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Sample records for solvent anthracene oil

  1. The Use of Demulsifiers for Separating Water from Anthracene Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-03-01

    , causes the phenomenon of cavitations.In the oil-furnace carbon black plant of Petrokemija d. d. Kutina, the storage tank TK48003, was filled with 800 tons of anthracene oil. The average water fraction in the tank was w = 10·10 –2. It was impossible to manipulate in the process of production, because the mentioned water fraction caused the cavitations effect. Therefore, it was necessary to decrease the water fraction to below w = 2.0·10 –2, which will be satisfactory for production.As the water and anthracene oil formed a homogeneous emulsion (similar density at all temperatures, it was impossible to manage decanting the water from the anthracene oil. Additionally, it was impossible to manage evaporation of the water from the oil by heating the whole emulsion,because the flash point of anthracene oil is in the temperature range of T = 100 to 105 °C. Distillation of the whole emulsion of 800 tons was also impossible, because there was no distillation column adequate for separating the water from the anthracene oil. Thus, the use of different demulsifiers proved as a potential solution for separating the homogeneous mixture of anthracene oil and water. Namely, demulsifiers are a special type of high molecular tensides and organic solvents, which serve for separation the water from different hydrocarbons.The most common use is in emulsions with “lighter” hydrocarbons, especially when the density is not above r=0.850 g cm–3. Since the density of anthracene oil ranges from r=1.05 to 1.09 g cm–3, it was necessary to customise the conditions of application, and to choose the mostadequate demulsifier for the separation of water from anthracene oil. Therefore, we experimented with different kinds of demulsifiers in cooperation with the companies TEH PROJEKT KEMO d. o. o. and KEM PROJEKT d. o. o. In laboratory conditions, we tested five different demulsifiers with different concentrations, and their efficiency in separating the water from anthracene oil. We then

  2. Thermochemical transformations of anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The basic technological step in electrode pitch production is the thermal processing of the original pitch, combined in some cases with air treatment. The thermal process of electrode pitch production is outstandingly simple and economical, but offers little scope for regulating the product quality. When the coal tar regulating the product quality has been highly pyrolyzed, it becomes difficult to produce a medium electrode pitch in conformity with GOST 10200-73 as regards its content of substances insoluble in quinoline (..cap alpha../sub 1/-fraction). It is particularly difficult to make ptich with a softening point of 85 to 90/sup 0/C from highly pyrolyzed coal tar, since this involves a prolonged treatment which increases the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fraction content. These difficulties, associated with persistent consumer demand for higher electrode pitch quality, have greatly activated the search for new methods of making electrode pitch. A survey of the Soviet and foreign literature shows that the investigations now in progress relate both to methods of developing new production techniques and to methods of adjusting the initial feedstock composition by the addition of high-boiling coal-tar fractions, pitch distillates, highly aromatized petroleum refinery products and so on. As a result of experiments it was found that: (1) When anthracene oil is heated, its contents of condensation products (..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha..-fractions) increase quite slowly compared with pitch; consequently the electrode pitch production process is prolonged by mixing the two feedstock materials. (2) When the anthracene oil is heat treated first, condensation products form and accumulate in it and its thermochemical transformation activity is enhanced. (3) The use of heat-treated anthracene oil will clearly intensify the electrode pitch production process and raise the product quality.

  3. Recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, etc. , from tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-12-25

    A process is described for the recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, and the like from tar oils and similar liquors, characterized in that the oil is treated in a rapidly rotating hammer mill, such as a colloid mill, with water sufficient, in the presence or absence of suitable solvents, for the only portion preferably in the presence of emulsifiers; and is filtered through a filter with fine pores.

  4. Hydrogenation of Anthracene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solvent Using Ni Supported on Hβ-Zeolite Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Aly Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of anthracene was studied over Ni supported on Hβ-zeolite catalyst under supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2 solvent. Hydrogenation of anthracene in sc-CO2 yielded 100% conversion at 100 °C, which is attributed to the reduced mass transfer limitations, and increased solubility of H2 and substrate in the reaction medium. The total pressure of 7 MPa was found to be optimum for high selectivity of octahydroanthracene (OHA. The conversion and selectivity for OHA increased with an increase in H2 partial pressure, which is attributed to higher concentration of hydrogen atoms at higher H2 pressures. The selectivity reduced the pressure below 7 MPa because of enhanced desorption of the tetrahydro-molecules and intermediates from Ni active sites, due to higher solubility of the surface species in sc-CO2. The selectivity of OHA increased with the increase in catalyst weight and reaction time. The rate of hydrogenation of anthracene was compared with that found for napthalene and phenanthrene. The use of acetonitrile as co-solvent or expanded liquid with CO2 decreased the catalytic activity.

  5. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  6. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  7. The impact of oil dispersant solvent on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Becker, K.W.; Daling, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    Modern oil spill dispersant formulations are concentrated blends of surface active agents (surfactants) in a solvent carrier system. The surfactants are effective for lowering the interfacial tension of the oil slick and promoting and stabilizing oil-in-water dispersions. The solvent system has 2 key functions: (1) reduce viscosity of the surfactant blend to allow efficient dispersant application, and (2) promote mixing and diffusion of the surfactant blend into the oil film. A more detailed description than previously given in the literature is proposed to explain the mechanism of chemical dispersion and illustrate how the surfactant is delivered by the solvent to the oil-water interface. Laboratory data are presented which demonstrate the variability in dispersing effectiveness due to different solvent composition, particularly for viscous and emulsified test oils with viscosities up to 20,500 mPa·s. Other advantages of improved solvent components can include reduced evaporative losses during spraying, lower marine toxicity and reduced protective equipment requirements. Through this improved understanding of the role of the solvent, dispersants which are more effective over a wider range of oil types are being developed

  8. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  9. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  10. Viscous fingering effects in solvent displacement of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthiell, D. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Kissel, G.; Jackson, C.; Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Fisher, D. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based process that is analogous to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for the recovery of heavy oil. A cyclic solvent process is preferred for thin reservoirs, particularly primary-depleted reservoirs. In a cyclic steam stimulation process, a solvent is injected into the reservoir for a period of time before oil is produced from the well. Viscous fingering is a phenomena that characterizes several solvent-based processes for the recovery of heavy oil. A combined experimental and simulation study was conducted to characterize viscous fingering under heavy oil recovery conditions (high ratio of oil to solvent viscosity). Four experiments were conducted in heavy oil-saturated sand packs. Three involved injection of a miscible, liquid solvent at the bottom of the sand pack. The heavy oil in these experiments was displaced upwardly. The fourth experiment involved top-down injection of a gaseous solvent. The miscible liquid displacement was dominated by one solvent finger which broke through to a producing well at the other end of the sand pack. Breakthrough times were similar to that at lower viscosity. The fourth experiment showed fingering along with features of a gravity-driven VAPEX process. Key features of the experiment and realistic fingering patterns were numerically simulated using a commercial reservoir simulator. It was emphasized that accurate modelling of dispersion is necessary in matching the observed phenomena. The simulations should include the capillary effects because of their significance for gaseous fingering and the VAPEX processes. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  11. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  12. Excited state kinetics of anthracene-bridge-aniline intramolecular exciplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Hammershøj, Peter; Kjær, Kasper Skov

    2014-01-01

    excited anthracene state (LE) and an excited state complex (exciplex, EP) in non-polar solvents. The kinetics of the excited state processes were established in decalin from the time-resolved emission, and was shown to be strongly influenced by an electron-transfer state (ET). For quantitative studies...

  13. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  14. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effect of a magnetic field on the fluorescence produced in irradiated anthracene solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.; Sargent, F.P.; Lopata, V.J.; Gardy, E.M.; Brocklehurst, B.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of an applied magnetic field on the fluorescence from radiolytic ion recombination has been studied for anthracene in some hydrocarbon solvents. In pulse-irradiated anthracene in squalane, the fluorescence intensity following the pulse increases as a function of applied magnetic field in the range studied. At a constant magnetic field strength, the field-induced enhancement of the fluorescence intensity varies with time after the pulse. At high field strengths the enhancement reaches a maximum about 50 ns after the pulse. Similar effects are observed in cyclohexane but the enhancement is smaller than that in squalane. In benzene solutions the effect is extremely small. These findings are confirmed by observations in continuously gamma-irradiated solutions. 9,10-Dimethylanthracene gives a larger enhancement and anthracene-d 10 a smaller enhancement than the parent anthracene at high fields. The results are in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on the effect of a magnetic field on the loss of spin correlation of geminate ions pairs prior to recombination

  17. Biodiesel production from ethanolysis of palm oil using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, R.; Winarta, A.; Taslim; Indra, L.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel produced from ethanolysis is more renewable and have better properties (higher oxidation stability, lower cloud and pour point) compared to methanolysis, but it has a disadvantage such as complicated purification. To improve ethanolysis process, deep eutectic solvent (DES) can be prepared from choline chloride and glycerol and used as co-solvent in ethanolysis. The deep eutectic solvent is formed from a quaternary ammonium salt (choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (Glycerol), it is a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent compared to a conventional volatile organic solvent such as hexane. The deep eutectic solvent is prepared by mixing choline chloride and glycerol with molar ratio 1:2 at temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 300 rpm for 1 hour. The DES is characterized by its density and viscosity. The ethanolysis is performed at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt. DES as co-solvent with concentration 0.5 to 3 wt. stirring speed 400 rpm, and a reaction time 1 hour. The obtained biodiesel is then characterized by its density, viscosity, and ester content. The oil - ethanol phase condition is observed in the reaction tube. The oil - ethanol phase with DES tends to form meniscus compared to without DES, showed that oil and ethanol become more slightly miscible, which favors the reaction. Using DES as co-solvent in ethanolysis showed increasing in yield and easier purification. The esters properties meet the international standards ASTM D6751, with the highest yield achieved 83,67 with 99,77 conversion at DES concentration 2 . Increasing DES concentration above 2 in ethanolysis decrease the conversion and yield, because of the excessive glycerol in the systems makes the reaction equilibrium moves to the reactant side.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of cyclodextrin aggregation and extraction of Anthracene from non-aqueous liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xinzhe [Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Coastal Ocean Dynamic and Environment, Division of Ocean Science and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Guozhong [Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Coastal Ocean Dynamic and Environment, Division of Ocean Science and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Chen, Daoyi, E-mail: chen.daoyi@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Coastal Ocean Dynamic and Environment, Division of Ocean Science and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Cyclodextrin (CD) extraction is widely used for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution, but it remains unclear about the influence of CD aggregation on the PAH transport from non-aqueous liquid phase to water. The atomistic adsorption and complexation of PAHs (32 anthracenes) by CD aggregates (48 β-cyclodextrins) were studied by molecular dynamics simulations at hundreds of nanoseconds time scale. Results indicated that high temperature promoted the βCD aggregation in bulk oil, which was not found in bulk water. Nevertheless, the fractions of anthracenes entrapped inside the βCDs cavity in both scenarios were significantly increased when temperature increased from 298 to 328 K. Free energy calculation for the sub-steps of CD extraction demonstrated that the anthracenes could be extracted when the βCDs arrived at the water-oil interface or after the βCDs entered the bulk oil. The former was kinetic-controlled while the latter was thermodynamic-limited process. Results also highlighted the formation of porous structures by CD aggregates in water, which was able to sequestrate PAH clusters with the size obviously larger than the cavity diameter of individual CD. This provided an opportunity for the extraction of recalcitrant PAHs with molecular size larger than anthracenes by cyclodextrins.

  19. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  20. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  1. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  2. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ismanto Aviarina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L. oil is one of potential commodity that provides an important role for the country’s foreign exchange but the extraction of these essential oil is still using conventional method such as hydrodistillation which takes a long time to produce essential oil with good quality. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the extraction process using a more effective and efficient method. So in this study the extraction is done using solvent-free microwave extraction method that are considered more effective and efficient than conventional methods. The optimum yield in the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is 1.0674%. The optimum yield is obtained on the feed to distiller (F/D ratio of 0.12 g/mL with microwave power of 400 W. In the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is performed first-order and second-order kinetics modelling. Based on kinetics modelling that has been done, it can be said that the second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9901 can be better represent experimental results of extraction of cajuput oil that using solvent-free microwave extraction method when compared with the first-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9854.

  3. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  4. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash... production of oil-base paint where the tank cleaning is performed using solvents. When a plant is subject to...

  5. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  6. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  7. Study on the effect of innovative leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily drilling cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Cha; Hao, Weiwei; Li, Mu; Huang, Zhao; Liu, Yushuang

    2018-02-01

    A new type of leaching solvent for oily drilling cuttings was developed, and the effect of leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily cuttings was investigated. The results indicated that the leaching solvent had good capacity of oil removal for oily cuttings, and the oil content of treated cuttings is less than 0.6%. The leaching solvent could be separated from the oil phase through distillation, and the recyclable solvent could be reused to treat other cuttings. Moreover, oil resources adsorbed on the oily cuttings could be recycled and reused to prepare new drilling fluids, so the drilling cost could be reduced greatly. As a result, the leaching solvent could treat the oily cuttings effectively, and recycle and reuse oil resources, and thus produce great economic benefits. It can play an essential role in safe drilling jobs and improvement of drilling efficiency in the future.

  8. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Stabilization of Empty Fruit Bunch derived Bio-oil using Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Loong Yiin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research was to select the ideal condition for accelerated aging of bio-oil and the consequences of additive in stabilizing the bio-oil. The bio-oil was produced from the catalytic pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The optimum reaction conditions applied to obtain the utmost bio-oil yield were 5 wt% of H-Y catalyst at reaction temperature of 500 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 100 ml/min. A 10 wt% of solvents including acetone, ethanol, and ethyl acetate were used to study the bio-oil’s stability. All the test samples were subjected to accelerated aging at temperature of 80 oC for 7 days. The properties of samples used as the indicator of aging were viscosity and water content. The effectiveness of solvents increased in the following order: acetone, ethyl acetate, and 95 vol% ethanol. Based on the result of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, it could impede the chain of polymerization by converting the active units in the oligomer chain to inactive units. The solvent reacted to form low molecular weight products which resulted in lower viscosity and lessen the water content in bio-oil. Addition of 95 vol% ethanol also inhibited phase separation.

  10. "Winterização" de óleo de pescado via solvente Winterization of fish oil with solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colembergue Cunha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento de óleos via "winterização" consiste numa cristalização fracionada, na qual os triacilgliceróis de óleos e gorduras são separados pela cristalização parcial na fase líquida. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na determinação das variáveis significativas e das condições operacionais do processo de "winterização" via solvente do óleo de pescado. Como matéria-prima empregou-se o óleo de pescado bruto de indústrias pesqueiras, o qual foi branqueado. Na etapa de "winterização", o óleo branqueado foi resfriado progressivamente em três estágios, de 30 ºC até -5 ºC. Foram estudados os seguintes fatores: tipo de solvente, proporção de solvente e agitação no segundo estágio do resfriamento. As composições de ácidos graxos dos óleos de pescado foram determinadas através de cromatografia gasosa. Foram analisadas as variações percentuais dos ácidos graxos insaturados e dos ácidos graxos saturados. As condições recomendadas para o processo foram o emprego de hexano como solvente, na proporção de 40% em relação à massa de óleo, e sem o emprego de agitação no segundo estágio do resfriamento. Sob tais condições, obteve-se um óleo com teor de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA de 64,3%, sendo observado um aumento no percentual dos ácidos graxos insaturados de aproximadamente 9,2% e uma redução de 13,4% dos saturados, em relação ao óleo branqueado de pescado.The process of winterization consists of fractional crystallization, in which the triglycerides of oils and fats are separate by the partial crystallization in the liquid phase. The objective of this work was to evaluate significant variables and the operational conditions in the solvent winterization process of the fish oil. The crude fish oil from fishery industries was bleached and used as raw material. During the winterization step, the bleached oil was cooled progressively from 30 ºC to 5 ºC in three phases. The solvent

  11. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 35–50 days, depending on the solvent and a slower second stage. The highest degradation rates were observed in extracts prepared with linoleic acid rich solvents (sunflower oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil, while the lowest were found in oil with saturated fatty acids (Myritol 312® and paraffin oil. These results confirm the connection between the degradation of carotenoids and lipid autoxidation, and suggest that the influence of the oil solvents on the stability of oil extracts of Calendula officinalis is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solvent for the production of marigold oil extracts.

  12. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared.

  14. The radiation-induced topotactic conversion of di-para anthracene to anthracene: an electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, G.M.; Goringe, M.J.; Thomas, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of single crystals of di-para anthracene, the product of photodimerisation of anthracene. This undergoes an electron-induced topotactic conversion to anthracene, and the study of this reaction using low temperature TEM enabled the identification of separate stages in the conversion and the elucidation of probable mechanistic routes. (author)

  15. Poly-MVA attenuates 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiated and croton oil promoted skin papilloma formation on mice skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Ravindran K; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Janardhanan, Kainoor K; Antonawich, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Chemopreventive agents which exhibit activities such as anti-inflammation, inhibition of carcinogen induced mutagenesis and scavenging of free radical might play a decisive role in the inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis either at the initiation or promotion stage. Many synthesized palladium (Pd) complexes tested experimentally for antitumor activity are found effective. Poly-MVA is a liquid blend preparation containing B complex vitamins, ruthenium with Pd complexed with alpha lipoic acid as the major ingredients. The antitumor effect of Poly-MVA was evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene-initiated croton oil-promoted papilloma formation on mice skin. Skin tumor was initiated with a single application of 390 nmol of DMBA in 20 µl acetone. The effect of Poly-MVA against croton oil- induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation on the mice skin was also evaluated. Topical application of Poly-MVA (100 µl, twice weekly for 18 weeks) 30 minutes prior to each croton oil application, significantly decreased the tumor incidence (11%) and the average number of tumor per animals. Application of Poly-MVA (100 µl) before croton oil significantly (p < 0.05) protected the mouse skin from inflammation (36%) and lipid peroxidation (14%) when compared to the croton oil alone treated group. Experimental results indicate that Poly-MVA attenuate the tumor promoting effects of croton oil and the effect may probably be due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  16. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  17. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  18. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  19. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared. Key words: Thevetia seed, ...

  20. Methanogenic biodegradation of paraffinic solvent hydrocarbons in two different oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shahimin, Mohd Faidz; Siddique, Tariq

    2017-04-01

    Microbial communities drive many biogeochemical processes in oil sands tailings and cause greenhouse gas emissions from tailings ponds. Paraffinic solvent (primarily C 5 -C 6 ; n- and iso-alkanes) is used by some oil sands companies to aid bitumen extraction from oil sands ores. Residues of unrecovered solvent escape to tailings ponds during tailings deposition and sustain microbial metabolism. To investigate biodegradation of hydrocarbons in paraffinic solvent, mature fine tailings (MFT) collected from Albian and CNRL ponds were amended with paraffinic solvent at ~0.1wt% (final concentration: ~1000mgL -1 ) and incubated under methanogenic conditions for ~1600d. Albian and CNRL MFTs exhibited ~400 and ~800d lag phases, respectively after which n-alkanes (n-pentane and n-hexane) in the solvent were preferentially metabolized to methane over iso-alkanes in both MFTs. Among iso-alkanes, only 2-methylpentane was completely biodegraded whereas 2-methylbutane and 3-methylpentane were partially biodegraded probably through cometabolism. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed dominance of Anaerolineaceae and Methanosaetaceae in Albian MFT and Peptococcaceae and co-domination of "Candidatus Methanoregula" and Methanosaetaceae in CNRL MFT bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively, during active biodegradation of paraffinic solvent. The results are important for developing future strategies for tailings reclamation and management of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  2. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Steam and solvent injection as an advanced recovering method for heavy oil reservoirs; Injecao de vapor e solvente como um metodo de recuperacao avancada em reservatorios de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Edney Rafael V.P.; Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson F.; Barbosa, Janaina Medeiros D.; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes M.; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently a resource more and more used by the petroleum industry to increase the efficiency of steam flood mechanism is the addition of solvents. The process can be understood as a combination of a thermal method (steam injection) with a miscible method (solvent injection), promoting, thus, the reduction of interfacial tensions and oil viscosity. The mobility of the displaced fluid is then improved, resulting in an increase of oil recovery. To better understand this improved oil recovery method, a numerical study of the process was driven contemplating the effects of some operational parameters (distance between wells, injection fluids rate, kind of solvent and injected solvent volume) on the accumulated production of oil and recovery factor. Semisynthetic models were used in this study but reservoir data can be extrapolated for practical applications situations on Potiguar Basin. Simulations were performed in STARS (CMG, 2007.11). It was found that injected solvent volumes increased oil recovery and oil rates. Further the majority of the injected solvent was produced and can be recycled. (author)

  4. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Grasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized and diffusion coefficients were estimated for each solid. Extractions were carried out in a column, oil content was determined according to time, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the system. The optimum conditions obtained were pH 5.4, 38°C, and 9.7 h, and pH 5.8, 44°C, and 5.8h of treatment for flakes and collets, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. Diffusion coefficients were estimated between 10-11 and 10-10. The highest diffusion coefficient was obtained for hydrolyzed collets. 0.73 g oil/mL and 0.7 g oil/mL were obtained at 240 s in a column for collets and flakes, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. The enzymatic incubation accelerates the extraction rate and allows for higher yield. The proposed model proved to be appropriate.

  5. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  6. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  7. The preparation of specifically 2H-labeled benz(a)anthracenes and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmark, R.K.; Manning, W.B.; Muschik, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The 2 + 4 cycloaddition reaction of 1,4-naphthoquinone and substituted styrenes was used to prepare 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobenz[a]anthracene-7,12-diones (BADs). The corresponding bromobenz[a]anthracenes (BAs) were prepared by aluminum tricyclohexoxide reduction of the diones. Lithiation with t-butyllithium followed by quenching with deuterium oxide gave the specifically 2 H-labeled BAs with deuterium incorporations of > 95%. The 2-, 3-, and 4-bromo-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracenes (DMBAs) were prepared from the bromo BADs in moderate yield by the classical Grignard procedure. Lithium aluminum deuteride reduction gave the 2 H-DMBAs. An alternate synthesis from 3,4-dihydrobenz[a]anthracene 1-(2H)- one was used for the preparation of 1- and 2- 2 H BAs and DMBAs. (author)

  8. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake using Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) as catalysts and co-solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Yahaya; Kumar, Naveen; Bugaje, Idris M

    2016-01-01

    Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15 ± 0.82 MJ/kg to 24.30 ± 0.98 MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53 wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31 wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80 wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA; JELA MILIC-ASKRABIC; SLOBODAN D. PETROVIC; SLAVICA SILER-MARINKOVIC

    2005-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 3550 days, depending on the solvent) and a slower second stage. The highest degra...

