed by analyzing after storage at 75% RH. The solid dispersions prepared from solvent/anti-solvent mixture showed better miscibility and physical stability over those prepared from the mixtures of good solvents. Thus, solid dispersions prepared from dichloromethane-acetone exhibited the best physicochemical attributes followed by those prepared from methanol-acetone. FT-IR analysis revealed differential drug-polymer interaction in solid dispersions prepared from various solvent blends, upon the exposure to elevated humidity. Spray-drying from a cocktail of good solvent and anti-solvent with narrower volatility difference produces solid dispersions with better miscibility and physical stability resulting from the simultaneous effect on the polymer conformation and better dispersivity of drug.

  2. How solvent influences the anomeric effect: roles of hyperconjugative versus steric interactions on the conformational preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changwei; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2014-02-21

    The block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which can derive optimal electron-localized state with intramolecular electron delocalization completely deactivated, has been combined with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to probe the variation of the anomeric effect in solution. Currently both the hyperconjugation and electrostatic models have been called to interpret the anomeric effect in carbohydrate molecules. Here we employed the BLW-PCM scheme to analyze the energy differences between α and β anomers of substituted tetrahydropyran C5OH9Y (Y = F, Cl, OH, NH2, and CH3) and tetrahydrothiopyran C5SH9Y (Y = F, Cl, OH, and CH3) in solvents including chloroform, acetone, and water. In accord with literature, our computations show that for anomeric systems the conformational preference is reduced in solution and the magnitude of reduction increases as the solvent polarity increases. Significantly, on one hand the solute-solvent interaction diminishes the intramolecular electron delocalization in β anomers more than in α anomers, thus destabilizing β anomers relatively. But on the other hand, it reduces the steric effect in β anomers much more than α anomers and thus stabilizes β anomers relatively more, leading to the overall reduction of the anomeric effect in anomeric systems in solutions.

  3. Influence of alpha and gamma radiolysis on Pu retention in the solvent TBP/kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the issue of radiolysis of the solvent system in PUREX process, alpha and gamma radiation stability of tributyl phosphate (TBP/kerosene (OK have been studied in this paper, in which 238Pu dissolved in the organic phase and 60Co are selected as alpha and gamma irradiation sources, respectively. The amount of the degradation products not easily removed after the washing process has been measured by the plutonium retention. The effects of the absorbed dose, the TBP volume fraction, the cumulative absorbed dose and the presence of UO2 2+ and Zr4+ on the radiolysis of the solvents have been investigated. The results have indicated that the Pu retention increases with the increase of the absorbed dose after alpha or gamma irradiation, and is larger for the solvent containing less TBP. There is competition between UO2 2+ and Pu4+ to complex with the degradation products, and Zr4+ accelerates the radiolysis of the system.

  4. Phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone: Influence of solvents and initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema

    2014-01-01

    Phosphazene base (t-BuP2) catalysed metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) at room temperature with various protic initiators in different solvents was investigated. The polymerization proceeded, in most cases, in a controlled manner to afford poly(ε-caprolactone) with low dispersities and expected molecular weights. Kinetic studies showed that when a primary alcohol was used as an initiator the polymerization rate in different solvents followed the order of dichloromethane ≫ toluene > 1,4-dioxane ≈ tetrahydrofuran. Extremely fast polymerization of l-lactide (LLA), which was added as a second monomer, was observed in different solvents giving rise to poly(ε-caprolactone)-b- poly(l-lactide) diblock copolymers with neat PLLA blocks despite incomplete conversion of ε-CL. The dependence of polymerization rate on the concentrations of ε-CL and t-BuP2 was also revealed. In addition to primary alcohol, the feasibility of using other protic initiators, such as secondary alcohol (either on a small molecule or a polymer chain-end), (aliphatic/aromatic) amide, carboxylic acid, phenol and thiophenol, was also investigated. These studies provided important information for designing a metal-free route towards polyester-based (bio)materials. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  5. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO 4 )) in C 6 H 6 has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA) 3 TDAHA(A - = Cl - or ClO 4 - ). The values of the equilibrium constant K T,S have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined

  6. Influence of chronic exposure to organic solvent mixtures on contrast sensitivity in silk-screen printers: matched-pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckelmann, Irina; Pfister, Eberhard Alexander; Peters, Brigitte

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the influence of chronic occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on the contrast sensitivity (CS) of silk-screen printers. Contrast sensitivity was measured for 28 matched (age, sex) pairs of silk-screen printers and controls using the Vision Contrast Test System - VCTS 6500 chart. The duration of exposure to industrial neurotoxic substances was about 9 years. Contrast sensitivity impairments were recorded in 28.6% of the printers for both eyes at several spatial frequencies. Males and females differed in CS significantly, but no interaction between gender (male vs. female) and exposure (printers vs. controls) was found.

  7. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  8. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  9. Modeling optical properties of polymer-solvent complexes: the chloroform influence on the P3HT and N2200 absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Ledo, Rodrigo Maia; Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Brito Silva, Patrick Pascoal; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira; de Souza, Leonardo Evaristo; Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ceschin, Artemis Marti; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antonio; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of polymer/solvent systems composed by the polymers P3HT and PolyeraActivInk N2200 under the present of chloroform as solvent are experimentally and theoretically investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The study is focused on obtaining the theoretical methodologies that properly describes the experimentally obtained absorption spectra of polymer-solvent complexes. In order to investigate the solvent influence, two different approaches are taken into account: the solvation shell method (SSM) and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Our findings shown that SSM simulations, which combine MD and DFT calculations, are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, it is obtained that simulations in the framework of PCM do not provide a fair description of the real system. Importantly, these results may pave the way for better descriptions of some optoelectronic properties of interest in polymer/solvent systems. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Influences of working conditions on the performance of sign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings showed that poor working conditions such as delay in promotion and salary payment and unattractive office accommodation have significant adverse influence on working performance of both teachers and interpreters. Teachers significantly felt the disturbing influence of poor working conditions on their job ...

  11. Degree of conversion of simplified contemporary adhesive systems as influenced by extended air-activated or passive solvent volatilization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; Brandt, William C; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Montes, Marcos A J R; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five methods of solvent volatilization on the degree of conversion (DC) of nine one-bottle adhesive systems using Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) analysis. Nine adhesives were tested: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Adper Easy One (EO), One Up Bond F Plus (OUP), One Coat Bond SL (OC), XP Bond (XP), Ambar (AM), Natural Bond (NB), GO, and Stae. The adhesive systems were applied to a zinc-selenide pellet and 1) cured without solvent volatilization, 2) left undisturbed for 10 seconds before curing, 3) left undisturbed for 60 seconds before curing, 4) air-dried with an air stream for 10 seconds before curing, and 5) air-dried with an air stream for 60 seconds before curing. FTIR/ATR spectra were obtained, and the DC was calculated by comparing the aliphatic bonds/reference peaks before and after light activation for 10 seconds (FlashLite 1401). The DC means of each material were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (pStae adhesive systems was not affected by the five evaporation conditions. Air-drying for 60 seconds before curing yielded the highest DC for SB, EO, and OC. Extended solvent volatilization time (60 seconds) either with or without air-drying before curing provided the highest DC for AM, NB, XP, and OUP. Thus, the monomer conversion of adhesive systems was material dependent. In general, the 60-second passive or active air-drying modes to volatilize solvents before curing enhanced the degree of conversion for the one-bottle simplified adhesive systems.

  12. Innovative approach to produce submicron drug particles by vibrational atomization spray drying: influence of the type of solvent and surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durli, T L; Dimer, F A; Fontana, M C; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Guterres, S S

    2014-08-01

    Spray drying is a technique used to produce solid particles from liquid solutions, emulsions or suspensions. Buchi Labortechnik developed the latest generation of spray dryers, Nano Spray Dryer B-90. This study aims to obtain, directly, submicron drug particles from an organic solution, employing this equipment and using dexamethasone as a model drug. In addition, we evaluated the influence of both the type of solvent and surfactant on the properties of the powders using a 3(2) full factorial analysis. The particles were obtained with high yields (above 60%), low water content (below 2%) and high drug content (above 80%). The surface tension and the viscosity were strongly influenced by the type of solvent. The highest powder yields were obtained for the highest surface tension and the lowest viscosity of the drug solutions. The use of ionic surfactants led to higher process yields. The laser diffraction technique revealed that the particles deagglomerate into small ones with submicrometric size, (around 1 µm) that was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the raw materials in the spray-dried powders was verified by calorimetric analysis. Thus, it was possible to obtain dexamethasone submicrometric particles by vibrational atomization from organic solution.

  13. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  14. Elucidating the influence of polymorph-dependent interfacial solvent structuring at chitin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aaron H; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2016-10-20

    Interfacial solvent structuring is thought to be influential in mediating the adsorption of biomolecules at aqueous materials interfaces. However, despite the enormous potential for exploitation of aqueous chitin interfaces in industrial, medical and drug-delivery applications, little is known at the molecular-level about such interfacial solvent structuring for chitin. Here we use molecular simulation to predict the structure of the [100] and [010] interfaces of α-chitin and β-chitin dihydrate in contact with liquid water and saline solution. We find the α-chitin [100] interface supports lateral high-density regions in the first water layer at the interface, which are also present, but not as pronounced, for β-chitin. The lateral structuring of interfacial ions at the saline/chitin interface is also more pronounced for α-chitin compared with β-chitin. Our findings provide a foundation for the systematic design of biomolecules with selective binding affinity for different chitin polymorphs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization process condition for deacidification of palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction using NADES (Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israyandi, Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-03-01

    One of many steps in palm oil refining process is deacidification which aims to separate free fatty acids and other compounds from the oil. The deacidification process was using a green solvent, known as NADES, that consisted of betaine monohydrate and propionic acid at molar ratio of 1:8. In this study, the process conditions were optimized using the response surface method (RSM) through central composite design in order to predict the maximum distribution coefficient of palmitic acid. The obtained regression equation of the basic model for optimization was: y = 0.717 + 0.003x1 + 0.043 x2 + 0.148x3 - 0.005 x1x1 - 0.030 x2x2 + 0.047 x3x3 - 0.008 x1x2 + 0.008 x1x3 + 0.033 x2x3. The independent variables are x1 ≡ temperature (40, 60, 80 °C), x2≡ amount of palmitic acid in the palm oil (2, 5, 8 %) and x3 ≡ mass ratios of oil to NADES (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). The optimum process condition found was temperature of 62.3°C, palmitic acid content of 8%, and NADES to palm oil mass ratio of 1:2, resulting in the maximum distribution coefficient of 0.96.

  16. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solute-Solvent Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solutions...

  17. Perfluorinated polymer grafting: influence of preirradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, E.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Paes, H.A.; Sousa, C.A.; Fernandes, W.; Manzoli, J.E; Geraldo, A.B.; Cardozo, P.

    2009-01-01

    The technological interest of perfluorinated polymers is related to its specific properties like low chemical reactivity and high mechanical and temperature resistance. The development of polymeric membranes for PEM fuel cell dispositives requires beyond these characteristics, a long-life time performance and low cost compared to Nafion membranes. By these material have high crystallinity, the radiation grafting indeed occurs but this process generate a low mechanical resistance aggregate. In this way, it is necessary to render the polymer with a low crystallinity or even amorphous. Generally, irradiation under polymer melt temperatures makes the crystallinity breaking and polymer crosslinking. The main objective of this work was promoting the crosslinking process into perfluorinated polymers by pre-irradiation method and to precede styrene grafting by electron beam irradiation in a second step. The experimental methodology consists in pre-irradiate perfluorinated polymers films like PTFE and PFA under high temperature (> 300 deg C) and vacuum conditions by electron beam irradiation at 5 kGy to 30 kGy doses and 2,85 kGy/s to 22,4 kGy/s dose rates. To obtain temperatures above 300 deg C, it was necessary construct a vacuum chamber with a heating system where temperature process could be follow up in real time. Some molecular alterations in polymeric matrix were analyzed by Mid-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; macroscopic changes are verified by gravimetry. The styrene grafting onto these samples is realized by electron beam irradiation at doses between 30 and 100 kGy. These results are discussed. (author)

  18. Influence of solvent on the morphology and microstructure of YSZ films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique; Influencia do solvente na morfologia e microestrutura de filmes de YSZ obtidos pela tecnica spray pirolise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcade, T.; Oliveira, G.B.; Mueller, I.L.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: tiagocoti@gmail.co, E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Minas. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao; Tarrago, D.P.; Sousa, V.C.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Minas; Souza, M.M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of solvent used for the deposition of thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on porous substrate. The films were obtained directly on the porous LSM substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, which consists of spraying a precursor solution containing salts of zirconium (Zr (C{sub 6}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}) 4) and yttrium (YCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), dissolved in specific solvents, on the heated substrate. The use of solvents with different boiling points and viscosity aims the optimization of experimental operating parameters to obtain homogeneous and dense films suitable for application as electrolyte in fuel cells, solid oxide (SOFC). The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  19. The Influence of Solvent Additive on Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2017-11-27

    Small-molecule-based non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) are emerging as a new field in organic photovoltaics, due to their structural versatility, the tunability of their energy levels, and their ease of synthesis. High-efficiency polymer donors have been tested with these non-fullerene acceptors in order to further boost the efficiency of organic solar cells. Most of the polymer:fullerene systems are optimized with solvent additives for high efficiency, while little attention has been paid to NFA-based solar cells so far. In this report, the effect of the most common additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), on PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cells is investigated and it is compared with non-fullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]-s-indaceno-[1,2-b:5,6b′]di-thiophene (ITIC) devices. It is interesting that the high boiling solvent additive does have a negative impact on the power conversion efficiency when PTB7-Th is blended with ITIC acceptor. The solar cell devices are studied in terms of their optical, photophysical, and morphological properties and find out that PTB7-Th:ITIC devices with DIO results in coarser domains, reduced absorption strength, and slightly lower mobility, while DIO improves the absorption strength of the PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend film and increase the aggregation of PC71BM in the blend, resulting in higher fill factor and Jsc.

  20. Chemoselective Preparation of 1,1-Diacetates from Aldehydes, Mediated by a Keggin Heteropolyacid Under Solvent Free Conditions at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Romanelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, general and efficient method has been developed for the conversion of aldehydes to 1,1-diacetates using acetic anhydride, a catalytic amount of non commercial Keggin heteropolyacid (H6 PalMo11O40 (1% mol in solvent free conditions at room temperature. Aromatic and aliphatic, simple and conjugated aldehydes were protected with excellent yields.

  1. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL-CIN-1437 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Catalyst-free Reactions under Solvent-fee Conditions: Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones below the Melting Point of Neat Reactants. Published in: Chemical Communications 18:1716-1717 (200...

  2. Influence of temperature and solvent concentration on the kinetics of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in carbon capture technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    -methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) and the carbonate salt solution K2CO3 were compared in concentrations from 5 to 50 wt% in a temperature range of 298–328 K with and without enzyme. Necessary mass transfer parameters such as liquid side mass transfer coefficient and solvent and enzyme reaction rates were determined...... benefit from CA. The influence of temperature on the enzyme kinetics and mass transfer coefficients is different for different solvent types. A temperature increase resulted in lower liquid side mass transfer coefficient for MDEA and K2CO3 but in a higher coefficient for AMP. The overall first order...... enzyme reaction rate (s−1) was linearly dependent on enzyme concentration for MDEA and K2CO3 at 313 K. Temperature and concentration did increase the enzymatic rate constant slightly in the concentration range of 5–15 wt% K2CO3 and significantly between 15 and 20 wt%. The enzymatic reaction rate constant...

  3. Statistical evaluation of tablet coating processes: influence of pan design and solvent type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdomero Pereira de Melo Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partially and fully perforated pan coaters are among the most relevant types of equipment currently used in the process of coating tablets. The goal of this study was to assess the performance differences among these types of equipment employing a factorial design. This statistical approach allowed the simultaneous study of the process variables and verification of interactions among them. The study included partially-perforated and fully-perforated pan coaters, aqueous and organic solvents, as well as hypromellose-based immediate-release coating. The dependent variables were process time, energy consumption, mean weight of tablets and process yield. For the tests, placebo tablets with a mean weight of 250 mg were produced, divided into eight lots of two kilograms each and coated in duplicate, using both partially perforated pan and fully perforated pan coaters. The results showed a significant difference between the type of equipment used (partially and fully perforated pan coaters with regard to process time and energy consumption, whereas no significant difference was identified for mean weight of the coated tablets and process yield.Entre os tipos de equipamentos de maior relevância utilizados atualmente no processo de revestimento de comprimidos estão os de tambor parcial e totalmente perfurados. A proposta desse trabalho foi avaliar as diferenças de desempenho entre esses equipamentos empregando projeto fatorial. Essa abordagem estatística possibilitou o estudo simultâneo das variáveis do processo, permitindo verificar interações entre elas. O trabalho incluiu equipamento com tambor parcialmente perfurado e totalmente perfurado, solventes aquoso e orgânico, assim como revestimento de liberação imediata à base de hipromelose. As variáveis dependentes ou respostas foram tempo de processo, consumo de energia, peso médio e rendimento do processo. Para os ensaios, foram produzidos comprimidos de placebo de 250 mg de peso m

  4. To Evaluate the Effect of Solvents and Different Relative Humidity Conditions on Thermal and Rheological Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose 101 Using METHOCEL™ E15LV as a Binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagia, Moksh; Trivedi, Maitri; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-08-01

    The solvent used for preparing the binder solution in wet granulation can affect the granulation end point and also impact the thermal, rheological, and flow properties of the granules. The present study investigates the effect of solvents and percentage relative humidity (RH) on the granules of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the binder. MCC was granulated using 2.5% w/w binder solution in water and ethanol/water mixture (80:20 v/v). Prepared granules were dried until constant percentage loss on drying, sieved, and further analyzed. Dried granules were exposed to different percentage RH for 48 h at room temperature. Powder rheometer was used for the rheological and flow characterization, while thermal effusivity and differential scanning calorimeter were used for thermal analysis. The thermal effusivity values for the wet granules showed a sharp increase beginning 50% w/w binder solution in both cases, which reflected the over-wetting of granules. Ethanol/water solvent batches showed greater resistance to flow as compared to the water solvent batches in the wet granule stage, while the reverse was true for the dried granule stage, as evident from the basic flowability energy values. Although the solvents used affected the equilibration kinetics of moisture content, the RH-exposed granules remained unaffected in their flow properties in both cases. This study indicates that the solvents play a vital role on the rheology and flow properties of MCC granules, while the different RH conditions have little or no effect on them for the above combination of solvent and binder.

  5. Matrix effects in thermal lens spectrometry: influence of salts, surfactants, polymers and solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we present an overall view of the matrix effects that can change or alter the signal in thermal lens spectrometry and we report the main works published in this field. The addition of salts, surfactants and polymers in aqueous solutions or the use of solvent mixtures is often needed in a variety of applications either to enhance the sensitivity of the thermal lens method or more generally because such media are required in the separation process prior to thermal lens detection. In most cases, matrix effects result in small changes in the thermo-optical properties of the solution and small signal variations. However, most important signal alterations can arise from the Soret effect. In binary mixtures as well as in solutions with macromolecular species which are initially homogeneous, the temperature gradient will induce the migration of molecules and the formation of a concentration gradient. This results in the formation of a concentration-dependent refractive index gradient which adds to the temperature-dependent refractive index gradient and contributes to the formation of a new signal. This effect can seriously alter the analytical signal and lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental data. In contrast, time-resolved measurements can help in separating both signal components and have allowed to derive mass-diffusion times and mass-diffusion coefficients for a variety of micelles and polymers.

  6. Improvement of Anion Transport Systems by Modulation of Chalcogen Interactions: The influence of solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Trujillo, Cristina

    2018-02-08

    A series of potential anion transporters, dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophenes (DTT), involving anion-chalcogen interactions have been studied by analyzing the interaction energy, geometry, and charge transfer. It was found that gas phase calculations show very negative interaction energies with short anion-chalcogen distances, but when solvent effects are considered, the interaction energy values decreased drastically concomitantly with an elongation on the interatomic distances. To enhance the chalcogen interaction between the DTT derivatives and the anion, increasing the anion transporter capacity, bisisothioazole moiety was considered; i.e., the σ-hole of the chalcogen atom was modulated by substitution of the adjacent carbon by a nitrogen atom in the S-C axis, increasing the depth of the σ-hole and therefore the interaction between the chalcogen and anion. Finally, different anions were analyzed within the complexes, finding that F - and NO 3 - would be the best candidates to form complexes and possibly displace other anions such as Cl - or Br - .

  7. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Univ. of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

  8. Pressure-assisted cold denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme: the influence of co-solvents probed by hydrogen exchange nuclear magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogtt K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available COSY proton nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the exchange rates of amide protons of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL in the pressure-assisted cold-denatured state and in the heat-denatured state. After dissolving lysozyme in deuterium oxide buffer, labile protons exchange for deuterons in such a way that exposed protons are substituted rapidly, whereas "protected" protons within structured parts of the protein are substituted slowly. The exchange rates k obs were determined for HEWL under heat treatment (80ºC and under high pressure conditions at low temperature (3.75 kbar, -13ºC. Moreover, the influence of co-solvents (sorbitol, urea on the exchange rate was examined under pressure-assisted cold denaturation conditions, and the corresponding protection factors, P, were determined. The exchange kinetics upon heat treatment was found to be a two-step process with initial slow exchange followed by a fast one, showing residual protection in the slow-exchange state and P-factors in the random-coil-like range for the final temperature-denatured state. Addition of sorbitol (500 mM led to an increase of P-factors for the pressure-assisted cold denatured state, but not for the heat-denatured state. The presence of 2 M urea resulted in a drastic decrease of the P-factors of the pressure-assisted cold denatured state. For both types of co-solvents, the effect they exert appears to be cooperative, i.e., no particular regions within the protein can be identified with significantly diverse changes of P-factors.

  9. Partitioning of Tank Waste Sludge in a 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Under Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Jr. J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of solids on the hydraulic performance of a 5-cm centrifugal contactor under conditions present in the extraction section of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. In addition to determining if the ability to separate the aqueous and organic phases is affected by the presence of solids in a feed solution, the extent to which solids are accumulated in the contactor was also assessed. The reported task was motivated by the need to determine if removal of cesium from Savannah River Site tank waste can be performed using a contactor-based CSSX process without first removing sludge that is suspended in the feed solution. The ability to pass solids through the CSSX process could facilitate placement of CSSX upstream of a process in which alpha-decaying actinides and strontium are removed from the waste stream by precipitation with monosodium titanate (MST). This relative placement of the CSSX and MST processes is desirable because removal of cesium would greatly reduce the activity level of the feed stream to the MST process, thereby reducing the level of shielding needed and mitigating remote maintenance design features of MST equipment. Both results would significantly reduce the cost of the Salt Processing Project. Test results indicate conclusively that a large fraction of suspended sludge that enters the centrifugal contactor remains inside. It is expected that extended operation would result in continued accumulation of solids and that hydraulic performance would be adversely affected. Results also indicate that a fraction of the solids partitions to the phase boundary and could affect phase separation as contactor operations progress

  10. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  11. Solvent fractionation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. kernel fat for production of non-hydrogenated solid fat: Influence of time and solvent type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busakorn Mahisanunt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study performed isothermal (25 °C solvent fractionation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. kernel fat (RKF to obtain the fat fraction that had melting properties comparable to a commercial hydrogenated solid fat. The effect of two fractionation parameters, holding time (12, 18 and 24 h and solvent types (acetone and ethanol, on the properties of fractionated fat were investigated. The results showed that a fractionation time increase caused an increased yield and decreased iodine value for the high melting or stearin fractions. The thermal behaviors and solid fat index (SFI of these stearin fractions were different from the original fat, especially for stearin from acetone fractionation. The major fatty acid in this stearin fraction was arachidic acid (C20:0 consisting of more than 90%. Overall, we demonstrated that acetone fractionation of RKF at 25 °C for 24 h is effective for producing a solid fat fraction, which has comparable crystallizing and melting properties to commercial hydrogenated fat. The fractionated rambutan fat obtained by this process may lead to its potential use in specific food products.

  12. Influence of processes of structure formation in mixed solvent and anion nature on cadmium ions discharge kinetics from water-dimethylformamide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Bozhenko, L.G.; Kucherenko, S.S.; Fedorova, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction of cadmium ion discharge in water-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions is studied. The influence of DMF concentration in the presence of different anions (ClO 4 - , F - , I - ) on both reaction kinetics and mechanism is discussed on the basis of structural transformations in the mixed solvent and near the surface electrode processes

  13. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU) and TBAA dosage were investigated as paramete...

  14. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping-Ping Xin; Yao-Bing Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Huai N. Cheng; Chaobo Huang; Hui. Pan

    2017-01-01

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS)...

  15. Techno-economic comparison of combined cycle gas turbines with advanced membrane configuration and MEA solvent at part load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Bonalumi, Davide; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André P.C.

    2018-01-01

    This work compares the part load techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from a CCGT using a membrane configuration with selective CO2 recycle and using MEA solvent, under the assumption of flexible power plant dispatch. This is the first time that the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture

  16. Functionalized SBA-15 supported nickel (II)–oxime–imine catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins under solvent-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Luna; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim; Ali, Mahammad

    2016-01-01

    A new oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-NH 2 -DAMO) has been synthesized via post-synthesis functionalization of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane followed by the Schiff base condensation with diacetylmonooxime, which was further reacted with Ni(ClO 4 ) 2 to yield the functionalized nickel catalyst SBA-15-NH 2 -DAMO-Ni. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized using different characterization techniques. It was found that SBA-15-NH 2 -DAMO-Ni catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins like styrene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene, 1-hexene and 1-octene to the corresponding benzaldehyde, cyclohexene-1-ol and cyclooctene-oxide, respectively under solvent-free conditions by using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. - Graphical abstract: A new well characterized oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15-NH 2 -DAMO-Ni complex catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins under solvent free mild conditions.

  17. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pathak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products.

  18. Solvent-Exposed Salt Bridges Influence the Kinetics of α-Helix Folding and Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Tros, Martijn; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; van Dijk, Chris N; Vreede, Jocelyne; Woutersen, Sander

    2014-03-06

    Salt bridges are known to play an essential role in the thermodynamic stability of the folded conformation of many proteins, but their influence on the kinetics of folding remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of Glu-Arg salt bridges on the kinetics of α-helix folding using temperature-jump transient-infrared spectroscopy and steady-state UV circular dichroism. We find that geometrically optimized salt bridges (Glu - and Arg + are spaced four peptide units apart, and the Glu/Arg order is such that the side-chain rotameric preferences favor salt-bridge formation) significantly speed up folding and slow down unfolding, whereas salt bridges with unfavorable geometry slow down folding and slightly speed up unfolding. Our observations suggest a possible explanation for the surprising fact that many biologically active proteins contain salt bridges that do not stabilize the native conformation: these salt bridges might have a kinetic rather than a thermodynamic function.

  19. AcconPred: Predicting Solvent Accessibility and Contact Number Simultaneously by a Multitask Learning Framework under the Conditional Neural Fields Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhu Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The solvent accessibility of protein residues is one of the driving forces of protein folding, while the contact number of protein residues limits the possibilities of protein conformations. The de novo prediction of these properties from protein sequence is important for the study of protein structure and function. Although these two properties are certainly related with each other, it is challenging to exploit this dependency for the prediction. Method. We present a method AcconPred for predicting solvent accessibility and contact number simultaneously, which is based on a shared weight multitask learning framework under the CNF (conditional neural fields model. The multitask learning framework on a collection of related tasks provides more accurate prediction than the framework trained only on a single task. The CNF method not only models the complex relationship between the input features and the predicted labels, but also exploits the interdependency among adjacent labels. Results. Trained on 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein datasets, AcconPred could reach 0.68 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility and 0.75 correlation for contact number. Tested on the 105 CASP11 domain datasets for solvent accessibility, AcconPred could reach 0.64 accuracy, which outperforms existing methods.

  20. A search for the experimental conditions of the solvent extraction of sodium, potassium and cesium cryptates for a possible application to analytical radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Reyes, M.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental conditions of the solvent extraction of the Na + , K + and Cs + cations have been studied in correlation with the parameters that rule the chemical equilibre in the system: nature and concentration of the ligand (cryptand), concentrations of the base and of the suited electrolyte, time of shaking. The conclusions point to a possible application to the analytical chemistry of the alkaline ions [fr

  1. A new thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Staphylococcus warneri; optimization of media and production conditions using statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yele, Viraj U; Desai, Krutika

    2015-01-01

    A new thermostable and solvent-tolerant lipase was isolated from newly isolated Staphylococcus warneri from oil-contaminated soil. Optimization of the fermentation media for production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant lipase was carried out using two statistical methods, i.e., Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used for the optimization of the media components. PBD was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production. Out of 15 medium components screened, four components, i.e., olive oil, peptone, maltose, and K2HPO4 were found to contribute positively to lipase production. CCD and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to determine the optimum levels of the selected components using Design-Expert 8.0 software. Production medium with olive oil (1.45 %), peptone (0.28 %), maltose (0.054 %), and K2HPO4 (0.091 %) was optimized with a maximum lipase production of 10.43 IU/ml/min. Similarly, production conditions for the lipase production were optimized by using CCD and RSM. Optimized conditions were found to have an incubation temperature of 55 °C, medium pH of 8.0, agitation of 120 rpm, and inoculum volume of 2 %. RSM revealed the maximum lipase production of 17.21 IU/ml using these optimized production conditions. Crude lipase showed enhanced activity in organic solvents such as diethyl ether, hexane, and cyclohexane.

  2. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de; Lima, Adriana; Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S.; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora

    2010-01-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  3. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  4. Chétoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on phenolics and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaza, Leila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chétoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O, 80% methanol (80% MeOH, 70% ethanol (70% EtOH, and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the olive leaf extracts (OLEs ranged from 16.52 to 24.93 mg gallic acid g–1 DM and from 6.23 to 21.47 mg catechin g–1 DM, respectively. The IC50 values of DPPH varied from 0.17 to 0.97 mg mL–1 and the antioxidant activity values determined by ABTS (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity were between 629.87 and 1064.25 μmol TE g–1 DM. Our results revealed that extracting solvents have a significant influence on the antioxidant properties of olive leaves and that a methanol mixture is recommended for extracts with high levels of flavonoids and important antioxidant activities. Moreover, it was noticed that the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC depends more on the flavonoids (r = 0.821 than on the total phenols (r = 0.399.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la influencia del disolvente usado en la extracción de los compuestos fenólicos y en las propiedades antioxidantes de los extractos obtenidos a partir de hojas de olivo procedente de la variedad Chétoui. La extracción se realizó a temperatura ambiente, usando cuatro disolventes: agua desionizada(ddH2O, metanol 80% (80% MeOH , etanol 70% (70% EtOH, y acetona 80%. Los fenoles totales y los flavonoides totales se midieron usando los métodos colorimétricos con Folin-Ciocalteau y cloruro de aluminio

  5. Solvents Measurement and Influence on health in the Work Environment in Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    piia tint

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the mixture of chemicals in the work environment depends mostly on the temperature of the air or processing temperature of the raw material or the intermediate products. For determination the chemicals in the air FTIR/FT-NIR spectrometer Interspec 301-X with open optical path and Dräger tubes were used. The toxicology of the gaseous components was determined on the basis of the scientific literature. On the basis of these investigations and the legislation on the chemicals safety (exposure limits the health risk assessment model (HRA was worked out. This model connects the hazards in the work environment and the health risk to the workers and also gives the possibility to the medical personnel to determine the frequency of the medical examinations and biomonitoring for the workers continuously working in the hazardous conditions. The novelty of the study includes in the possibility to keep under control the chemicals concentration in the work environment air through the use of HRA model and the measurement with modern measurement equipment (FTIR/FT-NIR. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7345

  6. Poly(acrylamide) films at the solvent-induced glass transition: Adhesion, tribology, and the influence of crosslinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Ramakrishna, S.N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Espinos-Marzal, R.M.; Spencer, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive and nanotribological properties of end-grafted poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) films with various degrees of crosslinking, and in the presence of solvents over a broad spectrum of quality, were investigated by means of colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. The solvent consisted of a mixture of

  7. A new magnetically recoverable catalyst promoting the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine and polyhydroquinoline derivatives via the Hantzsch condensation under solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Narges; Heidarizadeh, Fariba; Kiasat, Alireza

    2017-04-15

    In the current study, 1,4-dihydropyridine and polyhydroquinoline derivatives were efficiently synthesized under solvent-less conditions with a magnetic catalyst containing novel acidic ionic liquid functionalized silica modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles through a four component combination of β-ketoester, aldehydes and ammonium acetate (1, 2, 2). Several approaches have been reported for synthesizing these derivatives, while each of these approaches have some weaknesses including long time of reaction, excess of volatile organic solvent, low efficiency, costly reagents, complex operation, high temperatures, production of a number of side products, and difficult catalyst recovery. The simple operation, short time of reaction (5–30 min) and the high efficiency (80–94%) are the special advantages of this technique. The immobilized catalyst exhibited an appropriate thermal stability and excellent recyclability. Different methods such as FT-IR, SEM, EDX, TGA-DTA, and VSM were used to confirm and characterize the catalyst. - Highlights: • A new acidic ionic liquid were first synthesized and applied in both symmetric and asymmetric hantzsch reactions for preparing 1, 4-dihydropyridine and polyhydroquinoline derivatives with high efficiencies under solvent-less conditions. • The immobilized catalyst exhibited an appropriate thermal stability and excellent recyclability. • The nanomagnetic catalyst could be recovered from solution with an external magnet at once, allowing undemanding recovery and reuse. • The catalyst was reused for five times with no considerable decrease in catalytic activity.