  12. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  13. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  14. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  15. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. K. Y.; Kusuma, H. S.; Syahputra, M. E.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  16. Effects of the organic solvents addition about crude oil rheological behavior from 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brazil); Efeito da adicao de solventes organicos sobre o comportamento reologico do petroleo cru oriundo do 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Luis A.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Vieira, Jacyara M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Minas; Almeida, Yeda M.B.; Sarmento, Sandra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The crude oil rheological properties are quite important in its transport and refining processes. They can affect the head losses and, thus, the pressure within a refining unit. These properties can be affected by the temperature and the chemical composition as well as by solvents added to the crude oil. The current work studied the rheological behaviour of both a crude oil from the Reconcavo Baiano (Brazil) and mixture of this crude oil with organic solvents (toluene and xylene). The solvent type and concentration effects on the rheological parameters, were studied. The Brookfield viscometer, model LDVD-II, was used. The results brought to light that the crude oil and the crude oil-solvent mixtures behaved, discretely, as thixotropic fluids. The model of Herschel-Bulkley for viscoplastic fluid was the best in fitting the experimental data for both crude oil and crude oil - solvent mixture. The toluene was found to be more efficient in reducing both the apparent viscosity and apparent yield stress of the crude oil than the xylene for a given concentration. The solvent concentration affects indirectly the rheological properties of the crude oil. (author)

  17. Solvent extraction of jojoba oil from pre-pressed jojoba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haron, Dalia E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process of jojoba oil from the meal cake obtained after the mechanical pressing of jojoba seeds was studied. Commercial hexane and petroleum ether were used as solvents and the extraction was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 to 55 °C using solvent-to-solid ratios, R between 2 and 15 L/kg. The equilibrium compositions of the solvent and solid phases were determined. Based on the equilibrium data, the partition coefficient or distribution ratio, D of the oil between both phases was estimated. Also, the number of extraction stages necessary to achieve a certain degree of oil recovery has been determined using different hexane-to-meal ratios. Jojoba oil was also tested for its physical and chemical properties including chemical composition, percentage fatty acid, peroxide value, flash point, fire point, pour point, refractive index, saponification and iodine values. The stability of jojoba oil during storage at room temperature and during heat treatment was also studied.Se ha estudiado el proceso de extracción con disolventes del aceite contenido en la harina residual del prensado mecánico de las semillas de jojoba. Como disolventes se han utilizado hexano técnico y éter de petróleo, habiéndose efectuado extracciones a temperaturas comprendidas entre 30 ºC y 55 ºC , con relaciones de disolvente a sólido, R, de entre 12 y 15 L/kg. Se han determinado las composiciones del extracto y del residuo sólido en el equilibrio y a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se ha estimado el coeficiente de partición o cociente de distribución, D, del aceite entre ambas fases. Asimismo, se ha determinado el número de etapas de extracción necesarias para conseguir un cierto grado de recuperación del aceite, utilizando diferentes relaciones entre hexano y harina. También se han determinado las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite de jojoba, incluyendo la composición química, el porcentaje de ácidos grasos

  18. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The potential applications in heavy oil EOR with the nanoparticle and surfactant stabilized solvent-based emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The main challenges in developing the heavy oil reservoirs in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) include technical challenges regarding thermal recovery; sand control and disposal; high asphaltene content; and low in-situ permeability. A chemical enhanced oil recovery method may be possible for these reservoirs. Solvent based emulsion flooding provides mobility control; oil viscosity reduction; and in-situ emulsification of heavy oil. This study evaluated the potential application of nano-particle-stabilized solvent based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in the ANS. The optimized micro-emulsion composition was determined using laboratory tests such as phase behaviour scanning, rheology studies and interfacial tension measurements. The optimized nano-emulsions were used in core flooding experiments to verify the recovery efficiency. The study revealed that the potential use of this kind of emulsion flooding is a promising enhanced oil recovery process for some heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska, Canada and Venezuela. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Use of Straight –Run Gasoline (Srg) as A Leaching Solvent for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the use of straight-run gasoline (SRG) as an extraction solvent for the leaching of palm kernel to produce palm kernel oil (PKO). SRG is an intermediate product fraction in the second fraction of crude petroleum oil fractionation that has not undergone any purification process. It is intended as a ...

  1. Desolventizing of Jatropha curcas oil from azeotropes of solvents using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Naira; Zabot, Giovani L; Paliga, Marshall; Mignoni, Marcelo L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Priamo, Wagner L; Oliveira, J V; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-12-01

    The separation of Jatropha curcas oil from azeotropes of ethyl alcohol-n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol-n-hexane using ceramic membranes with different cutoffs (5, 10 and 20 kDa) is presented. The mass ratios of oil:azeotropes (O:S) studied were 1:3 for feeding pressures of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa, and 1:1 for the feeding pressure of 0.1 MPa. Isopropyl alcohol was the best solvent for the membranes conditioning to permeate n-hexane (240 kg/m 2  h). In the separation of J. curcas oil and azeotropes of solvents, both membranes showed oil retention and total flux decreases with time. Overall, the lowest decrease in the retentions was reached in the 5 kDa membrane, while the lowest decrease in the total flux was reached in the 20 kDa. In the separation of oil and ethyl alcohol-n-hexane azeotrope, the best retention at 60 min of the process was equal to 17.3 wt% in the 20 kDa membrane at 0.3 MPa and O:S ratio equalled to 1:3. In this condition, the total permeate flux was 17.5 kg/m 2  h. Different retentions and permeabilities are provided when changing the O:S ratio, the feeding pressure and the molecular weight cutoff of membranes.

  2. Polyurethane coating from prepolymers and Crambe oil polyesters in oxygenates and green solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Elaine R.P.; Messaddeq, Younes; Polito, Wagner Luiz; Matinelli, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The PU coatings are extremely used in areas that require high-performance. For several applications PU resin, the solvent base is commonly used, the problem is the solvents with high content of volatile organic compounds (VCO) like: toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.. In this work, we were synthesized and characterized four kinds of prepolymers with low-VCO from renewable sources such as castor oil and crambe oil with oxygenate and green solvents. The PU prepolymers had been synthesized in the proportions NCO/OH 2:1 and 3:1. The curing process was carried out with atmospheric moisture in the films. Characterization was made from prepolymers, oligomers and polyesters and PU films by FTIR, TGA / DTA, NMR, GPC and GC-FID, besides this the coatings were applied on aluminum and glass plates and, subjected to analysis chamber saline, hardness and adhesion. The results indicated that the reaction occurred between the prepolymers with oligomers or polyesters, because disappearance of the NCO band at 2270 cm"-"1. The PU films showed good thermal stability (> 270 °C), high tensile strength and deformation. Surround the formulations, the PU films with HDI prepolymers showed the best results with polyesters from crambe oil (PEC 02 and PEC 03). (author)

  3. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  4. Report on 1980 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology and demonstrative investigation on development of brown coal liquefaction technology (studies on high-temperature in-oil pulverization); 1980 nendo yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu / kattan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu jissho chosa seika hokokusho. Koon'yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. As a part of the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, pulverization of the first-dehydration brown coal was technologically established, as were adjustment of slurry and equipment for the second-dehydration process. A 20kg/h high temperature in-oil pulverizer was designed, constructed and made ready for the studies. A high temperature mill was a wet type ball mill, 500mm{phi}(diameter) x 1,500 mm length and 2.2kw. Coal was fully pulverized even in a solvent such as creosote oil and anthracene oil freed from crystal, and was adjustable to a prescribed particle size distribution. The wet type slurry adjustment method offered prospects that solvent/coal slurry moisture could be controlled to a prescribed value. An analysis was made on the mill outlet gas and drain collection liquid at the time of high temperature in-oil pulverization, which provided knowledge of securing safety. An analysis was also made on the influence of the heating temperature rise of the mill on the strength, which provided basic data for examining the strength of the mill. Using brown coal as the raw material, slurry was prepared, which confirmed that the device had functions as planned. (NEDO)

  5. Fungal biodegradation of anthracene-polluted cork: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Patrícia; Olivella, Maria À; Camarero, Susana; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Cano, Laura; De Las Heras, Francesc X

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (cork itself, could be used as an efficient degrader of PAH-contaminated cork.

  6. Heavy-oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs with varying wettability by steam solvent co-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Bahlani, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam injection may not be an efficient oil recovery process in certain circumstances, such as in deep reservoirs, where steam injection may be ineffective because of hot-water flooding due to excessive heat loss. Steam injection may also be ineffective in oil-wet fractured carbonates, where steam channels through fracture zones without effectively sweeping the matrix oil. Steam flooding is one of the many solutions for heavy oil recovery in unconsolidated sandstones that is in commercial production. However, heavy-oil fractured carbonates are more challenging, where the recovery is generally limited only to matrix oil drainage gravity due to unfavorable wettability or thermal expansion if heat is introduced during the process. This paper proposed a new approach to improve steam/hot-water injection and efficiency for heavy-oil fractured carbonate reservoirs. The paper provided background information on oil recovery from fractured carbonates and provided a statement of the problem. Three phases were described, including steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition); miscible flooding phase (diffusion); and steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition or solvent retention). The paper also discussed core preparation and saturation procedures. It was concluded that efficient oil recovery is possible using alternate injection of steam/hot water and solvent. 43 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  7. Effect of operating conditions on direct liquefaction of low-lipid microalgae in ethanol-water co-solvent for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changhao; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Xu, Guisheng; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Zhixiang; Ji, Hengsong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-lipid microalgae was selected as feedstock for DL in ethanol-water co-solvent. • Operating conditions had great influence on product yields and conversion rate. • Bio-oil could be obtained from all three main components. • Ethanol and water showed obviously synergistic effect during the DL of microalgae. • Bio-oil composition from DL of microalgae was different from lignocellulose biomass. - Abstract: In this work, the direct liquefaction (DL) of low-lipid microalgae Spirulina was investigated in a 50 ml autoclave reactor with ethanol and water as co-solvent. The objective of this research was carried out to examine the effect of operating conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent/microalgae (S/M) ratio and ethanol-water co-solvent (EWCS) composition on product distribution and bio-oil characterization. The results revealed that the optimal operating conditions for bio-oil yield and conversion rate were reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 45 min, ethanol content of 50 vol.% and S/M ratio of 40/4 ml/g, which gave the bio-oil yield of 59.5% and conversion rate of 94.73%. Conversion rate in EWCS was significantly higher than that in pure water or ethanol, suggesting the synergistic effect between ethanol and water during microalgae DL. Distinct difference in composition and relative content of compound among bio-oils in different solvents were observed by GC–MS and FT-IR. Compared with hydrothermal liquefaction, the most abundant compounds in bio-oil from both EWCS and pure ethanol were esters. The presence of ethanol could enhance the bio-oil yield and improve bio-oil quality by promoting the formation of esters.

  8. The Effect of Acetone Amount Ratio as Co-Solvent to Methanol in Transesterification Reaction of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianto, T. S.; Nurlestari, R.

    2018-04-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by transesterification reaction using acetone as co-solvent has been carried out. This research studied the optimal amount ratio of acetone as co-solvent to methanol in the transesterification process using homogeneous alkaline catalyst KOH 1% (w/w) of waste cooking oil at room temperature for 15 minutes of reaction time. Mole ratio of waste cooking oil to methanol is 1:12. Acetone was added as co-solvent in varied amount ratio to methanol are 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1, respectively. The results of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analysed using GC-MS instrument. The results showed that the optimal ratio is 1:4 with 99.93% of FAME yield.

  9. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  10. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  11. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  12. Phytoremediation of anthracene- and fluoranthene contaminated soil by Luffa acutangula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanitta Somtrakoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with anthracene and fluoranthene, either alone or together, by ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula was investigated through laboratory pot experiments in a greenhouse for 45 days. The i nitial concentration of anthracene or fluoranthene was 100 mg kg -1 when each was spiked alone. When spiked together, the initial concentration of each hydrocarbon was 50 mg kg -1 . The ridge gourd grew normally in anthracene-contaminated soil based on assessment of shoot growth at the end of the experiment. Fluoranthene spiked either alone or together with anthracene was toxic to the plant as shown by significantly reduced shoot and root growth, especiall y on day 45 after transplantation. Planting of ridge gourd was more effective in decreasing the amount of anthracene and fluoranthene from soil than un-planted control during the 45-day experiment. Only 0.5-1.8% and 3.1-14.1% of anthracene and fluoranthene respectively were detected in planted soil on day 45. In contrast, 27.7-48.2% and 46.9-73.8% of anthracene and fluoranthene respectively, spiked alone or together, remained in the control un-planted soil during the same period. The two aromatic hydrocarbons were neither detected in the shoot nor root tissue of the ridge gourd, which suggests that phytostimulation may be the most likely mechanism by which these hydrocarbons were removed from soil.

  13. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  14. Effect of spray-drying with organic solvents on the encapsulation, release and stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encina, Cristian; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Holgado, Francisca; Giménez, Begoña; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2018-10-15

    Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention. FO release profile in aqueous model was similar for all FO-microparticles, releasing only the surface FO, according to Higuchi model. Oxidative stability of FO significantly improved by spray-drying with MeOH, both in surface and encapsulated oil fractions. In conclusion, encapsulation of FO by solvent spray-drying can be proposed as an alternative technology for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractionation of lemon essential oil by solvent extraction: Phase equilibrium for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Capellini, Maria C.; Geremias, Ivana M.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deterpenation of lemon oil by solvent extraction using hydrous ethanol. ► Limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral were used to simulate the oil. ► Citral shows a higher distribution coefficient than the hydrocarbons. ► Terpenic hydrocarbons exhibit very similar phase separation behaviour. ► NRTL and UNIQUAC models provided a good description of the phase equilibrium. - Abstract: The fractioning of lemon essential oil can be performed by liquid–liquid extraction using hydrous ethanol as a solvent. A quaternary mixture composed of limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral was used to simulate lemon essential oil. In this paper, we present (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data that were experimentally determined for systems containing essential oil compounds, ethanol, and water at T = 298.2 K. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the mean deviations between calculated and experimental data were less than 0.0053 in all systems, indicating the accuracy of these molecular models in describing our systems. The results show that as the water content in the solvent phase increased, the values of the distribution coefficients decreased, regardless of the type of compound studied. However, the oxygenated compound always showed the highest distribution coefficient among the components of the essential oil, thus making deterpenation of the lemon essential oil a feasible process.

  16. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Michele Paradiso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article refers to the paper “Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection” [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO samples (n=65 were submitted to liquid–liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Keywords: Natural deep eutectic solvents, Extra virgin olive oil, Phenolic compounds, UV spectrophotometry

  17. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramanloo KH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kourosh Hasanzadeh Ghahramanloo,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Hamid Akbari Javar,3 Riyanto Teguh Widodo,1 Keivan Majidzadeh,4 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Genetics Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, 4Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85% and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%. Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03% was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. Keywords: Nigella sativa L., essential oil extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solvent extraction, fatty acid composition, thymoquinone, linoleic acid

  18. Thermal cracking of Enteromorpha prolifera with solvents to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Linhua; Hu, Mingming; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Cuiyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal cracking of EP gave rise to a maximum bio-oil yield of 27.4 wt.% at 340 °C and 40 min. • The maximum liquid yield of EP/ethonal is 36.7 wt.% at 300 °C and 30 min. • The maximum liquid yield of EP/VGO is 90.5 wt.% at 300 °C and 30 min. • The HHV of bio-oil from thermal cracking of EP/VGO is 44.51 MJ/kg. • This process has the potential for industrial production of bio-oil from EP. - Abstract: Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) is a renewable energy source that was evaluated as a feedstock to produce bio-oil by thermal cracking. Harvesting EP for bio-oil production will also reduce the damage of green tide on ocean ecology. Effects of reaction temperature between 220 and 380 °C and reaction time between 20 and 80 min on the bio-oil yield and gas and solid thermal cracking products were investigated. Effects of solvents (i.e., ethanol and vacuum gas oil (VGO)) on the yields of bio-oil, gas and solid were also studied. EP, VGO and products from thermal cracking were analyzed by elemental analysis, gas chromatography–mass spectra and gas chromatography. Results indicate that thermal cracking of EP with VGO (EP/VGO) gave rise to the maximum bio-oil yield of 90.5% at 300 °C with a reaction time of 30 min. Higher heating values and elemental analysis demonstrate that this process has the potential for industrial production of bio-oil from EP

  19. Solvent extraction of base oil from used lubricant oil: a study on the performance of zeolite adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Lee Ping; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Adnan Ripin

    2001-01-01

    Solvent extraction is known as one of the potential techniques for recycling used lubricant oil. The recovered oil is identical to the virgin oil, but the oil maintains its darkish color and some odor. This paper is to study the performance of zeolite in removing color and odor. A part from the study, factorial design analysis indicated that the concentration of zeolite exerts to be the most influenced on the adsorption process in which the increase of zeolite concentration resulted in an average increase of 2.22% adsorption response. The number of contact stage appeared to be the second most influential effects, which brought an average increase of 1.38% adsorption response. Further more, it was found that the interaction between the concentration of zeolite and the number of contact stage was the most significant of all interactions under study, at 2.71%. Thus, the additions of 10 g zeolite in 50 ml base oil of 3 rd stage color removal produces the best color removal from the recovered base oil. (Author)

  20. Synthesis and solar-cell applications of novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivrak, Arif; Er, Ömer Faruk; Kivrak, Hilal; Topal, Yasemin; Kuş, Mahmut; Çamlısoy, Yesim

    2017-11-01

    At present, novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives; namely 9,10-di(furan-2-yl)anthracene (DFA), 5,5‧-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(furan-2-carbaldehyde) (DAFA) and 2,2‧-((5,5‧-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(furan-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene))dimalononitrile (DCNFA) were designed and synthesized successfully by employing Stille Cross-Coupling, Vilsmeier-Haack and Knoevenagel condensation reactions, respectively. This methodology provides a practical new route for the synthesis of furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups. The electrochemical and electro-optical properties of these novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives were also examined with strong acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor interactions. Furthermore, Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), Lowest Unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), and band gap (Eg) values were investigated by using spectroscopic methods. Electrochemical and electro-optical properties were calculated and compared to DFA, DAFA and DCNFA. Eg was found as 2.85, 2.71, and 2.33 eV, respectively. Consequently, Organic Solar Cells (OSC) were fabricated to investigate their solar cell performances. The strong electron withdrawing groups did not increase the solar cell performance of furanyl-anthracenes. Surprisingly, DFA was found to exhibit the best OSCs performance (Efficiency = 3.36). As a result, one could note that these novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives are good candidate for the applications of the OSCs. Our results might help in the development of new materials with important electrochemical functions by giving the advantage of designing and further derivatization of new generation small organic molecules for photovoltaic device applications.

  1. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality.

  2. The Effect of Pressure and Solvent on the Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Separation of Tocol Analogs in Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Han Ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are six tocol analogs present in palm oil, namely α-tocopherol (α-T, α-tocomonoenol (α-T1, α-tocotrienol (α-T3, γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3, β-tocotrioenol (β-T3 and δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3. These analogs were difficult to separate chromatographically due to their similar structures, physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on the effect of pressure and injection solvent on the separation of the tocol analogs in palm oil. Supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol was used as the mobile phase. Both total elution time and resolution of the tocol analogs decreased with increased pressure. Ethanol as an injection solvent resulted in peak broadening of the analogs within the entire pressure range studied. Solvents with an eluent strength of 3.4 or less were more suitable for use as injecting solvents.

  3. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  4. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  5. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  6. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  7. Solvent and extraction methods effects on the quality of eel ( Anguilla bicolor ) oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasongko, H; Efendi, N R; Farida, Y; Amartiwi, T; Rahmawati, A A; Wicaksono, A; Budihardjo, A; Sugiyarto

    2017-01-01

    Eel ( Anguilla bicolor) is a general fish consumption in many countries, especially Japan, China, Germany, and France. Besides its vitamin rich, eel oil is also known to contain fatty acids that are necessary for pharmaceutical purposes and as food a supplement. This research was aimed to evaluate the quality of eel oil by different solvent and extraction methods. In this study, fresh eels were extracted using maceration and reflux methods.Chloroform was used as the solvent in the maceration while water used in the reflux method. The oil quality was examined based on the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC).The result showed that the yield of eel oil using maceration method was 5.44% ± 0.64 with a specific gravity of 0.915 g/mL, while reflux method obtained the yield of 5.33 % ± 0.84 and specific gravity of 0.8575 g/mL. The physicochemical parameters of oil quality used in this study were acid, peroxide, saponification, and iodine value. The maceration method obtained the acid value of 17.389 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 7.021meqO 2 /kg, the saponification value of 111.16mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 65.14 WIJS. While the reflux method produced the acid value of 9.116 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 6.088 meqO 2 /kg, the saponification value of 70 mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 87.74 WIJS. (paper)

  8. Syntheses of electroactive layers based on functionalized anthracene for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, A.; Tarkuc, S.; Ak, M.; Toppare, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new monomer (DTAT) was synthesized via linking 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on anthracene. The polymer, P(DTAT) was electrosynthesized by anodic oxidation of the corresponding monomer in 0.1 M LiClO 4 acetonitrile (ACN) solution. The optical properties, the absorption spectra and the kinetics, were examined. Spectroelectrochemical analysis showed that P(DTAT) has an electronic band gap (due to π-π* transition) of 1.57 eV at 776 nm. Copolymers of DTAT with EDOT were prepared in ACN/LiClO 4 (0.1 M) solvent-electrolyte couple by varying applied potential. The incorporation of an EDOT into the full conjugated backbone, DTAT, affects its optical behavior resulting in different colors; a claret red neutral state, gray and red intermediate states and a blue oxidized state

  9. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  10. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  11. Periodic depuration of anthracene metabolites by rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, G.; Bergman, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, statically exposed to 36 μg/liter anthracene (including 9- 14 C-C anthracene), bioconcentrated the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon 200 times the exposure concentration over 18 hours. Then, during a 96-hour clearance periods, mass-balance analysis of fish and water samples indicated that anthracene was rapidly converted to polar metabolites(s), then eliminated periodically. Maximum depuration occurred during the dark phase of a 16-hour-light: 8-hour-dark photocycle. Of the 2-3% contribution of 14 C metabolites(s) to the total 14 C residue, nearly half came from the bile. This periodic depuration may be circadian, although this requires confirmation by further work; to the extent it affects metabolic fate of bioconcentrated organics, periodic depuration undoubtedly contributes to differences between predicted and observed bioconcentration factors

  12. Anthracene dosimeter characterization under radiotherapy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czelusniak, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    New radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery have increased the need for dosimeters that can provide measurements in real time with high spatial resolution. Organic scintillation dosimeters are able to measure with accuracy small radiation fields and fields with high gradients, besides having advantages such as water and soft tissue equivalence and the possibility to be used in vivo. Anthracene is an organic scintillator crystal with the highest known scintillation efficiency among organic scintillation materials. The objective of this work is to characterize the anthracene as a dosimeter under radiotherapy photons energies, analysing its signal against average granulosity, intern capsule diameter, absorbed dose, absorbed dose rate, photon energy and its spatial resolution; with the last one analysed under three methods (edge spread function, line spread function and modulation transfer function). The photons energies used were 1.25 MeV ( 60 Co), 0.661 MeV ( 137 Cs) and X-rays (effective energies of 28.4; 46.5; 48.5; 94.0 e 106.0 keV). The scintillation detection system consisted of an optical fiber with one end attached to the anthracene capsule and the other to a photomultiplier tube maintained by power supply followed by an electrometer. Once Cerenkov radiation occurs in the optical fiber, it was removed from the total scintillation signal trough the subtraction of the signal, taken irradiating the optical fiber without the anthracene attached to one of its extremity. From results obtained, one can infer that the dosimeter signal increases proportionally with average granulosity and intern capsule diameter. The signal is linearly dependent of absorbed dose, linearly dependent of low photons energies and independent for high photons energies, as well as independent of the absorbed dose rate. From the spatial resolution values obtained it was possible to infer that the one obtained through modulation

  13. Diels-Alder reactions of anthracenes with C-sulfonyldithioformates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, I.; Ali, O.M.; Fischer, A.

    2003-01-01

    C-Sulfonyldithioformates (2) (R-1 = ArSO2, R 2 = ArS) readily add to anthracene and 9-methylanthracene (1) in a Diels-Alder fashion with formation of 9,10-dihydro-10,9-(epithiomethano)anthracenes (3) which in turn may suffer thermally induced elimination of arenesulfinic acid to yield the 9......-anthracenedithiocarboxylic esters (4). The reactions with the unsymmetrical diene 9-methylanthracene take place in a highly stereoselective fashion....

  14. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  15. Copolyacrylates with phenylalanine and anthracene entities prepared by ATRP and microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, E.C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.r [Romanian Academy, Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Grigore Ghica Voda Alley 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Murariu, Mioara; Buruiana, Tinca [Romanian Academy, Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Grigore Ghica Voda Alley 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, two amino acid copolymers containing anthracene incorporated either on the one end, poly(N-acryloyl-L-phenylalanine-co-methyl methacrylate)-1 or as pendant groups, poly-(N-acryloyl-L-phenylalanine-co-methyl methacrylate)-2 were prepared directly from N-acryloyl-L-phenylalanine (APhe) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and microwave-assisted synthesis. In the first case, 9-(chloromethyl)anthracene was used as an ATRP-initiator to obtain a copolymer that contains amino acid sequences and anthracene end-capped units (0.03 molar fraction). Rapid synthesis of copolymer under microwave irradiation (250 W) in the presence of 1,1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) used as an initiator was followed of a functionalization of the formed copolymer with an anthracene derivative yielding copolyacrylate with pendant anthracene (0.02 molar fraction). The structure of the copolymers was verified by {sup 1}H NMR, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence quenching process of anthracene which exists in copolymers by FeCl{sub 3}, cobalt acetate, nitrobenzene, maleic anhydride, diethylaniline and nitromethane in DMF solutions shows that this involves an electron transfer between the excited state anthracene and the present transitional metal cations, more efficiently being FeCl{sub 3} for poly-(APhe-co-MMA)-1 and cobalt acetate for the latter copolymer.

  16. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  18. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  19. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    This data article refers to the paper "Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection" [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples (n=65) were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a push-pull terpolymer based on anthracene, fluorene and benzothiadiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floriano, Ana Carolina; Silveira, Daiana Santos; Cristovan, Fernando Henrique, E-mail: carolina.floriano@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Gabriel Marques; Liao, Luciano Morais [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Piovessan, Erick [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The development of organic optoelectronic devices with higher efficiency required new forms of polymers with strong donor-acceptor character (D-A), called a push-pull polymers. Most studies of organic polymers used in optoelectronic applications are centered on poly(3-hexylthiophene) with high regioregularity. However, there are other polymers synthesized with monomers that enables the possibility to adapt its electrical and optical properties. Polyfluorene derivatives show interesting chemical and physical properties due to a rigid planar biphenyl unit that are easily substituted at the remote C-9 position, improving the its processability in relation to polyfluorene, so it can be can be processed by spin-coating and many others deposition techniques. Fluorene derivatives copolymers prepared with anthracene unit improve electrochemical properties and present good photo and electroluminescence properties, due to an enhancement of the system conjugation. The benzothiadiazole, known by their environmental stability, planarity and electron-withdrawing nature, are a promising molecule in push−pull type semiconducting polymers. In this study proceed with the terpolymer synthesis containing 9,9-Dihexylfluorene and anthracene as pushing unit and benzothiadiazole as pushing unit. Also we synthesized the poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-(anthracene) and poly(9,9- dihexylfluorene)-co-(benzothiadiazole) copolymers. The polymers were synthesized using Suzuki coupling and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy that shows the characteristic monomer bands and the polymer formation were confirmed by {sup 1}H-NMR. Polymerization yield of three polymers were about 50-70%. Polymers present good solubility in common organic solvent such as chloroform. Terpolymer UV-Vis spectra revealed broadband absorbance from 300 to 680nm and absorption maximum at 441 nm. Finally, the preliminary results indicate that the push-pull terpolymer is a promising broadband absorbing polymer for

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a push-pull terpolymer based on anthracene, fluorene and benzothiadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriano, Ana Carolina; Silveira, Daiana Santos; Cristovan, Fernando Henrique; Rosa, Gabriel Marques; Liao, Luciano Morais; Piovessan, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The development of organic optoelectronic devices with higher efficiency required new forms of polymers with strong donor-acceptor character (D-A), called a push-pull polymers. Most studies of organic polymers used in optoelectronic applications are centered on poly(3-hexylthiophene) with high regioregularity. However, there are other polymers synthesized with monomers that enables the possibility to adapt its electrical and optical properties. Polyfluorene derivatives show interesting chemical and physical properties due to a rigid planar biphenyl unit that are easily substituted at the remote C-9 position, improving the its processability in relation to polyfluorene, so it can be can be processed by spin-coating and many others deposition techniques. Fluorene derivatives copolymers prepared with anthracene unit improve electrochemical properties and present good photo and electroluminescence properties, due to an enhancement of the system conjugation. The benzothiadiazole, known by their environmental stability, planarity and electron-withdrawing nature, are a promising molecule in push−pull type semiconducting polymers. In this study proceed with the terpolymer synthesis containing 9,9-Dihexylfluorene and anthracene as pushing unit and benzothiadiazole as pushing unit. Also we synthesized the poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-(anthracene) and poly(9,9- dihexylfluorene)-co-(benzothiadiazole) copolymers. The polymers were synthesized using Suzuki coupling and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy that shows the characteristic monomer bands and the polymer formation were confirmed by 1 H-NMR. Polymerization yield of three polymers were about 50-70%. Polymers present good solubility in common organic solvent such as chloroform. Terpolymer UV-Vis spectra revealed broadband absorbance from 300 to 680nm and absorption maximum at 441 nm. Finally, the preliminary results indicate that the push-pull terpolymer is a promising broadband absorbing polymer for

  2. Phase equilibrium data for systems composed of oregano essential oil compounds and hydroalcoholic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellini, Maria C.; Carvalho, Fernanda H.; Koshima, Cristina C.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, ethanol and water were determined. • Complete second order models were fitted to the experimental data. • Distribution coefficients of thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol in pure and mixed solute were evaluated. • Mass fractions of oxygenated compounds and water influenced the distribution coefficients of the essential oil components. • NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models satisfactorily describe the partition of components and solvent selectivity. - Abstract: The deterpenation process of essential oils consists of terpene removal and a consequent concentration of oxygenated compounds, which increases the sensorial quality, the aromatic potential and the oxidative stability of the oil. Deterpenation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) essential oil, which has been used extensively as a popular medication and as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antimutagenic and a powerful antioxidant agent, can be performed by (liquid + liquid) extraction using hydroalcoholic solvents. This research presents (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for model systems composed of p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, some of the main components of oregano essential oil, using hydrous ethanol as the solvent with the water mass fraction ranging from 0.28 to 0.41 at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K. The results show that an increase in the hydration of the alcoholic solvent causes a negative influence on the values of the distribution coefficient for the three oxygenated compounds (thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol), with an increase in solvent selectivity. An increase in the content of oxygenated compounds in the terpene-rich phase reduces their distribution coefficients and the selectivity values. In addition, binary interaction parameters were estimated correlating the experimental data using the NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models, and the global deviations were

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  4. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongkang [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Morandi, Garrett D. [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Brown, R. Stephen [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Jørgensen, Kåre B. [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Hodson, Peter V., E-mail: peter.hodson@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log K{sub ow} values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but K{sub ow} alone did not provide

  5. Binding of anthracene to cellular macromolecules in the presence of light. [DNA, HSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, B K; Chignell, C F [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (> 295 nm) induced covalent binding of anthracene to DNA which increased with time and was not affected by oxygen. Irradiation in the presence of anthracene induced nicking of Col E/sub 1/ circular DNA and decreased the thermal denaturation temperature of calf thymus DNA. These effects were oxygen dependent, and were decreased by GMP. Irradiation of anthracene and human serum albumin resulted in covalent binding of the hydrocarbon to the protein accompanied by crosslinking of the protein. Protein crosslinking decreased under anaerobic conditions. Irradiation of anthracene bound to liposomes induced lipid peroxidation which was not affected by superoxide dismutase or catalase.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Anthracene in Closed System Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq F. Karam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a large class of persistent organic pollutants in an environment of special concern because they have carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. In this paper, we focus on and discuss the effect of different parameters, for instance, initial concentration of Anthracene, temperature, and light intensity, on the degradation rate. These parameters were adjusted at pH 6.8 in the presence of the semiconductor materials (TiO2 as photocatalysts over UV light. The main product of Anthracene photodegradation is 9,10-Anthraquinone which isidentified and compared with the standard compound by GC-MS. Our results indicate that the optimum conditions for the best rate of degradation are 25 ppm concentration of Anthracene, regulating the reaction vessel at 308.15 K and 2.5 mW/cm2 of light intensity at 175 mg/100 mL of titanium dioxide (P25.

  7. Mono- and polyadducts of C60 with anthracenes by Diels-Alder-reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte-Ruiz, A.

    2000-09-01

    This work describes the synthesis and characterization of seven new mono-adducts of 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 9-bromoanthracene. 2,3,6,7-tetramethylanthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2,6-di-tert-butylanthracen, as well as 2-methylanthracene to fullerene C60 in solution at r.t. by means of [4+2] Diels-Alder reactions. It could be shown that the mono-adducts with 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, and 1-methylanthracene form the corresponding antipodal bis-adduct 'trans-1' on heating the solid to 180 o C. Furthermore the functionalization of fullerene C60 anthracene mono-adduct (C60C14H10) with anthracene through [4+2] Diels-Alder reactions was investigated which made it possible to separate and to characterize the five possible bis-adducts ('trans-1', 'trans-2', 'trans-3', 'trans-4', and 'e') that can form when the second anthracene adds either 'trans' to the opposite hemisphere (compared to the first addition of anthracene) or to an equatorial position. An exact identification of the bis-adducts 'trans-2' and 'trans-4' could only be acquired with spectroscopic methods, fortunately the bis-adducts 'trans-4', 'trans-3', and 'e' could also be examined by x-ray, thus all five could be fully characterized. No bis-adducts on the same hemisphere ('cis') were found. UV/VIS-spectra of the bis-adducts opened up the possibility to identify other [4+2] Diels-Alder products in the future. It has been noticed that the eluation sequence of the bis-adducts ('trans-1' before 'trans-2' before 'trans-4' before 'trans-3' before 'e') doesn't strictly correlate with the dipole moments. Furthermore six new tris-adducts ('t4t4t2', 't3t3t3', 't3t3t4', 'et3t2', 'et3t4', and 'eee') and one tetra-adduct ('eeet3') were separated and characterized. The tris-adduct 't3t3t3' was additionally characterized by x-ray which showed that the crystal contains only one enatiomer. All bis- and tris-adducts form the antipodal bis-adduct 'trans-1' on heating to 180 o C for 10 min

  8. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  9. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  10. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on organic semiconductors. 15: Effects of the substituents on the photoconductivities of substituted anthracenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, A.; Kato, S.; Inoue, H.; Imoto, E.

    1985-01-01

    The photocurrents of the substituted anthracenes, 1,5-diacetylanthracene (2), 1-acetylanthracene (3), 9-acetylanthracene (4), 1,5-dichloroanthracene (5), 1,5-diethylanthracene (6), 1,5-dimethoxyanthracene (7), 9-cyanoanthracene (8), and anthracene (1) were measured by using their surface type cells in nitrogen. The compounds of (1), (5), (6), (7), and (8) showed the photocurrent spectra which corresponded to the absorption spectra of their evaporated films. In the cases of (2) and (3), however, the anomalous photocurrent appeared in the threshold region of their absorption spectra. The appearance of the anomalous photocurrent was characteristic of anthracenes having the acetyl group at 1- and/or 5-position. The magnitude of the photocurrents of the 1,5-disubstituted anthracenes was similar to that of (1). The photocurrents of the monosubstituted anthracenes were smaller than that of (1). Among the monosubstituted anthracenes, the compound (4) showed no photocurrent under the same conditions. Contrary to the results obtained in the cases of phenazines, the photoconductivities of the anthracene derivatives became better in air.

  12. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils using phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted saponification and supramolecular solvent microextraction coupled to HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Laping; Shi, Ludi; Yi, Tingquan; Wen, Yuxia; Wang, Juanli; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    For the analysis of edible oils, saponification is well known as a useful method for eliminating oil matrices. The conventional approach is conducted with alcoholic alkali; it consumes a large volume of organic solvents and impedes the retrieval of analytes by microextraction. In this study, a low-organic-solvent-consuming method has been developed for the analysis of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Sample treatment involves aqueous alkaline saponification, assisted by a phase-transfer catalyst, and selective in situ extraction of the analyte with a supramolecular solvent. Comparison of the chromatograms of the oil extracts obtained by different microextraction methods showed that the supramolecular solvent has a better clean-up effect for the unsaponifiable matter from oil matrices. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.03- 5.0 ng mL -1 (r > 0.999). Recovery rates varied from 94 to 102% (RSDs <5.0%). The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.06 and 0.19 μg kg -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of 52 edible oils collected online in China; the analyte contents of 23 tested oil samples exceeded the maximum limit of 2 μg kg -1 for benzo[a]pyrene set by the Commission Regulation of the European Union. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  14. Superhydrophobic silica wool—a facile route to separating oil and hydrophobic solvents from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Colin R.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2014-12-01

    Silica microfiber wool was systematically functionalized in order to provide an extremely water repellent and oleophilic material. This was carried out using a two-step functionalization that was shown to be a highly effective method for generating an intense water repulsion and attraction for oil. A demonstration of the silica wools application is shown through the highly efficient separation of oils and hydrophobic solvents from water. Water is confined to the extremities of the material, while oil is absorbed into the voids within the wool. The effect of surface functionalization is monitored though observing the interaction of the material with both oils and water, in addition to scanning electron microscope images, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The material can be readily utilized in many applications, including the cleaning of oil spills and filtering during industrial processes, as well as further water purification tasks—while not suffering the losses of efficiency observed in current leading polymeric materials.

  15. 19F NMR spectroscopy in monitoring fluorinated-solvent regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, V.D.; Bordunov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive use is made of solvents such as trichloroethylene, freon-133, and perchloroethylene because they are good solvents for inorganic, plant, and animal greases, while the solvents can be recovered and there is no fire hazard. In this paper, the authors examined methods to monitor spent solution regeneration rapidly and with high accuracy. The authors tested perfluorinated telomeric alcohols as solvents for cleaning engineering components which have melting points of 60-120 degrees celsius. The higher working temperatures and the increased energy consumption are disadvantages of these solvents, but these are compensated for by the scope for using them virtually in the solid, liquid, and vapor states. The authors' proposed technology is based on solvents with melting points over 40 degrees celsius which produce virtually no wastes. The telomeric alcohols are recovered after cooling to normal conditions by separation from the oil by filtration and centrifugation, and they can be used in the next purification cycle. When the solvents have been regenerated, the petroleum products such as industrial oils can be reused for their original purpose. However, quantitative data are required on the solvent contents in the oil and the oil contents in the solvent in order to determine the degree of regeneration and the modes to be used. The authors have also proposed a quantitative method of determining traces of these alcohols in oils and residual oils in the solvent by fluorine NMR. All measurements were made with a BS497 NMR spectrometer

  16. Well-defined Polymethylene-Based Co/Terpolymers by Combining Anthracene/Maleimide Diels-Alder Reaction with Polyhomologation

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-26

    A novel strategy towards well-defined polymethylene-based co/terpolymers, by combining anthracene/maleimide Diels-Alder reaction with polyhomologation, is presented. For the synthesis of diblock copolymers the following approach was applied: a) synthesis of α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy- polymethylene by polyhomologation using tri (9-anthracene-methyl propyl ether) borane as initiator, b) synthesis of furan-protected-maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol and c). Diels-Alder reaction between the anthracene and maleimide-terminated polymers. In the case of triblock terpolymers the α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy-polymethylene was used as macroinitiator for the ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide to afford an anthracene-terminated PM-b-PLA copolymer, followed by Diels-Alder reaction with furan-protected maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol to give the triblock terpolymers. All intermediate and final products were characterized by SEC, 1H NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and DSC.

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongkang; Morandi, Garrett D; Brown, R Stephen; Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and logKow values provided a rough estimation of structure-activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete explanation of the chronic toxicity of alkyl PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-linked poly(tetrahydrofuran) as promising sorbent for organic solvent/oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yati, Ilker; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal, E-mail: hayalsonmez@gtu.edu.tr

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Poly(tetrahydrofuran) based sorbents were prepared. • PTHF sorbents demonstrate reusability at least for ten times. • PTHF based sorbents show fast and quick absorption-desorption process. • 19 g of oil can be absorbed by 1 g of PTHF based sorbent. - Abstract: In this study, a series of different molecular weights of poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), which is one of the most important commercial polymers around the world, was condensed with tris[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]isocyanurate (ICS) to generate a cross-linked 3-dimensional network in order to obtain organic solvent/oil sorbents having high swelling capacity. The prepared sorbents show high and fast swelling capacity in oils such as dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, t-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), gasoline, euro diesel, and crude oil. The recovery of the absorbed oils from contaminated surfaces, especially from water, and the regeneration of the sorbents after several applications are effective. The characterization and thermal properties of the sorbents are identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), respectively. The new usage area of PTHF is emerged by the preparation of PTHF-based network structure with high oil absorption capacity and having excellent reusability as an oil absorbent for the removal of organic liquids from the spill site.

  19. Chlorella sp : Extraction of fatty acid by using avocado oil as solvent and its application as an anti-aging cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, T. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Mayasari, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to analyze the fatty acid content of Chlorella sp crude extract by using avocado oil solvent and determining the effectiveness of fatty acids Chlorella sp as the anti-aging cream The extraction of fatty acids from Chlorella sp using avocado oil as a solvent with three ratios were 1:10, 1:20 and 1:25 w/V. The highest lipid content was obtained at 1:20 w/V (gram microalgae: mL avocado oil) yielding 52.73%. Crude extracted were analysis by GC-MS and FTIR, and skin condition was determined by skin analyzer. The effectiveness test of Chlorella sp cream was applicated on the face of the panelists aged 20-60 years. From 10 panelists, the applied of Chlorella sp cream was 90% increased on the facial skin yielded moisture and oil content, 70% repair the skin structure. The composition of fatty acids Chlorella sp extract was palmitic acid, linoleic, oleic and stearate. Fatty acids crude extract of Chlorella sp can improve the effectiveness of anti-aging cream. The cream from Chlorella sp was more effective than the cream without containing microalgae. This is very promising because it is alternative to organic solvents i.e. green chemistry.

  20. Mesophase properties after anthracene thermal exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šugárková, Věra; Plevová, Eva; Kaloč, M.

    -, - (2008), s. 62-70. ISBN 978-80-248-1939-6 Grant - others:GA ČR GA105/00/1698 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mesophase * anthracene * thermal behaviour * anisotropy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Y.; Kumar, N.; Bugaje, I.M.; Pali, H.S.; Kathkar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using co-solvent systems reduce reaction time by 60%. • Only small volume of co-solvent is required to improve the process. • Greater than 90% yields were obtained within the first 10 min. • Physico-chemical and fuel properties of FAMEs were within standard limits. • Acetone was found to be the best co-solvent for the transesterification. - Abstract: Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 ° 0 C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced

  2. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. → Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. → Using in vitro T 1 seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. → This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of 14 C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T 0 and T 1 ) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  3. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of anthracene and phenanthrene by filamentous fungi capable of cortexolone 11-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska, K; Długoński, J

    1999-01-01

    Nine fungal strains showing ability of cortexolone hydroxylation to epicortisol and/or cortisol were screened in this work for anthracene and phenanthrene elimination (250 mg/l). All of the strains (Cylindrocladium simplex IM 2358, C. simplex IM 2358/650, Monosporium olivaceum IM 484, Curvularia lunata IM 2901, C. lunata IM 2901/366, C. tuberculata IM 4417, Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785, C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp, C. elegans IM 1785/10Gi) significantly removed anthracene and phenanthrene. During incubation with anthracene formation of intermediate products was observed. The amount of the main intermediate product, identified as 9, 10-anthraquinone, was not greater than 22.2% of the anthracene introduced to the fungal cultures. C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was the best degrader of both anthracene and phenanthrene, removing 81.6 and 99.4% of these compounds after 7 days, respectively. Phenanthrene removal by C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was preceded by PAHs accumulation in mycelium and growth inhibition. Elimination of phenanthrene started after one day of incubation and was related to the fungus growth.

  5. Oil desulfurization using deep eutectic solvents as sustainable an economical extractants via liquid-liquid extraction: Experimental and PC-SAFT predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrag, S.E.E.; Pototzki, Clarissa; Rodriguez Rodriguez, N.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kroon, M.C.; Held, Christoph; Sadowski, G.; Peters, Cor

    2018-01-01

    The reduction of the sulfur content in crude oil is of utmost importance in order to meet the stringent environmental regulations. Thiophene and its derivatives are considered key substances to be separated from the crude oil. In previous works, six deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on

  6. Degradation of anthracene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of different mediator compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, C; Majcherczyk, A; Hüttermann, A

    1996-10-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor was generally able to oxidize anthracene in vitro. After 72 h incubation about 35% of the anthracene was transformed stoichiometrically to 9,10-anthraquinone. Transformation of anthracene increased rapidly in the presence of different mediators that readily generate stable radicals: 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. For the reaction, the presence of both the laccase and the mediator was necessary. In the presence of 0.005 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole this conversion had removed 47% of the anthracene after 72 h; 75% of the substrate was oxidized during this period when ABTS (1 mM) was used as mediator. In contrast to reactions without or with only low concentrations of a mediator, there was a discrepancy between the disappearance of anthracene and the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone in mediator-forced reactions. Coupling-products of mediators with anthracene degradation products were found. Anthracene disappeared nearly completely after incubation for 72 h with laccase in a 0.1 mM solution of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and was transformed to 9,10-anthraquinone in about 80% yield; 90% of the substrate was transformed in the presence of ABTS (2.0 mM) resulting again in 80% quinone. Phenothiazine was not effective in this system.

  7. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of techniques for liquefaction of coal (Development of extraction type liquefaction plant using brown coal-based solvent and researches on milling at high temperature in oil); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, kattankei yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishment of the techniques for milling of brown coal treated by primary dehydration and slurry adjustment, and secondary hydration plant, as part of the project for developing the techniques for liquefaction of brown coal. Brown coal (Australian Yallourn coal) treated by primary dehydration, solvents (creosote and decrystallized anthracene), and catalysts are used as the stock samples, to investigate the coal characteristics with respect to milling crushability, dehydration and liquefaction reactivity, and the slurries are prepared by changing coal charge rate, solvent and preparation temperature, to collect the data regarding, e.g., coal concentration, coal particle size, moisture level and liquefaction reactivity. It is found that milling crushability tends to decrease as coal charge rate or solvent/coal ratio increases whether creosote or decrystallized anthracene is used as the solvent. Milling crushability is unaffected by slurry preparation temperature. Content of residual moisture in the slurry decreases to 1% or less, when slurry preparation temperature is increased to 100 degrees C or higher. Liquefaction reactivity of the slurry shows slight dependence on slurry preparation temperature, when it is increased to 180 degrees C. (NEDO)

  8. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  9. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Eapen, Susan, E-mail: eapenhome@yahoo.com [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. {yields} Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. {yields} Using in vitro T{sub 1} seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. {yields} This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of {sup 14}C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  10. Anthracene-fused BODIPYs as near-infrared dyes with high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Lintao; Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chin, Weeshong; Wu, Jishan

    2011-01-01

    An anthracene unit was successfully fused to the zigzag edge of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core by an FeCl 3-mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. Meanwhile, a dimer was also formed by both intramolecular cyclization and intermolecular coupling. The anthracene-fused BODIPY monomer 7a and dimer 7b showed small energy gaps (∼1.4 eV) and near-infrared absorption/emission. Moreover, they exhibited high photostability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Anthracene-fused BODIPYs as near-infrared dyes with high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Lintao

    2011-11-18

    An anthracene unit was successfully fused to the zigzag edge of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core by an FeCl 3-mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. Meanwhile, a dimer was also formed by both intramolecular cyclization and intermolecular coupling. The anthracene-fused BODIPY monomer 7a and dimer 7b showed small energy gaps (∼1.4 eV) and near-infrared absorption/emission. Moreover, they exhibited high photostability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica modified glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical determination of anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shan; Wei, Maochao; Zheng, Xiangli; Xu, Shuai; Xia, Fangquan; Zhou, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alizarin red S-SBA15 composite was prepared and characterized. • A novel sensing platform was constructed for anthracene determination. • The proposed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and low detection limit for detecting anthracene. • This method can be applied to the practical detection of anthracene in waste water. - Abstract: In the paper, a novel and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on modification of electroactive alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica material SBA15 onto glassy carbon electrode (ARS-SBA15/GCE) was developed. Alizarin red S, called electrochemical probe that can selectively recognize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as tools for the detection of tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene. The morphology and interface property of ARS modified SBA15 (ARS-SBA15) were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Taking advantage of the π-π stacking force between alizarin red S and anthracene, the ARS-SBA15/GCE sensor could detect anthracene quantitatively in a wide range of 1.0 pM–10.0 nM and a low detection limit of 0.5 pM (S/N = 3). Other PAHs, such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene show little interference on the detection. Consequently, a simple and sensitive electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of anthracene, which can be used to determine anthracene in waste water samples. The electrochemical method provides a general tool that complements the commonly used spectroscopic methods and immune method for the detection of PAHs

  13. Design and electrical characterization of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A., E-mail: aaaalghamdi4@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nawar, Ahmed M.; El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Ameer [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully fabricated a Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction. • The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. • The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. • Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior. • Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%. - Abstract: Hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction of nanocrystalline Anthracene and p-Si was fabricated by using a conventional thermal evaporation technique. The crystal and molecular structure of the Anthracene thin films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of the Anthracene/p-Si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al heterojunction were investigated at room temperature (293 K). The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. The ideality factor and barrier height values of the Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al diode were obtained to be 1.1 and 0.464 eV, respectively. The dependence of capacitance-voltage (C{sup -2}-V) for the device Anthracene/p-Si was found to be almost linear. Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%.