  8. An investigation into the effects of solvent content on the image quality and stability of ink jet digital prints under varied storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricker, A L; Sandy, M; Hodgson, A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of galleries, museums and archives are including ink jet printed materials into their collections, and therefore displays. There is evidence that the instability of these prints is such that images can suffer deterioration in print quality or in extreme cases, a loss of information over an extended period of time. This is shorter than the period typically required for perceptible deterioration to occur in many other paper-based artworks. The image stability of prints is affected by a number of factors some of which have already been studied. However the role played by the ink solvent in the loss of image quality has yet to be explored. This paper will outline research being undertaken to investigate the effects of solvent content which may increase/promote the loss in image quality of the hard copy prints when stored or displayed under a range of temperature and humidity conditions.

  9. The influence of air temperature for solvent evaporation on bonding of self-etch adhesives to dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Murad, Cintia Gaio; Reis, Alessandra; Klein-Júnior, Celso Afonso; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of air temperature (warm or cold) for solvent evaporation on bonding and nanoleakage of self-etching adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: The adhesives Clearfil 3S Bond [S3], OptiBond All-In-One [OB], Adper SE Plus [AD], and Silorane adhesive [SI] were applied on dentin surfaces, and a warm (60 ± 2°C) or cold air (20 ± 1°C) was applied and light-cured. After water storage (24 h), the teeth were sectioned into sticks (0.8 mm2) and tested in tensile. Then, they were immersed in a 50% solution of silver nitrate, photo-developed and the nanoleakage observed in a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength and nanoleakage pattern were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's test (α =0.05). Results: Higher bond strength and lower silver nitrate uptake were observed for the adhesives under warm condition (P < 0.05). AD and SI showed better adhesive results than S3 and OB (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of a warm air was useful to improve the bonding and diminish the nanoleakage of adhesive systems to dentin. PMID:24966771

  10. Influence of Solvent Polarity and DNA-Binding on Spectral Properties of Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rájecký

    Full Text Available Quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids are secondary metabolites of the plant families Papaveraceae, Rutaceae, and Ranunculaceae with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Their spectral changes induced by the environment could be used to understand their interaction with biomolecules as well as for analytical purposes. Spectral shifts, quantum yield and changes in lifetime are presented for the free form of alkaloids in solvents of different polarity and for alkaloids bound to DNA. Quantum yields range from 0.098 to 0.345 for the alkanolamine form and are below 0.033 for the iminium form. Rise of fluorescence lifetimes (from 2-5 ns to 3-10 ns and fluorescence intensity are observed after binding of the iminium form to the DNA for most studied alkaloids. The alkanolamine form does not bind to DNA. Acid-base equilibrium constant of macarpine is determined to be 8.2-8.3. Macarpine is found to have the highest increase of fluorescence upon DNA binding, even under unfavourable pH conditions. This is probably a result of its unique methoxy substitution at C12 a characteristic not shared with other studied alkaloids. Association constant for macarpine-DNA interaction is 700000 M(-1.

  11. An Efficient Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-Ones and Thiones Catalyzed by a Novel Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report here an efficient and green method for Biginelli condensation reaction of aldehydes, β-ketoesters and urea or thiourea catalyzed by Brønsted acidic ionic liquid [Btto][p-TSA] under solvent-free conditions. Compared to the classical Biginelli reaction conditions, the present method has the advantages of giving good yields, short reaction times, near room temperature conditions and the avoidance of the use of organic solvents and metal catalyst.

  12. Synthesis of Cycloveratrylene Macrocycles and Benzyl Oligomers Catalysed by Bentonite under Microwave/Infrared and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salmón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonsil Actisil FF, which is a commercial bentonitic clay, promotes the formation of cycloveratrylene macrocycles and benzyl oligomers from the corresponding benzyl alcohols in good yields under microwave heating and infrared irradiation in the absence of solvent in both cases. The catalytic reaction is sensitive to the type of substituent on the aromatic ring. Thus, when benzyl alcohol was substituted with a methylenedioxy, two methoxy or three methoxy groups, a cyclooligomerisation process was induced. Unsubstituted, methyl and methoxy benzyl alcohols yielded linear oligomers. In addition, computational chemistry calculations were performed to establish a validated mechanistic pathway to explain the growth of the obtained linear oligomers.

  13. Obtention of zirconia films stabilized with Yttria via pyrolysis spray: study of the solvent influence; Obtencao de filmes de zirconia estabilizada com itria via spray pirolise: estudo da influencia do solvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmenschlager, Cibele Melo; Vieira, Ramaugusto da Porciuncula; Takimi, Antonio Shigueaki; Bergmann, Carlos Perez; Silva, Aline Lima da; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos (LACER)]. E-mail: cibelemh@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) has been object of many studies, due to its great chemical stability and excellent ionic conduction in high temperature. This material has been studies with an intention of to be used with electrolyte of oxide solid fuel cells, which work in high temperature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of the solvent on the elaboration of crystalline films of YSZ via spray pyrolysis. The film was prepared by spray pyrolysis with zirconium acetylacetonate (Zr(C{sub 6}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}){sub 4}) and yttrium chloride (YCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), dissolved in different solvents: ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O), ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O) + propyleneglycol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}) with volume ratio (1:1) and ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O) + diethylene glycol butyl ether (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}O{sub 3}) with volume ratio of 1:1. A disk of steel 316L was used as substrate. The amorphous film was deposited in the substrate heated at 280 deg C {+-} 50 deg C. After deposition from thermal treatment at 700 deg C the amorphous film was changed into Yttria-stabilized-zirconia film. The thermal behavior of the films has been studied by both (DTA/TGA) thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopy analyses. The morphology and crystalline phase of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The YSZ film obtained after heat treatment was dense and crystalline, however, the analyses indicate a significant influence of the solvent and of the substrate temperature during the deposition process on the film morphology.(author)

  14. Facile synthesis of 1-naphthol azo dyes with nano SiO2/HIO4 under solvent-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Pourali; A. Bamoniri; S.M.R. Nazifi

    2013-01-01

    Nano-silica supported periodic acid (nano-SPIA) has been utilized as a heterogeneous reagent for a highly efficient and one pot synthesis of azo dyes based on 1-naphthol under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This method has some advantages, the reaction workup is very easy and the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and one-pot procedure. The related products have been obtained in good to excellent yields, high purity and short reaction times. The structure...

  15. Synthesis of Azanucleosides through Regioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides Catalyzed by Sulphated Zirconia under Microwave and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Negrón-Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione, with (S-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following a route which exploits the reactivity of epoxides in the presence of sulphated zirconia as catalyst. The key step was carried out using microwave and solvent-free conditions and proceeds with high selectivity.

  16. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  17. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  18. Influence of working conditions on job satisfaction in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, J F; Knotzer, H; Traweger, C; Lederer, W; Heidegger, T; Benzer, A

    2005-02-01

    We studied job satisfaction, physical health, emotional well-being and working conditions in 125 Austrian and Swiss anaesthetists. Responses to self-reporting questionnaires were evaluated. Dependent variables included job satisfaction, emotional well-being and physical health. Independent variables included age, sex, marital status, position and working conditions as assessed by the Instrument for Stress-related Job Analysis. Control over work shows a strong effect on job satisfaction in anaesthetists, for example influence on handling tasks (P=0.001), time control (P=0.002) and participation (P=0.001), whereas task demands and task-related problems did not have any effect. Anaesthetists in leading positions and specialists reported lower job satisfaction (P=0.012) than did anaesthetists in non-leading positions. Job satisfaction was associated with better physical health (P=0.001) and better emotional well-being (P=0.005). Our results suggest that a high level of job satisfaction in anaesthetists correlates with interesting work demands and the opportunity to contribute skills and ideas. To improve job satisfaction, more attention should be paid to improving working conditions, including control over decision-making, and allowing anaesthetists to have more influence on their own work pace and work schedule.

  19. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  20. INFLUENCE OF CUTTING ZONE COOLING METHOD ON CHIP FORMING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Feldshtein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of a cutting zone cooling method on the chip shape and thickening ratio while turning R35 steel with the hardness of НВ 1250 МРа. Cutting with various types of cooling - dry, compressed air and emulsion fog has been investigated in the paper. OPORTET RG-2 emulsol with emulsion concentration of 4% has been used as an active substation. Cutting tool is a turning cutter with a changeable square plate SNUN120408 made of Р25 hard alloy with multilayer wear-resistant coating, upper titanium nitride layer. Front plate surface is flat. Range of cutting speeds - 80-450 m/min, motions - 0,1-0,5 mm/rev, emulsion flow - 1,5-3,5 g/min and compressed air - 4,5-7,0 m3/h, cutting depth - 1,0 mm. In order to reduce a number of single investigations it is possible to use plans based on ЛПх-sequences.It has been shown that the method for cutting zone cooling exerts significant influence on conditions for chip formation. Regression equation describing influence of machining conditions on Ка-chip thickening ratio has been obtained in the paper. The range of cutting modes is extended while using emulsion fog for cooling. In the process of these modes chip is formed in the shape of short spiral fragments or elements. Favourable form of chips is ensured while using the following rate of emulsion - not more than 2 g/min. The investigations have made it possible to determine conditions required for cooling emulsion fog. In this case it has been observed minimum values in chip thickening ratio and chip shape that ensures its easy removal from cutting zone. While making dry turning values of Ка is higher not less than 15 % in comparison with other methods for cutting zone cooling.

  1. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  2. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while...... neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase...... not influence the force needed to close the fascia....

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  4. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  5. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  6. Functionalized SBA-15 supported nickel (II)–oxime–imine catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins under solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Luna [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banerjee, Biplab [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: m_ali2062@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-15

    A new oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO) has been synthesized via post-synthesis functionalization of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane followed by the Schiff base condensation with diacetylmonooxime, which was further reacted with Ni(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} to yield the functionalized nickel catalyst SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized using different characterization techniques. It was found that SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins like styrene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene, 1-hexene and 1-octene to the corresponding benzaldehyde, cyclohexene-1-ol and cyclooctene-oxide, respectively under solvent-free conditions by using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. - Graphical abstract: A new well characterized oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni complex catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins under solvent free mild conditions.

  7. ZnS nanoparticles as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Kiani, Fatemeh; Moradian, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles through cyclization reaction of various primary amines, sodium azide, and triethyl orthoformate was described. In this method, a series of tetrazole derivatives was synthesized by using ZnS nanoparticles as an effective, recoverable, and reusable catalyst under solvent-free conditions. This strategy is a magnificent improvement for the synthesis of these heterocycles due to the non-acidic, clean, and solvent-free conditions via a solid recyclable catalyst. The catalyst was separated by simple filtration and reused seven times without significant loss of activity. The ZnS nanoparticles with high surface area and fine monodisperse particles were prepared using the simple microwave-assisted method without using any surfactant. The ZnS nanoparticle catalyst is a good candidate to replace brønsted acids and metal salts or other catalyst for the preparation of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles in high yields and has potential values for industrial applications.

  8. Influence of the type of solvent on the development of superhydrophobicity from silane-based solution containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, M.; Abenojar, J.; Martinez, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are very appealing for numerous industrial applications due to their self-cleaning capacity. Although there are different methods to manufacture superhydrophobic surfaces, some of them do not keep the aesthetic appearance of the neat surface. Sol-gel processes are a valid alternative when transparent coatings are desired. The main goal of this research is to study the viability of this method by making superhydrophobic coatings from silane-based solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of using different solvents is investigated, as well as the role played by the different components of the solution (silane, nanoparticles and solvent). Solutions of methyltrimethoxisilane (MTS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 1% of SiO2 (%wt) were prepared with different solvents (ethanol, ethanol/water and white spirit). The hydrophobicity of the developed coatings is studied using contact angle measurements, while the aesthetic appearance is evaluated with gloss and color measurements. Also, infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DSL), and surface tension measurements are used to study the silane solutions. The results show that the capacity of solvents to promote the dispersion of the nanoparticles is crucial to ensuring superhydrophobicity, since these agglomerates provide the micro- and nano- surface roughness required to get a hierarchical structure. However, the combined use of silanes and nanoparticles is key to make a superhydrophobic surface because physical (the surface roughness provided by nanoparticles) and chemical characteristics (hydrophobicity provided by silanes) are coupled.

  9. Weather conditions influence the number of psychiatric emergency room patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Eva Janina; Lett, Tristram A.; Bakanidze, George; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2017-12-01

    The specific impact of weather factors on psychiatric disorders has been investigated only in few studies with inconsistent results. We hypothesized that meteorological conditions influence the number of cases presenting in a psychiatric emergency room as a measure of mental health conditions. We analyzed the number of patients consulting the emergency room (ER) of a psychiatric hospital in Berlin, Germany, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. A total of N = 22,672 cases were treated in the ER over the study period. Meteorological data were obtained from a publicly available data base. Due to collinearity among the meteorological variables, we performed a principal component (PC) analysis. Association of PCs with the daily number of patients was analyzed with autoregressive integrated moving average model. Delayed effects were investigated using Granger causal modeling. Daily number of patients in the ER was significantly higher in spring and summer compared to fall and winter (p < 0.001). Three PCs explained 76.8% percent of the variance with PC1 loading mostly on temperature, PC2 on cloudiness and low pressure, and PC3 on windiness. PC1 and PC2 showed strong association with number of patients in the emergency room (p < 0.010) indicating higher patient numbers on warmer and on cloudy days. Further, PC1, PC2, and PC3 predicted the number of patients presenting in the emergency room for up to 7 days (p < 0.050). A secondary analysis revealed that the effect of temperature on number of patients was mostly due to lower patient numbers on cold days. Although replication of our findings is required, our results suggest that weather influences the number of psychiatric patients consulting the emergency room. In particular, our data indicate lower patient numbers during very cold temperatures.

  10. Influence of solvent polarization and non-uniform ion size on electrostatic properties between charged surfaces in an electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jun-Sik

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study electrostatic properties between two similar or oppositely charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution by using the mean-field approach accounting for solvent polarization and non-uniform size effects. Applying a free energy formalism accounting for unequal ion sizes and orientational ordering of water dipoles, we derive coupled and self-consistent equations to calculate electrostatic properties between charged surfaces. Electrostatic properties for similarly charged surfaces depend on the counterion size but not on the coion size. Moreover, electrostatic potential and osmotic pressure between similarly charged surfaces are found to be increased with increasing counterion size. On the other hand, the corresponding ones between oppositely charged surfaces are related to both sizes of positive and negative ions. For oppositely charged surfaces, the electrostatic potential, number density of solvent molecules, and relative permittivity of an electrolyte having unequal ion sizes are not symmetric about the centerline between the charged surfaces. For either case, the consideration of solvent polarization results in a decrease in the electrostatic potential and the osmotic pressure compared to the case without the effect.

  11. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Influence of Spanwise Boundary Conditions on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations with the OVERFLOW code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. In the present study, two different spanwise grids are being used to investigate the effect of the spanwise extent and periodicity on the near-field unsteady structures and radiated noise. The baseline grid with periodic boundary conditions has a short span equal to 1/9th of the stowed chord, whereas the other, longer span grid adds stretched grids on both sides of the core, baseline grid to allow inviscid surface boundary conditions at both ends. The results indicate that the near-field mean statistics obtained using the two grids are similar to each other, as are the directivity and spectral shapes of the radiated noise. However, periodicity forces all acoustic waves with less than one wavelength across the span to be two-dimensional, without any variation in the span. The spanwise coherence of the acoustic waves is what is needed to make estimates of the noise that would be radiated from realistic span lengths. Simulations with periodic conditions need spans of at least six slat chords to allow spanwise variation in the low-frequencies associated with the peak of broadband slat noise. Even then, the full influence of the periodicity is unclear, so employing grids with a fine, central region and highly stretched meshes that go to slip walls may be a more efficient means of capturing the spanwise decorrelation of low-frequency acoustic phenomena.

  13. Influence of diblock copolymer PCL-mPEG and of various iodinated oils on the formulation by the emulsion-solvent diffusion process of radiopaque polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallouard, François; Briançon, Stéphanie; Anton, Nicolas; Li, Xiang; Vandamme, Thierry; Fessi, Hatem

    2013-11-01

    This pioneer study in the domain of blood pool contrast media formulation presents the influence of poly-ɛ-caprolactone-monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-mPEG) and oils on the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles by emulsion-solvent diffusion. The nature of the oil used had no influence on the encapsulation rate, even if particles were formulated with a mix of PCL/PCL-mPEG. It did, however, influence the particle size and polydispersity, with macroglycerides appearing to be the lipid structure best suited to obtain the smallest monodisperse particles. When we used PCL-mPEG to form a PEG-hydrated layer to surround the nanoparticles, its tension active property had a favorable effect on particle size and polydispersity. We also showed the strong deleterious effect on particle size and polydispersity when the polymer proportion was increased to over 1% (w/v) in the pre-emulsion organic phase. Conversely, increasing the oil proportion in this organic phase simply resulted in a slight to insignificant deleterious effect on size and polydispersity, enabling the oil proportion to be enhanced up to 3% (w/v). Finally, we showed the favorable combined effect of oil iodination and the presence of PCL-mPEG on particles formulated by emulsion-solvent diffusion leading to the preparation of smaller polymeric iodine-containing particles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Effect of different operating conditions in cloud point assisted extraction of thymol from Ajwain (Trachyspermum AmmiL.) seeds and recovery using solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Somak; Jain, Amit; De, Sirshendu

    2017-12-01

    Cloud point assisted extraction of thymol from water extract of Ajwain ( Trachyspermum Ammi L.) seeds has been reported. Effects of different operating conditions, i.e., concentration of surfactant, heating time and temperature in extraction efficiency were investigated. It was observed that maximum extraction efficiency of thymol was achieved with 30% (v/v) of SPAN 80 surfactant, 45 min of heating at 65 °C. Recovery of thymol from the surfactant complex was optimal at 1:3 coacervate phase to solvent (acetone) volume ratio. A semi-empirical correlation was proposed at the optimum time to predict the concentration of surfactant and temperature required for a desired yield.

  15. Facile and rapid synthesis of divers xanthene derivatives using lanthanum(III chloride/chloroacetic acid as an efficient and reusable catalytic system under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouramiri Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LaCl3/ClCH2COOH was used as an efficient, and recyclable catalytic system for synthesis of 11H-benzo[a]xanthene-11-one, hexahydro-1H-xanthene- 1,8(2H-dione and 11-aryl-10H-diindeno[1,2-b:2′,1′-e]pyran-10,12(11H-dione derivatives via a one-pot three-component reaction of aldehydes, 2-naphthol, and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The reactions proceeded rapidly at 70°C under solvent-free conditions and the desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields.

  16. Tolerance testing of passive radio frequency identification tags for solvent, temperature, and pressure conditions encountered in an anatomic pathology or biorepository setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina A Leung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID tags have potential for use in identifying and tracking biospecimens in anatomic pathology and biorepository laboratories. However, there is little to no data on the tolerance of tags to solutions, solvents, temperatures, and pressures likely to be encountered in the laboratory. The functioning of the Hitachi Mu-chip RFID tag, a candidate for pathology use, was evaluated under such conditions. Methods: The RFID tags were affixed to cryovials containing tissue or media, glass slides, and tissue cassettes. The tags were interrogated for readability before and after each testing condition or cycle. Individual tags were subjected to only one testing condition but for multiple cycles. Testing conditions were: 1 Ten wet autoclave cycles (121˚C, 15 psi; 2 Ten dry autoclave cycles (121˚C, 26 psi; 3 Ten tissue processor cycles; 4 Ten hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining cycles; 5 Ten antigen retrieval pressure cooker cycles (125˚C, 15 psi; 6 75 o C for seven days; 7 75-59 o C day/night cycles for 7 days; 8 -80 o C, -150 o C, or -196 o C for 12 months; 9 Fifty freeze-thaw cycles (-196 o C to 22 o C. Results: One hundred percent of tags exposed to cold temperatures from -80 to -196 o C (80 tags, 1120 successful reads, high temperatures from 52 to 75 o C (40 tags, 420 reads, H & E staining (20 tags, 200 reads, pressure cooker antigen retrieval (20 tags, 200 reads, and wet autoclaving (20 tags, 200 reads functioned well throughout and after testing. Of note, all 20 tested tags tolerated 50 freeze-thaw cycles and all 60 tags subjected to sustained freezing temperatures were readable after 1 year. One dry autoclaved tag survived nine cycles but failed after the tenth. The remaining 19 tags were readable after all 10 dry autoclave cycles. One tag failed after the first tissue processing cycle while the remaining 19 tags survived all 10 tissue processing cycles. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, these RFID

  17. Solvent substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evanoff, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and industrial hygiene regulations promulgated since 1980, most notably the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, have brought about an increased emphasis on user exposure, hazardous waste generation, and air emissions. As a result, industry is performing a fundamental reassessment of cleaning solvents, processes, and procedures. The more progressive organizations have made their goal the elimination of solvents that may pose significant potential human health and environmental hazards. This chapter discusses solvent cleaning in metal-finishing, metal-manufacturing, and industrial maintenance applications; precision cleaning; and electronics manufacturing. Nonmetallic cleaning, adhesives, coatings, inks, and aerosols also will be addressed, but in a more cursory manner

  18. Conditioned pain modulation is minimally influenced by cognitive evaluation or imagery of the conditioning stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaba M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bernaba, Kevin A Johnson, Jiang-Ti Kong, Sean MackeyStanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAPurpose: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM is an experimental approach for probing endogenous analgesia by which one painful stimulus (the conditioning stimulus may inhibit the perceived pain of a subsequent stimulus (the test stimulus. Animal studies suggest that CPM is mediated by a spino–bulbo–spinal loop using objective measures such as neuronal firing. In humans, pain ratings are often used as the end point. Because pain self-reports are subject to cognitive influences, we tested whether cognitive factors would impact on CPM results in healthy humans.Methods: We conducted a within-subject, crossover study of healthy adults to determine the extent to which CPM is affected by 1 threatening and reassuring evaluation and 2 imagery alone of a cold conditioning stimulus. We used a heat stimulus individualized to 5/10 on a visual analog scale as the testing stimulus and computed the magnitude of CPM by subtracting the postconditioning rating from the baseline pain rating of the heat stimulus.Results: We found that although evaluation can increase the pain rating of the conditioning stimulus, it did not significantly alter the magnitude of CPM. We also found that imagery of cold pain alone did not result in statistically significant CPM effect.Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPM is primarily dependent on sensory input, and that the cortical processes of evaluation and imagery have little impact on CPM. These findings lend support for CPM as a useful tool for probing endogenous analgesia through subcortical mechanisms.Keywords: conditioned pain modulation, endogenous analgesia, evaluation, imagery, cold presser test, CHEPS, contact heat-evoked potential stimulator

  19. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foruotan, Masumeh [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Collage of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Zarrabi, Mona [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Collage of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others.

  20. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foruotan, Masumeh; Zarrabi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others

  2. The Influence of Solvent Content in Liquefied Wood and of the Addition of Condensed Tannin on Bonding Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Ugovšek; Franc Budija; Mirko Kariž; Milan Šernek

    2011-01-01

    Liquefied wood (LW) is a promising natural material that can be used as a part of the adhesive formulation. However, adhesive bonds made of LW only, have low durability. The aim of this study was, therefore, to increase the durability of adhesive bonds containing LW. LW was obtained with liquefaction of black poplar wood in ethylene glycol (EG) as the solvent and sulphuric acid (SA) as the catalyst. An optimal time of 120 minutes and a wood/EG mass ratio of 1:3 was defi ned for liquefaction a...

  3. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambor, Aleksandra; Ferenc, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  4. Encapsulated Guests in the Smallest Spaces: Shrinking Guests by Compression and Investigations under Solvent-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberhauer, Gebhard; Woitschetzki, Sascha; Füten, Christof

    2015-08-21

    Noncovalent interactions play a pivotal role in a variety of biological and chemical processes. The experimental determination and quantum chemical calculations of the forces driving these interactions are of utmost importance. Of special interest are interactions of molecules in small spaces which show phenomena different from conventional behavior in solution. An extension is the encapsulation of guests in smallest spaces: The guests are too large to be included under standard conditions and hence must be forced to intrude into the cavity. Here, we show the design of such a host-guest system which allows to directly compare the measured thermodynamic values to gas-phase quantum chemical calculations. Structural investigation of the complexes reveals that the encapsulation process causes not only an extension of the hollow space of the host but also a shrinking of the included guest by compression.

  5. Influence of the organic solvents on the properties of the phosphoric acid dopant emulsion deposited on multicrystalline silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhafs, D; Moussi, A; Boumaour, M; Abaidia, S E K; Mahiou, L; Messaoud, A

    2007-01-01

    This study is devoted to the formation of an n + p emitter for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells for photovoltaic (PV) application. The atomization technique has been used to make the emitter from H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid as a doping source. The doping emulsion has been optimized using several organic solvents. H 3 PO 4 was mixed with one of these solutions: ethanol, 2-butanol, isopropanol alcohol and deionized water. The volume concentration of H 3 PO 4 does not exceed 20% of the total volume emulsion. The deposit characteristics of the emulsion change with the organic solvent. H 3 PO 4 : 2-butanol gives the best deposited layer with acceptable adherence and uniformity on silicon surface. Fourier transform infrared characterizations show the presence of organic and mineral phosphorous bonds in the formed layer. The obtained emitters are characterized by a junction depth in the range 0.2-0.75 μm and a sheet resistance of about 10-90 Ω/□. Such a low cost dopant source combined with a continuous spray process can effectively reduce the cost per Wp of the PV generator

  6. Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Domingues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods: Twenty-five women (19-35 years old taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, sulcular bleeding index (SBI and plaque index (Pl.I. Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson’s correlation test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results: The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001 and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001 than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11. The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001. No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation.

  7. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  8. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook; Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not

  9. Analysis of the effects of stirring condition of separation of thorium in the elution process of monazite partial solution by solvent impregnated resin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassanti, R.; Putra, D. S.; Kusuma, B. P.; Nawawi, F. W.

    2018-01-01

    Monazite is a natural mineral which contains abundant valuable element such as Radioactive Element and Rare Earth Element(REE). In this experiment, it is proven that solution of residual Thorium Sulfate from Monazite mineral process, can be seperated selectively by using extracting method of Solvent Impregnated Resin(SIR), with the elutant solution HNO3. In the earlier process, Thorium solution is conditioned at PH 1 by using H2SO4. Then REE, Thorium and Uranium elements are seperated. This seperation is conducted by using adsorption method by Amberlite XAD-16 Resin, which has been impregnated by Tributhyl Phosphate extractant. It is continued with elution process, which is aimed to obtain Thorium solution of a higher level of concentration. This elution process is conducted by using HNO3, with the elution variables of the lenght of mixing and amount concentration elutant. Based on this experiment, SIR extracting method is able to dissolve Thorium solution until 63,2%grade and a higher level of %grade about 92,40%. It can be concluded that this SIR method can extracted Thorium elements selectively, improve extracting process recovery, and determine optimum stripping condition in the 45th minutes with elutant concentration of 1,0M HNO3.

  10. Morphologies and separation characteristics of polyphenyl sulfone-based solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes: Effect of polymer concentration in casting solution and membrane pretreatment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Nur Aimie Abdullah; Lau, Woei Jye; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    The performance of polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF)-based flat sheet membranes prepared from phase inversion method was investigated by varying the concentration of polymer in the dope solution and condition of membrane pretreatment process. The membrane properties were characterized by SEM, FTIR, AFM and contact angle goniometer, while their performance was evaluated by measuring methanol flux and rejection of different molecular weight of dyes (ranging from 269 to 1,470 g/mol) in methanol. The experimental results showed that the polymer concentration has great impact not only on the final membrane morphology but also its separation characteristics. Increasing polymer concentration from 17 to 25wt% tended to suppress finger-like structure and more pear-like pores were developed, causing methanol flux to decrease. This can be explained by the decrease in molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of the membrane prepared at high polymer concentration. With respect to the effect of membrane pretreatment conditions, the rejection of membrane was negatively affected with longer immersion period in methanol solution prior to filtration experiment. The variation in membrane rejection can be attributed to the rearrangement of the polymer chain, which results in membrane swelling and/or change of membrane surface hydrophilicity

  11. Morphologies and separation characteristics of polyphenyl sulfone-based solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes: Effect of polymer concentration in casting solution and membrane pretreatment condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, Nur Aimie Abdullah; Lau, Woei Jye; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    The performance of polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF)-based flat sheet membranes prepared from phase inversion method was investigated by varying the concentration of polymer in the dope solution and condition of membrane pretreatment process. The membrane properties were characterized by SEM, FTIR, AFM and contact angle goniometer, while their performance was evaluated by measuring methanol flux and rejection of different molecular weight of dyes (ranging from 269 to 1,470 g/mol) in methanol. The experimental results showed that the polymer concentration has great impact not only on the final membrane morphology but also its separation characteristics. Increasing polymer concentration from 17 to 25wt% tended to suppress finger-like structure and more pear-like pores were developed, causing methanol flux to decrease. This can be explained by the decrease in molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of the membrane prepared at high polymer concentration. With respect to the effect of membrane pretreatment conditions, the rejection of membrane was negatively affected with longer immersion period in methanol solution prior to filtration experiment. The variation in membrane rejection can be attributed to the rearrangement of the polymer chain, which results in membrane swelling and/or change of membrane surface hydrophilicity.

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  13. Wind turbine influence on surfers wind conditions at Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Andersen, Søren Juhl

    alter the wind conditions on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. The Dynamic Wake Meander Model is used to investigate the wind conditions north east of the planned new turbines at Hanstholm covering a surf area from a location called “Fish Factory” to a location called...... “Hamborg”. This model, which predicts instationary wind conditions behind one or more wind turbines, has previously been used to predict the changed power and load conditions for wind turbines in wind farm conditions. Avery fine agreement to measurements is seen and the model is therefore considered...

  14. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Does Membership on the UN Security Council Influence IMF Conditionality?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Dreher; Jan-Egbert Sturm; James Raymond Vreeland

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether elected members of the United Nations Security Council receive favorable treatment from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), analyzing panel data on the level of conditionality attached to (a maximum of) 314 IMF arrangements with 101 countries over the period of 1992 to 2008. We find a negative relationship: Security Council members receive about 30 percent fewer conditions attached to the loans that they receive from the IMF. We conclude that conditionality is softer...

  16. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  17. Mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2(1H-pyrimidinones and –thiones under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Hekmatshoar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2(1H-pyrimidinones and -thiones using MCM-41 as the catalyst from an aldehyde, β-keto ester, and urea or thiourea under solvent-free conditions is described.

  18. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  19. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  20. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  1. Sensory system development influences the ontogeny of trace eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Freeman, John H

    2017-01-01

    The developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is dependent on the development of the sensory system stimulated by the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, trace EBC has traditionally been believed to be dependent on the development of forebrain structures, such as the hippocampus. If hippocampal development alone is limiting the developmental emergence of trace EBC, then using an earlier developing sensory modality should not affect the rate or asymptote of conditioning. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using a vibration CS would facilitate the ontogeny of trace EBC relative to an auditory CS. Rat pups received six sessions of trace EBC or unpaired training using either a tone or vibration CS on postnatal day (P) 17-18, 21-22, or 24-25. Training with a vibration CS resulted in rapid conditioning as early as P17-18, whereas training with a tone CS did not result in rapid conditioning until after P17-18. The results suggest that the ontogeny of trace EBC depends, at least in part, on sensory system development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  3. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... feedback of their own TPT performance, Group 3: control group performed the TPT without any conditioning. There was no overall difference between groups but TPT performance increased over time. A significant group x time interaction indicated that the self-observation group performed significantly better...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  4. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a; Influencia de diferentes sistemas de solvente agua-etanol sobre as propriedades fisico-quimicas e espectroscopicas dos compostos macrociclicos feofitina e clorofila a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Adriana [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  5. Backtest type and housing condition of pigs influence energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiegant, V.M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral response of piglets in a backtest early in life seems indicative of their coping strategy at a later age. Coping characteristics may depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing conditions. We studied whether growth rate and partitioning of energy in adult

  6. Influence of growth conditions on microstructure and defects in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2,†, SANDIP ... Diamond coatings were grown on SiO2/Si substrate under various process conditions by microwave plasma chemical vapour ... grade, optical grade, electronic grade.14,15 Essentially, better the quality of the PCD, less is the ...

  7. Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2013-03-01

    Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the solvent type and polymerization conditions on the curing kinetics, thermal and viscoelastic performance of poly(amide-imide resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal and non-isothermal curing kinetics of both N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and N-methylimidazole (MI based poly(amide-imide (PAI resins were investigated by DSC analysis using tightly closed high-pressure crucibles. Several exothermal peaks on the non-isothermal DSC-traces were observed and attributed to the reactions of different functional groups of PAI-resin. Furthermore the final conversion (polymerization degree of PAI was determined under isothermal conditions, simulating three programs with the post-curing temperatures set as 215, 240 and 270°C. For the MI-PAI based resin, the conversion values were found to be much higher compared to those for the NMP-PAI system. Compared to NMP-based PAI-resin, a shift of the main exothermal peaks to the lower temperatures was observed in the non-isothermal kinetic investigations when MI was used as a solvent. This was accompanied with a reduction of activation energy (Ea values, as up to a factor of 3 determined by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa approach for all the main formation reactions. It indicates a catalytic effect of MI on the PAI polymerization. In addition, conversion values were determined according to the Di Benedetto equation for both systems cured using open molds in the oven. Regardless the different post-curing temperatures, the conversion values were similar for all the samples. Thermal and viscoelastic properties as well as crosslink density (nc were also investigated for these systems. It was found that the MI-based samples demonstrate lower nc values compared to the NMP-based ones at an almost two times higher storage modulus (E' at room temperature.

  9. Carbohydrate Supplementation Influences Serum Cytokines after Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Venticinque Caris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise performed at the hypoxia equivalent of an altitude of 4200 m is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators and changes in the Th1/Th2 response. By contrast, supplementation with carbohydrates has an anti-inflammatory effect when exercise is performed under normoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on cytokines and cellular damage markers after exercise under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 4200 m. Methods: Seven adult male volunteers who exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 50% VO2Peak were randomly evaluated under three distinct conditions; normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation. Blood samples were collected at rest, at the end of exercise and after 60 min of recovery. To evaluate hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation, volunteers received a solution of 6% carbohydrate (maltodextrin or a placebo (strawberry-flavored Crystal Light®; Kraft Foods, Northfield, IL, USA every 20 min during exercise and recovery. Statistical analyses comprised analysis of variance, with a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 after exercise and after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05, while in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α after exercise compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Furthermore, under this condition, TNF-α, IL-2 and the balance of IL-2/IL-4 were increased after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that carbohydrate supplementation modified the IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and shifted the IL-2/IL-4 balance towards Th1 in response without glycemic, glutaminemia and cell damage effects.