  14. Construction of energy transfer pathways self-assembled from DNA-templated stacks of anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaura, Rika; Yui, Hiroharu; Someya, Yuu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi

    2014-01-05

    We describe optical properties of anthracene stacks formed from single-component self-assembly of thymidylic acid-appended anthracene 2,6-bis[5-(3'-thymidylic acid)pentyloxy] anthracene (TACT) and the binary self-assembly of TACT and complementary 20-meric oligoadenylic acid (TACT/dA20) in an aqueous buffer. UV-Vis and emission spectra for the single-component self-assembly of TACT and the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20 were very consistent with stacked acene moieties in both self-assemblies. Interestingly, time-resolved fluorescence spectra from anthracene stacks exhibited very different features of the single-component and binary self-assemblies. In the single-component self-assembly of TACT, a dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) and relatively short fluorescence lifetime (τ=0.35ns) observed at around 450nm suggested that the anthracene moieties were flexible. Moreover, a broad emission at 530nm suggested the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). In the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20, we detected a broad, red-shifted emission component at 534nm with a lifetime (τ=0.4ns) shorter than that observed in the TACT single-component self-assembly. Combining these results with the emission spectrum of the binary self-assembly of TACT/5'-HEX dA20, we concluded that the energy transfer pathway was constructed by columnar anthracene stacks formed from the DNA-templated self-assembly of TACT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glymes as benign co-solvents for CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe

    2013-07-01

    The base (such as CaO)-catalyzed heterogeneous preparation of biodiesel encounters a number of obstacles including the need for CaO pretreatment and the reactions being incomplete (typically 90-95% yields). In this study, a number of glymes were investigated as benign solvents for the CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel with a high substrate loading (typically soybean oil >50% v/v). The triglyceride-dissolving capability of glymes led to a much faster reaction rate (>98% conversions in 4h) than in methanol alone (typically 24h) and minimized the saponification reaction when catalyzed by anhydrous CaO or commercial lime without pre-activation. The use of glyme (e.g. P2) as co-solvent also activates commercial lime to become an effective catalyst without calcination pretreatment. The SEM images suggest a dissolution-agglomeration process of CaO surface in the presence of P2, which could remove the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 layer coated on the surface of lime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Olive oil glycero lysis with the immobilized lipase Candida antarctica in a solvent free system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, the solvent free lipase glycerolysis of olive oil for the production of monoglyceride (MG) and diglyceride (DG) with an immobilized Lipase B Candida antarctica was studied. The experiments were performed in batch mode by varying different process parameters. The Results showed that the MG and DG yields were dependent on operating conditions such as time, temperature, glycerol/ oil molar ratio, enzyme concentration and the water content in glycerol. The optimum operating time for maximum MG, 26 wt% and DG, 30 wt% production was 3h. The initial reaction rate was studied by varying different process parameters for 1h. The initial reaction rate increased at 30 degree centigrade temperature, 2:1 glycerol/oil molar ratio, 3.5% (w/w) water content in glycerol and 0.015g of enzyme loading. Comparative data for MG and DG yields for different oils and enzyme combinations were presented.

  17. Comparative study of neutron and gamma-ray pulse shape discrimination of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Solid state organic scintillators, such as anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were investigated on their basic scintillation properties and neutron–gamma discrimination capabilities. Scintillation wavelengths under X-ray irradiation of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were 445–525, 400–500, and 350–450 nm, respectively. Scintillation light yields of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl under 137 Cs gamma-ray irradiation were 20100, 16000, and 19400 ph/MeV, respectively. Neutron and gamma-ray events discrimination capabilities were examined and anthracene exhibited the best figure of merit among three organic scintillators

  18. Comparative study of neutron and gamma-ray pulse shape discrimination of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki, E-mail: yanagida@lsse.kyutech.ac.jp [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi [Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Solid state organic scintillators, such as anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were investigated on their basic scintillation properties and neutron–gamma discrimination capabilities. Scintillation wavelengths under X-ray irradiation of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were 445–525, 400–500, and 350–450 nm, respectively. Scintillation light yields of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl under {sup 137}Cs gamma-ray irradiation were 20100, 16000, and 19400 ph/MeV, respectively. Neutron and gamma-ray events discrimination capabilities were examined and anthracene exhibited the best figure of merit among three organic scintillators.

  19. Electron-rich anthracene semiconductors containing triarylamine for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeju; Ko, Haye Min; Cho, Nara; Song, Kihyung; Lee, Jae Kwan; Ko, Jaejung

    2012-10-01

    New electron-rich anthracene derivatives containing triarylamine hole stabilizers, 2,6-bis[5,5'-bis(N,N'-diphenylaniline)-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl]-9,10-bis-[(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl]anthracene (TIPSAntBT-TPA) and 2,6-bis(5,5'-bis{4-[bis(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino]phenyl}-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-9,10-bis-[(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl]anthracene (TIPSAntBT-bisDMFA), linked with π-conjugated bithiophene bridges, were synthesized and their photovoltaic characteristics were investigated in solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs). These new materials exhibited superior intramolecular charge transfer from triarylamine to anthracene, leading to a more electron-rich anthracene core that facilitated electron transfer into phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester. Compared with TIPSAntBT and triarylamine, these materials show a threefold improvement in hole-transporting properties and better photovoltaic performance in solution-processed SMOSCs, with the best power conversion efficiency being 2.96 % at a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bioremediation of anthracene contaminated soil in bio-slurry phase reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, D.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Purushotham Reddy, B.; Sarma, P.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of soil-bound anthracene was studied in a series of bio-slurry phase reactors operated in periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch mode under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment using native soil microflora. Five reactors were operated for a total cycle period of 144 h (6 days) at soil loading rate of 16.66 kg soil/m 3 /day at 30 ± 2 o C temperature. The performance of the bioreactors was studied at various substrate loading rates (volumetric substrate loading rate (SLR), 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g anthracene/kg soil/day) with and without bioaugmentation (domestic sewage inoculum; 2 x 10 6 CFU/g of soil). Control reactor (without microflora) showed negligible degradation of anthracene due to the absence of biological activity. The performance of the bio-slurry system with respect to anthracene degradation was found to depend on both substrate loading rate and bioaugmentation. Application of bioaugmentation showed positive influence on the rate of degradation of anthracene. Anthracene degradation data was analysed using different kinetic models to understand the mechanism of bioremediation process in the bio-slurry phase system. Variation in pH/oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), soil microflora and oxygen consumption rate correlated well with the substrate degradation pattern observed during soil slurry phase anthracene degradation

  1. Estimation of diffusion coefficients in bitumen solvent mixtures as derived from low field NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Use of solvents for the extraction of heavy oil and bitumen appears to be an increasingly feasible technology. Both vapour extraction and direct solvent injection are considered for conventional exploration and production schemes, while solvent dilution of bitumen is a standard technique in oil sands mining. Mass transfer between solvent and bitumen is a poorly understood process. In some cases, it is totally ignored compared to viscous force effects. In other cases, phenomenological estimations of diffusion and dispersion coefficients are used. Low field NMR has been used successfully in determining both solvent content and viscosity reduction in heavy oil and bitumen mixtures with various solvents. As a solvent comes into contact with a heavy oil or bitumen sample, the mobility of hydrogen bearing molecules of both solvent and oil changes. These changes are detectable through changes in the NMR relaxation characteristics of both solvent and oil. Relaxation changes can then be correlated to mass flux and concentration changes. Based on Fick's Second Law, a diffusion coefficient, which is independent of concentration, was calculated against three oils and six solvents. (author)

  2. Polyurethane coating from prepolymers and Crambe oil polyesters in oxygenates and green solvents; Revestimento de poliuretano a partir de pre-polimeros e poliesteres de oleo de crambe em solventes oxigenados e verdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Elaine R.P.; Messaddeq, Younes, E-mail: elainerpp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Polito, Wagner Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Matinelli, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    The PU coatings are extremely used in areas that require high-performance. For several applications PU resin, the solvent base is commonly used, the problem is the solvents with high content of volatile organic compounds (VCO) like: toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.. In this work, we were synthesized and characterized four kinds of prepolymers with low-VCO from renewable sources such as castor oil and crambe oil with oxygenate and green solvents. The PU prepolymers had been synthesized in the proportions NCO/OH 2:1 and 3:1. The curing process was carried out with atmospheric moisture in the films. Characterization was made from prepolymers, oligomers and polyesters and PU films by FTIR, TGA / DTA, NMR, GPC and GC-FID, besides this the coatings were applied on aluminum and glass plates and, subjected to analysis chamber saline, hardness and adhesion. The results indicated that the reaction occurred between the prepolymers with oligomers or polyesters, because disappearance of the NCO band at 2270 cm{sup -1}. The PU films showed good thermal stability (> 270 °C), high tensile strength and deformation. Surround the formulations, the PU films with HDI prepolymers showed the best results with polyesters from crambe oil (PEC 02 and PEC 03). (author)

  3. Remediation of anthracene in mycorrhizospheric soil using ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and radionuclides. ... In the present study, biodegradation of anthracene was studied using ryegrass in ... bioremediation, Lolium multiflorum, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, PAHs.

  4. Improvement of liquefaction solvent. Increase of light oil yield with a reduction in catalyst addition; Ekika yozai no kairyo kenkyu. Sekitan ekikayu no keishitsuka to shokubai tenkaryo no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, N.; Yasumuro, M.; Sato, K.; Komatsu, N.; Okui, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For developing coal liquefaction processes, it is an important problem to improve the light oil yield with increased oil yield. It was previously reported that distillate mainly containing lighter fraction can be produced with high oil yield by reducing the iron/sulfur catalyst addition in slurry, by recycling gas in the process operation, by utilizing these effects, and by using heavy oil as recycling solvent. In this study, the maximum distillate yield of Victorian brown coal was investigated through continuous liquefaction using a bench scale unit. In addition, operation conditions for obtaining sufficient oil yield were investigated under the reduced catalyst addition into one-third. Consequently, it was confirmed that the maximum content of lighter fraction in distillate product was obtained with reduced catalyst addition by using heavy oil as recycling solvent, by adopting new catalyst, and by utilizing effects of CLB recycling and gas recycling in maximum. It was also revealed that lighter distillate can be produced compared with the oil product obtained by recycling conventional solvent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Salinity and solvent effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids from Athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Peru, K.; Barrow, M.; Derrick, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the salinity and solvent effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids (NA) in oil sands. The mass spectra of NA were obtained using an electrospray ionization method combined with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The study showed that while monocarboxylic compounds (C n H 2n+z O 2 ) in the z=-4, -6, and -12 of the 2,3 and 6-ring NA in the carbon number range of 13 to 19 were prevalent in the dichloromethane and acetonitrile co-solvent systems, the addition of salt resulted in a reduction of the observed species, the complete elimination of dicarboxylic acids, and an 80 per cent reduction in O 3 species with similar carbon number range and z values. The dicarboxylic acids were also less toxic than monocarboxylic acids. Results of the study will be used to refine methods of remediating oil sands and process water contaminated soils.

  6. Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in edible oils using a simple solvent extraction method and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Taeyong; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Junghyun; Park, Mihee; An, Jinyoung; Kim, Moosung; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Han, Sang Beom

    2017-11-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins - aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 ; ochratoxin A; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; and T-2 toxin - in edible oils was established using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe), QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and solvent extraction were examined for sample preparation. Among these methods, solvent extraction with a mixture of formic acid/acetonitrile (5/95, v/v) successfully extracted all target mycotoxins. Subsequently, a defatting process using n-hexane was employed to remove the fats present in the edible oil samples. Mass spectrometry was carried out using electrospray ionisation in polarity switching mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The developed LC-MS/MS method was validated by assessing the specificity, linearity, recovery, limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision with reference to Commission Regulation (EC) 401/2006. Mycotoxin recoveries of 51.6-82.8% were achieved in addition to LOQs ranging from 0.025 ng/g to 1 ng/g. The edible oils proved to be relatively uncomplicated matrices and the developed method was applied to 9 edible oil samples, including soybean oil, corn oil and rice bran oil, to evaluate potential mycotoxin contamination. The levels of detection were significantly lower than the international regulatory standards. Therefore, we expect that our developed method, based on simple, two-step sample preparation process, will be suitable for the large-scale screening of mycotoxin contamination in edible oils.

  7. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of anthracene derivatives containing electron-withdrawing oxide moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jhin-yeong; Na, Eun Jae; Park, Soo Na [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Blue fluorescent material is important for application in full-color displays. • We have synthesized emitters based on anthracene connected with oxide moieties. • 1C shows a highly efficient blue EL emission due to electron-injection property. - Abstract: A series of new blue-emitting materials: (4-(10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-((diphenyl)phosphine oxide)phenyl)anthracene (2); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)anthracene (3) were designed and synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO (180 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/blue materials 1–3 (30 nm)/TPBi (15 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices showed the efficient blue EL emissions. In particular, the device using 1 as an emitter exhibited efficient blue electroluminescent properties with a maximum luminous, power, external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of 0.36 cd/A, 0.90 lm/W, 0.55% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and (x = 0.16, y = 0.20) at 10.0 V, respectively.

  8. Enhancing oil rate in solvent vapour extraction processes through tee-well pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, F.; Knorr, K.D.; Wilton, R.R. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In order for the vapour extraction (VAPEX) process to be considered commercially viable, the production flow rate in classical VAPEX must be increased. The low flow rate can be attributed to the fact that the classical VAPEX process uses forces of buoyancy to distribute the solvent and gravity to drain the diluted oil to the producer. This paper presented a new well pattern, referred to as the tee-SVX process, that may enhance the oil flow rate two to ten times over the classical approach. Additional horizontal injectors, perpendicular to the injector and the producer in classical VAPEX were placed in the top-most region of the reservoir in the new well pattern. The paper described the model development which involved conducting a series of simulation runs in order to evaluate the performance of the new well pattern. The paper also presented a comparison of the performance of the tee-SVX and the classical VAPEX and lateral-SVX. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to further evaluate the performance of tee-SVX and provide the boundaries of the application of the process. Two types of factors affecting the performance of tee-SVX were outlined, notably design factors; and formation and fluid uncertainties. The performance of tee-SVX in thinner reservoirs and in reservoirs with a gas cap were also examined. It was concluded that compared with the lateral-SVX process, the tee-SVX process could significantly reduce the time to solvent breakthrough. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs.

  9. Biological transformation of anthracene in soil by Pleurotus ostreatus under solid-state fermentation conditions using wheat bran and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M C; Rodriguez, R; Sanchez, F; Ramirez, N

    2001-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in a soil mixture contaminated with anthracene, wheat bran and compost, in varying combinations. Assays with added bacteria and reinoculation of the fungus were also included. The results indicated that in many of the combinations, most of the anthracene was removed at the earliest sample time, 15 days. The most effective combination was spiked (anthracene-added) soil, fungus and compost and the addition of acclimated bacteria to this mixture inhibited anthracene removal. Analyses of extract by high-pressure liquid chromatography HPLC indicated that - anthraquinone, was the major metabolite formed. The results of this study indicate that solid-state fermentation of anthracene-contaminated soils using P. ostreatus in combination with wheat bran and compost additives can produce an accelerated rate of biological removal of anthracene from the soil

  10. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  11. Characterisation and vapour sensing properties of spin coated thin films of anthracene labelled PMMA polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I., E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com [Balikesir University, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department of Physics, Cagis Campus, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Tarimci, C., E-mail: Celik.Tarimci@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, M., E-mail: merdogan@balikesir.edu.tr [Balikesir University, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department of Physics, Cagis Campus, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Hassan, A.K., E-mail: A.Hassan@shu.ac.uk [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheaf Building, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-05

    In the present article thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer labelled with anthracene (Ant-PMMA) prepared by spin coating are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and their organic vapour sensing properties are investigated. Ant-PMMA films' thickness are determined by performing theoretical fitting to experimental data measured using SPR and SE. Results obtained show that the spin-cast films are of good uniformity with an average thickness of 6-8 nm. Organic vapour sensing properties are studied using SPR technique during exposures to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ant-PMMA films' response to the selected VOCs has been examined in terms of solubility parameters and molar volumes of the solvents, and the films were found to be largely sensitive to benzene vapour compared to other studied analytes.

  12. Characterisation and vapour sensing properties of spin coated thin films of anthracene labelled PMMA polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, I.; Tarimci, C.; Erdogan, M.; Hassan, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the present article thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer labelled with anthracene (Ant-PMMA) prepared by spin coating are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and their organic vapour sensing properties are investigated. Ant-PMMA films' thickness are determined by performing theoretical fitting to experimental data measured using SPR and SE. Results obtained show that the spin-cast films are of good uniformity with an average thickness of 6-8 nm. Organic vapour sensing properties are studied using SPR technique during exposures to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ant-PMMA films' response to the selected VOCs has been examined in terms of solubility parameters and molar volumes of the solvents, and the films were found to be largely sensitive to benzene vapour compared to other studied analytes.

  13. Toxic effects of combined effects of anthracene and UV radiation on Brachionus plicatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ceng; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Ningning; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-05-01

    Anthracene is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, with photo activity, can absorb ultraviolet light a series of chemical reactions, aquatic organisms in the ecosystem has a potential light induced toxicity. In this paper, the effects of anthracene and UV radiation on the light-induced toxicity of Brachionus plicatilis were studied. The main methods and experimental results were as follows: (1) The semi-lethal concentration of anthracene in UV light was much lower than that in normal light, The rotifers have significant light-induced acute toxicity. (2) Under UV irradiation, anthracene could induce the increase of ROS and MDA content in B. plicatilis, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in B. plicatilis significantly changed, Where SOD, GPx activity was induced within 24 hours of the beginning of the experiment. And the content of GPX and CAT was inhibited after 48 hours. Therefore, the anthracite stress induced by UV radiation could more strongly interfere with the ant oxidative metabolism of B. plicatilis, and more seriously cause oxidative damage, significant light-induced toxicity.

  14. Benz[a]anthracene Biotransformation and Production of Ring Fission Products by Sphingobium sp. Strain KK22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Marie; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Hamamura, Natsuko

    2013-01-01

    A soil bacterium, designated strain KK22, was isolated from a phenanthrene enrichment culture of a bacterial consortium that grew on diesel fuel, and it was found to biotransform the persistent environmental pollutant and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benz[a]anthracene. Nearly complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of strain KK22 and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this organism is a new member of the genus Sphingobium. An 8-day time course study that consisted of whole-culture extractions followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with fluorescence detection showed that 80 to 90% biodegradation of 2.5 mg liter−1 benz[a]anthracene had occurred. Biodegradation assays where benz[a]anthracene was supplied in crystalline form (100 mg liter−1) confirmed biodegradation and showed that strain KK22 cells precultured on glucose were equally capable of benz[a]anthracene biotransformation when precultured on glucose plus phenanthrene. Analyses of organic extracts from benz[a]anthracene biodegradation by liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry [LC/ESI(−)-MS/MS] revealed 10 products, including two o-hydroxypolyaromatic acids and two hydroxy-naphthoic acids. 1-Hydroxy-2- and 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acids were unambiguously identified, and this indicated that oxidation of the benz[a]anthracene molecule occurred via both the linear kata and angular kata ends of the molecule. Other two- and single-aromatic-ring metabolites were also documented, including 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and salicylic acid, and the proposed pathways for benz[a]anthracene biotransformation by a bacterium were extended. PMID:23686261

  15. Solvent consumption in non-catalytic alcohol solvolysis of biorefinery lignin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. B.; Jensen, A.; Schandel, Christian Bækhøj

    2017-01-01

    Lignin solvolysis in supercritical alcohols provides a method for producing a deoxygenated liquid bio-oil. Solvent consumption is however inevitable and due to the high cost of alcohols, relative to a bio-oil product, it can hinder commercial viability. In order to investigate the reactions...... of solvent consumption we studied solvolysis of biorefinery lignin in several primary alcohols. Lignin solvolysis in methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol performed similarly with respect to bio-oil composition; however, methanol gave much lower bio-oil yield. Solvent consumption increases...... with reaction temperature for all alcohols and from 10 wt% at 300 °C to 35 wt% at 400 °C when using ethanol. The mechanism for solvent consumption was found mainly to take place through three different reactions: direct decomposition to gas through decarbonylation, formation of light condensation products...

  16. Fractionation of commercial hexane and use of its fractions as extracting solvent of cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Ola A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of producing off-graded cottonseed oil using locally produced commercial hexane as extracting solvent has explored this research. It was aimed in this work to investigate whether this problem can be solved by controlling the boiling range of the extracting solvent. Four different hexane fractions of different boiling ranges were prepared from commercial hexane. The boiling range of commercial hexane was 62-68ºC while the boiling ranges of the four fractions were 62- 64, 64-65, 65-66 and 66-68ºC. Commercial hexane and the prepared four hexane fractions were then used to extract cottonseed oil from a fixed seed sample. The five crude oil samples were then refined and bleached and their colours were measured. The results have shown that the heaviest hexane fraction ( b.r 66-68ºC produced the lightest coloured oils. The colour index of the bleached oil using this heavy cut was 190 compared to 350 using the original commercial hexane. However, the production of a commercial hexane cut having a narrow boiling range will be costly. Therefore, this research has been extended to investigate the suitability of a heavy petroleum cut which has a boiling range as wide as that of commercial hexane to extract cottonseed oil. The boiling range of this cut was 66-72ºC. The obtained results proved that the extraction of cottonseed oil using that heavy petroleum fraction produces much lighter oil than the use of conventional hexane solvent.En esta investigación se ha examinado el problema de producir aceite de semilla de algodón sin-clasificar usando hexano comercial producido localmente como disolvente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar si este problema puede ser solucionado controlando el rango de ebullición del disolvente extractante. Cuatro fracciones diferentes de hexano de diversos rangos de ebullición fueron preparadas del hexano comercial. El rango al que ebullía el hexano comercial era 62-68ºC mientras que los

  17. Iptycene synthesis: A new method for attaching a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of another anthracene moiety - Exceptional conditions for a Lewis acid catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Shing; Hart, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An efficient three-step method for appending a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of an existing anthracene moiety is described. The first step uses excess 1,4-anthraquinone (3 equiv) and aluminum chloride (6 equiv) to obtain the anthracene-quinone cycloadduct (omission of the AlCl3 resulted in no adduct). The resulting diketone was reduced to the corresponding diol (excess LiAlH4), which was dehydrated to the arene with phosphorus oxychloride and pyridine. Specific examples include the preparation of heptipycene 8 from pentiptycene 6 (66 percent overall yield) and a similar conversion of 8 to the noniptycene 13 (75 percent overall yield). The methodology led to a markedly improved synthesis of tritriptycene 9 and the first synthesis of undecaiptycene 14.

  18. Influence of polar solvents on the enhancement of light-ends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil 'micelle' can be dispersed into fuels, oil and resin/asphalthene components using some hydrocarbon solvents. This can be adapted towards influencing/enhancing its product slates during the processing of crude oils. This research was carried out to investigate the effect of polar solvents (ethanol and acetone) in ...

  19. Density Functional Studies of Molecular Polarizabilities. 7. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J. Soscun Machado

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We report accurate Ab Initio studies of the static dipole polarizabilities of anthracene and phenanthrene. Geometries were optimized at the HF/6-311G(3d,2p level of theory. Dipole polarizabilities were calculated at the HF/6-311++G(3d,2p and BLYP/6-311++G(3d,2p levels of theory, using HF/6-311G(3d,2p geometries. The calculated dipole polarizabilities for anthracene are compared with experiment. Inclusion of electron correlation using the BLYP procedure increases the L and M components of the dipole polarizability, but not the perpendicular (N component. Examination of corresponding BLYP results for the polyacene series benzene, naphthalene and anthracene shows that the normal component of the dipole polarizability scales linearly with the number of benzene ring units, with an increment of 20.8 au. The medium component also scales linearly with an increment of 42.8 atomic units. The long component does not scale linearly. Semi-emiprical AM1 calculations are also given for comparison; the normal component of the dipole polarizability tensor is poorly represented by such calculations.

  20. In situ alcoholysis of triacylglycerols by application of switchable-polarity solvents. A new derivatization procedure for the gas-chromatographic analysis of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Orlandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new use of switchable-polarity solvents for the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils before gas-chromatographic analysis. Different equimolecular mixtures of the commercially available amidine 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and n-alkyl alcohols were tested. Triolein was used as a model compound. Very good results were achieved by using butanol (recovery of butyl oleate was 89 ± 4%). The procedure was applied for the characterization of the fatty acid profile of different vegetable oils. No statistically significant differences from the results obtained with the application of two traditional methods were evidenced. Moreover, the use of switchable-polarity solvents showed many advantages: owing to the basicity of the amidines, no catalyst was required; the transterification reaction was conducted under mild conditions, one step and in situ; no particular matrix interferences were evidenced; the solvent was recovered.