  10. Display conditions that influence wayfinding in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browse, Roger A.; Gray, Derek W. S.

    2006-02-01

    As virtual environments may be used in training and evaluation for critical real navigation tasks, it is important to investigate the factors influencing navigational performance in virtual environments. We have carried out controlled experiments involving two visual factors known to induce or sustain vection, the illusory perception of self-motion. The first experiment had subjects navigate mazes with either a narrow or wide field of view. We measured the percentage of wrong turns, the total time taken for each attempt, and we examined subjects' drawings of the mazes. We found that a wide field of view can have a substantial effect on navigational abilities, even when the wide field of view does not offer any additional clues to the task, and really only provides a larger view of blank walls on the sides. The second experiment evaluated the effect of perspective accuracy in the scene by comparing the use of displays that were corrected for changing head position against those that were not corrected. The perspective corrections available through headtracking did not appear have any influence on navigational abilities. Another component of our study suggests that during navigation in a virtual environment, memory for directions may not be as effective as it could be with supplemental symbolic representations.

  11. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2014-06-22

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

  12. Exploring the influence of culture conditions on kefir's anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmal, Ma'mon M; Nuirat, Abeer; Zihlif, Malek A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Conventional anticancer treatments are painful, expensive, and unsafe. Therefore, demand is increasing for cancer treatments preferentially in the form of functional foods or nutritional supplements. Kefir, a traditional fermented milk dairy product, has significant antimutagenic and antitumor properties. This research addresses the hypothesis that kefir's anticancer properties are affected by fermentation conditions. Initially, kefir extracts prepared under standard conditions were screened against 7 cancer cell lines using the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Colon cancer and chronic myelogenous leukemia cells were found to be most susceptible to kefir extracts. Subsequently, a factorial design was implemented to assess the effects of 3 fermentation times (24, 48, and 72 h), 3 kefir-to-milk ratios (2, 5, and 10% wt/vol), and 3 fermentation temperatures (4, 25, and 40°C) on kefir's anticancer properties. Remarkably, exploration of the fermentation conditions allowed the anticancer properties of kefir to be enhanced by 5- to 8-fold against susceptible cell lines. Overall, these results demonstrate the possibility of optimizing the anticancer properties of kefir as a functional food in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the storage conditions on prestressing steel relaxation losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress relaxation losses on active reinforcement have significant impact on prestressed concrete structures. This is why relaxation tests are carried out on prestressing steel wires and strands after being manufactured. Then, these materials are coiled and stored for a long-term period, sometimes in excess of one year. The influence of these operations, carried out after manufacturing, is usually neglected. Nevertheless, some manufacturers and contractors have noticed that, sometimes, when relaxation tests are carried out after a long-term storage, the relaxation losses found are higher than those measured immediately after manufacturing. In this work, lab tests are performed to check the influence of the coiling radius and the period of storage on the relaxation test. In addition to this, an analytical model is presented to predict the results of a relaxation test carried out on a wire coiled and stored for a long-term period. This model explains the evolution on the cross-sectional stress profile along the coiling-storing-uncoiling process, as well as the influence of the residual stresses on it.

    La pérdida de tensión por relajación en las armaduras activas afecta de forma importante a las estructuras de hormigón pretensado. Por ello se realizan ensayos de relajación de los alambres y cordones de pretensado tras su fabricación. Después, el material es enrollado y almacenado durante periodos que en ocasiones pueden superar el año de duración. Generalmente se desprecia la influencia que estas operaciones posteriores a la fabricación pueden tener sobre el material. Sin embargo, diversos fabricantes y suministradores han constatado experimentalmente que, en ocasiones, el material almacenado durante un periodo prolongado presenta pérdidas de relajación mayores que inmediatamente tras su fabricación. En este trabajo se realizan ensayos de laboratorio para comprobar la influencia que el radio de enrollamiento y el periodo de

  14. Methane emissions from landfill: influence of vegetation and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongxing; Xin, Danhui; Chai, Xiaoli

    2018-02-22

    Vegetation plays an important role in CH 4 transport and oxidation in landfill cover soil. This study investigated CH 4 emission fluxes in two landfills with different surface coverage conditions and it found that the CH 4 emission fluxes presented spatial and temporal disparities. A significant discrepancy in CH 4 emission flux between day and night in areas covered with Kochia sieversiana indicated that enhanced diffusion induced by rising temperature was the main mechanism for CH 4 transport during daytime. A significant increase of CH 4 emission flux after the K. sieversiana and Suaeda glauca plants were cut indicated that these plants provide greater contributions to CH 4 oxidation than to CH 4 transport. Diel CH 4 emission flux was found closely correlated with the climatic conditions. Diffusion was determined as the main mechanism for CH 4 transport at daytime in bare area, mediated by solar radiation and air temperature. Diffusion and plant-mediated transport by convection was established as the main transport mechanism in areas covered with K. sieversiana. Our results further the understanding of both the CH 4 emission mechanism and the impact of vegetation on CH 4 oxidation, transport, and emission, which will benefit the development of a reliable model for landfill CH 4 emissions.

  15. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira; Blanch, Consol

    2012-01-30

    Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences in acceptability among dark chocolates were mainly related to differences in flavour acceptability. The use of a long roasting time lowered chocolate acceptability in Ghanaian samples while it had no effect on acceptability of Ecuadorian chocolates. This response was observed for most consumers (two subgroups with different frequency consumption of dark chocolate). However, for a third group of consumers identified as distinguishers, the most acceptable dark chocolate samples were those produced with specific combinations of roasting time and conching time for each of the cocoa geographical origin considered. To produce dark chocolates from a single origin it is important to know the target market preferences and to select the appropriate roasting and conching conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Influence of extraction conditions on properties of seed xyloglucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Karen Cristina; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Xyloglucans are water-soluble polysaccharides that serve as storage in cotyledonary tissues from seeds of Hymenaea courbaril among other Leguminosae. The use of xyloglucans is dependent on their solution properties. We now examine the influence of different times of extractions on its properties. Xyloglucans were obtained from milled and defatted cotyledons of H. courbaril by aqueous extraction at 25 degrees C for 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 24, and 48 h. Composition data showed that increase in time lead to the increased protein contamination and arabinose content. Xyloglucans obtained with longer times of extraction had an average molar mass greater than those obtained with shorter times. The hydrodynamic radius and the radius of gyration also increased with the increase in the time of extraction. The ratio R(g)/R(h) was calculated and the values decreased slightly for increasing times of extraction. The effect of time also affected the viscosity which increased with the increase in time of extraction, and the longer ones probably contributing to the aggregation of xyloglucans. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Second-order conditioning and conditioned inhibition: influences of speed versus accuracy on human causal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Lee

    Full Text Available In human causal learning, excitatory and inhibitory learning effects can sometimes be found in the same paradigm by altering the learning conditions. This study aims to explore whether learning in the feature negative paradigm can be dissociated by emphasising speed over accuracy. In two causal learning experiments, participants were given a feature negative discrimination in which the outcome caused by one cue was prevented by the addition of another. Participants completed training trials either in a self-paced fashion with instructions emphasising accuracy, or under strict time constraints with instructions emphasising speed. Using summation tests in which the preventative cue was paired with another causal cue, participants in the accuracy groups correctly rated the preventative cue as if it reduced the probability of the outcome. However, participants in the speed groups rated the preventative cue as if it increased the probability of the outcome. In Experiment 1, both speed and accuracy groups later judged the same cue to be preventative in a reasoned inference task. Experiment 2 failed to find evidence of similar dissociations in retrospective revaluation (release from overshadowing vs. mediated extinction or learning about a redundant cue (blocking vs. augmentation. However in the same experiment, the tendency for the accuracy group to show conditioned inhibition and the speed group to show second-order conditioning was consistent even across sub-sets of the speed and accuracy groups with equivalent accuracy in training, suggesting that second-order conditioning is not merely a consequence of poorer acquisition. This dissociation mirrors the trade-off between second-order conditioning and conditioned inhibition observed in animal conditioning when training is extended.

  18. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  19. The influence of external conditions on the grain storage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Orlovtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available .High quality grain - a pledge of his safety, reduce losses and the costs of storage. Wheat is the main source of human nutrition. Elements contained in wheat perform a fundamental role in human life. Storing grain quality is an urgent task. One of the labor-intensive operations in this process is the correct placement of parties in wheat granary and timely monitoring of key parameters (humidity and temperature. In this regard, we consider methods for determining the intensity of the grain breathing method for determining the moisture content and temperature of the grain of wheat. Humidity was determined by electrical hygrometer. To measure the temperature of wheat used mercury thermometer. In analyzing the breathing wheat energy depending on the humidity it was found that the intensity of respiration increasingly affects humidity increase than an increase in temperature. As objects of study used wheat varieties: Hordeiforme 432 and Multiroom 321. According to the results obtained in the study plot the respiratory activity of the grain from moisture. According to the schedules we concluded that the sharp increase in wheat breathing energy occurs with increasing moisture content to a value of more than 15%. Just found out that in addition to breathing in highly humid grain appears vital functions of harmful microorganisms, which under the influence of grain rots and becomes stale. Thus, ho-well-organized and skilled observation, the correct analysis of the obtained data allow to bring the maximum reduction in spending of dry matter and therefore achieve lower grain weight loss during storage.

  20. Influence of education on living conditions of households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the effect of education on the income situation of households and inhabitants’ living standards. The increasing number of inhabitants with higher levels of education provides conditions for the creation and development of the knowledge or information society. Knowledge society is a society where an individual is able to seek information in information sources, to process and use the found information creatively and to consider knowledge one of the essential factors of life quality. In this society, the significance of education increases and the utilization of scientific findings becomes the key source of the society’s competitiveness. Its characteristic feature is the structure of GDP reflecting a growing proportion of knowledge assets in contrast to physical capital. Education and work of educated people are essential factors of economic development. It is desirable that the society has an implemented system of valuation for educated people by means of financial rewards. This paper aims to provide information about the income situation of households in dependence on particular levels of education: the primary education, two types of secondary education and tertiary education.The source for the analysis of the effect of the achieved level of education on the income situation of households is the results of the survey conducted by EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions in 2005–2009. The level of education of a household was determined based on the level of education of the household member with the highest income – the head of household.The analysis focused on the number of households in the Czech Republic (CR with the specified achieved level of education and their income situation. The income situation is determined by middle values (mean and median, differentiation and development between 2005 and 2009, which was the period of economic development but also an economic

  1. Sex and Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Influence Pavlovian Conditioned Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madayag, Aric C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Reissner, Kathryn J; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Robinson, Donita L

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to AIE (5 g/kg, intragastric) or water intermittently 2 days on and 2 days off from postnatal day (P) 25 to 54. Around P70, animals began 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), where they learned that a cue predicted noncontingent reward delivery. Lever pressing indicated interaction with the cue, or sign-tracking, and receptacle entries indicated approach to the reward delivery location, or goal-tracking. To test for effects of AIE on nucleus accumbens (NAcc) excitatory signaling, we isolated membrane subfractions and measured protein levels of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 after animals completed behavior as a measure of glutamate homeostasis. Females exhibited elevated sign-tracking compared to males with significantly more lever presses, faster latency to first lever press, and greater probability to lever press in a trial. AIE significantly increased lever pressing while blunting goal-tracking, as indicated by fewer cue-evoked receptacle entries, slower latency to receptacle entry, and lower probability to enter the receptacle in a trial. No significant sex-by-exposure interactions were observed in sign- or goal-tracking metrics. Moreover, we found no significant effects of sex or exposure on membrane GLT-1 expression in the NAcc. Females exhibited enhanced sign-tracking compared to males, while AIE decreased goal-tracking compared to control exposure. Our findings support the

  2. Production of pectinases by A. niger: influence of fermentation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for optimization of polygalacturonase (PG and pectinesterase (PE production in submerged fermentation by A.niger. A Central Composite Experimental Design was applied, consisting of 22 experiments, including eight central points. Variables studied were: fermentation time (24 to 120 h, pH (3.5 to 6.5 and initial concentration of pectin (5 to 20 g/l. Maximum PE production was 220 U/l, after 74 h of culture, in a medium containing 20 g/l of pectin (pH 6.5. The optimal conditions for PG production were pH: 4.1, 20 g/l of pectin and 94 h of fermentation with a maximum value of 1032 U/l. Under these conditions, the PE production was low (15 U/l. A liquid extract with high PG activity and low PE activity could be suitable to be used in food processing in order to reduce the production of methanol.A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi utilizada para a otimização da produção de poligalacturonasa (PG e pectinesterasa (PE, por A. niger em fermentação submergida. Foi aplicado um Desenho Experimental Composto Central abrangendo 22 experiências, incluindo oito pontos centrais. As variáveis estudadas foram: tempo de fermentação (24 a 120 h, pH (3.5 a 6.5 e concentração inicial de pectina (5 a 20 g/l. A produção máxima de PE foi de 220 U/l, após 74h de cultivo, 20 g/l de pectina e pH 6.5. As condições ótimas para a produção de PG foram pH 4.1, 20 g/l de pectina e 94 h de fermentação, com um valor máximo de 1032 U/l. Sob estas condições, a produção de PE foi baixa (15 U/l. Um extrato líquido com alta atividade PG e baixa atividade PE poderia ser conveniente para ser utilizado no processamento e alimentos, visando reduzir a produção de metanol.

  3. Influence of reaction conditions and feedstock on hydrochar properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqing; Dong, Xiangyuan; Wu, Tingting; Zhu, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of hydrochar properties were established based on severity parameter. • Derivative methods were used to study the variation of hydrochar properties. • Water to biomass ratio has a significant effect on the hydrochar yield. • The curves of hydrochar properties can be divided into three stages. • The maximum variation rate of hydrochar properties for six samples is at severity of 5.8–6.4. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a biomass conversion process to produce a renewable solid fuel (hydrochar). The reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, and water/biomass ratio have key effects on hydrochar characteristics. However, it has not been fully investigated to establish and compare models of hydrochar properties (solid yield, carbon content and HHV) for different biomass HTC at different reaction conditions. These models and the corresponding analytical methods are favorable to optimize operating parameters and process design of HTC. In this work, HTC experiments from corn stalk, longan Shell and NaOH-pretreated longan Shell were carried out at 210 °C, 250 °C and 290 °C for 30 min, 240 min and 480 min with different water to biomass ratios. New models of the hydrochar properties of corn stalk, longan Shell and NaOH-pretreated longan Shell were established based on severity parameter (combined time and temperature) and dose-response function. Also, data of wood, olive stone and grape marc hydrochars (collected from literatures) were used for comparison. The first and second derivative methods were also employed to analyze and compare the variation of these hydrochar properties. The results showed that the hydrchar yield, carbon content, and HHV curves decrease monotonically and can be divided into three significant stages with increasing reaction severity. The water to biomass ratio has a significant effect on the hydrochar yield. With increasing the water to biomass ratio, both the maximum decrease rates and the

  4. Melamine trisulfonic acid as a highly efficient catalyst for the synthe-sis of 14-aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Zare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Melamine trisulfonic acid (MTSA is utilized as a highly efficient catalyst for the solvent-free condensation of 2-naphthol with arylaldehydes under conventional thermal or microwave irradiation to give 14-aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes in high to excellent yields and in short reaction times.

  5. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  6. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015; we plan to develop a new solvent or solvent...

  7. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  8. Influence of weather conditions on the distribution of persistent contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Meyer, R.; Wendling, P.

    1998-11-01

    An automated contrail detection algorithm has been applied to AVHRR data to obtain the position of contrails. Nearly simultaneous data from the Europe model of the Deutscher Wetterdienst have been used to find typical weather conditions associated with 742 persistent contrails. Further, a flow pattern analysis identifies in typical regions where the occurrence of contrails was above average. These regions are in the upper atmosphere: (a) ahead of a surface warm front either in moist warm layers before the cirrus clouds arrive or more likely with the cirrus in a warm conveyor belt and (b) ahead of a surface cold front in rapidly moving cold air in the turbulent regions near a band of strong wind (though the speed is not necessarily as high as in a jet). Usually, the atmosphere is baroclinic in the contrail region. Most of the detected contrails occur in divergent flow patterns in the upper troposphere in slowly rising warm or locally turbulent cold air masses. (orig.) 23 refs.

  9. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Santos, M; Santos, J A; Soares, J; Dias, A; Quaresma, M

    2016-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  10. Two New 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidinium Halochromates (C5H14N3CrO3X (X: Cl, F: Efficient Reagents for Oxidation of Organic Substrates under Solvent-Free Conditions and Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvılcım Şendıl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new mild oxidizing agents 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium fluorochromate (TMGFC and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium chlorochromate (TMGCC were prepared in high yields by reacting tetramethylguanidine with CrO3 and related acid. These reagents are suitable to oxidize various primary and secondary alcohols and oximes to the corresponding carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions and microwave irradiation.

  11. B2O3/Al2O3 as a new, highly efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the selective synthesis of β-enamino ketones and esters under solvent-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen,Jiu-Xi; Zhang,Chang-Fu; Gao,Wen-Xia; Jin,Hui-Le; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue

    2010-01-01

    Boron oxide adsorbed on alumina (B2O3/Al2O3 ) has been found to be a new and highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of β-enamino ketones and esters by the enamination of various primary and secondary amines with β-dicarbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions. The important features of this methodology are broad substrate scope, high yield, no requirement of metal catalysts, high regio- and chemoselectivity and environmental friendliness. In addition, the cat...

  12. Selective nonspecific solvation under dielectric saturation and fluorescence spectra of dye solutions in binary solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiev, N G; Kiselev, M B

    1991-09-01

    The influence of selective nonspecific solvation on the fluorescence spectra of three substitutedN-methylphthalimides in a binary solvent system consisting of a nonpolar (n-heptane) and a polar (pyridine) component has been studied under conditions close to dielectric saturation. The substantially nonlinearity of the effect is confirmation that the spectral shifts of fluorescence bands depend on the number of polar solvent molecules involved in solvating the dye molecule. The measured fluorescence spectral shifts determined by substituting one nonpolar solvent molecula with a polar one in the proximity of the dye molecule agree quantitatively with the forecasts of the previously proposed semiempirical theory which describes this nonlinear solvation phenomenon.

  13. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  14. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of silica supported tin oxide nanoparticles for synthesis of 2,4,5-tri and 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok V. Borhade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and eco-friendly, one pot synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetra substituted imidazoles and 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles was reported under solvent free conditions using nanocrystalline silica supported tin oxide (SiO2:SnO2 as a catalyst with excellent yield. The present methodology offers several advantages such as mild reaction conditions, short reaction time, good yield, high purity of product, recyclable catalyst without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity and can be used for large scale synthesis. The synthesized SiO2:SnO2 nanocrystalline catalyst was characterized by XRD, BET surface area and TEM techniques.

  16. Examination on sports consciousness and conditions influencing sports activity and physical fitness in adolescent male students

    OpenAIRE

    中, 比呂志; 出村, 慎一

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of factors such as sports consciousness, sports conditions and physical fitness to sports activity, and to examine the influence of sports consciousness and sports conditions on the improvement of physical fitness in adolescent male students. The Diagnostic Inventory for Sport Counseling (DISC) and physical fitness tests designed by the Ministry of Education in Japan were administered to 687 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. Si...

  17. The influence of hydrogen bonds and preferential solvation on spectroscopic properties of methyl p-dimethylaminobenzoate and its ortho derivative in binary solvent mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowicz, Marek

    2011-05-01

    Using the steady-state spectroscopic technique, we have studied the spectroscopic properties of methyl p-dimethylaminobenzoate and its ortho derivative in binary mixture where one of components is capable to form hydrogen bonds with the solute molecules. Non-linear solvatochromic shifts of the absorption, locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence bands are observed for both fluorophores. This non-linearity has been explained as due to three main causes: non-ideal behavior of the solvent mixture, specific solute-solvent association, and dielectric enrichment of the solvent around the polar solutes. The results of spectroscopic measurements were used to calculate, according to Mazurenko's, Bakhshiev's and Kiselev's theories, the free energy of the reorientational interaction for a studied molecules, the number of more polar solvent molecules involved in the first solvation shell and the fluorescence spectra of solvates having different number of more polar component in the first solvation shell.

  18. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-02-21

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  19. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  20. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  1. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina S. Siddiqui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.

  2. Space Charge Formation in XLPE - the Influence of Electrodes and Pre-conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Fleming, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The composition of the inner and outer “semicon” shields in modern ac cables, and the temperature/pressure conditions under which the various manufacturing procedures are carried out, would be expected to influence space charge accumulation under dc stress significantly. However, few systematic i...... as vacuum-evaporated gold. The samples were also subjected to three different heating/pumping conditioning procedures....

  3. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  4. Influence of an intermolecular charge-transfer state on excited-state relaxation dynamics: solvent effect on the methylnaphthalene-oxygen system and its significance for singlet oxygen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Poul-Gudmund; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Toftegaard, Rasmus; Ogilby, Peter R

    2009-09-17

    The extent to which an intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) state can influence excited-state relaxation dynamics is examined for the system wherein 1-methylnaphthalene (MN) interacts with molecular oxygen. The MN-O2 system is ideally suited for such a study because excited states can be independently accessed by (i) irradiation into the discrete MN-O2 CT absorption band, (ii) direct irradiation of MN, and (iii) the photosensitized production of triplet state MN. Changing the solvent in which the MN-O2 system is dissolved influences the MN-dependent photoinduced production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1Delta(g)), which, in turn, yields information about fundamental concepts of state mixing. Results of experiments conducted in the polar solvent acetonitrile differ substantially from those obtained from the nonpolar solvent cyclohexane. The data reflect differences in the energy and behavior of the solvent-equilibrated MN-O2 CT state, CT(SE), and the extent to which this state couples to other states of the MN-O2 system. In particular, the data are consistent with a model where both the MN triplet state and the MN-O2 CT(SE) state are immediate precursors of O2(a1Delta(g)). Although the work reported herein is of direct and practical significance for the wide variety of systems in which O2(a1Delta(g)) can be produced upon irradiation, it also serves as an accessible model for a study of general issues pertinent to state mixing and the solvent-dependent dynamics of CT-mediated excited-state relaxation.

  5. Solvent density inhomogeneities and solvation free energies in supercritical diatomic fluids: a density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husowitz, B; Talanquer, V

    2007-02-07

    Density functional theory is used to explore the solvation properties of a spherical solute immersed in a supercritical diatomic fluid. The solute is modeled as a hard core Yukawa particle surrounded by a diatomic Lennard-Jones fluid represented by two fused tangent spheres using an interaction site approximation. The authors' approach is particularly suitable for thoroughly exploring the effect of different interaction parameters, such as solute-solvent interaction strength and range, solvent-solvent long-range interactions, and particle size, on the local solvent structure and the solvation free energy under supercritical conditions. Their results indicate that the behavior of the local coordination number in homonuclear diatomic fluids follows trends similar to those reported in previous studies for monatomic fluids. The local density augmentation is particularly sensitive to changes in solute size and is affected to a lesser degree by variations in the solute-solvent interaction strength and range. The associated solvation free energies exhibit a nonmonotonous behavior as a function of density for systems with weak solute-solvent interactions. The authors' results suggest that solute-solvent interaction anisotropies have a major influence on the nature and extent of local solvent density inhomogeneities and on the value of the solvation free energies in supercritical solutions of heteronuclear molecules.

  6. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...

  7. The dual reading of general conditionals: The influence of abstract versus concrete contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moyun; Yao, Xinyun

    2018-04-01

    A current main issue on conditionals is whether the meaning of general conditionals (e.g., If a card is red, then it is round) is deterministic (exceptionless) or probabilistic (exception-tolerating). In order to resolve the issue, two experiments examined the influence of conditional contexts (with vs. without frequency information of truth table cases) on the reading of general conditionals. Experiment 1 examined the direct reading of general conditionals in the possibility judgment task. Experiment 2 examined the indirect reading of general conditionals in the truth judgment task. It was found that both the direct and indirect reading of general conditionals exhibited the duality: the predominant deterministic semantic reading of conditionals without frequency information, and the predominant probabilistic pragmatic reading of conditionals with frequency information. The context of general conditionals determined the predominant reading of general conditionals. There were obvious individual differences in reading general conditionals with frequency information. The meaning of general conditionals is relative, depending on conditional contexts. The reading of general conditionals is flexible and complex so that no simple deterministic and probabilistic accounts are able to explain it. The present findings are beyond the extant deterministic and probabilistic accounts of conditionals.

  8. Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-year field experiment eight industrial hemp varieties were examined for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD contents. The study analyzed the influence of growing degree days (GDD, soil temperature at 5 cm, air humidity, and growing season precipitation on the levels of the main cannabinoids in this crop. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp in the same way. THC synthesis and accumulation are under the significant positive influence of GDD and air humidity and under the negative influence of precipitation, while soil temperature at 5 cm has no significant effect on it. Soil temperature at 5 cm has a significant positive effect on the CBD content, as do GDD. Precipitation has a negative influence on the CBD content of industrial hemp, while air humidity has no influence on it.

  9. Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichardt, C; Welton, T

    2011-01-01

    .../guest complexation equilibria and reactions in biphasic solvent systems and neoteric solvents, respectively. More than 900 new references have been added, giving preference to review articles, and many older ones have been deleted. New references either replace older ones or are added to the end of the respective reference list of each chapter. Th...

  10. Brønsted acidic ionic liquid catalyzed an efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Banothu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, highly efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles via one-pot three component condensation of benzil/benzoin, aldehydes and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions has been achieved utilizing Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, (4-sulfobutyltris(4-sulfophenyl phosphonium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst. The remarkable features of this methodology are excellent yields in shorter reaction times, cleaner reaction profile, and environmentally benign nature, use of non-toxic, readily synthesizable, inexpensive and recyclable catalyst.

  11. β-cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer: A neutral and eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine and polyhydroquinolien derivatives via Hantzsch reaction under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiasat Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine & polyhydroquinolien derivatives using b-Cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer (β-CDPU as a stationary microvessel and neutral heterogeneous catalyst via a four component coupling of aldehydes, β-ketoester (2 mol and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions is described. Compared with the classical Hantzsch reaction, this new method has the advantages of good yield, short reaction time and methodological simplicity. β-CDPU was proved to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst which could be easily handled and removed from the reaction mixture by simple filtration, and also recovered and reused without loss of reactivity.

  12. Xe-129 NMR chemical shift in Xe@C-60 calculated at experimental conditions: Essential role of the relativity, dynamics, and explicit solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, P.; Marek, R.; Straka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 22 (2013), s. 1890-1898 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GA13-03978S Grant - others:7th European Community Framework Program(XE) FP7-286154; CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology (European Regional Development)(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Xe-129 NMR * Xe@C-60 * dynamical averaging * explicit solvent * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  13. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  14. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  15. Influence of forest land tenure regimes on forest condition in Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper scrutinizes the current wave of forest land tenure reforms since the inception of the new forest policy in 1998. It explores which type of forestland tenure regime had more positive influence on forest condition in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. The assessment was done with reference to vegetation types of ...

  16. Influence of the conditions of a solid-state synthesis anode material ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Influence of the conditions of a solid-state synthesis anode material. Li4Ti5O12 on its electrochemical properties of lithium cells. DANUTA OLSZEWSKA. ∗ and ANNA RUTKOWSKA. Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Hydrogen Energy, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059. Krakow ...

  17. Influencing factors for condition-based maintenance in railway tracks using knowledge-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hajizadeh, S.; Naeimi, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a condition-based maintenance decision method using
    knowledge-based approach for rail surface defects. A railway track may contain a considerable number of surface defects which influence track maintenance decisions. The proposed method is based on two sets of

  18. Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions on thyroid activity of Shorthorn, Afrikaner and Bonsmara heifers. J.A. Erasmus, J.B. Krause. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  19. Influence of curing conditions on durability of alkali-resistant glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Influence of curing conditions on durability of alkali-resistant glass fibres in cement matrix. ARABI NOURREDINE. Laboratoire de Génie Civil, Université de Annaba, BP 12 Annaba 23000, Algérie. MS received 16 October 2009; revised 13 July 2010. Abstract. Glass fibres in concrete material often increase the flexural ...

  20. Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition and reproduction of Clarias gariepinus from the upper Okavango Delta, Botswana. ... therefore, that conservation efforts should be focused on maintaining natural flow patterns in the face of climate change and potential water extraction schemes upstream.

  1. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  2. Magnetic Nanoparticle Immobilized N-Propylsulfamic Acid as a Recyclable and Efficient Nanocatalyst for the Synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones in Solvent-Free Conditions: Comparison with Sulfamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Amin; Tahmasbi, Bahman; Yari, Ako [Univ. of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    N-Propylsulfamic acid supported onto magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (MNPs-PSA) was used as an efficient and magnetically recoverable catalyst for synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives from the three-component, one-pot condensation reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic 1,3-diones, in good to excellent yields at 100 .deg. C under solvent-free conditions. The catalyst was easily separated with the assistance of an external magnetic field from the reaction mixture and reused for several consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic efficiency. In order to compare, the synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives in the presence of catalytic amount of sulfamic acid (SA) under same reaction condition was also reported.

  3. Nano crystalline ZnO catalyzed one pot three-component synthesis of 7-alkyl-6H,7H- naphtho[1',2':5,6]pyrano[3,2-c] chromen-6-ones under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Piltan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an efficient one-pot synthesis of 7-alkyl-6H,7H-naphtho[1',2':5,6]pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-6-ones is described by three-component reaction of β-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes and 4-hydroxycoumarin using ZnO nanoparticles under solvent-free conditions. The present method provides a novel and efficient procedure for the synthesis of chromene derivatives with some advantageous such as short reaction times, easy workup, high yields, wide range of products, reusability of the catalyst, little catalyst loading and green conditions in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (7 mol% at 110 ºC.

  4. Small-angle X-ray scattering study of the influence of solvent replacement (from H2O to D2O) on the initial crystallization stage of tetragonal lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikova, A. S.; D'yakova, Yu. A.; Il'ina, K. B.; Konarev, P. V.; Kryukova, A. E.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Pisarevskii, Yu. V.; Koval'chuk, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    The composition of lysozyme solutions in D2O under conditions favorable for the formation of tetragonal crystals has been investigated at different protein concentrations by small-angle X-ray scattering using the synchrotron radiation. In addition to lysozyme monomers, dimeric and octameric species are found in the crystallization solutions; the octamer content increases with an increase in the protein concentration. A comparison of the data with those obtained under similar conditions but with H2O used as a solvent has shown that the replacement of light water with heavy one leads to increase of octamer volume fraction in solution.

  5. Influence of Photospheric Magnetic Conditions on the Catastrophic Behaviors of Flux Ropes in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiajia, E-mail: zhangqh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to determine the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates to simulate the evolution of the equilibrium states of the system under different photospheric flux distributions. Our simulation results reveal that a catastrophe occurs only when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the source regions of the bipolar field are not too weak; otherwise no catastrophe occurs. As a result, under certain photospheric conditions, a catastrophe could take place in a completely closed configuration, whereas it ceases to exist in a partially open configuration. This indicates that whether the background field is completely closed or partially open is not the only necessary condition for the existence of catastrophe, and that the photospheric conditions also play a crucial role in the catastrophic behavior of the flux rope system.

  6. Influence of tool roughness and lubrication on contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip are examined by experimental as well as numerical analysis studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools with smooth and roughened surfaces under dry friction and lubricated conditions....... The influence of friction on the extent of a central sticking region is determined by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain upsetting. The experimental results obtained by measuring the local surface extension using markers made by Micro Vickers indentation verify the FE analysis and show...... significant influence of tool roughness and lubrication on the contact conditions for varying pressure. The central sticking region was larger for larger friction or tool roughness. At increasing pressure a sudden change in deformation pattern appeared with drastic elongation and sliding in case...

  7. Nanohybrids of nylon 6 with multi-walled carbon nanotubes: solvent-free polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam under variable experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Solis-González, Obed A; Alvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Puente-Lee, Iván; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2009-05-01

    The solvent-free polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam on 1,8-diaminooctane-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DA-MWNTs) is proposed as a simple and ecologically friendly approach to the preparation of carbon nanotubes/nylon 6 hybrid materials. The main goal of the present study was to find a minimum temperature resulting in an efficient epsilon-caprolactam polymerization, along with the optimization of the weight ratio of DA-MWNTs to epsilon-caprolactam and reaction time. The effect of temperature was studied in the range of 170 degrees C to 210 degrees C. After the reaction at 170 degrees C, the nanotubes functionalized contained a large amount of unreacted monomer along with ca. 14% of polyamide. Increasing the reaction temperature dramatically reduced the content of epsilon-caprolactam impurity and increased the nylon 6 content to ca. 20%. The reaction time tested was 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Exposures at less than 4 h were insufficient, where the infrared spectral bands of nylon 6 were barely seen. The reaction time of 6 h was found to be optimal since a more prolonged heating for 8 h did not provide an evident further increase in polyamide content. The effect of stoichiometry was studied by varying the weight ratio of DA-MWNTs to epsilon-caprolactam from 1:0.1 to 1:1. The ratios 1:0.1 and 1:0.2 were too high, since they did not provide the amount of epsilon-caprolactam necessary to form the composites with at least 20% content of nylon 6. Starting with the ratio of 1:0.3, the infrared band intensities qualitatively stabilized and did not show dramatic variations. The use of reagent ratios of 1:0.3 to 1:0.7 might be especially appropriate for preparing the composites targeted to biomedical applications, whereas higher weight ratios are expected to increase the content of undesirable monomer impurities.

  8. Morphological transition of the host-structure influences solvent-relaxation: A wavelength-selective fluorescence exploration through environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer photophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-10-01

    Here, we report the modulation of photo-induced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) photophysics of N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl-acrylo-nitrile (DMANAN) associated with sphere-to-rod structural transition of SDS micelles induced by increasing ionic strength of the medium. Emphasis is rendered on the exploration of solvent-relaxation associated with this transition on the basis of wavelength-selective fluorescence technique which includes monitoring of red-edge excitation shift (REES) and excitation/emission anisotropy profiles. Based on micropolarity determination and organization of solvent water around the probe microenvironment we argue that the present results advocate for rod-shaped micelles to be a better mimic for membrane bilayers than spherical micelles.

  9. Influence of Ionization Source Conditions on the Gas-Phase Protomer Distribution of Anilinium and Related Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Xia, Hanxue; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The gas-phase-ion generation technique and specific ion-source settings of a mass spectrometer influence heavily the protonation processes of molecules and the abundance ratio of the generated protomers. Hitherto that has been attributed primarily to the nature of the solvent and the pH. By utilizing electrospray ionization and ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate, even in the seemingly trivial case of protonated aniline, that the protomer ratio strongly depends on the source conditions. Under low in-source ion activation, nearly 100% of the N-protomer of aniline is produced, and it can be subsequently converted to the C-protomer by collisional activation effected by increasing the electrical potential difference between the entrance and exit orifices of the first vacuum region. This activation and transformation process takes place even before the ion is mass-selected and subjected to IM separation. Despite the apparent simplicity of the problem, the preferred protonation site of aniline in the gas phase-the amino group or the aromatic ring-has been a topic of controversy. Our results not only provide unambiguous evidence that ring- and nitrogen-protonated aniline can coexist and be interconverted in the gas phase, but also that the ratio of the protomers depends on the internal energy of the original ion. There are many dynamic ion-transformation and fragmentation processes that take place in the different physical compartments of a Synapt G2 HDMS instrument. Such processes can dramatically change the very identity even of small ions, and therefore should be taken into account when interpreting product-ion mass spectra. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the initial state of carbon nanotubes on their colloidal stability under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyzer, Irene; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The colloidal stability of dry and suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of amphiphilic compounds (i.e. natural organic matter or surfactants) at environmentally realistic concentrations was investigated over several days. The suspensions were analyzed for CNT concentration (UV-vis spectroscopy), particle size (nanoparticle tracking analysis), and CNT length and dispersion quality (TEM). When added in dry form, around 1% of the added CNTs remained suspended. Pre-dispersion in organic solvent or anionic detergent stabilized up to 65% of the added CNTs after 20 days of mild shaking and 5 days of settling. The initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. suspended) and the medium composition hence are critical determinants for the partitioning of CNTs between sediment and the water column. TEM analysis revealed that single suspended CNTs were present in all suspensions and that shaking and settling resulted in a fractionation of the CNTs with shorter CNTs remaining predominantly in suspension. - Highlights: → Individually suspended CNTs are present under environment relevant conditions. → The number of suspended CNTs varies depending on the medium composition. → Surfactants at environmental concentrations have no suspending effect on dry CNTs. → Pre-dispersed CNTs are more stable in suspension than dry CNTs. - The colloidal stability of CNTs varies a lot depending on the initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. pre-dispersed), the applied dispersant for pre-suspension, and the composition of the medium.

  12. The influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District, China. The researcher will identify rural migrants in Beijing, examine their housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility and the influence on their living condition. Also, some suggestions are given to improve their housing characteristics and living condition. The government should revise the migrant housing policy and hukou management. Also, the rural migrants should try to increase their education level and social skills. For the occupation, the local government should give the rural migrants more job opportunity. These issues are analyzed in relation to local government attitudes toward the rural migrants. The analysis is based on data collected from two types of interviews: rural migrants and management interviews which examine the rural migrants’ housing and managerial aspects of this research, respectively. It is also supported by the utilization of secondary data. The findings of the study indicate that the rural migrants’ housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility highly influence their living condition in Beijing Fengtai District. Therefore, the local government should give some assistance to this group people in the big cities. This paper reports on the findings of a study to seek acknowledged definitions of the terms Project and Project Management. The study was based on a conventional review and analysis of the definitions from a series of texts.

  13. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  14. Influence of measurement conditions and used devices on consequential creep modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with study of the possibilities of the creep properties measurement on dedicated devices for the creep measurement and on devices, which enable the creep properties measurement. A comparison of these two different measurement methods show the influence of boundary conditions on the measurement result. Simultaneously, the effort to shorten the long-term tests, because of time saving during research and development of new materials, is confronted here. Radiation crosslinking samples of high-density polyethylene (HDPE, which enable the change of the internal structure to the spatial network by the influence of beta radiation, were chosen as an example for comparison.

  15. Influence of the boundary conditions on heat and mass transfer in spacer-filled channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofalo, M.; La Cerva, M. F.; Di Liberto, M.; Tamburini, A.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss some problems which arise in heat or mass transfer in complex channels, with special reference to the spacer-filled channels adopted in membrane processes. Among the issues addressed are the consistent definition of local and mean heat or mass transfer coefficients; the influence of the wall boundary conditions; the influence of one-side versus two-side heat/mass transfer. Most of the results discussed were obtained by finite volume CFD simulations concerning heat transfer in Membrane Distillation or mass transfer in Electrodialysis and Reverse Electrodialysis, but many of the conclusions apply also to different processes involving geometrically complex channels

  16. Influence of oil/gas reservoir driving conditions on reserves estimation using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Rychlicki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of assessing reserves is a calibration of a numerical model of a field with assumed driving conditions of the field. The influence of various energy systems assumed for the calculation on the calibration results are presented in the paper. A light oil field was selected for verification of resources on the basis of an analysis of driving conditions. At the first stage of calculations, a „Black Oil” type numerical model was used. The results of a classical „Black – Oil” model made the authors search for an alternative description of energy conditions in the reservoir. Therefore, a modified „Black-Oil” model with „vaporized oil” option, assuming that initially, after evaporation, the condensate in the reservoir was in a gaseous phase was used. The obtained simulation results for the analyzed reservoir prove the accuracy of energy conditions in the reservoir.

  17. Influence of growth conditions on photovoltaic effect of ZnO/Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Bixia; Fu, Zhuxi [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Road Jinzai, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Meng, Qinglei [Special Class for the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2008-08-15

    A series of heterojunctions consisting of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) films and p-type Si substrates have been prepared by DC reactive sputtering. The ZnO films were grown at different conditions, and the influence of growth conditions on photovoltaic (PV) property was discussed. It was found that both growth temperature and oxygen partial pressure play important roles for enhancing the PV effect of the samples. By optimizing growth conditions, the PV efficiency has been improved and also by more magnitudes. The open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) per square centimeter arrived at 350 mV and 2.5 mA, respectively. The variation mechanism of PV effect with growth conditions has been investigated in order to understand the photoelectric conversion behavior of the ZnO/Si heterojunction. (author)

  18. Hip Musculoskeletal Conditions and Associated Factors that Influence Squat Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Stull, Kyle R; Fantigrassi, Mike; Montel, Ian

    2017-03-14

    The squat is a fundamental movement for weight lifting and sports performance. Both unilateral and bilateral squats are also used to assess transitional and dynamic lower extremity control. Common lower extremity conditions can have an influence on squat performance. Of interest, are the effects of hip musculoskeletal conditions and associated factors such as hip muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness on squat performance. Currently, there has been no appraisal of the evidence regarding the association of these conditions and associated factors on squat performance. This study evaluated the current evidence regarding common hip musculoskeletal conditions and associated factors such as hip muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness on squat performance. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, SportDiscus, Proquest, and Google Scholar ® was conducted in October, 2016 using the following keywords alone and in combination: hip, joint, arthritis, pain, range of motion (ROM), fatigue, tightness, pathology, condition, muscle, intraarticular, extraarticular, femoral acetabular impingement, single leg, bilateral, squat, performance, and technique. The grading of studies was conducted using the PEDro scale. We identified 35 citations, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. The qualifying studies yielded a total of 542 subjects (men-160, women-382) (mean age 29.3 ± 5.9 years) and measured performance with either the barbell squat, step down, bilateral, or single leg squat. Femoral acetabular impingement and hip arthroscopy were the only hip conditions found that affected the squat. Associated factors such as muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness also influenced squat performance. This review found that common hip conditions and associated factors and their effects on squat performance to be under investigated. Future research should focus on the association between common hip conditions and squat performance.

  19. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Junca

    Full Text Available In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER, bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US. This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  20. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of MWCNT Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the processing conditions and MWCNT content on the mechanical properties of PA6,6-based nanocomposites areinvestigated. In addition to the composition of the composites, the impact of manufacturing conditions such as dilution mechanism, twin-screwextruder mixing specifications......, and injection molding parameters on the behavior of the nanocomposites are evaluated. Results show that whilethe increase in the content of MWCNTs can lead to 40.0 % enhancement in the mechanical properties, changing the processing parametersvaries the values by 30.0 % in the same content. The mechanisms...... involved in the modulation of the nanocomposites properties are alsodiscussed...

  1. Influence of convective conditions in radiative peristaltic flow of pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Rija [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: qau14@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for peristalsis of pseudoplastic nanofluid is formulated. • Analysis has been made in a tapered asymmetric channel. • Magnetohydrodynamic aspects have been outlined. • Influence of thermal radiation is investigated. • Convective conditions for both heat and mass transfer are present.

  2. Influence of experimental conditions on atom column visibility in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dycus, J.H.; Xu, W.; Sang, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); LeBeau, J.M., E-mail: jmlebeau@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Here we report the influence of key experimental parameters on atomically resolved energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In particular, we examine the role of the probe forming convergence semi-angle, sample thickness, lattice spacing, and dwell/collection time. We show that an optimum specimen-dependent probe forming convergence angle exists to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the atomically resolved signal in EDX mapping. Furthermore, we highlight that it can be important to select an appropriate dwell time to efficiently process the X-ray signal. These practical considerations provide insight for experimental parameters in atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray analysis. - Highlights: • Impacts of microscope operating conditions on EDX signal and atom column contrast are demonstrated. • Influence of sample thickness and lattice spacing is shown. • Conditions for obtaining optimal signal and contrast for different sample types are discussed. • Effects of dwell time during EDX acquisition are discussed.

  3. The Influence of the Technical Condition of a Building on the Property’s Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziembicka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The housed property’s market value is influenced by a set of characteristic qualities, among which is the technical condition of a building. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of the technical condition of a building on the market price of the dwelling units, depending, among others, on the chosen method and the approach to the assessment of the housing wear degree. The analysis has been performed based on the estimation of the market value of an illustrative dwelling unit located in a building erected with the use of prefabricated large panel technology in selected variants. The study is based on data from the period between January and December 2012, which are related to the sale of rights to dwelling units from the secondary market. The information was obtained from a transactional database based on the Partner Data Exchange system with the Walor software.

  4. The influence of pressing conditions on SrFe12O19 nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anna; Stingaciu, Marian; Christensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pressing conditions on SrFe12O19 nano-particles Anna Zink Mortensen, Marian Stingaciu, Mogens Christensen Aarhus University Permanent magnets have great importance for many technological applications. Today researchers try making new and cheap magnets without rare earth elements....... Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is an important permanent magnet because of its large anisotropy, good performance/cost ratio, and high stability. By hydrothermal synthesis platelet-like single-domain nanoparticles can be made. It is possible to control the particle sizes varying time, temperature......, and pressure which highly influence the magnetic properties. The platelet-like particles makes it possible to align the powder in the same direction giving a higher net magnetization. One challenge is to optimize the pressing conditions in order to maximize the remanence and thus the energy product. In present...

  5. Influence of Experimental Conditions on Electronic Tongue Results—Case of Valsartan Minitablets Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wesoły

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric electronic tongue was applied to study the release of valsartan from pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., minitablets uncoated and coated with Eudragit E. Special attention was paid to evaluate the influence of medium temperature and composition, as well as to compare the performances of the sensor arrays working in various hydrodynamic conditions. The drug dissolution profiles registered with the ion-sensitive electrodes were compared with standard dissolution tests performed with USP Apparatus 2 (paddle. Moreover, the signal changes of all sensors were processed by principal component analysis to visualize the release modifications, related to the presence of the coating agent. Finally, the importance and influence of the experimental conditions on the results obtained using potentiometric sensor arrays were discussed.

  6. The influence of machining condition and cutting tool wear on surface roughness of AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, A. R.; Ghani, J. A.; Che Haron, C. H.; Syarif, J.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable machining by using cryogenic coolant as the cutting fluid has been proven to enhance some machining outputs. The main objective of the current work was to investigate the influence of machining conditions; dry and cryogenic, as well as the cutting tool wear on the machined surface roughness of AISI 4340 steel. The experimental tests were performed using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated carbide inserts. The value of machined surface roughness were measured at 3 cutting intervals; beginning, middle, and end of the cutting based on the readings of the tool flank wear. The results revealed that cryogenic turning had the greatest influence on surface roughness when machined at lower cutting speed and higher feed rate. Meanwhile, the cutting tool wear was also found to influence the surface roughness, either improving it or deteriorating it, based on the severity and the mechanism of the flank wear.

  7. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  8. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to thei r surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at t...

  9. Influence of the electrokinetic injection conditions on the separation of DNA fragments in capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Catai Jonatan Ricardo; Carrilho Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    In genetic analysis by capillary electrophoresis with polymer solutions there are many variables that affect separation of the DNA fragments. A very critical one is the sample injection process, which can considerably affect the peak efficiency and the resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the DNA sample composition and the electrokinetic injection conditions in the separation of DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis using replaceable polymer solutions. The studies w...

  10. Complex influence of space environment on materials and electronic devices in the conditions of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayev, T.; Zhantayev, Zh.; Grichshenko, V.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new physical model describing the processes in materials and electronic devices under the influence of cosmic rays in microgravity. The model identifies specific features of formation of the area of radiation defects (ARD) in the electronic materials in microgravity. The mechanism of interaction between the ARD and memory modules in microgravity causing malfunction and failure of onboard electronics is considered. The results of failure of memory modules under real conditions are presented.

  11. Influence of geometrical parameters of the VVER-1000 reactor construction elements to internals irradiation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Pugach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations to determine the influences of geometrical parameters of the calculational VVER-1000 reactor model to the results of internal irradiation condition determination are carried out. It is shown that the values of appropriate sensitivity matrix elements are not dependent on a height coordinate for any core level, but there is their azimuthal dependence. Maximum possible relative biases of neutron fluence due to inexact knowledge of internal geometrical parameters are obtained for the baffle and the barrel.

  12. Molybdenum oxide supported on silica (MoO3/SiO2): an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of 1,8-dioxodecahydroacridines under solvent-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khojastehnezhad, A.; Vafaei, M.; Moeinpour, F.

    2014-01-01

    Silica supported molybdenum oxide (MoO 3 /SiO 2 ) was found to be and efficient, eco-friendly and heterogeneous catalyst for the multicomponent reaction of aromatic aldehydes, dimedone and ammonium acetate or aromatic amines under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding 1,8-dioxodecahydroacridines in high yields. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for several times without considerable loss of activity. Furthermore, the present method offers several advantages, such as an easy experimental and work-up procedures, short reaction times and good to excellent yields. For the characterization were used: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. (Author)

  13. Molybdenum oxide supported on silica (MoO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}): an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of 1,8-dioxodecahydroacridines under solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojastehnezhad, A.; Vafaei, M. [Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Department of Chemistry, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moeinpour, F., E-mail: akhojastehnezhad@yahoo.com [Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch, Department of Chemistry, Bandar Abbas (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Silica supported molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}) was found to be and efficient, eco-friendly and heterogeneous catalyst for the multicomponent reaction of aromatic aldehydes, dimedone and ammonium acetate or aromatic amines under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding 1,8-dioxodecahydroacridines in high yields. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for several times without considerable loss of activity. Furthermore, the present method offers several advantages, such as an easy experimental and work-up procedures, short reaction times and good to excellent yields. For the characterization were used: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. (Author)

  14. Chemometric evaluation of the combined effect of temperature, pressure, and co-solvent fractions on the chiral separation of basic pharmaceuticals using actual vs set operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Erik; Haupt, Dan; Stålberg, Olle; Enmark, Martin; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2017-05-26

    The need to determine the actual operational conditions, instead of merely using the set operational conditions, was investigated for in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) by design of experiments (DoE) using a most important type of compounds, pharmaceutical basics, as models. The actual values of temperature, pressure, and methanol levels were recorded and calculated from external sensors, while the responses in the DoE were the retention factors and selectivity. A Kromasil CelluCoat column was used as the stationary phase, carbon dioxide containing varying methanol contents as the mobile phase, and the six racemates of alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, clenbuterol, and mianserin were selected as model solutes. For the retention modeling, the most important term was the methanol fraction followed by the temperature and pressure. Significant differences (p<0.05) between most of the coefficients in the retention models were observed when comparing models from set and actual conditions. The selectivity was much less affected by operational changes, and therefore was not severely affected by difference between set and actual conditions. The temperature differences were usually small, maximum ±1.4°C, whereas the pressure differences were larger, typically approximately +10.5bar. The set and actual fractions of methanol also differed, usually by ±0.4 percentage points. A cautious conclusion is that the primary reason for the discrepancy between the models is a mismatch between the set and actual methanol fractions. This mismatch is more serious in retention models at low methanol fractions. The study demonstrates that the actual conditions should almost always be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Aqueous Biocatalysis in Homogeneous Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are highly specific catalysts that typically function in aqueous solvents. However, many enzymes retain their catalytic activities at high concentrations in non- aqueous environments, including neat hydrophilic organic solvents. In fact, enzymes can be used to carry out reactions in organic solvents that are not possible in aqueous systems. Therefore, biocatalysis in homogenous non-aqueous solvents offers possibilities for producing useful chemicals and several synthetic reactions have already been developed using this type of system. The current review discusses factors that influence enzyme catalysis in non-aqueous solvents such us water content, solvent concentration, interaction of solvent with protein structure, stability and activity. Also, new strategies for non-conventional biocatalysis using extremophiles and ionic solvents are mentioned.

  16. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bupropion induces social anxiety in adolescent mice: Influence of housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carmen; Redolat, Rosa; Carrasco, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    The antidepressant bupropion has received increasing attention as a pharmacological tool to treat addiction although little is known about its effects on social behaviour in adolescents. The present study aimed to evaluate if environmental housing conditions influence bupropion's actions on social behaviour of adolescent mice. Mice were either group- or individually housed for 2-weeks and then randomly divided into 2 cohorts: half of the mice remained in the initial housing condition and the other half were changed to isolated conditions for further 2-weeks. The following groups were compared: isolated/isolated (ISO/ISO), isolated/group-housed (ISO/GR), group-housed/isolated (GR/ISO), and group-housed/group-housed (GR/GR). The effects of bupropion (40, 20, 10mg/kg) or saline on social interaction were assessed for each housing condition. Social encounters were evaluated using ethological analysis. Data showed significant effects of bupropion on grooming and digging. This drug diminished time mice allocated to these behavioural categories in all housing conditions. In ISO/GR and GR/ISO conditions, bupropion increased environmental exploration (non-social exploration and exploration from a distance), reduced social investigation and increased avoidance/flee and defence/submission behaviours. An augment of avoidance/flee during social interactions was observed in bupropion-treated mice in GR/GR housing condition. These results suggest that this drug exhibits anxiogenic-like properties in social encounters between adolescent mice, especially when a transition in housing conditions has been experienced during this period. Changes in housing conditions may be a useful model for evaluating the effects of bupropion on social behaviour and the role of environmental housing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal, spectroscopic, and solvent influence studies on mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the bulky ligand: Bis[N-(p-tolyl)imino]acenaphthene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ayaan, Usama; Gabr, I M

    2007-05-01

    Four mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the rigid bidentate nitrogen ligand bis[N-(p-tolyl)imino]acenaphthene (abb. p-Tol-BIAN) ligand are reported. These complexes, namely [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(2)](ClO(4))(2)1, [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(acac)](ClO(4)) 2, [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)Cl(2)] 3 and [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(AcOH)(2)](ClO(4))(2)4 (where acac, acetylacetonate and AcOH, acetic acid) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductance measurements. ESR spectra suggest a square planar geometry for complexes 1 and 2. In complexes 3 and 4, a distorted tetrahedral arrangement around copper(II) centre was suggested. Solvatochromic behavior of all studied complexes indicates strong solvatochromism of their solutions. The observed solvatochromism is mainly due to the solute-solvent interaction between the chelate cation and the solvent molecules. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The kinetic parameters (E, A, Delta H, Delta S and Delta G) of all thermal decomposition stages have been calculated using the Coats-Redfern and other standard equations.

  19. Extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds using an ionic liquid as solvent: Influence of the alkane on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An ionic liquid was analyzed as solvent for extraction of toluene from alkanes. → Liquid-liquid equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. → Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. → The Othmer-Tobias equation was used to ascertain the experimental LLE data. → Experimental data were correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: In this paper, the feasibility of using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid, [EMim][ESO 4 ], as solvent for the extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, or nonane) was analyzed. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {alkane (1) + toluene (2) + [EMim][ESO 4 ] (3)} were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated from the experimental LLE data, and the obtained values were compared to those previously reported using other ionic liquids and sulfolane. The degree of consistency of the experimental LLE data was ascertained using the Othmer-Tobias equation. Finally, the experimental LLE data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  20. Extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds using an ionic liquid as solvent: Influence of the alkane on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Calvar, Noelia, E-mail: noecs@uvigo.e [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Facultade de Engenharia, Universidade de Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: An ionic liquid was analyzed as solvent for extraction of toluene from alkanes. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. The Othmer-Tobias equation was used to ascertain the experimental LLE data. Experimental data were correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: In this paper, the feasibility of using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid, [EMim][ESO{sub 4}], as solvent for the extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, or nonane) was analyzed. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {l_brace}alkane (1) + toluene (2) + [EMim][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace} were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated from the experimental LLE data, and the obtained values were compared to those previously reported using other ionic liquids and sulfolane. The degree of consistency of the experimental LLE data was ascertained using the Othmer-Tobias equation. Finally, the experimental LLE data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  1. Analysing the Role of Framework Conditions Influencing International Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonni Angel Cuero Acosta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The objective of this paper is to determine and analyse the framework conditions that influence the entrepreneurial opportunity identification and action in the international market context. Research Design & Methods: Scholars from the International Business and International Entrepreneurship (IE research fields agree that the process of internationalisation is triggered by opportunity identification. The extant literature is reviewed by assessing the framework conditions that domestic and international markets offer for entrepreneurial actions. An analytical juxtaposition of the influential factors is conducted in the light of various stages of the opportunity identification process by examining − at each stage − possible effects of domestic and international market context. Findings:This paper brings into the IE discussion a conceptual matrix of various elements and factors − external conditions – which influence the creation of nexus by entrepreneurs to the markets. Implications & Recommendations:The conceptual matrix offers new insights for theoretical development and arguments for designing empirical research in terms of external conditions. It is expected to provoke more theoretical and practical questions from scholars within the IE field. Contribution & Value Added:The originality of this work lies in proposing a comprehensive framework to understand how context interacts with the entrepreneurial opportunity identification process.

  2. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification...... and hazard ranking of chemicals, and therefore their focus is to measure the toxicity of an artificially maintained continuous exposure under test conditions that rarely reflect natural conditions. This may be in contrast to the aim of establishing EQS, i.e. to protect the natural ecosystem from chemical...... stress. In light of this possible contradiction, the aim of this thesis was to investigate whether EQS derived on the basis of guideline tests will be sufficiently protective of the environment. This was done by exploring the influence of a number of test conditions, such as temperature, light, p...

  3. Influence of atmospheric conditions on the strength of unstabilized earthen constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial compression tests and indirect tensile tests are performed on compacted clayey silt samples upon varying suctions in order to assess the influence of changes in the relative humidity conditions on the strength of unstabilized rammed earthen building materials. The results show that suction plays an important role on the strength of the material. Also the ability of the Belgian clayey silt to develop sufficient mechanical strength to be used as an unstabilized earthen construction material is demonstrated whatever the relative humidity conditions, excepted the fully water saturated state. The experimental data are interpreted in the context of unsaturated soil mechanics using the generalized effective stress concept. This constitutive framework allows defining a unified failure criterion predicting the strength of the earthen building material as a function of the environmental hygroscopic conditions.

  4. Conditions on the Mexican moulting grounds influence feather colour and carotenoids in Bullock's orioles (Icterus bullockii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Kaitlin L; Donkor, Kingsley K; Flood, Nancy J; Marra, Peter P; Pillar, Andrew G; Reudink, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    Carotenoid-based plumage coloration plays a critical role for both inter- and intrasexual communication. Habitat and diet during molt can have important consequences for the development of the ornamental signals used in these contexts. When molt occurs away from the breeding grounds (e.g., pre-alternate molt on the wintering grounds, or stopover molt), discerning the influence of habitat and diet can be particularly important, as these effects may result in important carryover effects that influence territory acquisition or mate choice in subsequent seasons. Several species of songbirds in western North America, including the Bullock's oriole ( Icterus bullockii ), migrate from the breeding grounds to undergo a complete prebasic (post-breeding) molt at a stopover site in the region affected by the Mexican monsoon climate pattern. This strategy appears to have evolved several times independently in response to the harsh, food-limited late-summer conditions in the arid West, which contrast strongly with the high productivity driven by heavy rains that is characteristic of the Mexican monsoon region. Within this region, individuals may be able to optimize plumage coloration by molting in favourable areas characterized by high resource abundance. We used stable isotope analysis (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) to ask whether the diet and molt habitat/location of Bullock's orioles influenced their expression of carotenoid-based plumage coloration as well as plumage carotenoid content and composition. Bullock's orioles with lower feather δ 15 N values acquired more colorful plumage (orange-shifted hue) but had feathers with lower total carotenoid concentration, lower zeaxanthin concentration, and marginally lower canthaxanthin and lutein concentration. Examining factors occurring throughout the annual cycle are critical for understanding evolutionary and ecological processes. Here, we demonstrate that conditions experienced during a stopover molt, occurring hundreds to thousands of

  5. Influence of environmental conditions on the regenerative capacity and the survivability of Elodea nuttallii fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hoffmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study was conducted to determine which environmental factors and conditions can affect the regenerative capacity and survivability of Elodea nuttallii [o1] and therefore the efficiency of mechanical management methods like cutting and harvesting. The influence of water temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentration in the sediment on the survivability and regenerative capacity of the invasive species E. nuttallii was determined in three laboratory and one field experiments. E. nuttallii fragments with one to four nodes were stored in aquaria under constant temperature and/or light conditions. To examine the influence of water temperature, four aquaria were kept at a constant water temperature of either 15°C or 20°C. The influence of light intensity was studied by shading the aquaria with different types of mesh. The fragments were stored at constant light intensities of 215, 161, 86 and 31 µmol photons m–2 s–1. Fragments in aquaria filled with sediment with 20 µg P2O5-P g–1 soil, 150 µg P2O5-P g–1 soil or without sediment were studied to determine the influence of the sediment. The results of the laboratory experiments showed how the mechanical management methods are most efficient during periods with low water temperatures, high turbidity or low global irradiation and nutrient poor waters. The field experiment was designed to study the influence of the nutrient compositions in the sediment on the growth and regenerative capacity of rooted E. nuttallii. E. nuttallii fragments were planted in compartments treated with PO43-- and/or NH4+-fertiliser and were trimmed after six weeks. The experiment revealed that the growth before a harvest and the growth after a harvest (regenerative capacity differ significantly, depending on the nutrient composition in the substrate. An increase of the PO43- concentration in the sediment, for example, reduced the growth of E. nuttallii before the harvest, but increased the

  6. Individual condition and stream temperature influence early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, ncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Mills, Justin S.; Jordan, Chris E.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were sampled from the John Day River basin in northeast Oregon where both anadromous ("steelhead") and freshwater resident rainbow trout coexist. Larger males with higher lipid levels had a greater probability of maturing as a resident at age-1+. Among males, 38% were maturing overall, and the odds ratios of the logistic model indicated that the probability of a male maturing early as a resident at age-1+ increased 49% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-81%) for every 5 mm increase in length and 33% (95% CI = 10-61%) for every 0.5% increase in whole body lipid content. There was an inverse association between individual condition and water temperature as growth was greater in warmer streams while whole body lipid content was higher in cooler streams. Our results support predictions from life history theory and further suggest that relationships between individual condition, maturation, and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature) are shaped by complex developmental and evolutionary influences.

  7. Transboundary Influences on Ozone Pollution in the United States: Present Conditions and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sager, P.; Wang, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Park, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (v7-02-01) with 1° x1° horizontal resolution over North America is used to investigate the influence of transboundary pollution from Canada and Mexico on surface ozone in the United States. We conduct a series of 4 simulations for present day conditions: (1) a standard simulation with 2001 anthropogenic emissions worldwide, (2) with zero U.S. anthropogenic emissions, (3) with zero anthropogenic emission in North America (Canada, U.S. and Mexico), and (4) with 2006 East Asian emissions and no emission in North America. For future projections, we repeat (1)-(3) with a 2020 worldwide emissions inventory, in addition to a run with U.S. Power plant emissions switched off. The standard simulation is evaluated with observations for U.S. regions most sensitive to transboundary pollution (northeast for Canada, southwest for Mexico). Monthly mean ozone enhancements from transboundary pollution are in the 5-10 ppb range for these regions in June-August, but can exceed 30 ppbv under conditions when ozone is above the U.S. air quality standard (84 ppbv). Unlike intercontinental pollution influence which mainly contributes to the ozone background and is depleted during regional smog episodes, transboundary pollution influence from Canada and Mexico is highly variable and can contribute significantly to these episodes.

  8. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.

  9. The influence of different microalgal diets on Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck, 1819 broodstock conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Anjos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata shows great potential in oyster farming. In Europe, pure populations of this species were observed only in the southern coasts of Portugal and Spain, namely in Rio Sado, Rio Mira and Guadalquivir. The conservation of C. angulata populations is important in the context of production diversification and biodiversity preservation. In this way the zootechnological development for seed hatchery production is extremely important. Broodstock conditioning is a key step in the process of rearing bivalve in hatchery. Many factors regulate the reproductive cycle, being food the most important. However the influence of the nutritional quality of different phytoplankton on sexual maturation has been poorly explored. To evaluate the effects of different diets on C. angulata sexual maturity, broodstock were conditioned with different food regimes: Diet 1: bi-specific combination of Pavlova lutheri and Isochrysis galbana clone T-ISO (1:1; Diet 2: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, I galbana clone T-ISO and Skeletonema constatum (1:1:1; Diet 3: bi-specific combination of S. constatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans (1:1 and Diet 4: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, S. constatum and C. calcitrans (1:1:1. During conditioning, condition index and gonad histological analysis were performed. Results showed heterogeneity between diets. At the beginning of conditioning 60% of individuals were in resting (stage 0, 30% were males in early gametogenesis (stage I and 10% were females in mature stage (stage III. At the end of the conditioning, the most effective diet was the Diet 3 (60 % of mature oysters with a mean condition index value of 2.83±0.95. Whereas those fed with Diet 1 have an unsuccessfully gonadic development, with 80% of individuals in resting stage. Indeed, the condition index, in Diet 1 decreased during the conditioning period. The results obtained in this study reinforce the idea that the diatom microalgae

  10. The Influence of Training Strategy and Physical Condition toward Forehand Drive Ability in Table Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langitan, F. W.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to find out the influence of training strategy and physical condition toward forehand drive ability in table tennis of student in faculty of sport in university of Manado, department of health and recreation education. The method used in this research was factorial 2x2 design method. The population was taken from the student of Faculty of Sport at Manado State University, Indonesia, in 2017 of 76 students for sample research. The result of this research shows that: In general, this training strategy of wall bounce gives better influence toward forehand drive ability compare with the strategy of pair training in table tennis. For the students who have strong forehand muscle, the wall bounce training strategy give better influence to their ability of forehand drive in table tennis. For the student who have weak forehand muscle, pair training strategy give better influence than wall bound training toward forehand drive ability in table tennis. There is an interaction between training using hand muscle strength to the training result in table tennis using forehand drive.

  11. Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Rossi, Serena; Galgano, Fernanda; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of microbreweries. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned; however, few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle-conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S-33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off-flavours. These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  13. Individual cell motility studied by time-lapse video recording: influence of experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, R; Walmod, P S; Berezin, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cell motility plays a key role during development, wound healing, and tumour invasion. Computer-assisted image analysis now makes it a realistic task to quantify individual cell motility of a large number of cells. However, the influence of culture conditions before...... and during measurements has not been investigated systematically. METHODS: We have evaluated intraassay and interassay variations in determinations of cellular speed of fibroblastoid L929 cells and investigated the effects of a series of physical and biological parameters on the motile behavior of this cell...... shown to affect cellular speed significantly. pH and temperature of the medium most profoundly influenced cell motility and morphology. Thus, the mean cell speed was 40% lower at pH 7.25 than at pH 7.6; at 29 degrees C, it was approximately four times lower than at 39 degrees C. CONCLUSION...

  14. Crosslinked copolyazoles with a zwitterionic structure for organic solvent resistant membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of crosslinked membranes with a zwitterionic structure based on a facile reaction between a newly synthesized copolyazole with free OH groups and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is reported. The new OH-functionalized copolyazole is soluble in common organic solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N′-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and can be easily processed by phase inversion. After crosslinking with GPTMS, the membranes acquire high solvent resistance. We show the membrane performance and the influence of the crosslinking reaction conditions on the thermal stability, surface polarity, pore morphology, and solvent resistance. By using UV-spectroscopy we monitored the solvent resistance of the membranes in four aggressive solvents (THF, DMSO, DMF and NMP) for 30 days. After this time, only minor changes (less than 2%) were detected for membranes subjected to a crosslinking reaction for 6 hours or longer. Our data suggest that the novel crosslinked membranes can be used for industrial applications in wide harsh environments in the presence of organic solvents.