  1. Assessment of genotoxicity and depuration of anthracene in the juvenile coastal fish Trachinotus carolinus using the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Matsu Hasue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, anthracene is characterized as being persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic to aquatic organisms. Biotransformation of xenobiotic substances, such as anthracene, produces reactive oxygen species that may induce DNA strand breaks. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the DNA damage in juvenile T. carolinus exposed to different concentrations (8, 16 and 32 µg.L-1 of anthracene for 24 h in the dark then subsequently allowed to depurate in clean water for different periods of time (48, 96 or 144 h using the comet assay. Our results show that anthracene is genotoxic to T. carolinus and that DNA damage was dose- and depuration/time- dependent. Anthracenegenotoxicity was observed in all experimental concentrations. Depuration seemed to be more efficient in fish exposed to thelowest anthracene concentration and maintained in clean water for 96 h.

  2. A novel technique to determine concentration-dependent solvent dispersion in Vapex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S. R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen. (author)

  3. A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil Abukhalifeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen.

  4. Role of clove oil in solvent exchange-induced doxycycline hyclate-loaded Eudragit RS in situ forming gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thawatchai Phaechamud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent exchange induced in situ forming gel (ISG is the promising drug delivery system for periodontitis treatment owing to the prospect of maintaining an effective high drug level in the gingival crevicular fluid. In the present study, the influence of clove oil (CO on the characteristics of doxycycline hyclate (DH-loaded ISG comprising Eudragit RS (ERS was investigated including viscosity/rheology, syringeability, in vitro gel formation/drug release, matrix formation/solvent diffusion and antimicrobial activities. CO could dissolve ERS and increase the viscosity of ISG and its hydrophobicity could also retard the diffusion of solvent and hinder the drug diffusion; thus, the minimization of burst effect and sustained drug release were achieved effectively. All the prepared ISGs comprising CO could expel through the 27-gauge needle for administration by injection and transform into matrix depot after exposure to the simulated gingival crevicular fluid. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were increased when the ratio of CO and N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP was decreased from 1:1 to 1:10 owing to higher diffusion of DH except that for C. albicans was increased as CO amount was higher. Therefore, CO could minimize the burst while prolonging the drug release of DH-loaded ERS ISG for use as a local drug delivery system for periodontitis treatment. Keywords: In situ forming gel, Eudragit RS, Clove oil, Doxycycline hyclate, Periodonditis, Burst release

  5. PEG and mPEG-anthracene induce DNA condensation and particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, E; Mandeville, J S; Arnold, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2011-08-18

    In this study, we investigated the binding of DNA with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different sizes and compositions such as PEG 3350, PEG 6000, and mPEG-anthracene in aqueous solution at physiological conditions. The effects of size and composition on DNA aggregation and condensation as well as conformation were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Structural analysis showed moderate complex formation for PEG 3350 and PEG 6000 and weaker interaction for mPE-anthracene-DNA adducts with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts. The order of ± stability of the complexes formed is K(PEG 6000) = 1.5 (±0.4) × 10(4) M(-1) > K(PEG 3350) = 7.9 (±1) × 10(3) M(-1) > K(m(PEG-anthracene))= 3.6 (±0.8) × 10(3) M(-1) with nearly 1 bound PEG molecule per DNA. No B-DNA conformational changes were observed, while DNA condensation and particle formation occurred at high PEG concentration.

  6. Determination of solvent concentration-dependent dispersion in the vapor extraction (VAPEX) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a computational algorithm that revealed the optimal conditions required for vapor extraction (VAPEX) for a solvent gas-heavy oil system. VAPEX is a promising recovery process because it requires low energy use and emits fewer greenhouse gases to the atmosphere compared to other enhanced oil recovery methods. The process is governed by the dispersion of solvent gases into heavy oil and bitumen. As such, it is essential to accurately determine solvent dispersion in VAPEX in order to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery, and to optimize field operations. VAPEX experiments were conducted in this study to determined the dispersion coefficient of a solvent as a function of its concentration in heavy oil and bitumen. The principles of variational calculus were used together with a mass transfer model of the experimental process. It was concluded that the oil production determined by the model should agree with its experimental counterpart, given the optimal gas dispersion versus concentration function.

  7. Microbial surfactant mediated degradation of anthracene in aqueous phase by marine Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 5514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreethar Swaathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes the biosurfactant mediated anthracene degradation by a marine alkaliphile Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 5514. The isolate, MTCC 5514 degraded >95% of 300 ppm anthracene in an aqueous medium within 22 days and the degradation percentage reduced significantly when the concentration of anthracene increased to above 500 ppm. Naphthalene, naphthalene 2-methyl, phthalic acid and benzene acetic acid are the products of degradation identified based on thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass analyses. It has been observed that the degradation is initiated by the biosurfactant of the isolate for solubilization through micellation and then the alkali pH and intra/extra cellular degradative enzymes accomplish the degradation process. Encoding of genes responsible for biosurfactant production (licA3 as well as catabolic reactions (C23O made with suitable primers designed. The study concludes in situ production of biosurfactant mediates the degradation of anthracene by B. licheniformis.

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Candlenut Oil Using a Two-step Co-solvent Method and Evaluation of Its Gaseous Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lan Ngoc; Luu, Boi Van; Phuoc, Hung Duong; Le, Hanh Ngoc Thi; Truong, Hoa Thi; Luu, Phuong Duc; Furuta, Masakazu; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2018-05-01

    Candlenut oil (CNO) is a potentially new feedstock for biodiesel (BDF) production. In this paper, a two-step co-solvent method for BDF production from CNO was examined. Firstly, esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) (7 wt%) present in CNO was carried out using a co-solvent of acetonitrile (30 wt%) and H 2 SO 4 as a catalyst. The content of FFAs was reduced to 0.8 wt% in 1 h at 65°C. Subsequent transesterification of the crude oil produced was carried out using a co-solvent of acetone (20 wt%) and 1 wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH). Ester content of 99.3% was obtained at 40°C in 45 min. The water content in BDF was 0.023% upon purification using vacuum distillation at 5 kPa. The components of CNO BDF were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The physicochemical properties of BDF satisfied the ASTM D6751-02 standard. The gaseous exhaust emissions from the diesel engine upon combustion of the BDF blends (B0-B100) with petrodiesel were examined. The emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were clearly lower, but that of nitrogen oxides was higher in comparison to those from petro-diesel.

  9. Chemical and biological characterisation of solvent extracts and essential oils from leaves and fruit of two Australian species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) used in aboriginal medicinal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-02-13

    Although no known medicinal use for Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (Pittosporaceae) has been recorded, anecdotal evidence suggests that Australian Aboriginal people used Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd. topically for eczema, pruritis or to induce lactation in mothers following child-birth and internally for coughs, colds or cramps. Essential oil composition and bioactivity as well as differential solvent extract antimicrobial activity from Pittosporum angustifolium are investigated here first, to partially describe the composition of volatiles released in traditional applications of Pittosporum angustifolium for colds or as a lactagogue, and second to investigate antibacterial activity related to topical applications. Essential oils were also investigated from Pittosporum undulatum Vent., first to enhance essential oil data produced in previous studies, and second as a comparison to Pittosporum angustifolium. Essential oils were hydrodistilled from fruit and leaves of both species using a modified approach to lessen the negative (frothing) effect of saponins. This was achieved by floating pumice or pearlite obsidian over the mixture to crush the suds formed while boiling. Essential oil extracts were analysed using GC-MS, quantified using GC-FID then screened for antimicrobial activity using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay (MIC). Using dichloromethane, methanol, hexane and H(2)O as solvents, extracts were produced from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum angustifolium and screened for antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical character. Although the essential oil from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum undulatum demonstrated some component variation, the essential oil from fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium had major constituents that strongly varied according to the geographical location of collection, suggesting the existence of at least two chemotypes; one with high abundance of acetic acid decyl ester. This chemotype had high

  10. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  11. Dansyl-anthracene dyads for ratiometric fluorescence recognition of Cu2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kuljit; Kumar, Subodh

    2011-03-21

    Dansyl-anthracene dyads 1 and 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) selectively recognize Cu(2+) ions amongst alkali, alkaline earth and other heavy metal ions using both absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In absorbance, the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of dyads 1 or 2 results in appearance of broad absorption band from 200 nm to 725 nm for dyad 1 and from 200 nm to 520 nm for dyad 2. This is associated with color change from colorless to blue (for 1) and fluorescent green (for 2). This bathochromic shift of the spectrum could be assigned to internal charge transfer from sulfonamide nitrogen to anthracene moiety. In fluorescence, under similar conditions dyads 1 and 2 on addition of Cu(2+) selectively quench fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-570 nm (for 1)/555-650 nm (for 2) with simultaneous fluorescence enhancement at 470 nm and 505 nm for dyads 1 and 2, respectively. Hence these dyads provide opportunity for ratiometric analysis of 1-50 μM Cu(2+). The other metal ions viz. Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Pb(2+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+) do not interfere in the estimation of Cu(2+) except Cr(3+) in case of dyad 1. The coordination of dimethylamino group of dansyl unit with Cu(2+) causes quenching of fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-600 nm and also restricts the photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylamino to anthracene moiety to release fluorescence between 450-510 nm. This simultaneous quenching and release of fluorescence respectively due to dansyl and anthracene moieties emulates into Cu(2+) induced ratiometric change.

  12. Application of the differential neural network observer to the kinetic parameters identification of the anthracene degradation in contaminated model soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poznyak, Tatyana [Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN), Edif. 7, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tpoznyak@ipn.mx; Garcia, Alejandro [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chairez, Isaac [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, Miriam [Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN), Edif. 7, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Poznyak, Alexander [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: apoznyak@ctrl.cinvestav.mx

    2007-07-31

    In this work a new technique dealing with differential neural network observer (DNNO), which is related with differential neural networks (DNN) approach, is applied to estimate the anthracene dynamics decomposition and to identify the kinetic parameters in a contaminated model soil treatment by simple ozonation. To obtain the experimental data set, the model soil (sand) is combined with an initial anthracene concentration of 3.24 mg/g and treated by ozone (with the ozone initial concentration 16 mg/L) during 90 min in a reactor by the 'fluid bed' principle. The anthracene degradation degree was controlled by UV-vis spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques. Based on the HPLC data, the obtained results confirm that anthracene may be decomposed completely in the solid phase by simple ozonation during 20 min and by-products of ozonation are started to be destroyed after 30 min of treatment. In the ozonation process the ozone concentration in the gas phase at the reactor outlet is registered by an ozone detector. The variation of this parameter is used to obtain the summary characteristic curve of the anthracene ozonation (ozonogram). Then, using the experimental decomposition dynamics of anthracene and the ozonogram, the proposed DNNO is trained to reconstruct the anthracene decomposition and to estimate the anthracene ozonation constant using the DNN technique and a modified Least Square method.

  13. Application of the differential neural network observer to the kinetic parameters identification of the anthracene degradation in contaminated model soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, Tatyana; Garcia, Alejandro; Chairez, Isaac; Gomez, Miriam; Poznyak, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this work a new technique dealing with differential neural network observer (DNNO), which is related with differential neural networks (DNN) approach, is applied to estimate the anthracene dynamics decomposition and to identify the kinetic parameters in a contaminated model soil treatment by simple ozonation. To obtain the experimental data set, the model soil (sand) is combined with an initial anthracene concentration of 3.24 mg/g and treated by ozone (with the ozone initial concentration 16 mg/L) during 90 min in a reactor by the 'fluid bed' principle. The anthracene degradation degree was controlled by UV-vis spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques. Based on the HPLC data, the obtained results confirm that anthracene may be decomposed completely in the solid phase by simple ozonation during 20 min and by-products of ozonation are started to be destroyed after 30 min of treatment. In the ozonation process the ozone concentration in the gas phase at the reactor outlet is registered by an ozone detector. The variation of this parameter is used to obtain the summary characteristic curve of the anthracene ozonation (ozonogram). Then, using the experimental decomposition dynamics of anthracene and the ozonogram, the proposed DNNO is trained to reconstruct the anthracene decomposition and to estimate the anthracene ozonation constant using the DNN technique and a modified Least Square method

  14. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  15. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  16. Anthracene Fluorescence Quenching by a Tetrakis (Ketocarboxamide Cavitand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Zoltan Janosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quenching of both fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity of anthracene was investigated in the presence of a newly derived tetrakis (ketocarboxamide cavitand at various concentrations. Time-correlated single photon counting method was applied for the lifetime measurements. A clear correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of anthracene as a function of cavitand concentration in dimethylformamide solution was observed. The bimolecular collisional quenching constant was derived from the decrease of lifetime. Fluorescence intensity was measured in the emission wavelength region around 400 nm as a result of excitation at 280 nm. Effective quenching was observed in the presence of the cavitand. The obtained Stern-Volmer plot displayed upward curvature. The results did not follow even extended Stern-Volmer behavior, often used to describe deviations from static bimolecular quenching. To explain our results we adopted the Smoluchowski model and obtained a reasonable estimate for the molecular radius of the cavitand in solution.

  17. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  18. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  19. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  20. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Jakob; Ayalur-Karunakaran, Santhosh; Radl, Simone; Oesterreicher, Andreas; Moser, Andreas; Ganser, Christian; Teichert, Christian; Pinter, Gerald; Kern, Wolfgang; Griesser, Thomas; Schlögl, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR) networks. The present article provides the 1 H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yl)oxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1 H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yl)oxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking ( λ >300 nm) and UV induced cleavage ( λ =254 nm) are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in "Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups" (Manhart et al., 2016) [1].

  1. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Manhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR networks. The present article provides the 1H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yloxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yloxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking (λ>300 nm and UV induced cleavage (λ=254 nm are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in “Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups” (Manhart et al., 2016 [1].

  2. Thermal polycondensation of anthracene for carbon precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valovičová, Věra; Plevová, Eva; Vaculíková, Lenka; Ritz, M.; Vallová, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2016), s. 261-267 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : anthracene * polycondensation * mesophase Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10973-015-5124-9

  3. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  4. Development of artificial neural network models for supercritical fluid solvency in presence of co-solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokir, Eissa Mohamed El-Moghawry; El-Midany, Ayman Abdel-Hamid [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Al-Homadhi, Emad Souliman; Al-Mahdy, Osama [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop new models of liquid solvent dissolution of supercritical fluids with solutes in the presence of cosolvents. The neural network model of the liquid solvent dissolution of CO{sub 2} was built as a function of pressure, temperature, and concentrations of the solutes and cosolvents. Different experimental measurements of liquid solvent dissolution of supercritical fluids (CO{sub 2}) with solutes in the presence of cosolvents were collected. The collected data are divided into two parts. The first part was used in building the models, and the second part was used to test and validate the developed models against the Peng- Robinson equation of state. The developed ANN models showed high accuracy, within the studied variables range, in predicting the solubility of the 2-naphthol, anthracene, and aspirin in the supercritical fluid in the presence and absence of co-solvents compared to (EoS). Therefore, the developed ANN models could be considered as a good tool in predicting the solubility of tested solutes in supercritical fluid.

  5. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  6. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil; Estudio comparativo de la extracción con solvente y CO2 supercrítico de aceites de semillas de Simarouba glauca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [Spanish] En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo la extracción con dióxido de carbono supercrítico (CO2) de aceites de semillas de Simarouba gluaca en diversas condiciones de presión (300–500 bar), temperatura (50–70 °C) y el caudal de CO2 (10–30 g·min-1). La condición de extracción para obtener el máximo rendimiento de aceite se obtuvo a una presión de 500 bares, una temperatura de 70 °C y un caudal de CO2 de 30 g·min-1. Al aceite extraido se determinó sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y se comparó con las del aceite extraído con disolvente convencional. Una observación interesante es la reducción significativa del contenido de fósforo (8,4 mg·kg-1) del aceite extraído utilizando CO2 supercrítico en comparación con el del aceite extraído con disolvente (97 mg·kg-1). Además, el contenido de tocoferol total en el aceite extra

  7. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in cultured human fetal aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Kocan, R.M.; Benditt, E.P.; Juchau, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    Cultured human fetal aortic smooth muscle cells derived from the abdominal aorta converted benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) via cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenation to metabolites detectable by both a highly sensitive radiometric assay and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cells incubated with 3 H-BaP transformed this substrate primarily to phenols. 14 C-DMBA was converted to metabolites that cochromatographed with 12-hydroxymethyl-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7- 7,12-dihydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene, and trans-8,9-dihydrodiol-7,12-DMBA. Exposure of cells in culture to 13 μM 1,2-benz[a]anthracene resulted in increased oxidative metabolism of both BaP and DMBA. In the case of BaP, total phenol formation was increased, while with DMBA all metabolites detected by HPLC were increased. Support for the potential role of metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aortic smooth muscle cells in the etiology of atherosclerosis was obtained

  8. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  9. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicogna, D.; Koundakjiian, A.; Beausejour, I.

    1993-01-01

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  11. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  12. Sensibilidade do carrapato Boophilus microplus a solventes Sensibility of Boophilus microplus tick to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos envolvendo o uso de acaricidas sintéticos ou naturais, geralmente necessitam da utilização de um solvente. Com a finalidade de verificar a sensibilidade do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus a diferentes solventes, larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas deste ectoparasito foram expostas a sete solventes em cinco diferentes concentrações, na ausência e presença de azeite de oliva. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização do azeite de oliva não produz resultados diferentes estatisticamente em testes de larvas com papel impregnado, fato não verificado em testes de imersão de adultos com compostos hidrofílicos. A mortalidade média causada pelos solventes foi menor nos testes com papel impregnado, aumentando nos testes de imersão de larvas e de adultos. Solventes de baixo peso molecular e pouca viscosidade como o álcool metílico e o álcool etílico, não interferiram na mortalidade média em testes biológicos de B. microplus, principalmente em concentrações inferiores a 76%.Experiments carried out with synthetic or natural acaricides usually use a solvent. To investigate the sensitivity of Boophilus microplus cattle tick to different solvents, larvae and engorged female were subjected to seven solvents in five different concentrations. It was done in the presence and absence of olive oil. The results showed that the utilization of olive oil doesn't produce different statistical results in impregnated paper larvae test. It did not happen in adults immersion test with hydrophilic compounds. The mean mortality caused by solvents was small in impregnated paper larvae test, increasing in immersion tests of larvae and adults. Solvents with low molecular weight and viscosity like ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol did not cause interference in the mortality of B. microplus in biological tests, mainly in concentrations below 76%.

  13. Reuse of organobentonites with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ling-Yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Li-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Synthesized organobentonite (SOB), montmorillonite (MMT), and commercial organobentonite (COB) were used as adsorbents for paraffin oil, a model pollutant in land-based oil spills and oil pipeline rupture. The characterization of clays was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adsorption, oil was separated from adsorbents with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and DMCHA was subsequently separated from paraffin oil upon CO 2 bubbling instead of distillation with high energy cost. The adsorption capacity of oil to SOB, MMT, and COB was 0.686, 1.124, and 1.239 g/g, respectively. It was found that the adsorption capacity and rinsed amount of the adsorbents depended on the d-spacing, which is related to surfactant content. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements suggested that the separation process occurred via two steps. Firstly, during the initial 35 min, carbonate ions coexisted with bicarbonate ions. Then, only bicarbonate ions existed after the introduction of CO 2 gas for 120 min. Thus, organobentonites were feasible for hydrocarbon adsorption and could be simply reused by an amine-based responsive solvent. This work provided a cost-effective and sustainable method of recycling of organobentonites and the responsive solvent, which can be used to deal with leaked oil and oil spills.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial fish and lobsters from the coastal waters of Madagascar following an oil spill in August 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumney, Heather S; Laruelle, Franck; Potter, Kerry; Mellor, Philip K; Law, Robin J

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in species of commercial fish and lobsters following an oil-spill just off the protected Madagascan coastline. Samples were collected along the coastline within and outside the affected area. Summed PAH concentrations ranged from 1.9 μg kg(-1) to 63 μg kg(-1) wet weight, but with no higher molecular weight PAHs (>202 Da) being detected. All concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were 80% arising from oil sources. Profile studies indicate a low-level multisource petrogenic contamination probably representing a pre-spill background for the area. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. The utilization of Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbent [Lour]. Merr) leaves extracts as an antioxidant for coconut oil by using ethanol solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Ariska, R.; Defriska, P.

    2018-02-01

    Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbent [Lour]. Merr) is commonly well-known as traditional medicine. It contains several chemical constituents such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids or triterpenoids, which are potential as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Sambung Nyawa leaves to extract as an antioxidant and its ability to preserve the quality of coconut oil. First, flavonoids were extracted from Sambung Nyawa leaves at various leaf to the solvent ratio (w/v) and extraction temperature. The extracts which gave the highest total flavonoids content was added into the coconut oil and stored for 3 days, 6 days, 9 days, 12 days, and 15 days. Total flavonoids content of Sambung Nyawa leaves extracts were evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Coconut oil was analyzed for its value of acid, iodine, and peroxide number. The results showed that the highest total flavonoids content of 5.18% was obtained for the leaf to solvent ratio of 1:15 (w/v) and an extraction temperature of 65 °C. The lowest acid number of 0.35%, the highest iodine number of 8.09 g I2/100 g, and the lowest peroxide number of 5.20 mg O2/100 g was obtained for the storage time of 3 days for coconut oil mixed with the Sambung Nyawa leaves extracts.

  17. Conversion of a deasphalting unit for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waintraub S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption and to increase deasphalted oil yield, an old PETROBRAS deasphalting unit was converted for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery. In-plant and pilot tests were performed to determine the ideal solvent-to-oil ratio. The optimum conditions for separation of the supercritical solvent from the solvent-plus-oil liquid mixture were determined by experimental tests in PVT cells. These tests also allowed measurement of the dew and bubble points, determination of the retrograde region, observation of supercritical fluid compressibility and as a result construction of a phase equilibrium diagram.

  18. Occurrence and bioremediation of anthracene in the environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of PAH in the environment has been a concern of many environmentalist for its obstinac, toxicity and harm that it may impose. Anthracene is a common low molecular weight PAH that is often used as a model PAH in bioremediation study due to its structure that is also found in high molecular weight PAH.

  19. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. • Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. • Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GC–MS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 °C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  20. GRINDING SOLVENT-FREE PAAL-KNORR PYRROLE SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis on smectites as recyclable and green catalysts. Bull. Chem. Soc. .... 1-Propyl-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole (8a). Oil (reported as oil .... of pyrroles catalyzed by zirconium chloride under solvent-free conditions . Ultrason.

  1. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Waste Cooking Oil Conversion To Biodeisel Catalized By Egg Shell Of Purebred Chiken With Ethanol As A Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellna Tehubijuluw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was carried out using the catalyst from egg shell of purebred chiken with ethanol as a solvent. Synthesis of biodiesel was prepared in two steps, esterification and transesterification. Esterification was conducted in mol ratio of ethanol and waste cooking oil of  9:1 with H2SO4 as a catalyst. Mol ratio of ethanol and used cooking oil in the transesterification of  12:1 with the CaO catalyst of shell eggs. CaO catalyst was yielded by calcinations egg shell of purebred chicken on 1000 for two hours. Calcination product was characterized with XRD to determine of CaO. Result of biodiesel was characterized based on FTIR, H-NMR, dan ASTM (American Standard Testing of Materials. Theoretically,yielded of biodiesel was 58% and experiment was 36.779%.

  3. Impact of Anthracene Exposure on Bacterial Community Composition and Function in an Egyptian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of bioremediation technology for pollution treatment requires more knowledge about how do microbial communities respond to pollutant exposure. The main goals of this study are to investigate the behavior of natural bacterial microflora of Suez Gulf (SGM) in response to exposure to different concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different periods. In this study, anthracene, as a model of (PAHs) was added in different concentrations, (30,150 and 500 ppm) to fertilized Suez Gulf water in shaking microcosms to examine the possible shifts in bacterial community composition and function. Changes in bacterial community composition was followed up after different periods of exposure (0, 6, 12, and 18) days to the above mentioned concentrations of anthracene by profiling the amplified product of 16S rDNA via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of SGM in treated microcosm separately. DGGE profiles revealed remarkable changes in diversity due to exposure concentration and duration to anthracene. A diverse relationship between anthracene concentration and bacterial diversity was detected. On the other hand, changes in community function were determined by testing the biodegradation capabilities of the consortia after different exposures separately in microcosms containing 50 ppm of anthracene for 14 days. The remaining anthracene was extracted and monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DGGE profiles of amplified 16S rDNA extracted from parallel biodegradation microcosms were examined to indicate the effects of pre-exposure to different concentrations for different periods to PAHs on the bacterial community compositions. The results confirm that the long term effects of pre exposure to high concentrations of PAH on the bacterial community composition, suggesting that that some organisms can be used as a bio marker indicating the exposures of the marine environment to high concentrations of PAHs. HPLC

  4. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Wazed [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sultana, Parveen [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Joshi, Mangala [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Rajendran, Subbiyan, E-mail: sr2@bolton.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. - Highlights: • A novel technique whereby the antibacterial components of neem oil are imbued into the compact structure of PET polyester • Trichloroacetic acid-Methylene Chloride treatment facilitated the easy entry of neem ingredients into the PET structure • Neem oil treated PET registered substantial antibacterial efficacy • Antibacterial effect is retained even after multiple use-wash cycles.