  15. Variation and decomposition of the partial molar volume of small gas molecules in different organic solvents derived from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Martin, Alistair; Cheong, Daniel W; Garland, Marc V

    2013-12-28

    The partial molar volumes, V(i), of the gas solutes H2, CO, and CO2, solvated in acetone, methanol, heptane, and diethylether are determined computationally in the limit of infinite dilution and standard conditions. Solutions are described with molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the OPLS-aa force field for solvents and customized force field for solutes. V(i) is determined with the direct method, while the composition of V(i) is studied with Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs). Subsequently, the amount of unoccupied space and size of pre-formed cavities in pure solvents is determined. Additionally, the shape of individual solvent cages is analyzed. Calculated V(i) deviate only 3.4 cm(3) mol(-1) (7.1%) from experimental literature values. Experimental V(i) variations across solutions are reproduced qualitatively and also quantitatively in most cases. The KBI analysis identifies differences in solute induced solvent reorganization in the immediate vicinity of H2 (<0.7 nm) and solvent reorganization up to the third solvation shell of CO and CO2 (<1.6 nm) as the origin of V(i) variations. In all solutions, larger V(i) are found in solvents that exhibit weak internal interactions, low cohesive energy density and large compressibility. Weak internal interactions facilitate solvent displacement by thermal solute movement, which enhances the size of solvent cages and thus V(i). Additionally, attractive electrostatic interactions of CO2 and the solvents, which do not depend on internal solvent interactions only, partially reversed the V(i) trends observed in H2 and CO solutions where electrostatic interactions with the solvents are absent. More empty space and larger pre-formed cavities are found in solvents with weak internal interactions, however, no evidence is found that solutes in any considered solvent are accommodated in pre-formed cavities. Individual solvent cages are found to be elongated in the negative direction of solute movement. This wake behind

  16. Variation and decomposition of the partial molar volume of small gas molecules in different organic solvents derived from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Martin, Alistair; Cheong, Daniel W.; Garland, Marc V.

    2013-12-01

    The partial molar volumes, bar V_i, of the gas solutes H2, CO, and CO2, solvated in acetone, methanol, heptane, and diethylether are determined computationally in the limit of infinite dilution and standard conditions. Solutions are described with molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the OPLS-aa force field for solvents and customized force field for solutes. bar V_i is determined with the direct method, while the composition of bar V_i is studied with Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs). Subsequently, the amount of unoccupied space and size of pre-formed cavities in pure solvents is determined. Additionally, the shape of individual solvent cages is analyzed. Calculated bar V_i deviate only 3.4 cm3 mol-1 (7.1%) from experimental literature values. Experimental bar V_i variations across solutions are reproduced qualitatively and also quantitatively in most cases. The KBI analysis identifies differences in solute induced solvent reorganization in the immediate vicinity of H2 (<0.7 nm) and solvent reorganization up to the third solvation shell of CO and CO2 (<1.6 nm) as the origin of bar V_i variations. In all solutions, larger bar V_i are found in solvents that exhibit weak internal interactions, low cohesive energy density and large compressibility. Weak internal interactions facilitate solvent displacement by thermal solute movement, which enhances the size of solvent cages and thus bar V_i. Additionally, attractive electrostatic interactions of CO2 and the solvents, which do not depend on internal solvent interactions only, partially reversed the bar V_i trends observed in H2 and CO solutions where electrostatic interactions with the solvents are absent. More empty space and larger pre-formed cavities are found in solvents with weak internal interactions, however, no evidence is found that solutes in any considered solvent are accommodated in pre-formed cavities. Individual solvent cages are found to be elongated in the negative direction of solute

  17. The influence of the pyrolysis conditions in a rotary oven on the characteristics of the products

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Muñoz, Beatriz; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis of 1:1 blends of reinforcing fibre (RF) from tyre wastes with low rank bituminous coal was carried out in a rotary oven. The pyrolysis conditions were modified in order to study their influence on the yield and characteristics of the char and oil obtained. The variables studied were as follows: rotation speed, final pyrolysis temperature, N2 flow and heating rate. The textural characteristics of the char were studied by means of N2 adsorption at 77 K, whereas the oil composition...

  18. Influence of convective conditions in radiative peristaltic flow of pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Iqbal, Rija; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature.

  19. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol-to-oil...... molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35 °C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5 wt% of enzyme and 5...

  20. The consolidation of a powder material in conditions of combined influence of different technological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeyev V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the problems, connected with the formation of a powder material and its surface layers in conditions of chemical thermal treatment and impregnation with melt, combined with the use of mechanical loads at different process stages are examined. The new results of liquid phase influence on compaction of powder preforms, subjected to impregnation, are obtained. The presence of a liquid phase in preform surface layers can also be connected with the change of the materials chemical composition as the result of boronizing, siliconizing or other kinds of chemical thermal treatment.

  1. The influence of ihsan attitude and economic condition to farmer household food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrarini, H.; Rahayu, E. S.; Kusnandar; Sunarsono, R. J.; Soedarto, T.

    2018-03-01

    Ihsan attitude is one unique attitude that was owned by farmers in Bangkalan Madura, Indonesia. This study was focused to examining the relationship of ihsan attitude and economic condition on household food security of farmers in Bangkalan. The ihsan attitude will be one a new view regarding to the human resource perspective in agribusiness. For that this study was aimed to analyse the influence and the effect of that attitude to food security of farmer household. Data were collected from 360 respondents, followed with descriptive analysis. The social ecological model was the basis concept in this study, moreover its also used to test the three variables. In this study, a structural equation model tools call WarpPLS was employed. Results from this study would be provide ihsan attitude picture to economic conditions on household food security of farmers indicated, that would be important for formulation of the farmer empowerment policy in the future.

  2. Influence of Contact Angle Boundary Condition on CFD Simulation of T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S.; Montlaur, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the contact angle boundary condition on 3D CFD simulations of the bubble generation process occurring in a capillary T-junction. Numerical simulations have been performed with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics solver ANSYS Fluent v15.0.7. Experimental results serve as a reference to validate numerical results for four independent parameters: the bubble generation frequency, volume, velocity and length. CFD simulations accurately reproduce experimental results both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Numerical results are very sensitive to the gas-liquid-wall contact angle boundary conditions, confirming that this is a fundamental parameter to obtain accurate CFD results for simulations of this kind of problems.

  3. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed. (paper)

  4. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaler, X.; De La Torre, O.; Farhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed.

  5. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O

    2017-03-01

    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  6. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, flood risk management has focused on long-term flood protection measures. However, many countries are often not able to afford hard infrastructure that provides sufficient safety levels due to the high investment costs. As a consequence, they rely more on post disaster response and timely warning systems. Most early warning systems have predominantly focused on precipitation as the main predictive factor, having usually lead times of hours or days. However, other variables could also play a role. For instance, anomalous positive water storage, soil saturation and evapotranspiration are physical factors that may influence the length of the flood build-up period. This period can vary from some days to several months before the event and it is particularly important in flood risk management since longer flood warning lead times during this period could result in better flood preparation actions. This study addresses how the antecedent conditions of historical reported flood events over the period 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa relate to flood generation. The seasonal-scale conditions are reflected in the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is calculated using monthly precipitation and temperature data and accounts for the wetness/dryness of an area. Antecedent conditions are separated into a) a short term 'weather-scale' period (0-7 days) and b) a 'seasonal-scale' period (up to 6 months) before the flood event in such a way that they do not overlap. Total 7-day precipitation, which is based on daily meteorological data, was used to evaluate the short-term weather-scale conditions. Using a pair of coordinates, derived from the NatCatSERVICE database on global flood losses, each flood event is positioned on a 0.5°x 0.5° grid cell. The antecedent SPEI conditions of the two periods and their joint influence in flood generation are compared to the same period conditions of the other years of the dataset. First results

  7. Two-carbon metabolites, polyphenols and vitamins influence yeast chronological life span in winemaking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Helena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS. Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content.

  8. Influence of shock absorber condition on pavement fatigue using relative damage concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the road transportation nowadays, concerns related to pavement deterioration and maintenance have become relevant subjects. Especially for commercial vehicles, the vertical dynamic load (characterized by the tire-road interaction is directly related to wear on the road surface. Given this, the main objective of this paper is to analyse effects of vertical loads applied on the flexible pavement, considering the variation of the condition of shock absorbers from a truck's front suspension. The measurements were performed on a rigid truck, with 2 steering front axles, in a durability test track located in Brazil. With a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension (the maximum allowed load on front axles according to Brazilian legislation, 3 different shock absorber conditions were evaluated: new, used and failed. By applying the relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation of the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the vertical load applied on the pavement. Although the results clearly point to a dependent relationship between the load and the condition of the shock absorbers, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology, in future to analyse the influence of other quarter car model variants (such as spring rate, mass and tire spring stiffness.

  9. Influence of static and cyclic climate condition on bending properties of wood plastic composites (WPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood and natural fiber reinforced plastic composites are established for several fields like decking, transportation and automotive applications. In the last decade, extensive researches were conducted to improve the mechanical properties, such as incorporating additives like maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAH-PP. The major challenge is to keep the properties in face of the environmental influence the parts are exposed to. Therefore it’s necessary to find the hardest impact factor concerning the mechanical properties. Water absorption (static and cyclic of the composites was examined at two different temperatures (23, 50°C. A correlation between duration, kind of conditioning, temperature and modification was established. The results indicate that the coupling agent MAH-PP improved significantly the water resistance of the wood plastic composites under climatic conditions and higher temperature accelerated the rate of water absorption of the composites. The decrease of mechanical properties related to cyclic conditions is partially reversible and therefore the cyclic exposition shows less effects compared to static conditions.

  10. Influence of the Outer Boundary Condition on models of AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, G.; Weiss, A.

    2018-04-01

    Current implementations of the stellar atmosphere typically derive boundary conditions for the interior model from either grey plane-parallel atmospheres or scaled solar atmospheres, neither of which can be considered to have appropriate underlying assumptions for the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB). This paper discusses the treatment and influence of the outer boundary condition within stellar evolution codes, and the resulting effects on the AGB evolution. The complex interaction of processes, such as the third dredge up and mass loss, governing the TP-AGB can be affected by varying the treatment of this boundary condition. Presented here are the results from altering the geometry, opacities and the implementation of a grid of MARCS/COMARCS model atmospheres in order to improve this treatment. Although there are changes in the TP-AGB evolution, observable quantities, such as the final core mass, are not significantly altered as a result of the change of atmospheric treatment. During the course of the investigation, a previously unseen phenomena in the AGB models was observed and further investigated. This is believed to be physical, although arising from specific conditions which make its presence unlikely. If it were present in stars, this phenomenon would increase the carbon-star lifetime above 10Myr and increase the final core mass by ˜0.1M⊙ in the narrow initial-mass range where it was observed (˜2 - 2.3M⊙).

  11. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  12. How physiological and cultural conditions influence heterologous protein production in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, Annamaria; Capitanio, Daniele; Vigentini, Ileana; Ranzi, Bianca Maria; Compagno, Concetta

    2004-04-08

    The optimization and scale-up of a specific protein production process have to take into account cultural conditions as well as cell physiology of growth and influence of foreign protein expression on host cell metabolism. Growth on cheap substrates, efficient secretion ability and a weaker tendency to hypermannosilate proteins than S. cerevisiae, make K. lactis an excellent and well-accepted host for heterologous protein production, even for human use. A fairly good heterologous glucoamylase yield and the setting of the optimal conditions to produce it were obtained expressing the Arxula adeninivorans glucoamylase in a strain of K. lactis and its isogenic mutant, which seems to have higher secretion ability. We performed batch cultures of both strains to analyze the influence of different physiological and environmental parameters on glucoamylase production/secretion. Interestingly, the maintenance of pH in the range of neutrality causes the consumption of a larger amount of carbon source, a longer time of production and a better stability of the active form of the enzyme, thus increasing biomass and glucoamylase production. Furthermore, the enrichment of the culture medium adds up to the action of pH control, forcing the mutant production/secretion to higher levels.

  13. Lipase mediated synthesis of rutin fatty ester: Study of its process parameters and solvent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisali, C; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2017-10-01

    Lipophilization of antioxidants is recognized as an effective strategy to enhance solubility and thus effectiveness in lipid based food. In this study, an effort was made to optimize rutin fatty ester synthesis in two different solvent systems to understand the influence of reaction system hydrophobicity on the optimum conditions using immobilised Candida antartica lipase. Under unoptimized conditions, 52.14% and 13.02% conversion was achieved in acetone and tert-butanol solvent systems, respectively. Among all the process parameters, water activity of the system was found to show highest influence on the conversion in each reaction system. In the presence of molecular sieves, the ester production increased to 62.9% in tert-butanol system, unlike acetone system. Under optimal conditions, conversion increased to 60.74% and 65.73% in acetone and tert-butanol system, respectively. This study shows, maintaining optimal water activity is crucial in reaction systems having polar solvents compared to more non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences of surface hydrophilicity on frost formation on a vertical cold plate under natural convection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Hongyan; Meng, Sheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Pingleyuan 100, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2007-07-15

    Surface hydrophilicity has a strong influence on frost nucleation according to phase transition theory. To study this effect, a close observation of frost formation and deposition processes on a vertical plate was made under free convection conditions. The formation and shape variation of frost crystals during the initial period are described and the frost thickness variation with time on both hydrophobic and plain copper cold surfaces are presented. The various influencing factors are discussed in depth. The mechanism of surface hydrophilicity influence on frost formation was analyzed theoretically. This revealed that increasing the contact angle can increase the potential barrier and restrain crystal nucleation and growth and thus frost deposition. The experimental results show that the initial water drops formed on a hydrophobic surface are smaller and remain in the liquid state for a longer time compared with ones formed on a plain copper surface. It is also observed that the frost layer deposited on a hydrophobic surface is loose and weak. Though the hydrophobic surface can retard frost formation to a certain extent and causes a looser frost layer, our experimental results show that it does not depress the growth of the frost layer. (author)

  15. Influence of growth conditions on exchange bias of NiMn-based spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienecke, Anja; Kruppe, Rahel; Rissing, Lutz [Institute for Microproduction Technology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30823 Garbsen (Germany)

    2015-05-07

    As shown in previous investigations, a correlation between a NiMn-based spin valve's thermal stability and its inherent exchange bias exists, even if the blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet is clearly above the heating temperature and the reason for thermal degradation is mainly diffusion and not the loss of exchange bias. Samples with high exchange bias are thermally more stable than samples with low exchange bias. Those structures promoting a high exchange bias are seemingly the same suppressing thermally induced diffusion processes (A. Wienecke and L. Rissing, “Relationship between thermal stability and layer-stack/structure of NiMn-based GMR systems,” in IEEE Transaction on Magnetic Conference (EMSA 2014)). Many investigations were carried out on the influence of the sputtering parameters as well as the layer thickness on the magnetoresistive effect. The influence of these parameters on the exchange bias and the sample's thermal stability, respectively, was hardly taken into account. The investigation described here concentrates on the last named issue. The focus lies on the influence of the sputtering parameters and layer thickness of the “starting layers” in the stack and the layers forming the (synthetic) antiferromagnet. This paper includes a guideline for the evaluated sputtering conditions and layer thicknesses to realize a high exchange bias and presumably good thermal stability for NiMn-based spin valves with a synthetic antiferromagnet.

  16. Influence of climate conditions on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dufková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climate conditions on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion was considered in the area of South Moravia. For this purpose, 16 meteorological stations were selected on the basis of accessibility of required data, their adequate representativeness, homogeneity, and position of the stations. It was necessary to make the database of climatological factors (such as wind velocity, precipitation and air temperature of the period of 1961–2003 for the analyses of climatological data. The climatological data was then evaluated for the periods of 1961–2003, 1961–1990, 1991–2000, and 1971–2000. Clima- tic erosion factor, which explains potential erodibility of soil by wind, was determined through the analyses of factors influencing the wind erosion. The assessment of influence of expected climate change on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion consists in the selection of suitable climatological model and climate change scenarios on the basis of ability to model the three climatological factors (wind velocity, precipitation and air temperature. Climate change scenarios were then applied on the data of the selected climatological stations and the assessment of changes in data sets and the comparative analysis of the outputs of the scenarios with measured data from the normal period of 1961–1990 were done. The climatic erosion factor was also determined from the altered data of the scenarios.

  17. Influence of age on postural sway during different dual-task conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eBergamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-task performance assessments of competing parallel tasks and postural outcomes are growing in importance for geriatricians, as it is associated with predicting fall risk in older adults. This study aims to evaluate the postural stability during different dual-task conditions including visual (SMBT, verbal (CBAT and cognitive (MAT tasks in comparison with the standard Romberg’s open eyes position (OE. Furthermore, these conditions were investigated in a sample of young adults and a group of older healthy subjects to examine a potential interaction between type of secondary task and age status. To compare these groups across the four conditions, a within-between mixed model ANOVA was applied. Thus, a stabilometric platform has been used to measure center of pressure velocity (CoPV, sway area (SA, antero-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML oscillations as extents of postural sway. Tests of within-subjects effects indicated that different four conditions influenced the static balance for CoPV (p<0.001, SA (p<0.001. Post-hoc analyses indicated that CBAT task induced the worst balance condition on CoPV and resulted in significantly worse scores than OE (-11.4%; p<0.05, SMBT (-17.8% p<0.01 and MAT (-17.8% p<0.01 conditions; the largest SA was found in OE, and it was statistically larger than SMBT (-27.0%, p<0.01 and MAT (-23.1%; p<0.01. The between-subjects analysis indicated a general lower balance control in the group of elderly subjects (CoPV p<0.001, SA p<0.002, while, the mixed model ANOVA did not detect any interaction effect between types of secondary task and groups in any parameters (CoPV p=0.154, SA p=0.125. Postural sway during dual-task assessments was also found to decrease with advancing age, however, no interactions between aging and types of secondary tasks were found. Overall, these results indicated that the secondary task which most influenced the length of sway path, as measured by postural stability was a simple verbal

  18. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 = 0.001, P = 0.969) and agonistic behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 < 0.001, P = 0.986). Direct effects of PZP treatment on the behavior of

  19. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  20. Influence of reduction conditions of NiO on its mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehor Brodnikovskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yttria stabilized zirconia with a nickel catalyst (Ni-YSZ is the most developed, widely used cermet anode for manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs. Its electro-catalytic properties, mechanical durability and performance stability in hydrogen-rich environ­ments makes it the state of the art fuel electrode for SOFCs. During the reduction stage in initial SOFC operation, the virgin anode material, a NiO-YSZ mixture, is reduced to Ni-YSZ. The volume decrease associated with the change from NiO-YSZ to Ni-YSZ creates voids and causes structural changes, which can influence the physical properties of the anode. In this work, the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of NiO samples before and after reduction in pure H2 and a mixture of 5 vol. % H2-Ar were studied. The NiO to Ni phase transformations that occur in the anode under reducing and Reduction-Oxidation (RedOx cycling conditions and the impact on cell microstruc­ture, strength and electrical conductivity have been examined. Results show that the RedOx treatment of the NiO samples influence on their properties controversially, due to structural transfor­mation (formation of large amount of fine pores of the reduced Ni. It strengthened the treated samples yielding the highest mechanical strength values of 25.7 MPa, but from another side it is resulting in lowest electrical conductivity value of 1.9×105 S m-1 among all reduced samples. The results of this investigation shows that reduction conditions of NiO is a powerful tool for influence on properties of the anode substrate.

  1. The influence of natural deep eutectic solvents on bioactive natural products: Studying interactions between a hydrogel model and Schisandra chinensis metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shao-Nong; Brent Friesen, J; Nikolić, Dejan; Choules, Mary P; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-02-20

    Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) species can exhibit unexpected solubilizing power for lipophilic molecules despite their simple composition, hydrophilic organic molecules and water. In the present study, the unique properties of NADES species were applied in combination with a model polymer system: a hydrophilic chitosan/alginate hydrogel. Briefly, NADES species (e.g., mannose-dimethylurea-water, 2:5:5, mole/mole) formed matrices to 1) dissolve lipophilic molecules (e.g., curcumin), 2) load lipophilic molecule(s) into the hydrogel, and 3) spontaneously vacate from the system. NADES species ubiquitously occur in natural sources, and a crude extract is a mixture of the NADES species and bioactive metabolites. Based on these ideas, we hypothesized that the crude extract may also allow the loading of natural bioactive molecules from a natural NADES species into (bio)hydrogel systems. To evaluate this hypothesis in vitro, Schisandra chinensis fruit extract was chosen as a representative mixture of lipophilic botanical molecules and hydrophilic NADES species. The results showed that the NADES matrix of S. chinensis was capable of loading at least three bioactive lignans (i.e., gomisin A, gomisin J, and angeloylgomisin H) into the polymer system. The lipophilic metabolites can subsequently be released from the hydrogel. The outcomes suggest that a unique drug delivery mechanism may exist in nature, thereby potentially improving the bioavailability of lipophilic metabolites through physicochemical interactions with the NADESs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Solvent-switchable continuous-breathing behaviour in a diamondoid metal-organic framework and its influence on CO2 versus CH4 selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Elliot J.; McAnally, Craig A.; Fletcher, Ashleigh J.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Warren, Mark; Brammer, Lee

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the behaviour of flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—porous crystalline materials that undergo a structural change upon exposure to an external stimulus—underpins their design as responsive materials for specific applications, such as gas separation, molecular sensing, catalysis and drug delivery. Reversible transformations of a MOF between open- and closed-pore forms—a behaviour known as 'breathing'—typically occur through well-defined crystallographic transitions. By contrast, continuous breathing is rare, and detailed characterization has remained very limited. Here we report a continuous-breathing mechanism that was studied by single-crystal diffraction in a MOF with a diamondoid network, (Me2NH2)[In(ABDC)2] (ABDC, 2-aminobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). Desolvation of the MOF in two different solvents leads to two polymorphic activated forms with very different pore openings, markedly different gas-adsorption capacities and different CO2 versus CH4 selectivities. Partial desolvation introduces a gating pressure associated with CO2 adsorption, which shows that the framework can also undergo a combination of stepped and continuous breathing.

  3. Influence of the composition of aqueous-alcohol solvents on the thermodynamic characteristics of L-phenylalanine dissolution at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelin, Valentin G.; Smirnov, Valeriy I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enthalpies of L-phenylalanine dissolution have been measured in aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol. ► The measured data were reported as functions of composition of water + alcohol mixtures. ► Enthalpy coefficients of pair-wise interactions have been analyzed in terms of McMillan-Mayer theory. ► A comparative analysis of the characteristics of dissolution of L-phenylalanine and some other L-amino acids in the similar systems has been made. - Abstract: The enthalpies of L-phenylalanine dissolution in aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol have been determined by calorimetry at 298.15 K and alcohol mole fractions up to x 2 ∼0.4. The standard enthalpies of solution Δ sol H° and transfer Δ tr H° from water to the mixed solvent as well as the enthalpy coefficients of L-phenylalanine–alcohol pair-wise interactions were calculated. The interrelation of the enthalpies of dissolution and transfer for L-phenylalanine with structural features of alcohols has been determined. A comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of dissolution of L-phenylalanine and some other amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-threonine and L-valine) in the mixtures studied has been made.

  4. Influence of MCC II fraction and storage conditions on pellet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II)--a polymorph of commonly used MCC I--was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that pellet properties were influenced by the fraction of MCC II. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the storage conditions can affect the disintegration behavior. Therefore, the effects of MCC II fraction and the storage conditions on several pellet properties were investigated. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of pure MCC II or binary mixtures containing 10-50% (steps of 10%) MCC II as pelletization aid and theophylline, chloramphenicol or lactose. The pellets were characterized by their aspect ratio, equivalent diameter, water content, tensile strength, porosity as well as shrinking, and disintegration behavior and drug release according to their MCC II fraction. Furthermore, the pellets were stored at different relative humidities (0-97%rh), and the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. With increasing MCC II fraction, the pellets became lager in size, decreased their porosity, and required higher water contents for spheronization. Moreover, the disintegration time increased and the disintegration itself was incomplete. Furthermore, the storage conditions had an impact on the disintegration properties of MCC II-based pellets. The disintegrating was affected irreversibly after storage at high humidity (80-97%rh) resulting in a slow drug release. Therefore, MCC II-based pellets need to be stored below 80%rh to secure a fast disintegration. A better knowledge of the properties of MCC II-based pellets was obtained providing a basis for a successful manufacturing and adequate storage of MCC II-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of different extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of soursop peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Zin; Chang, Sui Kiat; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2016-01-01

    Soursop is a healthy fruit. Peels form about 20% of the soursop fruit and are usually discarded as waste product. With a view to utilizing soursop peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of soursop (Annona muricata L.) peel. Different ethanol concentrations (20-100%, v/v), extraction temperatures (25- 60°C), and extraction time (1-5 h) were tested. Extracts were prepared on the basis of the best optimal extraction conditions (20% ethanol, 40°C the extraction temperature, and 4 h of extraction time), an optimal TPC and AC was determined for the soursop peel using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The different extraction conditions tested at best optimum conditions have significantly affected the TPC and AC of the soursop peel. Soursop peel extract extracted in the best optimal extraction conditions had moderate levels of TPC (52.2 μg GAE/ml), and FRAP value (58.9 μg TE/ml extract). The extract demonstrated high BCB inhibitory activity (80.08%). The EC50 values of the extract were high, 1179.96 and 145.12 μg/ml, as assessed using DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The TPC was positively and highly correlated with the AC of soursop peel assessed by ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assay, but it was moderately correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activity. A moderate correlation of TPC with DPPH suggested that polyphenols in the extracts were partially responsible for the AC. By-products of soursop such as its peel could be an inexpensive source of good natural antioxidants with nutraceutical potential in the functional food industry.

  6. Fuel temperature influence on diesel sprays in inert and reacting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; García-Oliver, Jose M.; Bardi, Michele; Manin, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the evaporation–combustion process of the Diesel spray is a key factor for the development of robust injection strategies able to reduce the pollutant emissions and keep or increase the combustion efficiency. In this work several typical measurement applied to the diesel spray diagnostic (liquid length, lift-off length and ignition delay) have been employed in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic test conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). A step forward in the control of the test boundary conditions has been done employing a special system to study the fuel temperature effect on the evaporation and combustion of the spray. The temperature of the injector body has been controlled with a thermostatic system and the relationship between injector body and fuel temperature has been observed experimentally. Imaging diagnostics have been employed to visualize the liquid phase penetration in evaporative/inert conditions and, lift-off length and ignition delay in reactive condition. The results underline a clear influence of the injector body temperature on both conditions, evaporative and, in a lesser degree, reactive; finally the physical models found in the literature have been compared with the results obtained experimentally. - Highlights: ► The effect of the fuel temperature is substantial on liquid length (up to 15%). ► Fuel temperature has low effect but still appreciable on LOL and ignition delay. ► Theoretical one dimensional spray models are able to reproduce the experimental results with good accuracy.

  7. Redox conditions effect on flow accelerated corrosion: Influence of hydrazine and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, O. de; Bouchacourt, M.; Fruzzetti, K.

    2002-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steels has been studied world-wide for more than twenty years and is now fairly well understood. The influence of several parameters like water chemistry (i.e. pH and oxygen content), temperature, hydrodynamic or mass transfer conditions (i.e. flow velocity, geometry, steam quality..) and steel composition on the corrosion kinetics has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. However, the effect of a reducing environment and variable redox conditions have not yet been fully explored. It's well known that a reducing environment is effective in increasing the resistance of steam generator tubing to intergranular attack / stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) and pitting. In that way, secondary water chemistry specifications have been modified from low hydrazine to high hydrazine chemistry in the steam-water circuit. Nevertheless, increasing hydrazine levels up to 200 μg/kg could have a detrimental effect by potentially enhancing the FAC process. Moreover, in order to have a complete understanding of the possible impact of the water chemistry environment it is also important to consider the impact of redox conditions during shutdowns (cold and/or hot shutdowns) and start up periods when aerated water injections are made to maintain a constant water level in the Steam Generators from the auxiliary feedwater circuit. Therefore, a common EDF and EPRI R and D effort has been recently carried out to study the effects of hydrazine and oxygen on FAC. The results are presented as follows. (authors)

  8. Redox conditions effect on flow accelerated corrosion: Influence of hydrazine and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, O. de [EDF, R and D Div., Moret sur Loing (France); Bouchacourt, M. [EDF, Engineering and Service Div., Villeurbanne (France); Fruzzetti, K. [EPRI, Science and Technology Div., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steels has been studied world-wide for more than twenty years and is now fairly well understood. The influence of several parameters like water chemistry (i.e. pH and oxygen content), temperature, hydrodynamic or mass transfer conditions (i.e. flow velocity, geometry, steam quality..) and steel composition on the corrosion kinetics has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. However, the effect of a reducing environment and variable redox conditions have not yet been fully explored. It's well known that a reducing environment is effective in increasing the resistance of steam generator tubing to intergranular attack / stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) and pitting. In that way, secondary water chemistry specifications have been modified from low hydrazine to high hydrazine chemistry in the steam-water circuit. Nevertheless, increasing hydrazine levels up to 200 {mu}g/kg could have a detrimental effect by potentially enhancing the FAC process. Moreover, in order to have a complete understanding of the possible impact of the water chemistry environment it is also important to consider the impact of redox conditions during shutdowns (cold and/or hot shutdowns) and start up periods when aerated water injections are made to maintain a constant water level in the Steam Generators from the auxiliary feedwater circuit. Therefore, a common EDF and EPRI R and D effort has been recently carried out to study the effects of hydrazine and oxygen on FAC. The results are presented as follows. (authors)

  9. Influence of curing conditions on the sorptivity and weight change characteristics of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the capillary water absorption and weight change characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC). Specimens were prepared using three types of concrete (SCC, Portland cement (PC), Fly ash (FA) concretes) and were cured under three different curing conditions (20C water and 20C and 40C air cure) for 28 days. Weight gain (water intake) in water curing and weight loss (water loss) in 20C and 40C air curing were recorded throughout the curing period. Compressive strength, water absorption and capillary water absorption tests were carried out at 28 days. The results indicated that FA concrete gained about 0.5% whilst PC and self-compacting concretes gained about 1.0% of the initial weight. This indicates that due to the slower reaction process more free water remains within FA concrete avoiding further water intake. In the weight loss study, FA concrete lost about 4.0% and 6.0% of the initial weight at 20C and 40C air curing, respectively; whereas SCC and PC concretes (both had almost identical values) lost about 3.2 and 5.2% at 20C and 40C, respectively. The absorption test results indicated that SCC gave the lowest captivity coefficient values followed by PC and FA concretes in all curing conditions. (author)

  10. INFLUENCE OF REACTION CONDITIONS ON THE ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS OF CHAMOIS LEATHER WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The leather processing industry is known as an important source of environmental pollution, due to the large amount of waste generated. In this respect there are efforts concerning recovering and capitalizing of these wastes in order to subsequently use them in different applications. This work aimed to obtain collagen forms with convenient features starting from Chamois leather waste resulting from the buffing operation, by alkaline hydrolysis at different temperatures (60°C, 90°C, and 120°C and reaction time (4, 6 and 8 hours, in a solution of 30% NH4OH with a pH=11. The effects of the reaction conditions (temperature and reaction duration on the hydrolysis yield and molecular weight of the extracted polypeptides were investigated. The working version no. 8 (temperature = 1200C, and reaction time = 6h was chosen as optimal for obtaining a protein product suitable from the point of view of hydrolysis yield and molecular weight, respectively. For this sample no. 8, tests for checking physical-chemical characteristics were carried out, and also the influence of the hydrolysis upon certain structural changes caused by the reaction conditions was investigated by IR analysis. The reaction conditions led to obtaining polypeptide mixtures with different molecular weights and polydispersity that can be used as auxiliaries to obtain composite materials or as additives for new building materials.

  11. Mangroves on the Edge: Anthrome-Dependent Fragmentation Influences Ecological Condition (Turbo, Colombia, Southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are commonly seen as the most effective strategy for protecting mangroves from external human pressures but little is known about the role of public land-tenure contexts (dense settlements, agricultural or range lands and wild anthromes on clearing rates, patch properties, and ecological condition. We addressed the following questions using a peri-urban to wild gradient along the anthropogenic coastal-scape in Turbo Municipality (Colombia, Southern Caribbean: Do the different deforestation rates observed under peri-urban, rural, military-protected and wild land-use-and-tenure contexts, promote distinctive fragmentation patterns? Do these patterns influence loggers’ access and ultimately ecosystem ecological condition? Loss rate (1938–2009 was the greatest peri-urban mangroves and positively correlated with urban edge and patch density. Pasture edge was highest in rural mangroves while mean patch area was higher in protected and wild mangroves. An Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI was strongly correlated with reduced mean patch area and increased patch density, due to increased trampling and logging, that ultimately promoted high densities of thin (diameter: <5 cm Laguncularia racemosa trees but had no significant effect on the presence of a dominant benthic gastropod. In conclusion, both protection and remoteness were effective in reducing anthropogenic edges and fragmentation, and thus contributed to a high ecological condition in mangroves at a major deforestation hotspot.

  12. The Influence of Individual Variability on Zooplankton Population Dynamics under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, R.; Liu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how biological components respond to environmental changes could be insightful to predict ecosystem trajectories under different climate scenarios. Zooplankton are key components of marine ecosystems and changes in their dynamics could have major impact on ecosystem structure. We developed an individual-based model of a common coastal calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa to examine how environmental factors affect zooplankton population dynamics and explore the role of individual variability in sustaining population under various environmental conditions consisting of temperature, food concentration and salinity. Total abundance, egg production and proportion of survival were used to measure population success. Results suggested population benefits from high level of individual variability under extreme environmental conditions including unfavorable temperature, salinity, as well as low food concentration, and selection on fast-growers becomes stronger with increasing individual variability and increasing environmental stress. Multiple regression analysis showed that temperature, food concentration, salinity and individual variability have significant effects on survival of A. tonsa population. These results suggest that environmental factors have great influence on zooplankton population, and individual variability has important implications for population survivability under unfavorable conditions. Given that marine ecosystems are at risk from drastic environmental changes, understanding how individual variability sustains populations could increase our capability to predict population dynamics in a changing environment.

  13. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huneau-Salaün

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 productivity data from 95 kindling to finishing rabbit farms in France were analysed to identify rearing factors and health conditions that influenced their productivity. Farm productivity, expressed on a yearly basis, was described with 4 productivity indices: doe fertility and prolificacy, viability of young rabbits in the nest and mortality during the fattening period. The productivity data were obtained with the technical support of the farm and expressed in a standardised way. The average numerical productivity observed in the sample of farms was 50.9 rabbits produced per doe and per year (CI95% [49.6-52.2]. The husbandry management and health conditions were described based on a questionnaire filled out during an interview with the farmer and a farm visit. Explanatory data were organised into meaningful blocks relative to biosecurity measures, del using a Partiamaternity management, the sanitary context and the farm structure. The relationship between the 4 thematic blocks and the productivity indices was studied in a single mol Least Squares (PLS regression model. Fertility (81.0%, CI95% [80.0-82.0] and viability of young at nest (85.1%, CI95% [85.0-85.3] and mortality rate during fattening: 7.2%, CI95% [6.4-7.9] were significantly associated with common factors relative to maternity management and the health context whereas prolificacy (9.7 live kits per parturition, CI95% [9.5-9.9] was mostly influenced by a specific set of variables pertaining to those 2 blocks. Farm structure and biosecurity measures had a limited impact on fertility and on kit viability before weaning. The health conditions of the doe herd and the fattening rabbits were found to be significantly associated with several productivity indexes, but their impacts on productivity were as high as the impact of the other blocks. Genetic strain of the females, doe replacement strategy and nursing and weaning practices appeared to significantly influence reproductive

  14. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  15. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  16. Statistical estimate of factors influence on sorption of Mo(Ⅵ) ions by tin hydroxide in dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshutkin, V.V.; Granovskiy, Yu.V.; Prozorovskaya, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to statistical estimate of factors influence on sorption of Mo(Ⅵ) ions by tin hydroxide in dynamic conditions. The influence of different factors on the process of sorption of Co(Ⅵ) ions by cryo-granular tin hydroxide in dynamic conditions is studied and optimal conditions of their extraction from aqueous solutions are considered. It is defined that factors significant affect the sorption process in dynamic conditions are: concentration of Mo(Ⅵ) ions in solution; the mass of sorbent; the rate of transmission of solution through the layer of sorbent; concentration of SO 4 2- ions in solution.

  17. Relative Influence of Initial Surface and Atmospheric Conditions on Seasonal Water and Energy Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed wet and dry soil moisture composites for the mid-latitude GCIP region of the central US using long climate model simulations made with the NCAR CCM3 and reanalysis products from NCEP. Using the diagnostic composites as a guide, we have completed a series of predictability experiments in which we imposed soil water initial conditions in CCM3 for the GCIP region for June 1 from anomalously wet and dry years, with atmospheric initial conditions taken from June 1 of a year with 'near-normal' soil water, and initial soil water from the near-normal year and atmospheric initial conditions from the wet and dry years. Preliminary results indicate that the initial state of the atmosphere is more important than the initial state of soil water determining the subsequent late spring and summer evolution of sod water over the GCIP region. Surprisingly, neither the composites or the predictability experiments yielded a strong influence of soil moisture on the atmosphere. To explore this further, we have made runs with extreme dry soil moisture initial anomalies imposed over the GCIP region (the soil close to being completely dry). These runs did yield a very strong effect on the atmosphere that persisted for at least three months. We conclude that the magnitude of the initial soil moisture anomaly is crucial, at least in CCM3, and are currently investigating whether a threshold exists, below which little impact is seen. In a complementary study, we compared the impact of the initial condition of snow cover versus the initial atmospheric state over the western US (corresponding to the westward extension of the GAPP program follow-on to GCIP). In this case, the initial prescription of snow cover is far more important than the initial atmospheric state in determining the subsequent evolution of snow cover. We are currently working to understand the very different soil water and snow cover results.

  18. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  19. Influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicu, M.; Mihai, F.; Turcanu, C.

    1998-01-01

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal is a priority demand concerning the protection of the environment and population. For this reason, an engineering multi-barrier system is studied in order to be improved. This study aims to establish the influence of the complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix. Radioactive effluents which contain agents as oxalic and citric acids are generated during the radioactive decontamination operation using chemical methods. The conditioning of these wastes by cementing process imposed the experimental determination of the mechanical performances of the matrix and the upper permissible level of complexing agent concentration. To determine the influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of cement conditioning matrix, cubic samples (20 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm) were prepared using commercial Portland cement and solutions of organic complexing acids or salts (citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, sodium citrate and ammonium oxalate). The complexation concentration varied between 0.25% and 1% in distilled and drinking water, respectively. The selected cement/water ratio was 0.5. The experiments were focused on: - establishing the firmness of the Pa 35 cement pastes and mortars in dependence on the water/cement ratio, by classical methods (Tetmeyer probe for pastes and standard cone for mortars) and by triclinic time through a funnel with 15 mm aperture; - studying the influence of the tartaric, oxalic, citric acids, ammonium oxalate and sodium citrate solution concentrations on water quantities used to obtain pastes with normal firmness and on Pa 35 cement setting; - the influence of oxalic acid, tartaric acid and ammonium oxalate solution concentrations on the strength of compression of the pastes with normal firmness; - for testing, standard test bar cubes with 20 mm sides were used and the strength of compression was tested at 28 days; - establishing the behaviour in time of

  20. Environmental Conditions Influencing Sorption of Inorganic Anions to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-05-02

    Sorption to carbon-based nanomaterials is typically studied in batch experiments. An alternative method offering advantages to study sorption is column chromatography. Sorbent packed columns are used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. We have now for the first time applied this technique to study the influence of environmental conditions on sorption of inorganic anions (bromide, nitrite, nitrate, and iodide) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were best described by the Freundlich model. Sorption increased in the order bromide 4.5 the surface charge was negative, but sorption was still detectable at pH 6 and 9. Consequently, other forces than electrostatic attraction contributed to sorption. These forces may include H-bonding as indicated by sorption enthalpy determined by variation of column temperature. Overall, column chromatography represents a promising alternative in sorption studies to reveal sorbent properties.

  1. Buckling of Monopod Bucket Foundations – Influence of Boundary Conditions and Soil-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Pinna, Rodney; Randolph, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Using large monopod bucket foundations as an alternative to monopiles for offshore wind turbines offers the potential for large cost savings compared to typical piled foundations. In this paper, numerical simulations are carried out to assess the risk of structural buckling during installation of...... is investigated. The effects of including soil restraint and soil–structure interaction on the buckling analysis are also addressed.......Using large monopod bucket foundations as an alternative to monopiles for offshore wind turbines offers the potential for large cost savings compared to typical piled foundations. In this paper, numerical simulations are carried out to assess the risk of structural buckling during installation...... of large-diameter bucket foundations. Since shell structures are generally sensitive to initially imperfect geometries, eigenmode-affine imperfections are introduced in a nonlinear finite-element analysis. The influence of modelling the real lid structure compared to classic boundary conditions...

  2. Environmental Conditions Influence the Plant Functional Diversity Effect on Potential Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Wright, Justin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Richardson, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD)) and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP). We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning. PMID:21311768

  3. Environmental conditions influence the plant functional diversity effect on potential denitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E Sutton-Grier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP. We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning.

  4. Influence of temporally variable groundwater flow conditions on point measurements and contaminant mass flux estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer, S; Dietrich, P

    2009-01-01

    information representing observation wells installed along control planes using different well frequencies and configurations. Results of the scenario simulations show that temporally variable flow conditions can lead to significant temporal fluctuations of the concentration and thus are a substantial source...... is present, the concentration variability due to a fluctuating groundwater flow direction varies significantly within the control plane and between the different realizations. Determination of contaminant mass fluxes is also influenced by the temporal variability of the concentration measurement, especially...... periods of groundwater flow fluctuation. For the determination of mass fluxes at heterogeneous sites, however, local fluxes, which may vary considerably along a control plane, have to be accounted for. Here, dosimeter sampling in combination with time integrated local water flux measurements can improve...

  5. Determining the influence of molecular structure on the physical properties of complex solvent : Experiment, equation of state modeling and molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schacht, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This work is concerned with the molecular influence of structure on the phase behavior of mixtures. Systems of hyperbranched (dendric) polymers in solution are studied experimentally. The results are compared to systems where the polymeric substance has a linear architecture in order to assess the

  6. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  8. Nanosized titanium dioxide influences copper-induced toxicity during aging as a function of environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Haigis, Ann-Cathrin; Höger, Johanna; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO2 -NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72 h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO2 -NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO2 -NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO2 -NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Optimization of trigeneration systems by Mathematical Programming: Influence of plant scheme and boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Gallea, R.; Cardona, F.; Lo Brano, V.; Ciulla, G.; Catrini, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lay-out, design and operation of trigeneration plant is optimized for hotel building. • The temporal basis used for the optimization is properly selected. • The influence of plant scheme on the optimal results is discussed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed for different levels of tax exemption on fuel. • Dynamic behavior of the cogeneration unit influences its optimal operation strategy. - Abstract: The large potential for energy saving by cogeneration and trigeneration in the building sector is scarcely exploited due to a number of obstacles in making the investments attractive. The analyst often encounters difficulties in identifying optimal design and operation strategies, since a number of factors, either endogenous (i.e. related with the energy load profiles) and exogenous (i.e. related with external conditions like energy prices and support mechanisms), influence the economic viability. In this paper a decision tool is adopted, which represents an upgrade of a software analyzed in previous papers; the tool simultaneously optimizes the plant lay-out, the sizes of the main components and their operation strategy. For a specific building in the hotel sector, a preliminary analysis is performed to identify the most promising plant configuration, in terms of type of cogeneration unit (either microturbine or diesel oil/natural gas-fueled reciprocate engine) and absorption chiller. Then, sensitivity analyses are carried out to investigate the effects induced by: (a) tax exemption for the fuel consumed in “efficient cogeneration” mode, (b) dynamic behavior of the prime mover and consequent capability to rapidly adjust its load level to follow the energy loads

  10. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Seng, Karen M; Mannering, Thomas D; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bellwood, David R; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  11. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chong-Seng

    Full Text Available Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58% and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95% and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF LANDSCAPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE CARPATHIANS ON THE FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Pavliuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current stage of development of our country globalization and integration processes are becoming more powerful. In these circumstances, the problem of preserving Ukrainian national identity becomes urgent. The article deals with conditions of the linguistic identity as the bearer of the Ukrainian national cultural space. Based on the analysis of current researches of individual language learning the author concludes that linguistic identity is a social phenomenon. The development and establishment of the linguistic personality arises in the process of education, training, communication, i.e. in different activities depending on the nature of the social environment in general and speech environment in particular. However, some scientific research allow to affirm the need to incorporate formative influence of the nature on the linguistic identity. The focus of the article is Carpathian region as an environment in which ethnic culture and language were almost no external influences. An important conclusion from this research is that learning the problem of linguistic identity should take into account forming impact of the environment - both natural and linguistic.

  13. Influence of ball-milling and annealing conditions on nanocluster characteristics in oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent-Brocq, M.; Legendre, F.; Mathon, M.-H.; Mascaro, A.; Poissonnet, S.; Radiguet, B.; Pareige, P.; Loyer, M.; Leseigneur, O.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of strengthening nanoclusters (NCs) have a major influence on the mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. To determine how to control NC formation, ODS powders are synthesized in different ball-milling and annealing conditions, then characterized by electron probe micro-analysis and small angle neutron scattering. During ball-milling, reactants are dissolved into the metallic matrix until a Ti, Y and O solid solution is formed and then NC nucleation begins. Nucleation is greatly enhanced during the first minutes of annealing at 800 °C without any coarsening afterwards. The intensity and temperature of ball-milling influence this mechanism and thus the characteristics of the formed NC, whereas the nature of reactants, for a given composition, has no impact on NC size and volume fraction. Consequently, to promote the formation of fine and dense dispersion of NC, two main modifications to the usual process are proposed: (i) perform a long and/or intense ball-milling with a limited overheating, and (ii) anneal the as-milled powder at 800 °C before performing the thermo-mechanical treatment.

  14. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  15. Response Surface Optimization of Rotenone Using Natural Alcohol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent as Additive in the Extraction Medium Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is a biopesticide with an amazing effect on aquatic life and insect pests. In Asia, it can be isolated from Derris species roots (Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis. The previous study revealed the comparable efficiency of alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES in extracting a high yield of rotenone (isoflavonoid to binary ionic liquid solvent system ([BMIM]OTf and organic solvent (acetone. Therefore, this study intends to analyze the optimum parameters (solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate in extracting the highest yield of rotenone extract at a much lower cost and in a more environmental friendly method by using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD. By using RSM, linear polynomial equations were obtained for predicting the concentration and yield of rotenone extracted. The verification experiment confirmed the validity of both of the predicted models. The results revealed that the optimum conditions for solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate were 2 : 8 (DES : acetonitrile, 19.34 hours, and 199.32 rpm, respectively. At the optimum condition of the rotenone extraction process using DES binary solvent system, this resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in a rotenone concentration of 0.49 ± 0.07 mg/ml and yield of 0.35 ± 0.06 (%, w/w as compared to the control extract (acetonitrile only. In fact, the rotenone concentration and yield were significantly influenced by binary solvent ratio and extraction time (P<0.05 but not by means of agitation rate. For that reason, the optimal extraction condition using alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES as a green additive in the extraction medium cocktail has increased the potential of enhancing the rotenone concentration and yield extracted.

  16. Influence of collimator choice and simulated clinical conditions on 123I-MIBG heart/mediastinum ratios: a phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Feenstra, Christel; de Jong, W. Matthijs; Somsen, G. Aernout; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Busemann Sokole, Ellinor

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: (123)I presents imaging problems owing to high-energy photon emission. We investigated the influence of collimators on (123)I-MIBG heart/mediastinum ratios (H/M ratios). Secondly, we assessed the influence on H/M ratios of different activity concentrations, simulating clinical conditions.

  17. How Dietary Phosphorus Availability during Development Influences Condition and Life History Traits of the Cricket, Acheta domesticas

    OpenAIRE

    Visanuvimol, Laksanavadee; Bertram, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10–20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth, development time, consumption, condition, and lifespan using juvenile European house crickets, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)....

  18. Orthogonal test design for optimization of suitable conditions to separate C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography using reverse micelle solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Yu, Kun; Zhen, Yuhong; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jinyong; Tan, Aiping

    2011-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied to separate C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis in the article. The suitable conditions were optimized by an orthogonal test design (L(9)(3)(3)), including the stationary phase of reverse micelle solvent system (0.10 g/mL cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB]/isooctane-hexylalcohol), mobile phase A (0.05 mol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 4.0, containing 0.2 mol/L KCl) and mobile phase B (0.05 mol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 0.4 mol/L KCl). Under the selected conditions, 78.7 mg protein was purified from 200 mg crude extract of S. platensis, and the purity of the product was 4.25 based on the absorbance ratio of A(620)/A(280) , which was increased 6.85 times compared with the crude extract. Then, the protein was identified to be C-PC by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis compared with the standard. The application of HSCCC used in the separation of C-PC from S. platensis was first reported in the article. Furthermore, three kinds of tumor cell lines including human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721, human ovarian carcinoma cell line ES-2, and human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPCA-1 were used to evaluate the anticancer activities of the separated product, and the results showed that the separated C-PC had excellent anti-tumor actions with the IC(50) values at 2.998, 4.854, and 8.423 μg/mL, respectively, for 48 h treatment. The outcome indicates that an effective method for C-PC purification by HSCCC has been established. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Separation by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  20. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  1. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance......A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference......, volatility difference, VLE phase diagram analysis, and azeotropic information that are particularly important for the solvent swap task. The method employs a solvent-swap database together with calculation tools for properties–functions of solvents. The database contains solvents that are commonly used...

  2. Influence of forest cover changes on regional weather conditions: estimations using the mesoscale model COSMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A. V.; Rozinkina, I. A.; Kuzmina, E. V.; Nikitin, M. A.; Rivin, G. S.

    2018-01-01

    This modeling study intends to estimate the possible influence of forest cover change on regional weather conditions using the non-hydrostatic model COSMO. The central part of the East European Plain was selected as the ‘model region’ for the study. The results of numerical experiments conducted for the warm period of 2010 for the modeling domain covering almost the whole East European Plain showed that deforestation and afforestation processes within the selected model region of the area about 105 km2 can lead to significant changes in regional weather conditions. The deforestation processes have resulted in an increase of the air temperature and a reduction in the amount of precipitation. The afforestation processes can produce the opposite effects, as manifested in decreased air temperature and increased precipitation. Whereas a change of the air temperature is observed mainly inside of the model region, the changes of the precipitation are evident within the entire East European Plain, even in regions situated far away from the external boundaries of the model region.

  3. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  4. Sensory system development influences the ontogeny of hippocampal associative coding and trace eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Kim, Jangjin; Freeman, John H

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, it was believed that hippocampal development was the primary rate-limiting factor in the developmental emergence of hippocampal forms of learning, such as trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC). Indeed, hippocampal neuronal activity shows an age-related increase in both complexity and task responsiveness during trace EBC. However, recent work from our laboratory suggests that sensory system development may also play a role. Training with the earlier-developing somatosensory system results in an earlier emergence of trace EBC in rats, suggesting that the development of sensory input to the hippocampus may influence the development of trace EBC. The goal of the current study was to examine the activity of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells during acquisition of trace EBC with an early-developing somatosensory CS. Rat pups were trained with a vibration CS on postnatal days (P) 17-19, P21-23, and P24-26 while CA1 pyramidal cell activity was recorded. Results indicated that CA1 neurons show an age-related increase in responsiveness to trial events. Although the magnitude of neuronal responding showed age-related increases in activity, all three age groups demonstrated learning-related increases in firing rate magnitude and peaks in firing rate were evident both at CS onset and offset. These findings suggest that the ontogeny of trace eyeblink conditioning is related to both hippocampal and sensory system development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nurses’ Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudallal, Rola H.; Othman, Wafa’a M.; Al Hassan, Nahid F.

    2017-01-01

    Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses’ energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses’ feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses’ demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model–exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses’ work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses’ feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care. PMID:28844166

  6. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  7. Nurses' Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudallal, Rola H; Othman, Wafa'a M; Al Hassan, Nahid F

    2017-01-01

    Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses' energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses' feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses' demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model-exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses' work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses' feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care.

  8. Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examination of the influence of zirconium concentration on model-extraction systems containing TBP in solvents with Zr4+ ions-HNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of zirconium ions on the stability of primary emulsion in model extraction systems was examined. Zirconium ions cause a slight increase of the stability of the primary emulsions in the systems containing TBP only. The addition of MBP brings about precipitation of sediments that fix the emulsions and make phase separation difficult. The addition of DBP increases the stability of the primary emulsion. Kerosene as the diluent of TBP increases the stability of the primary emulsions more than carbon tetrachloride. (author)

  10. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  11. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented numerically from 1 to 5 points. Liver samples for pathohistological analyses were taken by biopsy from early lactation cows (60. day of lactation. Fat content in hepatocytes was determined morphometrically and results were compared with criteria based on total lipid and triglyceride content in liver tissue. On farm A, average body condition scores were in a range from 3.31, at sixty days of lactation, to 3.86 points in the dry period. Nevertheless, the range was wider on farm B, and was from 2.18 points at sixty days of lactation to 4.15 points at the dry period. Besides, differences in average body condition scores were higher than 1 point, and in some cases (between late lactation or dry period to sixty days of lactation were almost 2 points. The incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis strongly differ between the two examined farms. On farm A the incidence of hepatic lipidosis was 18.33 percent, while on farm B that percent was much higher (43.32. A significant difference was established in the degree of hepatic lipidosis between those two farms. On farm A diffuse hepatic lipidosis was determined in 5.0 percent of cows, while on farm B that percent was 18.33. According to these results, most of the cows on farm B had uncontrolled lipomobilisation and severe fatty liver during the early lactation period, probably due to the obesity of these cows in late lactation and the dry period.

  12. Influence of temperature and relative humidity conditions on the pan coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose molded capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Elena; Zema, Lucia; Pandey, Preetanshu; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Felton, Linda A

    2016-03-01

    In a previous study, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based capsular shells prepared by injection molding and intended for pulsatile release were successfully coated with 10mg/cm(2) Eudragit® L film. The suitability of HPC capsules for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time dependent approach was demonstrated. In the present work, data logging devices (PyroButton®) were used to monitor the microenvironmental conditions, i.e. temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), during coating processes performed under different spray rates (1.2, 2.5 and 5.5g/min). As HPC-based capsules present special features, a preliminary study was conducted on commercially available gelatin capsules for comparison purposes. By means of PyroButton data-loggers it was possible to acquire information about the impact of the effective T and RH conditions experienced by HPC substrates during the process on the technological properties and release performance of the coated systems. The use of increasing spray rates seemed to promote a tendency of the HPC shells to slightly swell at the beginning of the spraying process; moreover, capsules coated under spray rates of 1.2 and 2.5g/min showed the desired release performance, i.e. ability to withstand the acidic media followed by the pulsatile release expected for uncoated capsules. Preliminary stability studies seemed to show that coating conditions might also influence the release performance of the system upon storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions on Human Quality of Life in Social Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara; Fraga, Silvia; Delgado, Joao M P Q; Ramos, Nuno M M

    2015-11-17

    Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health. This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i) field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption); ii) residents' questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii) qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ) index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents' and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents. Significance for public healthThis study will contribute to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health, in social housing neighbourhoods. As so, it is important to share the undertaken methodology carried out by a multidisciplinary team, in order to allow other researchers following comparable studies to adopt a similar approach. The case study results will allow

  14. Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-09-25

    Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The influences of operating conditions and design configurations on the performance of symmetric electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E

    2016-10-19

    The influence of different charging current densities, charging times and several structural designs on symmetric electrochemical capacitor (EC) performance, including capacitance, energy density and power density, has been investigated via modelling and simulation. Understanding the effects of different operating conditions and structural design variables on a capacitor's performance will guide in the optimal design and fabrication of high performance ECs. The operating conditions and design configurations examined were charging current density, charging times, electrode and electrolyte effective conductivity, electrode thickness and electrode porosity. The results reveal that ECs with low electrode and electrolyte effective conductivities can only be effectively charged at low current density for long times. ECs with a high concentration of impurity ions or redox species exhibit high self-discharge rates, and fast charging of the ECs greatly reduces the self-discharge rate, compared to slow charging, provided that the effective conductivities of the electrode and electrolyte are high enough. The simulation showed the typical electrode length scale over which the liquid potential drop occurs and electrode utilization can be employed as a design parameter to optimize electrode thickness (effective thickness) for ECs designed to operate under a specific current density range. The expression for electrode utilization (u) and the guidelines that can also be used to determine optimum electrode thickness/effective thickness (100% electrode utilization), optimum charging time and optimum current density in a cell of a given voltage and effective conductivity of electrode and electrolyte, were derived. The energy and power density of ECs were increased when the electrode thickness was reduced in the given charging conditions. The Ragone plots can be used to select optimum electrode dimensions to attain given energy and power density specifications.

  16. Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the major component of maize kernels, contributing significantly to the feeding value of forage maize when fed to ruminants. The effects of genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage on starch content in the kernels and on in vitro starch degradability in rumen fluid were

  17. Binary-solvent-based ionic-liquid-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction for the determination of four fungicides in apple juice and apple vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Fengmao; Hou, Fan

    2017-02-01

    A binary-solvent-based ionic-liquid-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction method was developed for the separation/preconcentration and determination of four fungicides (pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, cyprodynil, pyraclostrobin) in apple juice and apple vinegar. A nonchlorinated solvent amyl acetate, which has a lower density than water, was used as the extraction solvent, and an ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which has a high density and low toxicity, was used as a secondary solvent mixed with the extraction solvent. After centrifugation, the binary solvent drop with a relatively high density was deposited on the bottom of the tube. Some parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of analytes such as type of extraction solvent, ratio of ionic liquid, volume of mixed solvent, type and concentration of surfactant, sample pH, NaCl concentration, and vortex time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided a good linearity in the range of 5-200 μg/L. The limits of quantification of the method were in the range of 2-5 μg/L. The relative standard deviations for interday assays were 1.7-11.9%. The method was applied to the determination of pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, cyprodynil, and pyraclostrobin in apple juice and apple vinegar samples, and the accuracy was evaluated through recovery experiments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Method for Selection of Solvents for Promotion of Organic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J.C.

    2005-01-01

    estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction, solvent and environment related properties that directly or indirectly influence the rate and/or conversion of a given reaction. Solvents are selected using a rules-based procedure where the estimated reaction-solvent properties...... is to produce, for a given reaction, a short list of chemicals that could be considered as potential solvents, to evaluate their performance in the reacting system, and, based on this, to rank them according to a scoring system. Several examples of application are given to illustrate the main features and steps...

  19. The influence of weather conditions on road safety : an assessment of the effect of precipitation and temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on

  20. Field versus race pace conditions to provoke exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite swimmers: Influence of training background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kennedy

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: All conditions have poor sensitivity to diagnose EIB and total accumulated ventilation (distance swum did not influence AHR. These results also indicate that elite swimmers, despite many risk factors, are not limited by respiratory function in race conditions. It is proposed that the swim field test not be used for AHR assessment in swimmers due to too high relative humidity.

  1. Subliminal influence on preferences? A test of evaluative conditioning for brief visual conditioned stimuli using auditory unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heycke, Tobias; Aust, Frederik; Stahl, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    In the field of evaluative conditioning (EC), two opposing theories-propositional single-process theory versus dual-process theory-are currently being discussed in the literature. The present set of experiments test a crucial prediction to adjudicate between these two theories: Dual-process theory postulates that evaluative conditioning can occur without awareness of the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US); in contrast, single-process propositional theory postulates that EC requires CS-US contingency awareness. In a set of three studies, we experimentally manipulate contingency awareness by presenting the CSs very briefly, thereby rendering it unlikely to be processed consciously. We address potential issues with previous studies on EC with subliminal or near-threshold CSs that limited their interpretation. Across two experiments, we consistently found an EC effect for CSs presented for 1000 ms and consistently failed to find an EC effect for briefly presented CSs. In a third pre-registered experiment, we again found evidence for an EC effect with CSs presented for 1000 ms, and we found some indication for an EC effect for CSs presented for 20 ms.

  2. Analysis of the influence of operating conditions on fouling rates in fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Fuentes, A.; Picón-Núñez, M.; Polley, G.T.; Méndez-Díaz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fouling due to chemical reaction in preheat trains for the processing of crude oil plays a key role in the operation and maintenance costs and on greenhouse emissions to atmosphere in crude processing plants. A preheat train consists of a set of heat transfer units that provide the crude oil stream the required amount of thermal energy to reach its target temperature either by heat recovery or by direct firing. Fired heaters supply external high temperature heating through the burning of fuel which result in complex heat transfer processes due to the large temperature and pressure changes and vaporization that takes place inside the unit. In this work, a thermo-hydraulic analysis of the performance of fired heaters is carried out through the application of commercial software to solve the mathematical models using finite difference methods; the analysis is applied to the crude side of a vertical fired heater in order to evaluate the impact of process conditions such as throughput and crude inlet temperature (CIT) on the fouling that take place at the early stages of operation. Using a fouling rate model based on thermo-hydraulic parameters, fouling rates are predicted assuming steady state operation and clean conditions. Although variations in process conditions are known to influence fouling rates, little work has been done on the subject. In this work excess air and steam injection are studied as a means to mitigate fouling. Results show that throughput reduction brings about a marked increase in the fouling rates. A decrease in CIT affects only the convection zone and it is found that this effect is negligible. In terms of excess air, it is found that although it affects negatively the heater efficiency it can be used to balance heat transfer between the convection and radiation zone in a way that fouling rates are reduced; however this strategy should be considered right from the design stage. Finally it is observed that steam injection is an effective method

  3. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  4. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  5. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  6. [The role of smoking and metabolic enzyme polymorphisms in the organic solvent induced chronic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Ma, Y M; Cui, J Z; Zhao, D; Liu, A J; Hong, J; Lu, Y G; Wang, K J

    2016-03-20

    The organic solvents and other exogenous compounds of metabolic enzymes genetic variation may affect the risk of the toxic effect of organic solvents exposure. Therefore, this research we observed the glutathione transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTT1) deletion mutation genotype, two kinds of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEPHX) genetic polymorphism, organic solvents exposure and smoking effection in chronic cases of toxic encephalopathy (CTE) correlation. The object was 115 patients who had a long history of organic solvents exposure, were divieded into two groups: CTE (n=83) , no CET (n=32) according to clinical diagnosis. DNA was isolated from patients in white blood cells through the multiple-polymerase chain reaction to determine the loss of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype. two kinds of mEPHX polymorphism were analysised through the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). The relative risk has obviously improved when lack of GSTM1 genotypes to CTE (RR=2.35, 95% CI 2.35 0.96). in according to the patient's Smoking condition and classify genotype, patients lack of GSTM1 genotypes had a significantly higher risk CTE than GSTM1+genotype patients (RR=3.13, 95% CI 3.13 1.2) , both mEPHX polymorphisms had nothing to do with an increased risk of CTE. The GSTM1 genotypes played an important role in the organic solvent induced the CTE of susceptibility.it was Influenced by the interaction between smoking at the same time.

  7. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  8. A new solvent suppression method via radiation damping effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Hong; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Min; Cai, Shu-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Radiation damping effects induced by the dominated solvent in a solution sample can be applied to suppress the solvent signal. The precession pathway and rate back to equilibrium state between solute and solvent spins are different under radiation damping. In this paper, a series of pulse sequences using radiation damping were designed for the solvent suppression in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared to the WATERGATE method, the solute signals adjacent to the solvent would not be influenced by using the radiation damping method. The one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR, two-dimensional (2D) gCOSY, and J-resolved experimental results show the practicability of solvent suppression via radiation damping effects in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Does the gestation age of newborn babies influence the ultrasonic assessment of hip condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Slavica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ultrasound represents a method of examination of hips of newborn babies capable of defining hip condition and distinguishing stable and unstable hips based on morphological elements. It is accepted in a large number of countries as a method of examination of high risk newborns, or as a method of systematic screening. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between ultrasonically estimated hip maturity and respective gestation maturity both in premature and term-born babies, and to investigate the influence of different delivery types on hips condition. Methods. In our study 2045 patients, 1141 males and 904 females, were examined in at the Institute of Neonatology over a period of 5 years. The average age was 34.04 gestation weeks. There were significantly more premature (1698 or 83.03% than term-born babies (347 or 16.97%. Ultrasound hip examination, as a screening method, was carried out according to Graf. It was followed by clinical examination. Results were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (χ2-test, one-way ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA. Results. The overall frequency of unstable hips was 3.2%, 1.88% in males and 4.87% in females (p<0.05. 96.8% babies had stable hips, out of which 35.21% were mature and 61.59% immature. In the study of the breech presentation, out of 183 babies, unstable hips were found in 1.58% of male cases, and in 10.23% of female cases. Conclusion. Clinical screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip is insufficient for early diagnosis and decision about the treatment of premature babies. The high frequency of unstable hip type IIc (risky and IId (decentralized in premature babies requires early diagnosis and therapy. Wide swaddling for prematures should be applied up to eight months of age. Gentle manipulation is necessary while nursing and conducting physiotherapy of a premature baby.

  10. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  11. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables.

  12. Prior conditions influencing nurses' decisions to adopt evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Cathy L

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, postoperative pain relief has been shown to be inadequate. To provide optimal postoperative pain relief, it is imperative for nurses to use evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. This correlational descriptive study was conducted to identify factors, termed prior conditions, that influenced nurses' decisions to adopt three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. A convenience sample of nurses who cared for adult postoperative patients in two Midwestern hospitals were surveyed, and 443 (46.9%) nurses responded. The previous practice and innovativeness of nurses were supportive of adoption of the three practices. Nurses felt that patients received adequate pain relief, which is unsupportive of adoption of the three practices because there is no impetus to change. Nurses who perceived the prior conditions as being supportive of adoption of pain management practices used multiple sources to identify solutions to clinical practice problems, and those who read professional nursing journals were more likely to have adopted the three practices and were more innovative. The number of sources used to identify solutions to clinical practice problems, previous practices, and innovativeness were predictive of nurses' adoption of the three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. Nurses need to be encouraged to use multiple sources, including professional nursing journals, to identify solutions to clinical practice problems. Innovative nurses may be considered to be opinion leaders and need to be identified to promote the adoption of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. Further exploration of the large unexplained variance in adoption of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices is needed. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Dopaminergic Medication on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Grashorn

    Full Text Available Pain is highly prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, but little is known about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The susceptibility to pain is known to depend on ascending and descending pathways. Because parts of the descending pain inhibitory system involve dopaminergic pathways, dysregulations in dopaminergic transmission might contribute to altered pain processing in PD. Deficits in endogenous pain inhibition can be assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigms.Applying such a paradigm, we investigated i whether CPM responses differ between PD patients and healthy controls, ii whether they are influenced by dopaminergic medication and iii whether there are effects of disease-specific factors. 25 patients with idiopathic PD and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched controls underwent an established CPM paradigm combining heat pain test stimuli at the forearm and the cold pressor task on the contralateral foot as the conditioning stimulus. PD patients were tested under dopaminergic medication and after at least 12 hours of medication withdrawal.No significant differences between CPM responses of PD patients and healthy controls or between PD patients "on" and "off" medication were found. These findings suggest (i that CPM is insensitive to dopaminergic modulations and (ii that PD is not related to general deficits in descending pain inhibition beyond the known age-related decline. However, at a trend level, we found differences between PD subtypes (akinetic-rigid, tremor-dominant, mixed with the strongest impairment of pain inhibition in the akinetic-rigid subtype.There were no significant differences between CPM responses of patients compared to healthy controls or between patients "on" and "off" medication. Differences between PD subtypes at a trend level point towards different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the three PD subtypes which warrant further investigation and potentially differential

  14. Influence of microorganisms on the oxidation state distribution of multivalent actinides under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Donald Timothy; Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Ams, David; Richmann, M.K.; Khaing, H.; Swanson, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fate and potential mobility of multivalent actinides in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium, uranium and neptunium are the near-surface multivalent contaminants of concern and are also key contaminants for the deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Their mobility is highly dependent on their redox distribution at their contamination source as well as along their potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. Under anoxic conditions, indirect and direct bioreduction mechanisms exist that promote the prevalence of lower-valent species for multivalent actinides. Oxidation-state-specific biosorption is also an important consideration for long-term migration and can influence oxidation state distribution. Results of ongoing studies to explore and establish the oxidation-state specific interactions of soil bacteria (metal reducers and sulfate reducers) as well as halo-tolerant bacteria and Archaea for uranium, neptunium and plutonium will be presented. Enzymatic reduction is a key process in the bioreduction of plutonium and uranium, but co-enzymatic processes predominate in neptunium systems. Strong sorptive interactions can occur for most actinide oxidation states but are likely a factor in the stabilization of lower-valent species when more than one oxidation state can persist under anaerobic microbiologically-active conditions. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their overall importance in defining the potential migration of multivalent actinides in the subsurface.