  5. Removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from contaminated soils by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladanowski, C.; Petti, L.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted using hexane for the removal of light crude oil from contaminated sand, peat, and clay soils. The bench-scale process tested consists of three major steps: solvent washing, settling/decantation/filtration of extract, and solvent recycle. The results indicate that the use of solvent extraction for cleanup of oil-contaminated soils is an effective technology at the bench-scale level. Using a 1,000 g batch system, extremely high oil removal efficiencies were obtained from contaminated sand (up to 98.9%) and peat soil (up to 83.9%). The final oil contaminant concentration for sand varied between 0.06% and 0.39%, while that for peat soil varied between 1.52% and 5.21%. The guidelines for the decommissioning and cleanup of sites in Ontario for oil and grease (1 wt %) were met in all instances for the treated sand. Hexane recovery from diesel-contaminated sand and peat soil experiments was ca 81% and 67% respectively. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Effect of solvents and oil content on direct transesterification of wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biodiesel synthesis using immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Chen, Ching-Lung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-05-01

    In this work, a one-step extraction/transesterification process was developed to directly convert wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 into biodiesel using immobilized Burkholderia lipase as the catalyst. The microalgal biomass (water content of 86-91%; oil content 14-63%) was pre-treated by sonication to disrupt the cell walls and then directly mixed with methanol and solvent to carry out the enzymatic transesterification. Addition of a sufficient amount of solvent (hexane is most preferable) is required for the direct transesterification of wet microalgal biomass, as a hexane-to-methanol mass ratio of 1.65 was found optimal for the biodiesel conversion. The amount of methanol and hexane required for the direct transesterification process was also found to correlate with the lipid content of the microalga. The biodiesel synthesis process was more efficient and economic when the lipid content of the microalgal biomass was higher. Therefore, using high-lipid-content microalgae as feedstock appears to be desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  8. Solvent Optimization for Efficient Enzymatic Monoacylglycerol Production Based on a Glycerolysis Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, Marianne; Jensen, Tine; Sparsø, Flemming V.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at screening solvent systems of varying polarities to identify suitable solvents for efficient and practical enzymatic glycerolysis. Several pure solvents and solvent mixtures were screened in a batch reaction system consisting of glycerol, sunflower oil, and Novozymo (R) 435...

  9. Petrographic characterization of the solid products of coal- pitch coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Kybett, B.D.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Rahimi, P.; Price, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    Petrographic studies were conducted on four solid residues resulting from the hydrogenation process of 1) Forestburg sub- bituminous coal alone, 2) the coal with a non-coking solvent (anthracene oil), 3) pitch (Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits), and 4) a mixture of coal and pitch. The purpose was to determine the amounts of coal and pitch-derived solids in the residues. All the residues were produced under identical severe conditions of liquefaction to promote the formation of solids. The coal processed with anthracene oil gives a residue consisting mainly of isotropic huminitic solids. If the coal is hydrogenated under similar conditions but without a solvent, the predominant residual solids are anisotropic semicokes displaying coarse mosaic textures, which form from vitroplast. The residual products from the hydrogenated Cold Lake vacuum- bottom deposits are also dominantly anisotropic semicokes; these display coarse mosaics and flow textures, and form by the growth and coalescence of mesophase spherules. Both coal- and pitch-derived solids are identified in a residue produced by coprocessing the Forestburg coal with the pitch from the Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits. It is concluded that the huminite macerals in the coal generate the fine-grained, mosaic-textured semicokes, whereas the pitch produces the coarse mosaics and flow-textured semicokes.

  10. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of molecular diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide and methane in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y.; Tharanivasan, A.K.; Yang, C. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based thermal recovery process which is considered to be a viable process for recovering heavy oil. In order to develop a solvent-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operation, it is necessary to know the rate and extent of oil mobilization by the solvent. The molecular diffusion coefficient of solvent gas in heavy oil must be known. In this study, the pressure decay method was used to measure the molecular diffusivity of a gas solvent in heavy oil by monitoring the decaying pressure. The pressure decay method is a non-intrusive method in which physical contact is made between the gas solvent and the heavy oil. The pressure versus time data are measured until the heavy oil reaches complete saturation. The diffusion coefficient can be determined from the measured data and a mathematical model. In this study, the molecular diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide-heavy oil and methane-heavy oil systems were measured and compared. The experiments were performed in closed high-pressure cells at constant reservoir temperature. An analytical solution was also obtained to predict the pressure in the gas phase and for the boundary conditions at the solvent-heavy oil interface for each solvent. Solvent diffusivity was determined by finding the best match of the numerically predicted and experimentally measured pressures.

  12. Diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) studied by STM and DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Bartels, Ludwig; Einstein, Theodore

    2014-03-01

    Substituted anthracenes have drawn attention due to their ability to diffuse uniaxially on a Cu(111) surface. We compare anthracene to three of its derivatives whose 9,10 hydrogens are replaced by elements of the chalcogen group that act as linkers binding the molecules to a Cu(111) substrate. DFT calculations shed light on STM imaging and diffusion studies on the three substituted species. We present an analysis of the DFT results in which energetic contributions to the diffusion barriers are partitioned among the Kohn-Sham orbitals, allowing us to make assignments as to how each orbital affects diffusion for each species and draw comparisons between them. Present address: Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

  13. Effect of PEG and mPEG-anthracene on tRNA aggregation and particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, E; Mandeville, J S; Arnold, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-09

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its derivatives are synthetic polymers with major applications in gene and drug delivery systems. Synthetic polymers are also used to transport miRNA and siRNA in vitro. We studied the interaction of tRNA with several PEGs of different compositions, such as PEG 3350, PEG 6000, and mPEG-anthracene under physiological conditions. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the PEG binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of polymer complexation on tRNA stability, aggregation, and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that PEG-tRNA interaction occurs via RNA bases and the backbone phosphate group with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts. The overall binding constants of K(PEG 3350-tRNA)= 1.9 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1), K(PEG 6000-tRNA) = 8.9 (±1) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(mPEG-anthracene)= 1.2 (±0.40) × 10(3) M(-1) show stronger polymer-RNA complexation by PEG 6000 and by PEG 3350 than the mPEG-anthracene. AFM imaging showed that PEG complexes contain on average one tRNA with PEG 3350, five tRNA with PEG 6000, and ten tRNA molecules with mPEG-anthracene. tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred at high polymer concentrations, whereas it remains in A-family structure.

  14. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  15. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-β-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  16. Production of three types of krill oils from krill meal by a three-step solvent extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Mu, Hongyan; Tang, Tianpei; Wang, Xiaosan; Wei, Wei; Jin, Jun; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a three-step extraction method (separately use acetone, hexane, and ethanol as extraction solvent in each step) was conducted to selectively extract three types of krill oils with different compositions. The lipid yields were 5.08% in step 1, 4.80% in step 2, and 9.11% in step 3, with a total of 18.99%. The krill oil extracted with acetone in step 1 (A-KO) contained the lowest contents of phospholipids (PL) (2.32%) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (16.63%), but the highest levels of minor components (505.00 mg/kg of astaxanthin, 29.39 mg/100 g of tocopherols, 34.32 mg/100 g of vitamin A and 27.95 mg/g of cholesterol). By contrast, despite having traces of minor components, the krill oil extracted using ethanol in step 3 (E-KO) was the most abundant in PL (59.52%) and n-3 PUFA (41.74%). The krill oil extracted using hexane in step 2 (H-KO) expressed medium contents of all the testing indices. The oils showed significant differences in the antioxidant capacity (E-KO > H-KO > A-KO) which exhibited positive correlation with the PL content. These results could be used for further development of a wide range of krill oil products with tailor-made functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth of optical-quality anthracene crystals doped with dibenzoterrylene for controlled single photon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Kyle D., E-mail: kyle.major11@imperial.ac.uk; Lien, Yu-Hung; Polisseni, Claudio; Grandi, Samuele; Kho, Kiang Wei; Clark, Alex S.; Hwang, J.; Hinds, E. A., E-mail: ed.hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules within a crystalline anthracene matrix show promise as quantum emitters for controlled, single photon production. We present the design and construction of a chamber in which we reproducibly grow doped anthracene crystals of optical quality that are several mm across and a few μm thick. We demonstrate control of the DBT concentration over the range 6–300 parts per trillion and show that these DBT molecules are stable single-photon emitters. We interpret our data with a simple model that provides some information on the vapour pressure of DBT.

  18. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  19. Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eechaute, W.; de Thibault de Boesinghe, L.; Lacroix, E.

    1983-01-01

    Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of [ 14 C]progesterone, [ 14 C]testosterone, and 17 beta-[ 14 C]estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue

  20. Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds Cyclopentanone and Acetophenone over Flame-made Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijiao; Büchel, Robert; Huang, Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 catalysts with different Pt/Pd atomic ratio and homogeneous dispersion of the metal nanoparticles were prepared in a single step by flame-spray pyrolysis. The catalysts show high activity and tuneable product selectivity for the solvent-free hydrodeoxygenation of the bio-oil model compounds cyclopentanone and acetophenone. PMID:22674738

  1. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Erbaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill. using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and other paraffinic substances. Scent compounds of all these products detected by gas chromatography (GC-FID/GC-MS were compared with the natural scent compounds of fresh rose flower detected by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 46 compounds analysis were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in the fresh flower, and a total of 15 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the hydrodistilled rose oil. While main compounds in rose oil were geraniol (35.4%, citronellol (31.6%, and nerol (15.3%, major compound in fresh rose flower, rose water and residue water was phenylethyl alcohol (43.2, 35.6 and 98.2%, respectively. While the highest concrete yield (0.7% was obtained from diethyl ether extraction, the highest absolute yield (70.9% was obtained from the n-hexane concrete. The diethyl ether concrete gave the highest productivity of absolute, as 249.7 kg of fresh rose flowers was needed to produce 1 kg of absolute.

  2. Low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriana, Arpi, Normalina; Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Gustina, Rizka Try; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2018-04-01

    Glycerolysis can be a useful technique for production of mono- and diacylglycerols from triacylglycerols present in avocado oil. In the present work, the effect of catalyst and co-solvent concentration on low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil was investigated at 40oC of reaction temperature. A hydrodynamic cavitation system was used to enhance the miscibility of the oil and glycerol phases. NaOH and acetone were used as catalyst and co-solvent, respectively. The experimental results showed that the catalyst and co-solvent concentration affected the glycerolysis reaction rate. The catalyst concentration of 1.5% and co-solvent concentration of 300% were the optimised conditions. A suitable amount of NaOH and acetone must be added to achieve an optimum of triacylglycerol conversion.

  3. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  4. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Deep Eutectic Solvents Enable More Robust Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Pengfei; Wang, Xuping; Zeng, Chaoxi; Wang, Weifei; Yang, Bo; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic method for the production of epoxidized vegetable oils was developed. The unique combination of the commercial lipase G from Penicillieum camembertii with certain deep eutectic solvents enabled the efficient production of epoxidized vegetable oils.

  6. Anthracene as a Non-hygroscopic Diluting Agent for Moessbauer Spectroscopy of Silicate Samples in Moisture-Uptake Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E. J.; Bickraj, K.; Denalli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracene gained no mass when held in a humid chamber and showed no gamma absorption and so appears to be suitable as a replacement for sugars for dilution of moisture-sensitive 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy samples. Applied to studies of moisture effects on a circumstellar silicate dust simulant, anthracene permitted preparation of sample series for experimental determination of optimal 57 Fe-Moessbauer areal density.

  7. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on liquefying reaction in coal, and reforming and utilization of the products; 1992 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on liquefying reaction in coal, and reforming of the products. High conversion rate was attained in the co-treatment of bitumen and Taiheiyo coals by using highly dispersing oil soluble solvent without performing coking, even if the asphaltene concentration is high. When a very highly acidic trifluoromethane sulfonic acid catalyst is used, hydrogenation and conversion to solubilized low molecules is possible even with a solvent having low affinity with coal. Swelling effect by tetralin is remarkable in pulverized coal, and the conversion rate was improved greatly under high-pressure hydrogen. When naphtha of the Wandoan coal liquefied oil is given extraction treatment with base and acid/base, the gas production decreases noticeably when hydrogenating and refining the extracts, resulting in reduced hydrogen consumption and improved oil recovery rate. Furthermore, when the extraction treated naphtha is hydrogenated, denitrification can be achieved completely. Kerosene and light oil liquefied from the Wandoan coal were cracked by fluidity contact, whereas the light gravity product yield due to the decomposition was found low because of containing a great amount of two-ring aromatics. The pressure crystal deposition method using solvent is effective in separation of high-melting point compounds including anthracene from heavy gravity oil. (NEDO)

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Efomah Andrew Ndudi; Orhevba Bosede Adelola

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction and characterization of cottonseed oil using solvent extraction method. Normal hexane was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the chemical, physical and proximate compositions of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined are viscos...

  9. (E-4-[(4-Nitrophenyldiazenyl]phenyl anthracene-9-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Léonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C27H17N3O4, the azo group displays a trans conformation and the dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pendant anthracene and nitrobenzene rings are 82.94 (7 and 7.30 (9°, respectively. In the crystal structure, weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, likely associated with a dipole moment present on the molecule, help to consolidate the packing.

  10. Dose response study of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil on mammary and colon carcinogenesis pretreated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing Lei; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Kumiko; Iwata, Toshio; Kasai, Masaaki; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hirose, Masao; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-07-10

    To clarify the chemopreventive effects of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on mammary and colon carcinogenesis, 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received diet containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, or 2% CFA-S subsequent to five times subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. and a single 50 mg/kg b.w. intragastric application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) during the first 11 days. The experiment was terminated at week 36. Numbers of mammary tumors, colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and proliferative indices of mammary tumors, and colon epithelium were analyzed. The 1% dose was found to be optimal for suppression of carcinogenesis in both target organs, a good correlation being noted with between data for cell proliferation. These results suggest that a diet containing appropriate levels of CFA-S may be useful for prevention of mammary and colon cancer.

  11. Investigation of the Possibility of Phytoremediating a Soil Contaminated with Anthracene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are one of the most important organic pollutantsfrequently found in the environment. In this experiment, the effect of phytoremediation as a cost effectivemethod was studied on the concentration of anthracene (C14H10 which is one of PAHs. The effect of sorghum(V1, hairy vetch (V2 and oat (V3 was studied under four concentrations of anthracene (S1, S2, S3 and S4 insoil. In S1 level which pollution was the lowest, the three plants had the highest reduction rate. The reductionrate was decreased by increasing the pollution level (S2 and S3,; the lowest reduction rate was observed in S4level which had the highest pollution level. There was significant difference between the three plants and thefallow. Generally, hairy vetch had the highest phytoremediating capacity and resistance compared with theother plants.

  12. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  13. Structure of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-guanosine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Blobstein, S H; Weinstein, I B; Beland, F A; Harvey, R G; Kasai, H; Nakanishi, K

    1976-01-01

    Arene oxides have been proposed as the reactive intermediates in the process of carcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present study defines the structures of four guanosine adducts formed by the reaction of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-5,6-oxide with polyguanylic acid. The modified polymer was hydrolyzed to nucleotides and the hydrophobic guanosine adducts separated from unmodified guanosine by LH-20 column chromatograhy. The adducts were further resolved into four components (I-IV) by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Analysis of the ultraviolet, circular dichroism, mass, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of these compounds, or their acetate and free base derivatives, indicates that in all four compounds the aromatic hydrocarbon is present on the 2 amino group of guanine. Compounds I and IV, and II and III constitute diastereoisomeric pairs, respectively. In the I and IV pair, the adducts result from addition at the 6 position of the original dimethylbenz[a]anthracene oxide, whereas in the II and III pair, the addition occurs at the 5 position. Indirect evidence suggests that trans opening of the oxide occurred in all cases but this remains to be established. PMID:821053

  14. Structure of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-guanosine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Blobstein, S H; Weinstein, I B; Beland, F A; Harvey, R G; Kasai, H; Nakanishi, K

    1976-07-01

    Arene oxides have been proposed as the reactive intermediates in the process of carcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present study defines the structures of four guanosine adducts formed by the reaction of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-5,6-oxide with polyguanylic acid. The modified polymer was hydrolyzed to nucleotides and the hydrophobic guanosine adducts separated from unmodified guanosine by LH-20 column chromatograhy. The adducts were further resolved into four components (I-IV) by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Analysis of the ultraviolet, circular dichroism, mass, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of these compounds, or their acetate and free base derivatives, indicates that in all four compounds the aromatic hydrocarbon is present on the 2 amino group of guanine. Compounds I and IV, and II and III constitute diastereoisomeric pairs, respectively. In the I and IV pair, the adducts result from addition at the 6 position of the original dimethylbenz[a]anthracene oxide, whereas in the II and III pair, the addition occurs at the 5 position. Indirect evidence suggests that trans opening of the oxide occurred in all cases but this remains to be established.

  15. Optimization process condition for deacidification of palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction using NADES (Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israyandi, Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-03-01

    One of many steps in palm oil refining process is deacidification which aims to separate free fatty acids and other compounds from the oil. The deacidification process was using a green solvent, known as NADES, that consisted of betaine monohydrate and propionic acid at molar ratio of 1:8. In this study, the process conditions were optimized using the response surface method (RSM) through central composite design in order to predict the maximum distribution coefficient of palmitic acid. The obtained regression equation of the basic model for optimization was: y = 0.717 + 0.003x1 + 0.043 x2 + 0.148x3 - 0.005 x1x1 - 0.030 x2x2 + 0.047 x3x3 - 0.008 x1x2 + 0.008 x1x3 + 0.033 x2x3. The independent variables are x1 ≡ temperature (40, 60, 80 °C), x2≡ amount of palmitic acid in the palm oil (2, 5, 8 %) and x3 ≡ mass ratios of oil to NADES (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). The optimum process condition found was temperature of 62.3°C, palmitic acid content of 8%, and NADES to palm oil mass ratio of 1:2, resulting in the maximum distribution coefficient of 0.96.

  16. Formation of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene-DNA adducts from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovanni, J.; Nebzydoski, A.P.; Decina, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts from [ 3 H]-7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) and [ 3 H]-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the epidermis of Sencar mice was analyzed. Comparison of Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic profiles of DNA samples isolated from mice treated with DMBA or 7-OHM-12-MBA suggested that the DMBA-treated animals contained DNA adduct(s) derived from the further metabolism of 7-OHM-12-MBA. Further analysis of DNA samples from DMBA-treated mice by high-pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of 5 DNA adducts which were chromatographically indistinguishable from the DNA adducts formed in 7-OHM-12-MBA-treated mice. Epidermal homogenates were utilized to catalyze the covalent binding of [ 3 H]DMBA and [ 3 H]-7-OHM-12-MBA to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Under conditions of limiting concentrations of [ 3 H]DMBA, the majority of the DNA adducts formed chromatographed in regions where 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adducts eluted. A major DMBA-DNA adduct formed in this in vitro system eluted with the same retention time as did the major 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adduct formed in mouse skin in vivo. These results when coupled with the in vivo data suggest that 7-OHM-12-MBA is an intermediate for at least some of the binding of DMBA to epidermal DNA in Sencar mice

  17. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm...

  18. Preconditioning methods to improve SAGD performance in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs with variable oil phase viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, I.D. [Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Larter, S.R.; Adams, J.J.; Snowdon, L.; Jiang, C. [Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience

    2008-10-15

    This study investigated preconditioning techniques for altering reservoir fluid properties prior to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) recovery processes. Viscosity-reducing agents were distributed in mobile reservoir water. Simulations were conducted to demonstrate the method's ability to modify oil viscosity prior to steam injection. The study simulated the action of water soluble organic solvents that preferentially partitioned in the oil phase. The solvent was injected with water into the reservoir in a slow waterflood that did not displace oil from the near wellbore region. A reservoir simulation model was used to investigate the technique. Shu's correlation was used to establish a viscosity correlation for the bitumen and solvent mixtures. Solvent injection was modelled by converting the oil phase viscosity through time. Over the first 2 years, oil rates of the preconditioned case were double that of the non-preconditioned case study. However, after 11 years, the preconditioned case's rates declined below rates observed in the non-preconditioned case. The model demonstrated that oil viscosity distributions were significantly altered using the preconditioners. The majority of the most viscous oil surrounding the production well was significantly reduced. It was concluded that accelerated steam chamber growth provided faster access to lower viscosity materials at the top of the reservoir. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  20. Synthesis and anodic oxidation of a Di and tri substituted anthracenes; Sintesis y oxidacion anodica de antracenos Di y trisustituidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, F.; Paredes, M.C.; Puebla, L. [Instituto de Quimica Organica General, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-08-01

    A variety of anthracene type 1, 4-7,11,12 and 18, were prepared from substituted anthraquinones. The anodic oxidation of a wide range of anthracene have been studied. The hydrosis of bisketals 19 and 20 afforded the monoketal 23 and 1,4-anthraquinone 24. 10 refs.

  1. Activation energies for fragmentation channels of anthracene dications : Experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, G.; Zettergren, H.; Martin, S.; Bredy, R.; Chen, L.; Bernard, J.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the fragmentation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene (C14H10) after double electron transfer to a 5 keV proton. The excitation energies leading to the most relevant dissociation and fission channels of the resulting molecular dication were directly determined

  2. Random Forest Approach to QSPR Study of Fluorescence Properties Combining Quantum Chemical Descriptors and Solvent Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiu; Tanaka, Kenichi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2018-04-22

    The Quantitative Structure - Property Relationship (QSPR) approach was performed to study the fluorescence absorption wavelengths and emission wavelengths of 413 fluorescent dyes in different solvent conditions. The dyes included the chromophore derivatives of cyanine, xanthene, coumarin, pyrene, naphthalene, anthracene and etc., with the wavelength ranging from 250 nm to 800 nm. An ensemble method, random forest (RF), was employed to construct nonlinear prediction models compared with the results of linear partial least squares and nonlinear support vector machine regression models. Quantum chemical descriptors derived from density functional theory method and solvent information were also used by constructing models. The best prediction results were obtained from RF model, with the squared correlation coefficients [Formula: see text] of 0.940 and 0.905 for λ abs and λ em , respectively. The descriptors used in the models were discussed in detail in this report by comparing the feature importance of RF.

  3. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  4. A First Synthesis and Physical Properties of Asymmetric Anthracenes-Thiophenes Bridged with Ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Min Ji; Park, Ji Hee; Jeong, Eun Bin

    2012-01-01

    Here we report our recent result of a new semiconductor material, which has an asymmetric structure. The synthesized molecules consist of anthracene and thiophene connected by bridged ethylene and substituted with hexyl or dodecyl groups as pendants. The semiconductors were synthesized using a McMurry coupling reaction between anthracene-2-carbaldehyde and corresponding 5-hexyl(or dodecyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. A first investigation of synthesized asymmetry AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) for the physical properties showed that they have high oxidation potential and thermal stability. The devices prepared by using AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) showed the mobility of 2.6 Χ 10 -2 cm 2 /Vs and 4.4 Χ 10 -3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively, in solution processed OTFTs

  5. Investigation of the Possibility of Phytoremediating a Soil Contaminated with Anthracene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are one of the most important organic pollutants frequently found in the environment. In this experiment, the effect of phytoremediation as a cost effective method was studied on the concentration of anthracene (C14H10 which is one of PAHs. The effect of sorghum (V1, hairy vetch (V2 and oat (V3 was studied under four concentrations of anthracene (S1, S2, S3 and S4 in soil. In S1 level which pollution was the lowest, the three plants had the highest reduction rate. The reduction rate was decreased by increasing the pollution level (S2 and S3,; the lowest reduction rate was observed in S4 level which had the highest pollution level. There was significant difference between the three plants and the fallow. Generally, hairy vetch had the highest phytoremediating capacity and resistance compared with the other plants.

  6. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  7. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project by Coal Group. Basic researches on coal liquefaction techniques by solvolysis; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku sekitanhan hokokusho. Sekitan no solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The basic experimental researches were carried out for coal liquefaction by solvolysis. The studied items include hydrogenation conditions for treating the primary liquefied products, asphalt, pitch and model solvents (e.g., anthracene oil) in the presence of a commercial catalyst, solvolysis conditions for finely divided, molten coal using a hydrogenation recycled solvent, hydrotreating solvents, analysis of solvolysis-liquefied products, and liquefaction capacity of fractionated solvents for finely divided, molten coal. The studied items for separation of minerals include settlement at high temperature of the solid residue from the first liquefaction stage, and changed coal particle size distribution as a result of the first-stage liquefaction reactions in the presence of a hydrogenation solvent. The experimental study results indicate that conversion of finely divided molten coal into asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is notably accelerated in the phase-II coal liquefaction process by solvolysis, when a hydrotreating solvent is used for the first stage solvolysis process. (NEDO)

  8. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Near-Critical Propane Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Agblevor, Foster A.

    2016-08-01

    Bio-oils produced by thermal process are promising sources of sustainable, low greenhouse gas alternative fuels. These thermal processes are also well suited to decentralized energy production due to low capital and operating costs. Algae feedstocks for bio-oil production are of particular interest, due in part to their high-energy growth yields. Further, algae can be grown in non-arable areas in fresh, brackish, salt water, or even waste water. Unfortunately, bio-oils produced by thermal processes present significant stability challenges. These oils have complex chemical compositions, are viscous, reactive, and thermally unstable. Further, the components within the oils are difficult to separate by fractional distillation. By far, the most effective separation and stabilization method has been solvent extraction. However, liquid phase extraction processes pose two main obstacles to commercialization; they require a significant amount of energy to remove and recover the solvent from the product, and they have a propensity for the solvent to become contaminated with minerals from the char and ash present in the original bio-oil. Separation and fractionation of thermally produced bio-oils using supercritical fluids (SCF) offers the advantages of liquid solvent extraction while drastically reducing energy demands and the predisposition to carry over solids into the extracted phase. SCFs are dense fluids with liquid-like solvent properties and gas-like transport properties. Further, SCF density and solvent strength can be tuned with minor adjustments in pressure, co-solvent addition, or gas anti-solvent addition. Catalytic pyrolysis oils were produced from Scenedesmus dimorphus algae using a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst. Bio-oil produced from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) was separated using critical fluids. Propane extraction was performed at 65 °C at a fluid reduced pressure of 2.0 (85 bar) using an eight to one solvent to feed ratio by weight. Extraction of

  9. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  10. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  11. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junfeng, E-mail: qianjunfeng80@126.co [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  12. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junfeng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun, Zhi; Shi, Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. (author)

  13. Performance of thermal solvent process in Athabasca reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan [Marathon Oil (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, due to depletion of conventional resources and high demand operators are looking into heavy oil and bitumen production. Different recovery methods exist, some of them based on heating the reservoir and others on the use of solvent. Thermal solvent process is a combination of both: a small amount of heat is used to maintain a solvent vapor phase in the reservoir. This process has advantages, solvent is mostly recycled which increases bitumen recovery efficiency and reduces the need for fresh solvent, but it also poses challenges, such as maintaining a vapor chamber and the fact that solvent solubility might be affected by heating. The aim of this paper is to discuss these issues. Simulations and field tests were conducted on bitumen in the the Athabasca region. This paper presented a thermal solvent process and its application's results in Athabasca reservoir.

  14. Desolventizing of soybean oil/azeotrope mixtures using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jonas R M; Tiggeman, Lidia; Rezzadori, Katia; Steffens, Juliana; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-08-01

    This work investigates the use of ceramic membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs: 5, 10 and 20 kDa) to desolventize azeotropic solvent mixtures (ethanol/n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol/n-hexane) from soybean oil/azeotrope micelles. Results show that a decrease in the MWCO of a membrane and an increase in the solvent mass ratio in the mixture resulted in a significant reduction in the permeate flux. The 20 kDa membrane presented the highest permeate flux, 80 and 60 kg/m 2 h for the soybean oil/n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol and soybean oil/n-hexane/ethanol azeotropes, respectively, for an oil to solvent ratio of 1:3 (w/w). The highest oil retention was found using the n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol azeotrope, around 25% in the membrane with the lowest MWCO, that is, 5 kDa. It is shown that the azeotropic mixtures provided intermediate characteristics compared to the original pure solvent behavior.

  15. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, extraction of Jatropha oil from seeds was optimized using organic solvents. The effects of parameters on the oil extraction namely type of organic solvents and different techniques were also investigated to optimize the processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The acid value and antioxidant ...

  16. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Fragmentation of anthracene induced by collisions with 40 keV Ar8+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brédy, R; Ortéga, C; Ji, M; Bernard, J; Chen, L; Montagne, G; Martin, S

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fragmentation of anthracene molecular ions C 14 H 10 r+ as a function of the parent ion initial charge r (= 1–4). Neutral anthracene molecules in the gas phase were ionized and excited in collisions with Ar 8+ ions at 40 keV and the mass-to-charge spectra of the parent ions C 14 H 10 r+ (1 ⩽ r ⩽ 4) were obtained. Stable molecular ions C 14 H 10 r+ (1 ⩽ r ⩽ 3) are observed. Branching ratios for the competitive evaporation (loss of neutral fragments) and fragmentation (charge separation) processes were measured for C 14 H 10 2+ parent ions. For C 14 H 10 3+ parent ions, the results indicate that fragmentation is the only dominant process and quasi-symmetric fission is observed. (paper)

  18. Green Michael addition of thiols to electron deficient alkenes using KF/alumina and recyclable solvent or solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Trecha, Danusia O.; Ferreira, Patricia da C.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Geociencias. Lab. de Sintese Organica Limpa (LASOL)]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    A general, clean and easy method for the conjugated addition of thiols to citral promoted by KF/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under solvent-free or using glycerin as recyclable solvent at room temperature is described. It was found that the solvent-free protocol is applicable to the direct reaction of thiophenol with the essential oil of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) to afford directly 3,7-dimethyl-3-(phenylthio)oct-6-enal, a potential bactericide agent. The method was extended to other electron-poor alkenes with excellent results. For the solvent-free protocol, the use of microwave irradiation facilitated the procedure and accelerates the reaction. The catalytic system and glycerin can be reused up to three times without previous treatment with comparable activity. (author)

  19. Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 μg/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks

  20. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  1. Bacteria capable of degrading anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene as revealed by DNA based stable-isotope probing in a forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang, Longfei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Zhiqiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yin, Hua [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Investigate PAHs degraders in forest carbon-rich soils via DNA-SIP. • Rhodanobacter is identified to metabolite anthracene for the first time. • The first fluoranthene degrader belongs to Acidobacteria. • Different functions of PAHs degraders in forest soils from contaminated soils. - Abstract: Information on microorganisms possessing the ability to metabolize different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in complex environments helps in understanding PAHs behavior in natural environment and developing bioremediation strategies. In the present study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied to investigate degraders of PAHs in a forest soil with the addition of individually {sup 13}C-labeled phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene. Three distinct phylotypes were identified as the active phenanthrene-, anthracene- and fluoranthene-degrading bacteria. The putative phenanthrene degraders were classified as belonging to the genus Sphingomona. For anthracene, bacteria of the genus Rhodanobacter were the putative degraders, and in the microcosm amended with fluoranthene, the putative degraders were identified as belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria. Our results from DNA-SIP are the first to directly link Rhodanobacter- and Acidobacteria-related bacteria with anthracene and fluoranthene degradation, respectively. The results also illustrate the specificity and diversity of three- and four-ring PAHs degraders in forest soil, contributes to our understanding on natural PAHs biodegradation processes, and also proves the feasibility and practicality of DNA-based SIP for linking functions with identity especially uncultured microorganisms in complex microbial biota.

  2. Study of the properties of the anthracene fraction by the thermogravimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Chernyak, P.E.; Ulanovskii, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    With the use of the TGA method, the effect of temperature, thermal exposure time, a179975d the medium on the relation of the rates and the intensity of the processes of distillation and synthesis during thermal treatment of the anthracene fraction were determined.

  3. Organic light-emitting diodes based on 9-(2-naphthyl)anthracene derivatives with a triphenylsilane unit as the deep-blue emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Young; Lee, Seul Bee [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-27

    A series of 9-(2-naphthyl)anthracene derivatives with a triphenylsilane unit, which prevented molecular aggregation and self-quenching effect, was designed and synthesized. By using various bridges between the 9-(2-naphthyl)anthracene group and the triphenylsilane unit, five deep-blue emitters were obtained and applied as non-doped emitting materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a device structure of indium–tin-oxide (ITO) (180 nm)/4,4-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) (50 nm)/emitting materials (30 nm)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (Liq) (2 nm)/Aluminium (100 nm). All devices showed blue emissions and their electroluminescence efficiencies are sensitive to the structural changes of the emitting materials. In particular, a device using 9-(2-naphthalenyl)-10-[6-(triphenylsilyl)-2-naphthalenyl]-anthracene (4) exhibited high luminous, power and quantum efficiencies of 2.28 cd/A, 1.42 lm/W and 2.40% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, and this device showed the deep blue emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.16, 0.10) at 6.0 V. - Highlights: • We synthesized 9-(2-naphthyl)anthracene derivatives with a triphenylsilane unit. • We study the conjugation-length effect on the electroluminescence properties. • The bulky triphenylsilane-anthracene derivatives show resistance to self-aggregation.

  4. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of interaction of aromatic solvents in hybrid and textile biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available the sorption uptake of organic solvents in hybrid and woven biocomposites. EXPERIMENTAL Sisal fiber was obtained from Sheeba Fibers, Poovancode, Tamil Nadu. Oil palm fiber was obtained from Oil Palm India Limited. Natural rubber used for the study...

  6. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  7. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  8. Preparation of Polysaccharide-Based Microspheres by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method for Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based microspheres of chitosan, starch, and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method for use as drug carriers. Blue dextran was used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the resultant microspheres that were approximately 100 μm or less. They were spherical in shape with a rough surface and good dispersibility. Microsphere matrices were shown as a sponge. Drug loading efficiencies of all the microspheres were higher than 80%, which suggested that this method has potential to prepare polysaccharide-based microspheres containing a biomacromolecular drug model for drug delivery applications.

  9. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using GC/FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  10. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de; Correa, Sergio Machado; Silva, Glauco Correa da

    2011-01-01

    /FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  11. Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on hydrophobic supports and application in biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of vegetable oils in solvent-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lionete N; Oliveira, Gladson C; Rojas, Mayerlenis J; Castro, Heizir F; Da Rós, Patrícia C M; Mendes, Adriano A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Tardioli, Paulo W

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the preparation of biocatalysts for ethanolysis of soybean and babassu oils in solvent-free systems. Polystyrene, Amberlite (XAD-7HP), and octyl-silica were tested as supports for the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (PFL). The use of octyl-silica resulted in a biocatalyst with high values of hydrolytic activity (650.0 ± 15.5 IU/g), immobilization yield (91.3 ± 0.3 %), and recovered activity (82.1 ± 1.5 %). PFL immobilized on octyl-silica was around 12-fold more stable than soluble PFL, at 45 °C and pH 8.0, in the presence of ethanol at 36 % (v/v). The biocatalyst provided high vegetable oil transesterification yields of around 97.5 % after 24 h of reaction using babassu oil and around 80 % after 48 h of reaction using soybean oil. The PFL-octyl-silica biocatalyst retained around 90 % of its initial activity after five cycles of transesterification of soybean oil. Octyl-silica is a promising support that can be used to immobilize PFL for subsequent application in biodiesel synthesis.

  12. Study of content of oil phase in the nanoemulsion oil/water during the oil demulsification; Aplicacao de nanoemulsoes com diferentes teores de fase oleosa no processo de desemulsificacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Veronica B.; Almeida, Sarah M. de; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo], e-mails: veronicabs@ima.ufrj.br, celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil-in-water nano emulsions are being developed to break up crude oil emulsions. In this initial study, the nanoemulsions were prepared the nonionic ethoxylated polymeric surfactants lauryl ether (Ultrol L100) - and the solvent xylene as the oil phase. The nanoemulsions obtained with 5,7 and 10%wt of the oil phase were evaluated for their efficiency in demulsifying oil emulsions by means of gravitational separation tests (bottle tests). For purposes of comparison, the efficiency was evaluated of aqueous solution of the pure surfactant and solvent xylene in the same concentrations used to prepare the nanoemulsions. The results show that the nanoemulsions are an alternative to demulsify water-in-oil emulsions with efficiency values of 90-95%. Moreover, was observed the influence the concentration oil phase in the nanoemulsion: the higher the concentration of oil phase, the higher the rate of break up crude oil emulsion. (author)

  13. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  14. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  15. Crystal structure of [(1,2,3,4,11,12-η-anthracene]tris(trimethylstannylcobalt(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brennessel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title structure, [Co(η6-C14H10{Sn(CH33}3], contains two independent molecules. Each anthracene ligand is η6-coordinating to a CoIII cation and is nearly planar [fold angles of 5.4 (3 and 9.7 (3°], as would be expected for its behaving almost entirely as a donor to a high-oxidation-state metal center. The slight fold in each anthracene ligand gives rise to slightly longer Co—C bond lengths to the ring junction carbon atoms than to the other four. Each CoIII cation is further coordinated by three Sn(CH33 ligands, giving each molecule a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In each of the two independent molecules, the trio of SnMe3 ligands are modeled as disordered over two positions, rotated by approximately 30%, such that the C atoms nearly overlap. In one molecule, the disorder ratio refined to 0.9365 (8:0.0635 (8, while that for the other refined to 0.9686 (8:0.0314 (8. The molecules are well separated, and thus no significant intermolecular interactions are observed. The compound is of interest as the first structure report of an η6-anthracene cobalt(III complex.

  16. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of pentacyclic 13-azadibenzo[a,de]anthracenes via anionic cascade ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.; Begtrup, M.

    2003-01-01

    Bromine-lithium exchange using tert-butyllithium at -78 °C initiates a cascade process whereby either xanthone derivatives or pentacyclic 13-azadibenzo[a,de]anthracenes are produced in high yields. The reaction proceeds via a sequential intramolecular trapping of organolithium intermediates....

  18. A green deep eutectic solvent dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DES-DLLME) for the UHPLC-PDA determination of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in olive, soy, peanuts, corn, and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Maura; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Preziuso, Francesca; Epifano, Francesco; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-04-15

    A green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the extracting solvent has been developed and applied for the simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, boropinic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), and auraptene in some vegetable oils using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA). All parameters in the extraction step, including selection and loading of both extracting and dispersing solvents, amount of both extractant and disperser solvent were investigated and optimized. PhAA/TMG DES achieved higher recovery and enrichment factor compared to other DESs. The validated method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2 >0.9990 for all the analytes. Furthermore, this is the first time that eco-friendly solvents are used for the extraction of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and the corresponding extract analyzed with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  20. Vibrational properties of organic donor-acceptor molecular crystals: Anthracene-pyromellitic-dianhydride (PMDA) as a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Fonari, A.; Corbin, N. S.; Vermeulen, D.; Goetz, K. P.; Jurchescu, O. D.; McNeil, L. E.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, V.

    2015-01-01

    We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.

  1. Vibrational properties of organic donor-acceptor molecular crystals: Anthracene-pyromellitic-dianhydride (PMDA) as a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Fonari, A.

    2015-12-10

    We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.

  2. Process of deparaffining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-03-05

    This process comprises centrifuging in the presence of a solvent which dissolves the oil and precipitates the paraffins, with the addition of an auxiliary liquid whose surface tension with respect to the oil solution does not exceed 50 dynes/cm.

  3. Extraction of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dibenzyl Disulfide from Transformer Oils using Polar Aprotic Solvents andReductive Dehalogenation of Extracted PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánek, P. (Petr); Kaštánek, F. (František); Maléterová, Y. (Ywetta); Matějková, M. (Martina); Spáčilová, L. (Lucie); Šolcová, O. (Olga)

    2014-01-01

    Extractions of PCBs from mineral oils with polar aprotic solvents (PAS) acrylonitrile AC, dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO, dimethyl formamide DMF, N-methyl pyrrolidone NMP and propylene carbonate PC were performed in order to compare the extraction efficiencies. In a single-stage extraction performed at room temperature, the efficiencies ranged from the highest to the lowest as follows: NMP → DMF → DMSO → PC → AC. NMP exhibited the highest efficiency, around 70%. . Pyridine N-oxide was also used a...

  4. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  5. Suitability of conophor oil for the production of aklyd resins, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil was extracted from Tetracaripidum conophorum nut (conophor plant) using solvent extraction method, with hexane as solvent. The oil obtained was used to synthesize an alkyd resin, which in turn was utilized in the production of white gloss paints and vanishes. The IR and UV analysis of the oil showed the presence of ...

  6. Tendency of lubricating oil manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio

    1988-09-30

    The manufacturing method of paraffin base oil and the tendency are explained in details. The base oil is distillate of petroleum which is obtained at the high boiling of 400/degree/C or higher. The base oil is made from the distillate which is obtained through solvent deasphalting of the vacuum distillated residual oil. The refining process of those material is classified into the two different process steps such as refining and modifying process step in which the quality of the material is improved while eliminating unstable resin, aromatic compound, and sulfur contained in the material, and dewaxing process step in which the wax contained in the material is removed. The former is combination of the two different process steps such as solvent extraction process and hydrogen finishing process or hydroforming process. The latter is a combination of the two different process steps such as solvent dewaxing and catalytic dewaxing (hydro-dewaxing). Various examples of reactions, features and industrial processes are given in accordance with each of these process steps. Regarding the tendency toward the future, the kinds of materials will be expanded in the way that naphthene base oil will adopted as the material oil along with diversification of the quality of lubricating oil, and the processing technology including two-stage processing, catalytic dewaxing, etc. will be expected to be improved. 18 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  8. Preparation of bovine serum albumin hollow microparticles by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion technique for drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimark, Y.; Srisa-Ard, M.; Srihaman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA) hollow microparticles have been prepared by a single step and rapid water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any emulsifiers and templates. Aqueous BSA solution and ethyl acetate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. BSA solution was cross-linked with polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) before microparticle formation. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a water-soluble model drug to entrap in the microparticle matrix. The non-cross-linked and cross-linked BSA microparticles contained empty core structure with outer smooth surface. Inner surface and matrix of hollow microparticles consisted void structure. Drug loading did not affect the microparticle morphology. Cumulative drug released from microparticles was decreased steadily as decreasing of MB ratio and increasing of PEGDE ratio. The BSA hollow microparticles may have potential application in controlled release drug delivery application. (author)

  9. Solubility investigation of ether and ester essential oils in water using spectrometry and GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khodabandeloo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Essential oils (volatiles are aromatic oily liquids prepared from different parts of plants and demonstrate various therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The dissolution of essential oils are not desirable in water, therefore the aim of this research was evaluation and selection the best co-solvents for increasing their solubility and bio availability. Methods:The solubility of six  plants essential oils were investigated in presence of propylene glycol (PG, polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG, glycerin and ethanol as solvent and tween 80 or lecithin as co-solvent by observation and spectrophotometric assay. Chemical composition of the essential oils and supersaturated 50% ethanol (SSE and 50% PG or PEG (SSP solutions were analyzed by GC/MS, too. Results: Ester (Lavandula dentata, Heracleum persicum and, Elettaria cardamomum essential oils showed the best solubility in ethanol and PG, respectively. Ether (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Petroselinum crispum essential oils had the best solubility in ethanol and PEG, respectively. In ester class, mixture of ethanol/water was the best solvent according to solubility and total amounts of major compounds of the essential oils. In ether class, all samples had better solubility in mixtures of ethanol/water than PEG, but the amounts of total phenols or ethers in SSP of some samples were higher than SSE. Therefore selecting the best solvent for these class need more experiments. Conclusion: Selecting the solvent for essential oils changes their chemical composition; therefore the best solvent was different for various purposes.

  10. 9-Arylvinyl- and 9,10-bis(arylvinyl)-anthracenes with phenyl and naphthyl as aryl moieties: Differential aggregation behaviors and optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wei; Ying, Shian; Wu, Yongjin [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education/Shandong Province (QUST), School of Polymer Science & Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, 53-Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); Xue, Shanfeng, E-mail: sfxue@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education/Shandong Province (QUST), School of Polymer Science & Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, 53-Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Wenjun, E-mail: ywjph2004@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education/Shandong Province (QUST), School of Polymer Science & Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, 53-Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized our simple twisting arylvinyl anthracene derivatives, 9-styrylanthracene (ASB), 9,10-bis(styryl)anthracene (SB), 9-(2-(naph- thalen-1-yl)vinyl)anthracene (ASN) and 9,10-bis((naphthalen-1-yl)vinyl)anthracene (SN), to demonstrate the effect of skeleton symmetry on optical and optoelectronic properties. The results showed that SB and SN are weak emission with the fluorescence quantum yields (Φ) of ca. 7% but ASB and ASN are highly fluorescent (Φ≈50%) in THF solution, although they all exhibit high solid-state fluorescence efficiencies (22~50%). Grinding could induce about 20 nm of spectral shift of ASB and ASN crystalline fluorescence, but SB and SN crystals hardly exhibit mechano- fluorochromic behavior. Furthermore, the evaporated films of SB and SN are fragile due to re-crystallization soon, but those of ASB and ASN are stable and could be used as the bulk emissive layer exhibiting commendable electroluminescent performances. This finding indicates that the geometric structures of conjugated skeletons could influence the electronic and aggregate structure of organic luminogens, and then alter their optical and optoelectronic properties.

  11. Formation and Stabilization of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Induced by the Interaction of Anthracene with Fe(III)-Modified Clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Nulaji, Gulimire; Gao, Hongwei; Wang, Fu; Zhu, Yunqing; Wang, Chuanyi

    2016-06-21

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are occasionally detected in Superfund sites but the formation of EPFRs induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not well understood. In the present work, the formation of EPFRs on anthracene-contaminated clay minerals was quantitatively monitored via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and surface/interface-related environmental influential factors were systematically explored. The obtained results suggest that EPFRs are more readily formed on anthracene-contaminated Fe(III)-montmorillonite than in other tested systems. Depending on the reaction condition, more than one type of organic radicals including anthracene-based radical cations with g-factors of 2.0028-2.0030 and oxygenic carbon-centered radicals featured by g-factors of 2.0032-2.0038 were identified. The formed EPFRs are stabilized by their interaction with interlayer surfaces, and such surface-bound EPFRs exhibit slow decay with 1/e-lifetime of 38.46 days. Transformation pathway and possible mechanism are proposed on the basis of experimental results and quantum mechanical simulations. Overall, the formation of EPFRs involves single-electron-transfer from anthracene to Fe(III) initially, followed by H2O addition on formed aromatic radical cation. Because of their potential exposure in soil and atmosphere, such clay surface-associated EPFRs might induce more serious toxicity than PAHs and exerts significant impacts on human health.

  12. Modeling the Environmental Impacts of Potential Oil Pipeline Leaks in the PÁRAMO Region upon the Water Supply for Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, J.; Sanjinez Guzman, V.; Emerman, S. H.; Tebbs, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Trans-Ecuadorian Pipeline carries crude oil from oilfields in eastern Ecuador to refineries on the Pacific coast, crossing the Páramo region, an alpine tundra ecosystem within the province of Pichincha, which also serves as the water supply for the capital city of Quito. The objective of this study has been to create a model for predicting the likelihood that the effects of a crude oil spill in the Páramo region would impact the water supply of Quito by comparing the residence times of organic compounds in soil with the time required for microbial degradation. A custom MATLAB script included linear partitioning of multiple organic compounds among the water, air, soil and NAPL phases. The three organic compounds considered were anthracene, benzene, and naphthalene. The relevant soil parameters for the Páramo region were obtained from the ISRIC-WISE Harmonized Global Soil Profile Dataset. The soil organic matter content is a critical parameter that was estimated from a very small number of measurements. Residence time half-lives were calculated for depths of penetration of the initial spill ranging from 0.1-5 m. For a depth of penetration of 1 m, residence time half-lives for benzene, naphthalene and anthracene were 1.5, 23.1 and 247.8 years, respectively. Comparing with typical biodegradation half-lives of 10-730 days for benzene, 1-258 days for naphthalene, and 199-252 days for anthracene, it can be seen that penetration to groundwater and transport to the reservoir that supplies water to Quito is unlikely for naphthalene and anthracene, but is a distinct possibility for benzene. Current modeling involves including the effect of volatilization within the soil and improving the estimates of biodegradation rates within an alpine tundra ecosystem. Further results will be reported at the meeting.