  15. Influence of radiolysis on UO2 fuel matrix dissolution under disposal conditions. Literature Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the recent published literature on the influence of water radiolysis on UO 2 fuel matrix dissolution under the disposal conditions. The α radiation is considered to be dominating over the other types of radiations at times longer than 1000 years. The presence of the anaerobic corrosion products of iron, especially of hydrogen, has been observed to play an important role under radiolysis conditions. It is not possible to exclude gamma/beta radiolysis effects in the experiments with spent fuel, since there is not available a fuel over 100 years old. More direct measurements of α radiolysis effects have been conducted with α doped UO 2 materials. On the basis of the results of these experiments, a specific activity threshold to observe α radiolysis effects has been presented. The threshold is 1.8 x 10 7 to 3.3 x 10 7 Bq/g in anoxic 10 -3 M carbonate solution. It is dependent on the environmental conditions, such as the reducing buffer capacity of the conditions. The results of dissolution rate measurements at VTT with 233 U-doped UO 2 samples in 0.01 to 0.1 M NaCl solutions under anoxic conditions did not show any effect of α radiolysis with doping levels of 5 and 10% 233 U (3.2 x 10 7 and 6.3 x 10 7 Bq/g). Both Fe 2+ and hydrogen can act as reducing species and could react with oxidizing radiolytic species. Fe 2+ concentrations of the order of 10 -5 M can decrease the rate of H 2 O 2 production. Low dissolution rates, 2 x 10 -8 to 2 x 10 -7 /yr, have been measured in the presence of metallic Fe with 5 and 10% 233 U-doped UO 2 in 0.01 to 1 M NaCl solutions. The tests with isotope dilution method showed precipitation phenomena of U to occur during dissolution process. The concentrations of dissolved U were extremely low (≤ 8.4 x 10 -11 M). No effects of -radiolysis could be seen. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of metallic Fe, Fe 2+ or hydrogen in these tests. Hydrogen could also act as a reducing agent

  16. UV-Vis spectroscopic study and DFT calculation on the solvent effect of trimethoprim in neat solvents and aqueous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Duchowicz, P R; Blanco, S E

    2014-08-14

    The solvatochromic behavior of trimethoprim (TMP) was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary aqueous solvent mixtures. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent-solute hydrogen bonding interactions on the absorption maxima were evaluated by means of the linear solvation energy relationship concept of Kamlet and Taft. This analysis indicated that both interactions play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra of TMP and TMP:(solvent)n complexes in ACN and H2O using TD-DFT methods were in agreement with the experimental ones. Binary aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN and EtOH were studied. Preferential solvation was detected as a nonideal behavior of the wavenumber curve respective to the analytical mole fraction of co-solvent in all binary systems. TMP molecules were preferentially solvated by the organic solvent over the whole composition range. Index of preferential solvation, as well as the influence of solvent parameters were calculated as a function of solvent composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Influence of packaging conditions on natural microbial population growth of endive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Florence; Rugani, Nathalie; Gontard, Nathalie

    2005-05-01

    The influence of three packaging conditions, i.e., unmodified atmosphere packaging (UAP), passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and active MAP, on the natural microbial population growth of endive was investigated at 20 degrees C. For UAP, endive was placed in macroperforated oriented polypropylene pouches that maintained gas composition close to that of air (21 kPa O2 and 0 kPa CO2) but also limited superficial product dehydration. For MAP, endive was placed in low-density polyethylene pouches that induced a 3 kPa O2 and 5 kPa CO2 equilibrium atmosphere composition. Steady state was reached after 25 h of storage with an oxygen absorbing packet (active MAP) compared with 100 h without the packet (passive MAP) and was maintained for 200 h. After 312 h of storage, both active and passive MAP reduced total aerobic mesophile, yeast, and mold population growth compared with endive in UAP. Active MAP accelerated and improved the inhibition of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively, probably because of the rapid O2 depletion during the transition period. A shift in the Enterobacteriaceae subpopulation from Rhanella aquatilis to Enterobacter agglomerans was observed for both passive and active MAP.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from harbor sediment: Influence of changing experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    was in an experiment with dry sediment (L/S 8) and a 70 mA applied current that lasted 14 days. These experimental conditions were thereafter used to remediate more strongly contaminated sediments. Regardless of the initial heavy metal concentrations in the sediments, 67-87% Cu, 79-98% Cd, 90-97% Zn, and 91-96% Pb......Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was used to remove Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from contaminated harbor sediment. Extraction experiments were made prior to EDR, and the metal desorption was pH dependent but not liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) dependent. The desorption order was Cd $GRT Zn $GRT Pb $GRT Cu...... for the removal of Cu, Zn, and Pb, probably due to oxidation of the sediments during stirring. Contrary, Cd removal was lower in the wet sediment as compared to the air-dried. The heavy metal removal was influenced by higher current strengths and varying L/S ratios. The highest removal obtained...

  20. On the enduring and substantial influence of Carl Rogers' not-quite necessary nor sufficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' 1957 paper (see record 2007-14639-002) is arguably the most successful of his many attempts to clarify and render testable the ideas behind client-centered therapy. While each of the conditions that Rogers postulated has been linked to positive therapeutic outcome, taken together they have never been conclusively proved (nor disproved) to be either necessary or sufficient for positive outcome. Nevertheless, the overriding "take-home" message in this classic paper--that the therapist's attitude and caring presence is critical for therapeutic success--is one that has had virtually unparalleled influence in every segment of the psychotherapeutic community. Clinical and theoretical innovations in the psychoanalytic community serve as examples of the following proposition: that Rogers' concepts, while accepted more than ever by a remarkably wide variety of psychotherapists, remain essentially unacknowledged as originating with him or in the tradition of humanistic and client-centered therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Keramatollah; Mahmoudi, Jafar; Ghanbari, Mahdi

    2013-02-01

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach. The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50-60%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Academic Stress Influences Periodontal Health Condition and Interleukin-1 beta Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O. Kuswandani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a risk factor for periodontal disease, causing increase levels of interleukin-1 beta that involve in periodontal destruction. Objective: To analyze the relationship between academic stress in residency program students conditions and levels of interleukin-1 beta in gingival crevicular fluid. Methods: Thirty eight subjects filled the questionnaire of Graduate Dental Environtmental Stress (GDES, periodontal examination and samples of gingival crevicular fluid were tested for interleukin-1 beta with the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: There were significant differences between academic stress to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.038, bleeding on probing index (p=0.02, but no significant differences in pocket depth and loss of attachment (p=0.972. There were significant differences between academic stress to levels of interleukin-1 beta (p=0.03, but no significant differences between levels of interleukin-1 beta to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.465, bleeding on probing index (p=0.826, pocket depth (p=0.968, and loss of attachment (p=0.968. Conclusion: Academic stress influences the periodontal risk factor and level of interleukin-1 beta.

  3. Disease relapses in multiple sclerosis can be influenced by air pollution and climate seasonal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, Slobodan; Savić, Dejan; Lukić, Stevo; Savić, Ljiljana; Vojinović, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence the disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in- fluence of air pollution and seasonal climate factors of any on number of relapses in MS patients during a consecutive 5 years of observation. We retrospectively analyzed data of MS patients from the town of Niš, hospitalized at the Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center Niš, Serbia, from 2005 to 2009. Climate data: mean daily sun shining; mean monthly sun shining, mean whole daily cloudiness, daily cloudiness at 7 a.m, 2 p.m. and 9 p.m. and air pollution expressed by NSR (New Source Review) were obtained from the Meteorology Observatory Niš. During a 5-year of observation there were 260 relapses in 101 MS patients. The number of relapses showed a significantly negative correlation with the number of days with NSR pollution and climate seasonal conditions on disease relapses in MS patients based on a long-term observation. Lower numbers of days with low air pollution during the periods with low vitamin D (January-April), especially with increased cloudiness at 2 p.m, induce a higher risk of MS relapses in southern continental parts of Europe.

  4. Influences of source condition and dissolution on bubble plume in a stratified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shigan; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    A cross-sectionally averaged model is used to study a bubble plume rising in a stratified quiescent liquid. Scaling analyses for the peel height, at which the plume momentum vanishes, and the neutral height, at which its average density equals the ambient density, are presented. Contrary to a widespread practice in the literature, it is argued that the neutral height cannot be identified with the experimentally reported intrusion height. Recognizing this difference provides an explanation of the reason why the intrusion height is found so frequently to lie so much above predictions, and brings the theoretical results in line with observations. The mathematical model depends on three dimensionless parameters, some of which are related to the inlet conditions at the plume source. Their influence on the peel and neutral heights is illustrated by means of numerical results. Aside from the source parameters, we incorporate dissolution of bubbles and the corresponding density change of plume into the model. Contrary to what's documented in literature, density change of plume due to dissolution plays an important role in keeping the total buoyancy of plume, thus alleviating the rapid decrease of peel height because of dissolution.

  5. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P flooring system, was considered to be good.

  6. Influence of thermal conditions on successful ide (Leuciscus idus L. artificial reproduction during spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of ide Leuciscus idus (L. spawners: wild-coloured and ornamental: yellow-coloured were kept at three various temperature regimes shortly before spawning at optimal temperature regimes (group 1, under natural temperature conditions (group 2 and in rapidly increasing temperature (group 3. The quality and quantity of collected semen, ovulation rate and survival rate of embryos to the eyed-egg-stage were recorded. The quality of semen from group 3 (where the temperature increased over the thermal spawning optimum was the worst (46 and 51% motility of spermatozoa for the wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. The quantity of collected semen also was the lowest in the same groups (1.1 and 1.0 cm3 kg-1 for the wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. Increasing the temperature to 16°C also caused a decreasing percentage of ovulated females (70% and 60% of ovulation for wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively and biological quality of eggs (48.9 and 47.8% embryo survival for wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. Fluctuations of temperature at a level of 8-14°C (group 2 did not negatively affect spawning results, except for a longer latency time (over 44 hrs. The results suggest that the temperature regime shortly before controlled reproduction of ide plays an important role influencing reproductive success.

  7. Influence of Rack Slope and Approaching Conditions in Bottom Intake Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Castillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the flow over bottom racks made of longitudinal T-shaped bars. A clear water flow is considered in a laboratory flume. Free surface profiles, wetted rack lengths, and discharge coefficients are measured, changing parameters such as longitudinal slope, void ratio, and approaching flow. The present work complements existing experimental studies, considering the influence of the approaching flow conditions. The velocity field measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique and the pressure field with Pitot tubes are quantified. Numerical simulations (CFD are used to complement laboratory data. The energy head along the rack is calculated and compared with the hypothesis of horizontal energy level with minimum energy at the beginning of the rack. A discharge coefficient adjustment that considers the slope, the void ratio, and the position along the rack is proposed and presented with the results of other works. Theoretical proposals to calculate the pressure field along the flow are compared with measurements in the laboratory. The relation between the static pressure head in the space of bars and the discharge coefficient is used as an alternative method to define the discharge.

  8. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants.

  9. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved ... Mixed solvent systems; electrolyte solutions; dynamic fluorescence measurements; theory. 1. ..... Open and filled triangles represent τs for the other binary mixture in the absence and presence of 1.0 M LiClO4, respectively. exponentially with the mole ...

  10. Influence of different land surfaces on atmospheric conditions measured by a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengfeld, Katharina; Ament, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric conditions close to the surface, like temperature, wind speed and humidity, vary on small scales because of surface heterogeneities. Therefore, the traditional measuring approach of using a single, highly accurate station is of limited representativeness for a larger domain, because it is not able to determine these small scale variabilities. However, both the variability and the domain averages are important information for the development and validation of atmospheric models and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes. Due to progress in microelectronics it is possible to construct networks of comparably cheap meteorological stations with moderate accuracy. Such a network provides data in high spatial and temporal resolution. The EPFL Lausanne developed such a network called SensorScope, consisting of low cost autonomous stations. Each station observes air and surface temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, incoming solar radiation, precipitations, soil moisture and soil temperature and sends the data via radio communication to a base station. This base station forwards the collected data via GSM/GPRS to a central server. Within the FLUXPAT project in August 2009 we deployed 15 stations as a twin transect near Jülich, Germany. One aim of this first experiment was to test the quality of the low cost sensors by comparing them to more accurate reference measurements. It turned out, that although the network is not highly accurate, the measurements are consistent. Consequently an analysis of the pattern of atmospheric conditions is feasible. For example, we detect a variability of ± 0.5K in the mean temperature at a distance of only 2.3 km. The transect covers different types of vegetation and a small river. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of different land surfaces and the distance to the river on meteorological conditions. On the one hand, some results meet our expectations, e.g. the relative humidity decreases with increasing

  11. The influence of tip clearance on performance and internal flow condition of fluid food pump using low viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ishioka, T; Fukutomi, J; Shigemitsu, T

    2012-01-01

    Fluid machines for fluid food have been used in wide variety of fields i.e. transportation, the filling, and for the improvement of quality of fluid foods. However, flow conditions of it are quite complicated because fluid foods are different from water. Therefore, design methods based on internal flow conditions have not been conducted. In this research, turbo-pumps having a small number of blades were used to decrease shear loss and keep wide flow passage. The influence of the tip clearance was investigated by the numerical analysis using the model with and without the tip clearance. In this paper, the influence of tip clearance on performances and internal flow conditions of turbo-pump using low viscous fluid were clarified by experimental and numerical analysis results. In addition, design methods based on the internal flow were considered. Further, the influences of viscosity on the performance characteristic and internal flow were investigated.

  12. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  13. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers.

  14. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  15. Towards the development of continuous, organocatalytic, and stereoselective reactions in deep eutectic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Brenna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different deep eutectic solvent (DES mixtures were studied as reaction media for the continuous synthesis of enantiomerically enriched products by testing different experimental set-ups. L-Proline-catalysed cross-aldol reactions were efficiently performed in continuo, with high yield (99%, anti-stereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity (up to 97% ee. Moreover, using two different DES mixtures, the diastereoselectivity of the process could be tuned, thereby leading to the formation, under different experimental conditions, to both the syn- and the anti-isomer with very high enantioselectivity. The excess of cyclohexanone was recovered and reused, and the reaction could be run and the product isolated without the use of any organic solvent by a proper choice of DES components. The dramatic influence of the reaction media on the reaction rate and stereoselectivity of the process suggests that the intimate architecture of DESs deeply influences the reactivity of different species involved in the catalytic cycle.

  16. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  17. Influence of culture conditions on Vero cell propagation on non-porous microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina de Oliveira Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal cell cultures are widely employed for the production of viral vaccines and for recombinant protein expression. The cell line Vero is a continuous, adherent cell line, which has been recommended by the World Health Organization for the production of human vaccines. For the large-scale production of vaccines, microcarriers, which are microspheres that serve as support for the cells, are being increasingly used. The use of microcarriers in stirred bioreactors allows high cell densities and, consequently, high virus titres to be achieved. With the aim of selecting appropriate culture conditions for the cultivation of Vero cells at high cell densities, in this work the influence of several variables (agitation rate, ratio of inoculated cells to microcarrier mass and fetal bovine serum concentration on cell growth on Cytodex 1 microcarriers was studied. Under the best conditions determined, a comparison with Vero cell cultivation on Cytodex 3 microcarriers was carried out.Cultivos de células animais são amplamente utilizados para a produção de vacinas virais e para a expressão de proteínas recombinantes. A linhagem celular Vero é uma linhagem contínua, dependente de ancoragem, recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde para a produção de vacinas de uso humano. Para a produção de vacinas virais em larga escala, vêm sendo cada vez mais empregados microcarregadores, que são microesferas que servem de suporte para as células. O emprego de microcarregadores em biorreatores agitados permite a obtenção de altas densidades celulares e, conseqüentemente, de altos títulos de antígenos virais. Com o objetivo de selecionar condições de cultivo adequadas, estudou-se, neste trabalho, o efeito das variáveis agitação, razão de células inoculadas por microcarregador e concentração de soro fetal bovino sobre o crescimento de células Vero em microcarregadores Cytodex 1. Nas melhores condições selecionadas, o desempenho dos

  18. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - Biological standard particles and the influence of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex; Förster, Jan-David; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    standard bioparticles (pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria) as well as atmospherically relevant chemical substances. We addressed the sensitivity and selectivity of autofluorescence based online techniques. Moreover, we investigated the influence of environmental conditions, such as relative humidity and oxidizing agents in the atmosphere, on the autofluorescence signature of standard bioparticles. Our results will support the molecular understanding and quantitative interpretation of data obtained by real-time FBAP instrumentation [5,6]. [1] Elbert, W., Taylor, P. E., Andreae, M. O., & Pöschl, U. (2007). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569-4588. [2] Huffman, J. A., Treutlein, B., & Pöschl, U. (2010). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3215-3233. [3] Pöschl, U., et al. (2010). Science, 329, 1513-1516. [4] Lakowicz, J., Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, Plenum publishers, New York, 1999. [5] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., & Pöschl, U., (2012). Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 37-71. [6] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., Förster J.-D., & Pöschl, U., (2012) in preparation.

  19. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  20. Influence of calcium hydroxide on the fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate under thermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Chengshuai [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Calcium hydroxide strongly influences the fate of PFOS under thermal conditions. {yields} The XRD pattern of PFOS compound is also first presented via this paper. {yields} Quantitative XRD analysis successfully provides the fluorine incorporation efficiency. {yields} Fate and transport of PFCs during sludge thermal treatment can be similarly.evaluated. - Abstract: To explore the potential fate and transport of perfluorochemicals in the thermal treatment of sludge, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a perfluorochemical species commonly dominant in wastewater sludge, was mixed with hydrated lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) to quantitatively observe their interaction under different temperatures. The phase compositions of the mixtures after the reactions were qualitatively identified and quantitatively determined using X-ray diffraction technique. The results of the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that PFOS gasified directly during the thermal treatment process when the temperature was increased to around 425 {sup o}C. However, the formation of CaF{sub 2} at 350 {sup o}C suggests that the presence of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the mixture can lead to the decomposition of PFOS at 350 {sup o}C, which is lower than the decomposition temperature of PFOS alone (425 {sup o}C). The increase of temperature promoted a solid state reaction between PFOS and Ca(OH){sub 2}, and also enhanced the interaction between the gaseous products of PFOS and CaO (or Ca(OH){sub 2}). The preferred Ca/F molar ratio to achieve fluorine stabilization by Ca(OH){sub 2} was above 1:1 in the experiment involving 400 {sup o}C and 600 {sup o}C treatment. It also showed that equilibrium efficiency is achieved within 5 min at 400 {sup o}C and within 1 min above 600 {sup o}C.

  1. The stigma and prejudice of leprosy: influence on the human condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. RESULTS: The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3% with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%. The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7% and the duration of the treatment (28.7%. A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.

  2. Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Keramatollah; Mahmoudi, Jafar; Ghanbari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach. The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50–60%. - Highlights: ► We use CFD to simulate indoor radon concentration and distribution. ► The effects of ventilation rate, temperature and moisture are investigated. ► Model validation is performed through analytical solution and measurement results. ► Results show that ventilation rate is inversely proportional to radon level. ► There is a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimize radon level.

  3. The stigma and prejudice of leprosy: influence on the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Carloni, Maria Emília Oliveira Gomes; Rovida, Tânia Adas Saliba; Martins, Ronald Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3%) with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%). The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7%) and the duration of the treatment (28.7%). A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.

  4. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  6. Social network analysis via multi-state reliability and conditional influence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Rainwater, Chase; Pohl, Ed; Hernandez, Ivan; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper incorporates multi-state reliability measures into the assessment of a social network in which influence is treated as a multi-state commodity that flows through the network. The reliability of the network is defined as the probability that at least a certain level of influence reaches an intended target. We consider an individual's influence level as a function of the influence levels received from preceding actors in the network. We define several communication functions which describe the level of influence a particular actor will pass along to other actors within the network. Illustrative examples are presented, and the network reliability under the various communication influence levels is computed using exhaustive enumeration for a small example and Monte Carlo simulation for larger, more realistic sized examples.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Flexible Polyethylene: A Protein-Like Behaviour in a Water Solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Kretov, D A

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the density and the temperature behaviour of a flexible polyethylene (PE) subjected to various heating conditions and to investigate the PE chain conformational changes in a water solvent. First, we have considered the influence of the heating process on the final state of the polymeric system and the sensitivity of its thermodynamic characteristics (density, energy, etc.) for different heating regimes. For this purpose three different simulations were performed: fast, moderate, and slow heating. Second, we have investigated the PE chain conformational dynamics in water solvent for various simulation conditions and various configurations of the environment. From the obtained results we have got the pictures of the PE dynamical motions in water. We have observed a protein-like behaviour of the PE chain, like that of the DNA and the proteins in water, and have also estimated the rates of the conformational changes. For the MD simulations we used the optimized...

  8. Individual condition and stream temperature influences early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. McMillan; Jason B. Dunham; Gordon H. Reeves; Justin S. Mills; Chris E. Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (...

  9. The influence of business conditions on supply chain information-sharing mechanisms : A study among supply chain links of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs.

  10. Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret, B.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Foury, A.; Mormède, P.; Dransfield, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg

  11. Vocal Ergonomics in the Workplace: Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Method Influences on Vocal Comfort and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Rahn, Keith A.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning method on voice function following a voicing task using ecologically valid offices, one with radiant HVAC and one with forced air. Method: A total of 12 consented participants (6 women, 6 men) narrated a video in each of 4…

  12. The influence of stressors, appraisal and personal conditions on the burden of spousal caregivers of persons with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaart, M.A.G. van den; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the main and mediating influences of stressors, a caregiver's appraisal, coping, personal conditions and social resources on the burden of dementia caregivers. Method: The study sample consisted of 95 spousal caregivers of non-institutionalized

  13. Influence of housing conditions and calving distance on blood metabolites in water buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether housing conditions allowing the animals to lie in the mud and performmore physical exercise can negatively affect reserve mobilization and milk production. In addition, the effect of calvingdistance on blood metabolites was assessed. The experiment was conducted on twenty-eight lactating buffalo cows,equally allocated to two treatments. Fourteen cows were group-housed in a loose open-sided barn with a concrete floorand equipped with self-locking stanchions, where they received 10 m2/head of space allowance, as in intensive systems(Group IS. Fourteen others were group-housed in a similar barn but they also had the benefit of an outdoor yard with500 m2/head as space allowance, including spontaneous vegetation and potholes for bathing and wallowing, as in traditionalsystems (Group TS. Animals were included in the experimental groups 5 days after calving. Daily milk yield, andmilk fat, protein and somatic cell content were determined 4 weeks after grouping (about 35 days after calving and thenat monthly intervals (5 recordings. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in vacuum tubes 10 days aftergrouping (i.e. 15 days after calving and then at 10 day intervals (17 collections. After centrifugation, plasma and serumaliquots were frozen stored until metabolite determinations (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA, urea, creatinine,albumins, total proteins, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and γglutamyl transferase. Treatment did not affect daily milk yield and milkfat, protein or somatic cell count content. Blood metabolite levels were not affected by treatment and interaction treatmentx time. Conversely, as expected, calving distance had an influence on most of these variables (Pparticular, in the first two months after parturition, glucose concentration decreased, whereas NEFA and

  14. Influence of speed and frequency towards the automotive turbocharger turbine performance under pulsating flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padzillah, M.H.; Rajoo, S.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D CFD modeling of a turbocharger turbine with pulsating flow. • Characterization based on turbine speed and frequency. • Speed has higher influence on turbine performance compared to frequency. • Detailed localized flow behavior are shown for better understanding. - Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for low carbon applications in automotive industry has intensified the development of highly efficient engines and energy recovery devices. Even though there are significant developments in the alternative powertrains such as full electric, their full deployment is hindered by high costing and unattractive life-cycle energy and emission balance. Thus powertrain based on highly efficient internal combustion engines are still considered to be the mainstream for years to come. Traditionally, turbocharger has been an essential tool to boost the engine power, however in recent years it is seen as an enabling technology for engine downsizing. It is a well-known fact that a turbocharger turbine in an internal combustion engine operates in a highly pulsating exhaust flow. There are numerous studies looking into the complex interaction of the pulsating exhaust gas within the turbocharger turbine, however the phenomena is still not fully integrated into the design stage. Industry practice is still to design and match the turbine to an engine based on steady performance maps. The current work is undertaken with the mind to move one step closer towards fully integrating the pulsating flow performance into the turbocharger turbine design. This paper presents the development efforts and results from a full 3-D CFD model of a turbocharger turbine stage. The simulations were conducted at 30,000 rpm and 48,000 rpm (50% and 80% design speed respectively) for both 20 Hz and 80 Hz pulsating flow inlet conditions. Complete validation procedure using cold-flow experimental data is also described. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the incidence angle at the

  15. Creep of MDF panels under constant load and cyclic environmental conditions. Influence of surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Four different strategies of surface coating (based on 80 g m2 melamin impregnated papers were used on 19 mm thick commercial MDF panels to assess its reological behaviour under cyclic humidity conditions (20ºC 30 % rh-20ºC 90 % rh. Three different levels of stress (20 %, 30 % and 40 %, based on the ultimate load in bending, were used. Tests were conducted by means of the three points load system. For the same stress level, the relative creep of MDF panels was higher than that in particle boards with similar characteristics. This behaviour was just the opposite than the one exhibited by the panels when the comparison is made based on the same level of load (kg Melamin coating seems to strongly influence the creep behaviour of the raw material, especially when surface and edge coating were combined.

    Cuatro tipos de acabados superficiales distintos, aplicados sobre tableros MDF comerciales de 19 mm de espesor, son empleados en el estudio del comportamiento reológico de los tableros MDF ante condiciones alternantes de humedad relativa (20ºC/30 % hr-20ºC/90 % hr. Para el análisis del comportamiento reológico de los tableros se consideran tres niveles de tensión distintos (20 %, 30 %y 40 %, calculados en función de la carga última de rotura a flexión. Los ensayos son efectuados aplicando la carga en punto medio. La fluencia relativa de los tableros MDF resulta ser superior a la exhibida por los tableros de partículas de similares características, observándose que los revestimientos melamínicos aplicados superficialmente influyen eficazmente en la mejora de su comportamiento reológico. Cuando la comparación entre tableros MDF y de partículas se efectúa considerando idénticos niveles de carga aplicada en vez de tensión, el resultado de la comparación resulta ser, justamente, el contrario.

  16. Conditional expression of CD44 isoforms in lymphoma cells: influence on hyaluronate binding and tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, J.

    2002-03-01

    CD44 describes a family of surface proteins consisting of many isoforms due to alternative splice of ten 'variant' exons. Members of this family are involved in various processes including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte activation and homing, limb development, wound healing and tumor progression. Clinically, CD44 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for several human cancers. To answer the question which isoform might be relevant for tumor progression and to gain an insight into the mechanism of its function, I established transfectants of the LB lymphoma cell line in which the expression of four CD44 isoforms, namely CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10, CD44v8-10 and CD44s, was controlled by the Tet-off promoter. In the presence of Doxycycline, the expression was repressed. Removal of Doxycycline switched on expression and the maximal CD44 amount was obtained within two days. The transfectants were characterized regarding their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronate (HA). Overexpression of all four CD44 isoforms conferred the ability to bind HA on LB cells. Other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were bound in an isotype-specific fashion. CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10 and CD44v8-10 showed high binding affinity to chondroitin A, B and C, and low affinity to heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate. CD44s could not bind to these GAGs. Among these three variants, the binding ability of CD44v3-10 was the strongest. CD44 clustering seemed to play a crucial role for HA binding. Both CD44s and CD44v8-10 formed reduction-sensitive complexes in LB cells. The complexes are homooligomers or heterooligomers composed of different isoforms. Cys286 in CD44 transmember domain was not responsible for the formation of reduction-sensitive oligomer or for the enhanced HA binding in LB cell line. Using a conditional dimerization system the requirement of CD44 oligomerization for HA binding was directly demonstrated. The induction of oligomerization increased HA binding

  17. Conditional expression of CD44 isoforms in lymphoma cells: influence on hyaluronate binding and tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.

    2002-03-01

    CD44 describes a family of surface proteins consisting of many isoforms due to alternative splice of ten 'variant' exons. Members of this family are involved in various processes including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte activation and homing, limb development, wound healing and tumor progression. Clinically, CD44 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for several human cancers. To answer the question which isoform might be relevant for tumor progression and to gain an insight into the mechanism of its function, I established transfectants of the LB lymphoma cell line in which the expression of four CD44 isoforms, namely CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10, CD44v8-10 and CD44s, was controlled by the Tet-off promoter. In the presence of Doxycycline, the expression was repressed. Removal of Doxycycline switched on expression and the maximal CD44 amount was obtained within two days. The transfectants were characterized regarding their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronate (HA). Overexpression of all four CD44 isoforms conferred the ability to bind HA on LB cells. Other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were bound in an isotype-specific fashion. CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10 and CD44v8-10 showed high binding affinity to chondroitin A, B and C, and low affinity to heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate. CD44s could not bind to these GAGs. Among these three variants, the binding ability of CD44v3-10 was the strongest. CD44 clustering seemed to play a crucial role for HA binding. Both CD44s and CD44v8-10 formed reduction-sensitive complexes in LB cells. The complexes are homooligomers or heterooligomers composed of different isoforms. Cys286 in CD44 transmember domain was not responsible for the formation of reduction-sensitive oligomer or for the enhanced HA binding in LB cell line. Using a conditional dimerization system the requirement of CD44 oligomerization for HA binding was directly demonstrated. The induction of oligomerization increased HA binding. Finally, I

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL CONDITIONS TO TSUNAMI INUNDATION OF BIMA BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Area along the coast that includes the territorial waters of the Bima Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, is prone to tsunamis, evidenced by the historical tsunamis record in 1815 due to the volcanic eruption of Tambora, 1818, 1836 and 1992 caused by earthquakes associated with tectonic system in the north of the island of Sumbawa, and 1892 were sourced from a distant source. Based on the coastal characteristics, the research area was divided into four types of beaches, namely: Steep rocky beach; Coastal walled plain; Flat coastal mangroves; and Flat sandy beaches. According to the lateral measurement, houses were built in the plains with a minimum height difference of 0.04 m at Rababuntu beach and a maximum of 22.63 m in New Asakota area. The settlement closest distance to the coastline is 10.3 m in Rababuntu, while the farthest extent is at Kawananta 194.58 m from the shoreline. The local bathymetry range between 1 and 42.5 m, where the inside of the very shallow waters of the Bay of Bima, gradually steeper at the mouth of the bay to the open sea. This conditions will influence the wave when entering the bay. It will come with large enough speed at the mouth of the bay, spread along the coastal waters of the eastern and continue spreading to all parts with the diminishing velocity, but the height increasing when it reaches shallow water, especially in the waters of the western Gulf of Bima. Several factors can affect the amount of risk that would be caused by the tsunami, in the research area include are: (1 The research area is located in an enclosed bay; (2 The local sea floor depths around the bay is relatively shallow waters; (3 Coastal characteristics of the research area is dominated by a gently sloping beach morphology with low relief, especially in the area of ??Bajo, Rababuntu and Bontokape and other beaches in the city of Bima; (4 Residential location very close to the shoreline; (5 Minimal vegetation cover; and (6 The presence of the

  19. Influence of synthesis conditions and the neutrons of fission spectrum on physical properties of fine crystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutov, A.G; Komar, V.A.; Shipilo, V.B.; Shipilo, N.V.; Azarko, I.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of synthesis conditions of fine crystalline diamond powder and of fission spectrum irradiation by the neutrons on the processes of formation of natural and admixed defects was investigated. Nonmonotonous change of concentration of paramagnetic nickel-containing defects was determined depending both on the time of synthesis and on the neutron influence. It was shown that the behaviour of admixtures in crystals is connected with the processes occurring during their synthesis, and the similarity of changes in concentrations of paramagnetic nickel under the influence of various (time, size and radiation) factors was detected. It was also determined that a change in concentration of PP-defects is connected with a change in concentration of defects of lattice point nitrogen. The obtained results may be used to determine the conditions of spontaneous diamond crystallization in a closed system at high pressures and temperatures

  20. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  1. Biodiesel production from ethanolysis of palm oil using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, R.; Winarta, A.; Taslim; Indra, L.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel produced from ethanolysis is more renewable and have better properties (higher oxidation stability, lower cloud and pour point) compared to methanolysis, but it has a disadvantage such as complicated purification. To improve ethanolysis process, deep eutectic solvent (DES) can be prepared from choline chloride and glycerol and used as co-solvent in ethanolysis. The deep eutectic solvent is formed from a quaternary ammonium salt (choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (Glycerol), it is a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent compared to a conventional volatile organic solvent such as hexane. The deep eutectic solvent is prepared by mixing choline chloride and glycerol with molar ratio 1:2 at temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 300 rpm for 1 hour. The DES is characterized by its density and viscosity. The ethanolysis is performed at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt. DES as co-solvent with concentration 0.5 to 3 wt. stirring speed 400 rpm, and a reaction time 1 hour. The obtained biodiesel is then characterized by its density, viscosity, and ester content. The oil - ethanol phase condition is observed in the reaction tube. The oil - ethanol phase with DES tends to form meniscus compared to without DES, showed that oil and ethanol become more slightly miscible, which favors the reaction. Using DES as co-solvent in ethanolysis showed increasing in yield and easier purification. The esters properties meet the international standards ASTM D6751, with the highest yield achieved 83,67 with 99,77 conversion at DES concentration 2 . Increasing DES concentration above 2 in ethanolysis decrease the conversion and yield, because of the excessive glycerol in the systems makes the reaction equilibrium moves to the reactant side.

  2. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoqiang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Zhijie; Si, Xiaosheng

    2014-01-01

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  3. Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Dua, Janesha; Arnold, Craig B

    2010-03-15

    Spin-coating of chalcogenide glass is a low-cost, scalable method to create optical grade thin films, which are ideal for visible and infrared applications. In this paper, we study the influence of annealing on optical parameters of As(2)S(3) films by examining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy and correlating the results to changes in the physical properties associated with solvent removal. Evaporation of excess solvent results in a more highly coordinated, denser glass network with higher index and lower absorption. Depending on the annealing temperature and time, index values ranging from n = 2.1 to the bulk value (n = 2.4) can be obtained, enabling a pathway to materials optimization.

  4. Influence of fast pyrolysis conditions on yield and structural transformation of biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass (wood, straw, rice husk) and its major components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was conducted in a wire mesh reactor. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of temperature (350-1400 ° C), heating rate (10-3000 ° C/s), particle size (0.05-2 mm) and hol......Fast pyrolysis of biomass (wood, straw, rice husk) and its major components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was conducted in a wire mesh reactor. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of temperature (350-1400 ° C), heating rate (10-3000 ° C/s), particle size (0.05-2 mm...... that the heat treatment temperature had a larger influence on the char yield than the heating rate. Scanning electron microscopy indicated different types of biomass char plasticization influenced by the applied temperatures, heating rates, particle sizes and holding times, except for the rice husk char...

  5. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of ocean conditions on two-phase flow instability in a parallel multi-channel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Guo; Qiu, S.Z.; Su, G.H.; Jia, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the two-phase flow instability between multi-channels (FIBM) operating under ocean conditions is studied theoretically. The physical and mathematical model of the multi-channel system which is based on Lee and Pan [Lee, J.D., Pan, C., 1999. Dynamics of multiple parallel boiling channel systems with forced flows. Nuclear Engineering and Design 192, 31-44], is extended to analyze the influence of ocean conditions. The influence of ocean conditions on the FIBM is analyzed, particularly with respect to the periodic total mass flow rate and rolling motion. Furthermore, the instability oscillation trajectories of the multi-channel system are obtained on the phase plane of the inlet velocity and boiling boundary. Some of the trajectories show chaotic characteristic. The instability zone of a nine-channel system under rolling motion is then obtained

  7. Radiation destruction of vitamin A in lipid solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snauwaert, F.; Maes, E.; Tobback, P.; Bhushan, B.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation response of vitamin A alcohol and its acetate derivative was compared in different lipid solvents. In all the solvents vitamin A alcohol exhibited a much higher radiation sensitivity than its ester counterpart. The nature of the solvent and the initial concentration was found to have a great influence on the extent of radiation degradation of vitamin A alcohol. In contrast to a high radiolability in non-polar solvents, vitamin A alcohol exhibited a remarkable stability in isopropanol. In addition, in isopropanol the G(-) relationship with radiation dose showed a reverse trend to that observed for other solvents. A thin-layer chromatographic procedure was developed for separation of the radiation degradation products. (author)

  8. The Influence of Coral Reef Benthic Condition on Associated Fish Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Seng, Karen M.; Mannering, Thomas D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Bellwood, David R.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs ar...

  9. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Seki, Ayano [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Si+Ni content. • The particle size distribution affects the activity and reducibility of active nickel species. • The amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres decreases by treatment of as-prepared sample in toluene. -- Abstract: In this paper, we investigated influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. In the preparation method of this study, when silica–nickel composite shells were coated on polystyrene templates by the sol–gel method using L(+)-arginine as the promoter for the reaction to form silica–nickel composite shell, the polystyrene templates were dissolved subsequently, even synchronously, in the same medium to form hollow spheres. The as-prepared silica–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of Si+Ni content on the morphology were systematically evaluated. All the as-prepared hollow silica–nickel composite spheres have the similar morphology as identified by SEM and TEM measurement. Homogeneity of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres increases with the increase in the Si+Ni content as shown by the laser diffraction particle size analysis. The catalytic activities of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane prepared with different Si+Ni contents were compared. The catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution in the presence of the hollow spheres increases with the increase of Si+Ni content. The results of FTIR spectra of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres indicate that a certain amount of residual PS templates exists in hollow silica

  10. Microwave Assisted Convenient One-Pot Synthesis of Coumarin Derivatives via Pechmann Condensation Catalyzed by FeF3 under Solvent-Free Conditions and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Vahabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and efficient solvent-free one-pot synthesis of coumarin derivatives by Pechmann condensation reactions of phenols with ethyl acetoacetate using FeF3 as a catalyst under microwave irradiation is described. This one-pot synthesis on a solid inorganic support provides the products in good yields. The newly synthesized compounds were systematically characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental CHN analyses. The proposed solvent-free microwave irradiation method using the environmentally friendly catalyst FeF3 offers the unique advantages of high yields, shorter reaction times, easy and quick isolation of the products, excellent chemoselectivity, and a one-pot, green synthesis. The products were screened for antimicrobial activity, and the results showed that the compounds reacted against all the tested bacteria.

  11. Influence of the clay content and drying of successive no solvents change in the morphology of polyamide 6 / clay membranes; Influencia do teor de argila e da secagem por troca sucessiva de nao solventes na morfologia das membranas de poliamida 6 / argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.H.; Ferreira, R.S.B.; Bezerra, E.B.; Leite, A.M.D.; Araujo, E.D.; Lira, H.L., E-mail: caio.henrique7@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Membranes of polyamide 6/clay nanocomposites with different contents (1 and 3%) of Brazilian bentonite clay using the technique of phase inversion was obtained. The nanocomposites were obtained in a co-rotating twin screw extruder, by the melt intercalation method and were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), which showed possibly an exfoliated and / or partially exfoliated structure was obtained. The membranes were dried at room temperature and also by successive exchange of non-solvents, to prevent collapse the pores using ethanol and n-hexane as a non-solvent. From the photomicrographs of top surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed to morphology change in the membranes from the presence of different clay contents as well as drying the same by successive exchange of non-solvents, obtaining membranes with larger amount of pores uniformly distributed. (author)

  12. Understanding factors that influence participation in physical activity among people with a neuromusculoskeletal condition: a review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newitt, Rosemarie; Barnett, Fiona; Crowe, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to describe the factors that influence participation in physical activity (PA) in people with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions. A systematic search of six databases was conducted. Articles were included if the study qualitatively explored factors that influence participation in PA by individuals with a NMS condition. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 were analysed for common themes and critically appraised. Results were categorised using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. The most common demotivators reported for the three areas of functioning, body function and structures, activities and participation were lack of walking balance, muscle weakness, pain, stiffness, bladder and blower problems, depression, thermoregulation and fear of injury. Fluctuating symptoms and fatigue were mentioned as demotivators in all of the progressive conditions. Maintaining independence, function and weight, and the prevention of secondary conditions were the leading motivators reported in this domain. Most common environmental barriers include accessibility, costs, transport and insufficient information and knowledge from health professionals. Social support is a consistent determinate of PA and is reported as a facilitator in every study. The most common personal demotivators include lack of motivation, feelings of self-consciousness and embarrassment in public, anxiety, frustration and anger. Personal motivators include goal setting and achieving, enjoyment, feeling good, feeling "normal", motivation and optimism, redefining self and escapism from everyday boundaries. Individuals with NMS conditions report complex common barriers, facilitators, demotivators and motivators to participation in PA. The way these factors influence participation in PA is unique to the individual; therefore, it is necessary to adopt an individually tailored approach when designing interventions. Individuals

  13. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in breeding condition and not in breeding condition. Within each of these groups, some birds were partially starved before dosage and some were fully fed. Birds were then fed dietary levels of 0, 700, 922, 1214, or 1600 ppm dry weight of p,p?-DDT for a period of 20 days or until death. Birds partially starved before dosage were more susceptible to DDT intoxication than nonstarved ones, and birds not in breeding condition were slightly more so than birds in breeding condition. Similarly, males died earlier than females, and the birds of the lighter weight strain used in the second half of the study died earlier than the birds of the heavier strain used in the first half. The heavier birds of each sex not only survived longer than lighter individuals receiving the same treatments, but they also lost a greater proportion of their weight before death. During the early portion of the dosage period, females in breeding condition were less sensitive to DDT than were females not in breeding condition and males. After 10 days on dosage, however, the cumulative mortality of females in breeding condition rapidly approached that of males and of females not in breeding condition. Food restriction prior to dosage, strains of quail, breeding conditions, and sexes resulted in weight differences and a corresponding accentuation or delay of the effects of the different levels of DDT.

  14. PREFACE: Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, M.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2008-04-01

    This special issue contains papers reflecting talks presented at the 8th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT07), held on 17 21 September 2007, at Leipzig University. This workshop gathered 108 physicists and mathematicians working on problems which are focused on the following topics: •Casimir and van der Waals forces—progress in theory and new experiments, applications at micro- and nano-scale •Casimir effect—exact results, approximate methods and mathematical problems •Vacuum quantum effects in classical background fields—renormalization issues, singular backgrounds, applications to particle and high energy physics •Vacuum energy and gravity, vacuum energy in supersymmetric and noncommutative theories. This workshop is part of a series started in 1989 and 1992 in Leipzig by Dieter Robaschik, and continued in 1995, 1998 and 2001 in Leipzig by Michael Bordag. In 2003 this Workshop was organized by Kimball A Milton in Oklahoma, in 2005 by Emilio Elizalde in Barcelona and in 2007 it returned to Leipzig. The field of physics after which this series of workshops is named is remarkably broad. It stretches from experimental work on the measurement of dispersion forces between macroscopic bodies to quantum corrections in the presence of classical background fields. The underlying physical idea is that even in its ground state (vacuum) a quantum system responds to changes in its environment. The universality of this idea makes the field of its application so very broad. The most prominent manifestation of vacuum energy is the Casimir effect. This is, in its original formulation, the attraction between conducting planes due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. In a sense, this is the long-range tail of the more general dispersion forces acting between macroscopic bodies. With the progress in nanotechnology, dispersion forces become of direct practical significance. On a more theoretical side

  15. The Influence of Pre-conditioning on Space Charge Formation in LDPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Fleming, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of thermal conditioning, at reduced pressure, on space charge accumulation in planar LDPE samples under DC stress has been investigated. The samples were 1.8 mm thick, including two 0.1 mm thick semicon electrodes, and they were conditioned prior to voltage application by being held...

  16. The influence of condition-based maintenance on workforce planning and maintenance scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, Javid; Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Wortmann, Hans; Klingenberg, Warse

    2013-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is generally considered an attractive maintenance policy for a single component: it uses the operating condition of the component to predict a failure event and therefore tries to avoid any unplanned downtime and unnecessary maintenance activities. However,

  17. The influence of environmental conditions on the infectivity of non-growing Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes L; Leusden FM van; Jonge R de; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is a causative agent of gastro-enteritis. Growth of this Gram negative bacterium is restricted to a limited number of environmental conditions. Under conditions where growth of C. jejuni is not possible, e.g. at temperatures below 30 degrees C, C. jejuni can remain viable

  18. Influence of curing conditions on durability of alkali-resistant glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Superplasticizer. 0. 0. 2. 0. 0. 2. Table 4. Samples formulations and storage conditions. Used cement. Samples Fiber rates (weight %) Silica fume (weight %) Storage conditions. CEM II. FSH2. 2. –. Moist room. FCA2. 2. –. Ambient air. FSH3. 2. 3. Moist room. FCA3. 2. 3. Ambient air. FSC2. 2. –. Dry environment. FSC3. 2. 3.

  19. Influence of basin- and local-scale environmental conditions on nearshore production in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Mueter, Franz J.; Black, Bryan A.; Douglas, David C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore marine habitats are productive and vulnerable owing to their connections to pelagic and terrestrial landscapes. To understand how ocean basin- and local-scale conditions may influence nearshore species, we developed an annual index of nearshore production (spanning the period 1972–2010) from growth increments recorded in otoliths of representative pelagic-feeding (Black Rockfish Sebastes melanops) and benthic-feeding (Kelp Greenling Hexagrammos decagrammus) nearshore-resident fishes at nine sites in the California Current and Alaska Coastal Current systems. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions across all seasons at lags of up to 2 years to represent changes in prey quantity (1- or 2-year time lags) and quality (within-year relationships). Relationships linking fish growth to basin-scale (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, and multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation index) and local-scale (sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomalies, upwelling index, photosynthetically active radiation, and freshwater discharge) environmental conditions varied by species and current system. Growth of Black Rockfish increased with cool basin-scale conditions in the California Current and warm local-scale conditions in the Alaska Coastal Current, consistent with existing hypotheses linking climate to pelagic production on continental shelves in the respective regions. Relationships for Kelp Greenlings in the California Current were complex, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. These opposing, lag-dependent relationships may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey in the California Current. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized by alternating cool and warm years, as benthic invertebrate recruitment is food limited during warm years while growth is temperature limited by cool

  20. Influence of moulding conditions and mould characteristics on the contraction defects appearance in ductile iron castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertucha, J.; Suarez, R.; Legazpi, J.; Gacetabeitia, P.

    2007-01-01

    Shrinkage defects appearance in cast iron has traditionally been related to the solidification processes of the metal and the feedings ability among the different sections of castings. Recent studies have demonstrated that sand moulds properties and their thermal behaviour after pouring step have an important influence on these defects formation too. The influence of the moulding process parameters and the mould characteristics on the contraction defects is analysed in this work using test casting designed specifically for this purpose. Additionally the most important parameters are determined in order to control the manufacturing process and minimise the shrinkage appearance in the castings. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  2. Influence of facilities of ski preparation on the bodily condition of teenagers 11-12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona V.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, Martin [Department of Informatics and Computers, University of Ostrava, 30 dubna 22, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  4. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON RED BEET YIELD IN VARIOUS ZONES OF THE FORE-CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  5. Egg hormones in a highly fecund vertebrate : do they influence offspring social structure in competitive conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony

    2011-01-01

    1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining

  6. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  7. Limitations on Change: Current Conditions Influencing Academic Intransigence in Educational Administration Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Connie Stokes; Pounder, Diana G.

    An analysis of academic intransigence (resistance to change) in educational administrative preparation programs is presented in this paper. Drawing upon two conceptual frameworks, the stakeholder perspective and Porter's (1980) five-force model of industry structure and competitive influence, two factors contributing to academic intransigence are…

  8. Influence of milk storing conditions on the loss of coagulable nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiar characteristics of Parmigiano-Reggiano, cheese of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, depend on its handicraft technology. The properties of casein micelles influence in an important way the physico-chemical phenomena of the cheese making process (Bozzetti et al., 1993.

  9. Influence of benchmarking on wilderness visitor and manager perceptions of campsite conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Flood

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visitor and manager perceptions of how heavily impacted wilderness campsites and restoration activities to restore them influence quality of visitor experience and opinions of managers. The study conducted in the Mission Mountains Wilderness ("MMW") is located in northwestern Montana and managed by the USDA Forest...

  10. The Influence of Preparation Conditions on the Electrical Conductivity of Poly N-Methyl-pyrrole Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidanapathirana, K.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    on the electrical conductivity has been investigated. The conductivity was measured by the in situ method using a specially prepared two-band microelectrode. The current density used during the polymerization has a considerable influence on the conductivity, as earlier observed for polypyrrole in non...

  11. Islet cytotoxicity of interleukin 1. Influence of culture conditions and islet donor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Spinas, G A; Prowse, S J

    1987-01-01

    strains, indicating that age, sex, and genetic background do not influence the susceptibility of the beta-cell to IL-1. Preculture of islets for 1-7 days in normal atmosphere and preculture of islet clusters in 95% O2 to delete passenger cells did not affect IL-1-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting that IL...

  12. Influence of fabrication conditions on characteristics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Lin, June-Hua; Hsu, Ken Y.; Chi, Sien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the fabrication conditions on holographic characteristics in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ:PMMA) bulk photopolymer. In our investigation, the PQ:PMMA bulk samples are fabricated by use of a two-step thermo-polymerization method. We firstly propose to monitor relative viscosity of the monomer solution during the sample preparation to obtain a reliable criterion for material fabrication. We then compare experimentally characteristics of 2-mm thick samples fabricated with different conditions for holographic memory. The results show that the conditions in the first step play a important rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA samples with good optical uniformity. In addition, the conditions in the second step play the rule for controlling the concentration of residual monomer and determine holographic characteristics. These results can provide a useful rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA photopolymers for further applications on volume holographic data storage.

  13. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Schut, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level

  14. Influence of selenium in drought-stressed wheat plants under greenhouse and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh HAJIBOLAND

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of selenium (Na2SeO4 was studied in two wheat genotypes under well-watered and drought conditions in greenhouse (15 µg Se L-1 and field (20-60 60 g ha-1 experiments. Application of Se improved dry matter and grain yield under both well-watered and drought conditions. Se increased leaf concentration of pigments and photosynthesis rate under both well-watered and drought conditions. Our results indicated that Se alleviates drought stress via increased photosynthesis rate, protection of leaf photochemical events, accumulation of organic osmolytes and improvement of water use efficiency. Under well-watered condition, Se-mediated growth improvement was associated with higher photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency, greater root length and diameter, and higher leaf water content.

  15. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be that Adler Influenced Rogers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)

  16. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  17. Photoinduced optical anisotropy in azobenzene methacrylate block copolymers: Influence of molecular weight and irradiation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimeno, Sofia; Forcen, Patricia; Oriol, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy in a series of azomethacrylate block copolymers with different Molecular weights and azo contents has been investigated under several irradiation conditions. Depending on molecular weight and composition, different microstructures (disordered, lamellar, spherical) appe...

  18. Solvents level dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-03

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule.

  19. Transaction component of exogenous factors of influence upon employment under conditions of globalisation of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushach Anna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of influence of globalisation upon efficiency of financial and loan instruments that ensure regulation and stimulation of employment and the role of transaction costs in these processes. To achieve the goal, the article shows how globalisation processes, which take place in the sphere of the financial sector, influence the real economy and employment of the population, identifies positive and negative sides of this influence. The article conducts analysis of causes and effects of the financial and economic crisis from the point of view of the theory of transaction costs, in the process of which the role of specific types of these costs in the processes that took place was ascertained. In the course of the study the article reveals negative influence of the growing disproportion between the public and private transaction costs of the risks of financial and economic instability, especially in the countries with the transformation economy, and justifies the necessity of stabilising mechanisms of the international financial market with the aim of elimination of the marked transaction disproportions such as introduction of a special tax on financial transactions or establishment of the double currency course: less flexible – for servicing trading operations, and more flexible – for regulation of financial flows. Studies of negative effects of integration processes allowed formation of directions of the state policy, which would prevent dangerous consequences of interference of the foreign capital with the financial sector and would protect the Ukrainian labour market from influence of negative effects of integration processes.

  20. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon, M.P.; Batuecas, B.

    1981-01-01

    Growth and protein metabolism of chlorella pyrenoidosa under differents conditions of temperature, photoperiod and CO 2 concentration was studied. The optimum of biomas production was observed at 25 deg C, 40.000 ppm of CO 2 in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under differents conditions but no change did occur in protein. (author)

  1. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyranosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Batuecas Suarez, B.

    1981-01-01

    Growth and protein metabolism of Chlorella pyranoside under different conditions of temperature, photo period and CO 2 concentration was studied. The optimum of biomass production was observed at 25 degree centigree, 40.000 ppm of CO 2 in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under different conditions but no change did occur in protein. (Author) 68 refs

  2. Influence of municipal- and individual-level socioeconomic conditions on mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nishi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Tomoki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Sadao; Subramanian, S V; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The health effect of area socioeconomic conditions has been evident especially in Western countries; however, limited research has focused on the effect of municipal-level socioeconomic conditions, especially in Asia. Multilevel research using data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, a large cohort study followed from 1990 to 2006, was conducted to examine individual as well as municipal socioeconomic conditions on risk of death, adjusting for each other. We included 24,460 men and 32,649 women aged 40 to 65 years at baseline in 35 municipalities as our study population. Primary predictors were municipal socioeconomic conditions (proportion of college graduates, per capita income, unemployment rate, and proportion of households receiving public assistance) and individual socioeconomic conditions (education level and occupation). Among men, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and unemployment rate for mortality from cardiovascular disease were -0.399 (0.094) and -0.343 (0.122), respectively. Among women, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and per capita annual income for mortality from injuries were -0.386 (0.171) and -1.069 (0.407). Individual education level and occupation were associated with all-cause mortality, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease or injuries. Interactions between individual education level and indicators of municipal socioeconomic conditions were observed for mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among men and mortality from injuries among women. Municipal and individual socioeconomic conditions were independently and interactively associated with premature death; this suggests that reducing social inequalities in health demands a focus on municipal conditions in addition to those of individuals.

  3. Environmental heterogeneity influences the reliability of secondary sexual traits as condition indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo; Martinez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Leckie, F; Redpath, S M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown positive associations between ornaments and condition, as predicted by indicator models of sexual selection. However, this idea is continuously challenged by opposite results, which reveal our lack of full understanding of how sexual selection works. Environmental heterogeneity may explain such inconsistencies, but valid field tests of this idea are currently lacking. We first analysed the relationship between condition and ornament expression from nine populations over 7 years in a wild bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We then manipulated male aggressiveness at the population level by means of testosterone implants in a replicated field experiment. We found that the relationship between condition and ornamentation varied greatly between environments and became stronger when environmental conditions (ECs) were worse or when aggressiveness in the population was experimentally increased. Some ornaments may therefore reliably advertise a better condition only in adverse ECs. Considering environmental heterogeneity can help reconcile conflicting findings regarding the reliability of ornaments as indicators of condition and will help our understanding of sexual selection processes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Investigating the role of solvent-solute interaction in crystal nucleation of salicylic acid from organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamar, Dikshitkumar; Zeglinski, Jacek; Mealey, Donal; Rasmuson, Åke C

    2014-08-20

    In previous work, it has been shown that the crystal nucleation of salicylic acid (SA) in different solvents becomes increasingly more difficult in the order: chloroform, ethyl acetate acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, and acetic acid. In the present work, vibration spectroscopy, calorimetric measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Raman and infrared spectra suggest that SA exists predominately as dimers in chloroform, but in the other five solvents there is no clear evidence of dimerization. In all solvents, the shift in the SA carbonyl peak reflecting the strength in the solvent-solute interaction is quite well correlated to the nucleation ranking. This shift is corroborated by DFT calculated energies of binding one solvent molecule to the carboxyl group of SA. An even better correlation of the influence of the solvent on the nucleation is provided by DFT calculated energy of binding the complete first solvation shell to the SA molecule. These solvation shell binding energies are corroborated by the enthalpy of solvent-solute interaction as estimated from experimentally determined enthalpy of solution and calculated enthalpy of cavity formation using the scaled particle theory. The different methods reveal a consistent picture and suggest that the stronger the solvent binds to the SA molecule in solution, the slower the nucleation becomes.

  6. Evaluation of solvent systems for optimized extractables studies of single use bioprocessing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorival-García, Noemí; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Despite their advantages, there is concern that single-use systems used in biopharmaceutical manufacture might release potentially toxic substances during standard unit operations that negatively impact cell growth. Characterization of the extractables profile for single-use systems is necessary to know which compounds potentially become leachables under operational cell culture conditions. A key issue in the design of extractables studies is the composition of the model solvent, in particular its pH and polarity. In this study, a new approach, based on design of experiments (DoE), has been applied to determine the composition of the model solvent for extractable profiling of single-use bags (SUBs). Particular focus was placed on the determination of the degradation products of the antioxidant Irgafos 168 ® , due to evidence that some of these degradation products have cytotoxic effects on CHO cells. Results indicated that 2-propanol:water is the most appropriate solvent for the extraction of highly hydrophobic compounds with polar groups and/or acid-base properties from SUBs. The described DoE approach simplifies the number of experiments, evaluates all possible solvent water mixtures to select the best extraction solvent based on polarity, establishes the influence of each variable and provides information about variable interaction, which represents an important improvement over current best practice. The developed approach was applied to seven SUBs from different vendors and production dates facilitating the identification of potentially non-satisfactory films for cultivation of CHO cell lines under process conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2017-10-01

    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  8. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.

    2017-10-01

    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  9. Influence of the material used to build the blades of a wind turbine on their starting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Năstase Eugen-Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. Hydraulic machines that convert the energy of a fluid into mechanical energy are called turbines. A wind turbine is a device which extracts kinetic energy from the wind. With increasing energy demands is necessary to increase the size of wind turbines. Under these conditions the turbine will start only at high wind speeds. On the other hand, the control of high speed is more difficult and the reduction of the inertial forces becomes mandatory. This study presents an analysis of the material influence on the wind turbine starting conditions.

  10. Dry Storage at long term of nuclear fuels: Influence of the fuel design and commercial irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Armando C

    2009-01-01

    The BaCo code was applied to simulate the behaviour for a PHWR fuel under storage conditions showing a strong dependence on the original design of the fuel and the irradiation history. In particular, the results of the statistical analysis of BaCo indicate that the integrity of the fuel is influenced by the manufacture tolerances and the solicitations during the NPP irradiation. The main conclusion of the present study is that the fuel temperature of the device should be carefully controlled in order to ensure safe storage conditions. [es

  11. Double Solvent for Extracting Rare Earth Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, AN; Bambang EHB

    2007-01-01

    An extraction process to rare earth concentrate which contain elements were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) which were dissolved in to nitric acid has been done. The experiment of the extraction by double solvent in batch to mix 10 ml of the feed with 10 ml solvent contained the pair of solvent was TBP and TOA, D2EHPA and TOA, TBP and D2EHPA in cyclohexane as tinner. It was selected a right pairs of solvent for doing variation such as the acidity of the feed from 2 - 6 M and the time of stirring from 5 - 25 minutes gave the good relatively extraction condition to Dy element such as using 10 % volume of TOA in D2EHPA and cyclohexane, the acidity of the feed 3 M and the time stirring 15 minutes produced coefficient distribution to dysprosium = 0.586 and separation factor Dy-Ce = ∼ (unlimited); Dy-Nd = 4.651. (author)

  12. Deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneelil, Paul; Pack, Min; Cui, Chunxiao; Han, Li-Hsin; Sun, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing cellular scaffolds using bioinks is gaining popularity due to the advancement of printing technology as well as the growing demands of regenerative medicine. Numerous studies have been conducted on printing scaffolds of biomimetic structures that support the cell production of human tissues. However, the underlying physics of the deposition dynamics of bioinks remains elusive. Of particular interest is the unclear deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks, which is often used to tune the micro-architecture formation. Here we systematically studied the effects of jetting frequency, solvent properties, substrate wettability, and temperature on the three-dimensional deposition patterns of bioinks made of Methacrylated Gelatin and Carboxylated Gelatin. The microflows inside the inkjet-printed picolitre drops were visualized using fluorescence tracer particles to decipher the complex processes of multi-solvent evaporation and solute self-assembly. The evolution of droplet shape was observed using interferometry. With the integrated techniques, the interplay of solvent evaporation, biopolymer deposition, and multi-drop interactions were directly observed for various ink and substrate properties, and printing conditions. Such knowledge enables the design and fabrication of a variety of tissue engineering scaffolds for potential use in regenerative medicine.

  13. Heavy oil recovery using solvents and explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, L.J.; Johnson, F.S.; Miller, J.S.; Jones, R.A.; McMurtrie, W.D.

    1977-12-01

    Petroleum-recovery techniques are being developed for the many shallow, low-productivity, heavy-oil sand deposits in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. In 1971, laboratory flooding experiments were conducted to determine optimum field operating conditions for recovery of heavy oil. Concurrently the Research Center began a field experiment in Labette County, Kans., using a recovery method (SolFrac) that combines chemical-explosive fracturing, to create communication with solvent injection, to improve mobility. The general boundaries of heavy-oil deposits are reported, and the areal extent and general characteristics of the reservoir in Labette County are described. The fracturing, injection, and production techniques and the production results from the field experiment are described. About 14% of the solvent injected was not recovered and thus was lost to the formation. Roughly 27 percent of the oil-in-place within the five-spot interwell zone was recovered. Reinjection of the produced solvent-oil mixture was done on a limited basis. Not enough additional oil was picked up during recycling of the solvent to justify this procedure. 9 tables, 21 figures.

  14. Seed banks in a degraded desert shrubland: Influence of soil surface condition and harvester ant activity on seed abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Kane, J.M.; Nicklas, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    We compared seed banks between two contrasting anthropogenic surface disturbances (compacted, trenched) and adjacent undisturbed controls to determine whether site condition influences viable seed densities of perennial and annual Mojave Desert species. Viable seeds of perennials were rare in undisturbed areas (3-4 seeds/m2) and declined to importance of litter as an indicator of site degradation and recovery potential in arid lands.

  15. The Influence of Tilletia spp. Inoculum Source and Enviromental Conditions on the Frequency of Infected Wheat Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Koprivica; Radivoje Jevtić; Ivana Dulić-Marković

    2009-01-01

    The influence of inoculum source on the incidence of common bunt, caused by fungi from the genus Tilletia, was estimated based on the frequency of bunt infected wheat spikes in our agroecological conditions. The cultivar Novosadska rana 5 was sown in a random split plot design with four replicates at Rimski Sancevi on three sawing dates in 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The following variables were evaluated: I - control, II - soilborne inoculum (4 g teliospores/1 l soil), III - seedborne inoculum ...

  16. Varying hydric conditions during incubation influence egg water exchange and hatchling phenotype in the red-eared slider turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Girondot, Marc; Prévot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions within the nest, notably temperature and moisture of substrate, exert a powerful influence during embryogenesis in oviparous reptiles. The influence of fluctuating nest temperatures has been experimentally examined in different reptile species; however, similar experiments using moisture as the key variable are lacking. In this article, we examine the effect of various substrate moisture regimes during incubation on different traits (egg mass, incubation length, and hatchling mass) in a chelonian species with flexible-shelled eggs, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). Our results show that the rate of water uptake by the eggs was higher in wet than in dry substrate and varied across development. More important, during the first third of development, the egg mass changes were relatively independent of the soil moisture level; they became very sensitive to moisture levels during the other two-thirds. Moreover, hydric conditions exerted a strong influence on the eggs' long-term sensitivity to the moisture of the substrate. Even short-term episodes of high or low levels of moisture modified permanently their water sensitivity, notably through modification of eggshell shape and volume, and in turn entailed significant effects on hatchling mass (and hence offspring quality). Such complex influences of fluctuating moisture levels at various incubation stages on hatchling phenotype better reflect the natural situation, compared to experiments based on stable, albeit different, moisture levels.

  17. The influence of preanalytical conditions on the DJ-1 concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Tanassi, Julia T; Bech, Sara

    2014-01-01

    concentration was blood contaminated samples centrifuged at 2000 × g. When a protease inhibitor cocktail was added to the CSF prior to centrifugation, the DJ-1 concentration was significantly higher. CONCLUSION: Preanalytical factors such as centrifugation and protease inhibition must...... be carefully controlled when handling CSF for analysis of DJ-1 and other biomarkers, as DJ-1 was influenced by blood contamination, centrifugation and protease activity.......AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of centrifugation and protease activity on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin were determined in 12 (DJ-1) and six (hemoglobin) pairs of CSF...

  18. Influence of health, lifestyle, working conditions, and sociodemography on early retirement among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Ekholm, Ola; Hundrup, Yrsa A

    2007-01-01

    by Statistics Denmark. The follow-up period was from 1993 to 2002. RESULTS: Nurses who had poor self-rated health were more likely to join PEW compared with nurses who considered their health as good (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41). Low job influence, high workload, and physical job demands only marginally...... retired or was unemployed. CONCLUSIONS: The retirement age among nurses is influenced by a number of sociodemographic, work-related, and health-related factors. Poor health, low income, living outside the Copenhagen area, being married, having a spouse who is outside the labor force, and working......AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between health, lifestyle, work-related and sociodemographic factors, and older nurses' exit from the labor market to Post-Employment Wage (PEW). PEW is an early retirement scheme to make it possible for workers to retire at the age of 60...

  19. Processing condition influence on the characteristics of gold nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikov, R.G.; Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Atanasov, P.A.; Alexandrov, M.T.; Karashanova, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    A study is presented of Au nanoparticles (NPs) created by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a solid target in double distilled water. The influence was examined of the laser wavelength on the size, shape and optical properties of the resulting NPs. Three different wavelengths: the fundamental (λ = 1064 nm), second (λ SHG = 532) and third (λ THG = 355) harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at the same fluence were utilized to produce various colloids. Ablation at the wavelength of 532 nm was investigated in more detail to reveal the influence of self-absorption by the already created NPs on their characteristics. The colloid produced was irradiated by λ irrad = 532 nm (laser energy 40 mJ) at different times up to 25 min after the end of ablation. The initial structure of welded NPs forming wires was modified. Transmission electron microscopy and optical transmission measurements were used to evaluate the shape and size distribution of the NPs.

  20. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.