  13. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Origin of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, W G

    1923-01-01

    The theory by Jones was questioned. Oil shales do not contain partly decomposed vegetable matter, and, where particles of vegetation are identified, they do not prove that kerogen was formed in its place. Some shales do contain free oil that can be extracted with solvents.

  15. Preparation of non-porous microspheres with high entrapment efficiency of proteins by a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, N B; Thomas, P A; Pandit, J K; Kulkarni, M G; Mashelkar, R A

    1999-03-08

    Emulsification-solvent removal methods have been widely used for encapsulating bioactive macromolecules like proteins and polypeptides in biodegradable polymers. We report, a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique wherein proteins and polypeptides differing in molecular weight and shape were encapsulated in polymers of current biomedical interest. When an oil was used as the processing medium in combination with a carefully selected mixed solvent system such that a stable (w/o1/o2 emulsion is formed and solvents are removed by a combination of extraction and evaporation, the entrapment efficiency was high and the product nonporous. The entrapment efficiency of globular proteins exceeded 90% while that of fibrous proteins was around 70%. Fracture studies revealed that the polymer matrix was dense. The mechanism of entrapment involved solvent-induced precipitation of the protein as the microspheres were being formed. The principle of the method will find use in preparation of non-porous polymer microparticles with reduced burst effect.

  16. Performance of an enzymatic packed bed reactor running on babassu oil to yield fatty ethyl esters (FAEE in a solvent-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reaction of babassu oil with ethanol mediated by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA composite was assessed in a packed bed reactor running in the continuous mode. Experiments were performed in a solvent-free system at 50 °C. The performance of the reactor (14 mm ×210 mm was evaluated using babassu oil and ethanol at two molar ratios of 1:7 and 1:12, respectively, and operational limits in terms of substrate flow rate were determined. The system’s performance was quantified for different flow rates corresponding to space times between 7 and 13 h. Under each condition, the impact of the space time on the ethyl esters formation, the transesterification yield and productivity were determined. The oil to ethanol molar ratio was found as a critical parameter in the conversion of babassu oil into the correspondent ethyl esters. The highest transesterification yield of 96.0 ± 0.9% and productivity of 41.1 ± 1.6 mgester gcatalyst-1h-1 were achieved at the oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:12 and for space times equal or higher than 11 h. Moreover, the immobilized lipase was found stable with respect to its catalytic characteristics, exhibiting a half-life of 32 d.

  17. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  18. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  19. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  20. Well-defined Polymethylene-Based Co/Terpolymers by Combining Anthracene/Maleimide Diels-Alder Reaction with Polyhomologation

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Alkayal, Nazeeha

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy towards well-defined polymethylene-based co/terpolymers, by combining anthracene/maleimide Diels-Alder reaction with polyhomologation, is presented. For the synthesis of diblock copolymers the following approach was applied: a

  1. Cell and microsome mediated binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to DNA studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, V; Geacintov, N E; Jeffrey, A M; Fu, P P; Harvey, R G; Weinstein, I B

    1978-03-01

    Fluorescence spectra of DNA isolated from hamster embryo cells incubated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, or DNA modified in a microsomal system by reaction with this carcinogen or its 7-hydroxymethyl derivative, were compared to various model compounds. The spectra indicate that the DMBA derivative bound to DNA, in all 3 cases, has a 9,10-dimethylanthracene-like chromophore. They also provide the first evidence of the similarity in structure of the DNA-bound products between 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and its 7-hydroxymethyl derivative. Our results are consistent with an activation mechanism that involves saturation of the 1,2,3,4-ring positions.

  2. 300 area solvent evaporator interim status closure plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a hazardous waste tank treatment facility operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This treatment facility was a solvent evaporator located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, from 1975 to 1985 on behalf of DOE-RL. The 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) was a modified load lugger (dumpster) in which solvent wastes were evaporated. Some of the solvents were radioactively contaminated because they came from a degreaser which processed bare uranium metal billets from the N Reactor Fuel Manufacturing Facility. The waste was composed of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethyl acetate/bromine solution, paint shop solvents and possibly some used oil. Also, small amounts of uranium, copper, zirconium and possibly beryllium were present in the degreaser solvents as particulates. Radioactive and non-radioactive solvents were not segregated in the 300 ASE, and the entire mixture was regarded as mixed waste

  3. Radioiodination of olive oil VIA iodinemonochloride and chloramine-T in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwetery, A.S.; Elbayoumy, S.; Elgarhy, M.

    1992-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the neutral oils, composed of many fatty acids, some are saturated while others are unsaturated. This paper reports the results of comparative radioiodination study performed using iodine mono chloride I CI and chloramine-T as oxidising agents in organic solvents. On labelling using 125 I Cl in different solvents, benzene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether and n-heptane a yield of > 70% was found in case of diethyl ether within 5 minutes for olive oil while it was 80% for oleic acid under the same conditions. In case of benzene as a solvent the labelling yield was reached a maximum labelling of 37% and > 43% for olive oil and oleic acid respectively within 60 minutes after which labelling decreased with time. So benzene was chosen as the solvent for labelling of oleic acid using commercial 125 I Cl to compare with I CI prepared in the laboratory. Using unpurified commercial 125 I CI as labelling agent a yield of 65% was reached within 15 minutes while purified commercial I CI gave ∼ 40% after 15 minutes and 22% using the prepared 125 I CI. This reduction in the yield in case of purified I CI indicates that other iodine species I 2 , I - 3 and I OH plays great role in the labelling process depending on the medium used. Further studies were carried out using method for labelling olive oil as well as oleic acid in organic solvents n-heptane, benzene, acetone and methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) at a temperature just below the boiling point of each solvent. A maximum labelling yield of 28% for olive oil in the n-heptane solvent against 50% labelling yield of oleic acid under the same conditions of solvent, temperature and reaction time. Using actions as solvent it was found that the labelling yield decreases with reaction time.4 fig

  4. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Hiba Ben; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Floc’h, Emilie; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine; Sakka Hlaili, Asma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment are a hazardous chemical legacy. ► Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene are toxic to phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth in culture. ► Acute (photosynthesis) and chronic (population growth) effects have different thresholds. ► Toxicity depends on both the species selected as a model and the compound considered. ► Further study of the size/sensitivity relationship is required to draw more general conclusions. - Abstract: The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L −1 . The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 μg L −1 , respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 μg L −1 for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 μg L −1 for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when there is a lack of ecotoxicological data on hazardous chemicals, especially in marine microorganisms.

  5. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renil eAnthony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (UTEX LB2396. Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%, cyclohexane (0.14% and hexane (0.11%. This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  6. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  7. Fluorescence quenching of derivatives of anthracene by organic electron donors and acceptors in acetonitrile. Electron and proton transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Marek; Najbar, Jan; Wirz, Jakob

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of anthracene derivatives by organic electron donors (amines) and acceptors was investigated using stationary fluorescence measurements. The dependence of log( kq) on Δ Get shows Rehm-Weller-type behavior. The formation of anion radicals of anthracene, bianthryl, and 9-cyanoanthracene was detected by flash photolysis in systems containing aromatic amines (aniline, 2-bromoaniline, 4-bromoaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-bromo-N,N-dimethylaniline, N,N-diethylaniline, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). The radical yields decreased and triplet yields increased when bromo derivatives of amines were used as donor quenchers, indicating the heavy-atom effect on spin conversion within radical pairs. The importance of the heavy-atom effect decreased when the energy gap between the charge transfer and molecular triplet states was small. The formation of separated radicals decreased when primary amines were used as quenchers which indicated the existence of an additional path of deactivation of the radical pair. The behavior of amines as quenchers of bianthryl and anthracene is compared with that of inorganic anion quenchers.

  8. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  9. Comparative study of oxidative stress caused by anthracene and alkyl-anthracenes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA] in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1 the same external exposure concentration and 2 the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.

  10. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  11. Batch extraction modeling of jatropha oil using ethanol and n-hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEQ/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Perez, Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus.) has been considered as a promising alternative for rainfall regimes from 200 to over 1500 mm per annum. The seed and the oil have many applications, such as purgative, in the treatment of skin infections and rheumatism, in the control of insects, mollusks and fungi, for diesel engines lubricants, in soap and paint production, and mainly for biodiesel production. New technologies should be developed to accomplish the oil production in large scale, since the Brazilian Biodiesel Program stimulates the oilseeds productions. In large scale oil production, the oil is obtained using solvent extraction. The solvent widely used for oil extraction is the n-hexane mainly because of its low vaporization temperature and selectivity to the lipidic fraction. However, the use of n-hexane in small capacity plants makes the process expensive because of high operating losses. Alcohols were exhaustively studied at pilot and industrial scales extraction plants. Ethanol is an efficient and advantageous extraction solvent for oilseeds, being an attractive alternative to extraction grade n-hexane. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to model and to compare the extraction kinetics of jatropha oil by using ethanol and n-hexane. Extractions experiments were performed in a batch extractor at 45 deg C using a liquid-to-solvent ratio of 15:1 (mL solvent/g sample). Samples were taken every 15 min, and extraction time was to 2 h. The kinetics of oil extraction data were fitted to the models reported in literature. For n-hexane and ethanol extractions, the fractional residual oil at 120 minutes was 0.314 and 0.0538, respectively. The models reported in literature were suitable to describe the n-hexane extraction, especially the Duggal model. However, those models were not adequate the model the ethanol extraction (author)

  12. Simulation study of the VAPEX process in fractured heavy oil system at reservoir conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azin, Reza; Ghotbi, Cyrus [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif Univ. Tech., Tehran (Iran); Kharrat, Riyaz; Rostami, Behzad [Petroleum University of Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran); Vossoughi, Shapour [4132C Learned Hall, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Kansas University, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The Vapor Extraction (VAPEX) process, a newly developed Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process to recover heavy oil and bitumen, has been studied theoretically and experimentally and is found a promising EOR method for certain heavy oil reservoirs. In this work, a simulation study of the VAPEX process was made on a fractured model, which consists of a matrix surrounded by horizontal and vertical fractures. The results show a very interesting difference in the pattern of solvent flow in fractured model compared with the conventional model. Also, in the fractured system, due to differences in matrix and fracture permeabilities, the solvent first spreads through the fractures and then starts diffusing into matrix from all parts of the matrix. Thus, the solvent surrounds the oil bank, and an oil rather than the solvent chamber forms and shrinks as the process proceeds. In addition, the recovery factor is higher at lower solvent injection rates for a constant pore volume of the solvent injected into the model. Also, the diffusion process becomes important and higher recoveries are obtained at low injection rates, provided sufficient time is given to the process. The effect of inter-connectivity of the surrounding fractures was studied by making the side vertical fractures shorter than the side length of the model. It was observed that inter-connectivity of the fractures affects the pattern of solvent distribution. Even for the case of side fractures being far apart from the bottom fracture, the solvent distribution in the matrix was significantly different than that in the model without fractures. Combination of diffusion phenomenon and gravity segregation was observed to be controlling factors in all VAPEX processes simulated in fractured systems. The early breakthrough of the solvent for the case of matrix surrounded by the fracture partially inhibited diffusion of the solvent into the oil and consequently the VAPEX process became the least effective. It is concluded

  13. Deep eutectic solvents for highly efficient separations in oil and gas industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrag, S.E.E.; Peters, C.J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have captured a great scientific attention as a new, ‘green’ and sustainable class of tailor-made solvents. DESs share many properties with ionic liquids (ILs) including low vapor pressure, wide liquid range, thermal stability, low flammability, and high solvation

  14. Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhairi A. Sata

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 ºC. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC in order to measure the tocopherol composition and, on the other hand, the vapor phase was conducted in an expansion vessel in order to measure the pressure increment during the expansion process. Two phase equilibrium data was calculated using the liquid phase composition and pressure increments during the expansion process. Results showed that the maximum solubility of tocopherols was around 2.27% at a temperature of 120 ºC and at pressure of 5.44 MPa.

  15. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  16. Transesterification of waste cooking oil by an organic solvent-tolerant alkaline lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Poonam; Yoo, Hah-Young; Kim, Seung Wook; Choi, Yun Hee; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce a microbial enzyme that can potentially be utilized for the enzymatic transesterification of waste cooking oil. To that end, an extracellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. CS273. The molecular mass of purified lipase was estimated to be 36.55 kDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at alkaline pH 8.0 to 8.5 and temperature 40 °C, while the enzyme was stable in the pH range 7.0 ∼ 9.0 and at temperature ≤40 °C. The lipase showed highest hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). The lipase activity was enhanced by several salts and detergents including NaCl, MnSo₄, and deoxy cholic acid, while phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at concentration 10 mM inhibited the activity. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents including ethanol and methanol which are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides (ester) contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Applicability of the lipase in transesterification of waste cooking oil was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

  17. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173.275... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed...

  18. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Adewale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP. The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition.

  19. Asphaltene precipitation and its effects on the vapour extraction (VAPEX) heavy oil recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P.; Wang, X.; Gu, Y. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Petroleum Technology Research Centre; Zhang, H. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Core Laboratories Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Moghadam, L. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    One of the most important physical phenomena during the solvent vapour extraction (VAPEX) of heavy oil recovery is asphaltene precipitation. After the asphaltene precipitation occurs, the produced heavy oil is deasphalted in-situ, resulting in a lower viscosity and better quality. However, precipitated asphaltenes may plug some small pores of the reservoir formation, thus reducing its permeability. This paper examined the effects of three operating factors on the asphaltene precipitation during the VAPEX process, notably solvent type; operating pressure; and sand-pack permeability. Eight VAPEX tests were conducted to recover two different Lloydminster heavy oil samples from a rectangular sand-packed physical model with a butane mixture and propane as the respective solvents. The accumulative heavy oil and solvent production from the physical model were measured in the entire VAPEX process. The paper described the materials, experimental set-up, and experimental preparation. The VAPEX test was also explained. Results were presented for sand consolidation; solvent effect; pressure effect; and permeability effect. It was concluded that when the extracting solvent is in a liquid-gas state, asphaltene precipitation occurs and leads to in-situ deasphalting. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Improved rapeseed oil extraction yield and quality via cold separation of ethanol miscella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citeau Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction of vegetable oils, the idea of using ethanol as a solvent, allowing solvent recycling without distillation, can be attested as early as 1948 (Beckel, yet it is now seldom envisaged. The development of organic farming and a growing demand for a more natural diet prompted us to revisit this approach, which takes advantage of the relatively low affinity of ethanol for lipids to produce pure crude oils and meal with higher protein content. This method is based on the change of oil solubility in ethanol with temperature. Rapeseed oil extraction was carried out by hot pressurized ethanol (subcritical extraction condition. Oil was then recovered by cooling the miscella and demixing of two phases, an oil-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase. This study, after verifying the kinetics of extraction, focused on the optimization of the demixing temperature based on the amount and quality of recovered oil. The results show that ethanol extraction followed by cold demixing of the miscella makes it possible to obtain a high quality oil, free of free fatty acids and phospholipids.

  1. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm −1 ) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time

  2. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, Renil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben, E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  3. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Renil; Stuart, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  4. Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Manbybura, F.; Sparks, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for carbon dioxide as a major miscible solvent in Canada and describes Shell Canada's carbon dioxide exploration efforts over the last few years. Enhanced oil recovery, specifically miscible flooding, has been recognized as a technically and economically feasible method for adding reserves and productive capacity to Canada's light and medium oil. The fiscal regime has been altered by both the federal and provincial governments to encourage miscible flooding development. As a result many projects have been initiated with others being evaluated and designed. This paper analyzes the history and the direction of miscible flooding in the United States, where carbon dioxide is becoming the predominant miscible solvent. The potential for future use of carbon dioxide in Canada is specifically addressed: potential oil recovery solvent supply, and economics. Shell's carbon dioxide exploration play currently underway is also discussed.

  5. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  6. Phase behaviour of heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane and with methanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, D.; Ndiaye, P.M.; Franceschi, Elton; Corazza, Marcos L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports phase equilibrium experimental results for heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane as primary solvents and using methanol as co-solvent. Three kinds of oils were investigated from Marlim petroleum: a relatively light fraction coming from the first distillation of crude petroleum at atmospheric pressure (GOP - heavy gas oil of petroleum), the residue of such distillation (RAT) and the crude petroleum sample. Phase equilibrium measurements were performed in a high-pressure, variable-volume view cell, following the static synthetic method, over the temperature range of 323 K to 393 K, pressures up to 10 MPa and overall compositions of heavy component varying from 1 wt% to 40 wt%. Transition pressures for low methanol and oil concentrations were very close for GOP, RAT, and crude Marlim when using propane as the primary solvent. Close to propane critical temperature, two and three-phase transitions were observed for GOP and Marlim when methanol was increased. When n-butane was used as primary solvent, all transitions observed were of (vapour + liquid) type with transition pressure values smaller than those obtained for propane.

  7. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumanou Mohamed M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL and Candida rugosa (CRL was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricaprylin to peanut oil found was in the range 0.7 to 0.8. Using substrate molar ratio 0.7, high amount of structured triglyceride ST (about 35% MLM, 44% LML triglyceride fractions was obtained with lipase from RML in n-hexane. The results found in solvent free system were in some cases quite similar to that obtained in organic solvent. In nine successive batch interesterification in solvent free medium using immobilized RML and CRL, no significant loss of amount of both produced triacylglycerol fractions until batch 7 was observed with RML.

  8. One step transesterification process of sludge palm oil (SPO) by using deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Renita; Ramadhani, Debbie Aditia; Maisarah, Siti

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel production by using sludge palm oil (SPO) as raw material is generally synthesized in two step reactions, namely esterification and transesterification, because the free fatty acid (FFA) content of SPO is relatively high. However, the presence of choline chloride (ChCl), glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES), in transesterification may produce biodiesel from SPO in just one step. In this study, DES was produced by the mixture of ChCl and glycerol at molar ratio of 1:2 at a temperature of 80°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm for 1 hour. DES was characterized by its density and viscosity. The transesterification process was performed at reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar with ratio of 9:1, sodium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1 % wt, DES as cosolvent with concentration of 0 to 5 % wt, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and one hour reaction time. The obtained biodiesel was then assessed with density, viscosity, and ester content as the parameters. FFA content of SPO as the raw material was 7.5290 %. In this case, DES as cosolvent in one step transesterification process of low feedstock could reduce the side reaction (saponification), decrease the time reaction, decrease the surface tension between ethanol and oil, and increase the mass transfer that simultaneously simplified the purification process and obtained the highest yield. The esters properties met the international standards of ASTM D 6751, with the highest yield obtained was 83.19% with 99.55% of ester content and the ratio of ethanol:oil of 9:1, concentration of DES of 4%, catalyst amount of 1%, temperature of reaction at 70°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm.

  9. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  10. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  11. Mono- and Dinuclear Manganese Carbonyls Supported by 1,8-Disubstituted (L = Py, SMe, SH) Anthracene Ligand Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Taylor A; Rose, Michael J

    2016-06-06

    Presented herein is a synthetic scheme to generate symmetric and asymmetric ligands based on a 1,8-disubstituted anthracene scaffold. The metal-binding scaffolds were prepared by aryl chloride activation of 1,8-dichloroanthracene using Suzuki-type couplings facilitated by [Pd(dba)2] as a Pd source; the choice of cocatalyst (XPhos or SPhos) yielded symmetrically or asymmetrically substituted scaffolds (respectively): namely, Anth-SMe2 (3), Anth-N2 (4), and Anth-NSMe (6). The ligands exhibit a nonplanar geometry in the solid state (X-ray), owing to steric hindrance between the anthracene scaffold and the coupled aryl units. To determine the flexibility and binding characteristics of the anthracene-based ligands, the symmetric scaffolds were complexed with [Mn(CO)5Br] to afford the mononuclear species [(Anth-SMe2)Mn(CO)3Br] (8) and [(Anth-N2)Mn(CO)3Br] (9), in which the donor moieties chelate the Mn center in a cis fashion. The asymmetric ligand Anth-NSMe (6) binds preferentially through the py moieties, affording the bis-ligated complex [(Anth-NSMe)2Mn(CO)3Br] (10), wherein the thioether-S donors remain unbound. Alternatively, deprotection of the thioether in 6 affords the free thiol ligand Anth-NSH (7), which more readily binds the Mn center. Complexation of 7 ultimately affords the mixed-valence Mn(I)/Mn(II) dimer of formula [(Anth-NS)3Mn2(CO)3] (11), which exhibits a fac-{Mn(CO)3} unit supported by a triad of bridging thiolates, which are in turn ligated to a supporting Mn(II) center (EPR: |D| = 0.053 cm(-1), E/|D| = 0.3, Aiso = -150 MHz). All of the metal complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NMR/EPR measurements-all of which demonstrate that the meta-linked, anthracene-based ligand scaffold is a viable approach for the coordination of metal carbonyls.

  12. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Hiba Ben [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia); Leboulanger, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.leboulanger@ird.fr [UMR 5119 ECOSYM, CNRS-IRD-Universite Montpellier II-Ifremer-Universite Montpellier I, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers, F-34200 Sete (France); Le Floc' h, Emilie [UMS MEDIMEER, CNRS-Universite Montpellier II, SMEL 2 rue des Chantiers F-34200 Sete (France); Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine; Sakka Hlaili, Asma [Laboratoire de Cytologie Vegetale et Phytoplanctonologie, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Universite de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021, Bizerte (Tunisia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment are a hazardous chemical legacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene are toxic to phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth in culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acute (photosynthesis) and chronic (population growth) effects have different thresholds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity depends on both the species selected as a model and the compound considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further study of the size/sensitivity relationship is required to draw more general conclusions. - Abstract: The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L{sup -1}. The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when

  13. Designing Efficient Solar-Thermal Fuels with [n.n](9,10)Anthracene Cyclophanes: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Gaurab; Sultana, Munia; Paul, Ankan

    2018-01-18

    Molecular solar thermal storage (MOST) systems have been largely limited to three classes of molecular motifs: azo-benzene, norbornadiene, and transition metal based fulvalene-tetracarbonyl systems. Photodimerization of anthracene has been known for a century; however, this photoprocess has not been successfully exploited for MOST purposes due to its poor energy storage. Using well-calibrated theoretical methods on a series of [n.n](9,10)bis-anthracene cyclophanes, we have exposed that they can store solar energy into chemical bonds and can release in the form of heat energy on demand under mild conditions. The storage is mainly attributed to the strain in the rings formed by the alkyl linkers upon photoexcitation. Our results demonstrate that the gravimetric energy storage density for longer alkyl-chain linkers (n > 3) are comparable to those for the best-known candidates; however, it lacks some of the deleterious attributes of known systems, thus making the proposed molecules desirable targets for MOST applications.

  14. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, SCE oil had the best oxidative stability, and highest contents of vitamin ... that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive ... rate of liquid CO2 was 35 L/h. The oil in the .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils.

  15. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  17. A new methodology capable of characterizing most volatile and less volatile minor edible oils components in a single chromatographic run without solvents or reagents. Detection of new components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L; Cristillo, Giovanna; Sopelana, Patricia; Guillén, María D

    2017-04-15

    The possibilities offered by a new methodology to determine minor components in edible oils are described. This is based on immersion of a solid-phase microextraction fiber of PDMS/DVB into the oil matrix, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It enables characterization and differentiation of edible oils in a simple way, without either solvents or sample modification. This methodology allows simultaneous identification and quantification of sterols, tocols, hydrocarbons of different natures, fatty acids, esters, monoglycerides, fatty amides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, epoxides, furans, pyrans and terpenic oxygenated derivatives. The broad information provided by this methodology is useful for different areas of interest such as nutritional value, oxidative stability, technological performance, quality, processing, safety and even the prevention of fraudulent practices. Furthermore, for the first time, certain fatty amides, gamma- and delta-lactones of high molecular weight, and other aromatic compounds such as some esters derived from cinnamic acid have been detected in edible oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  19. Morphological classification of mesoporous silicas synthesized in a binary water-ether solvent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Qiang; Geng, Yi; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Kai; Sun, Qianyao; Chen, Xihua; Feng, Qingling; Li, Hengde; Vrieling, Engel G.

    2008-01-01

    Using diethyl ether as a co-solvent, a non-stable interface of biphasic oil-water system (the so-called oil-water two-phase (OWTP) system) was employed in the preparation of mesostructured silicas with diversified particle morphologies. By adjusting the molar ratios of H2O:C2H5OC2H5:NH3 center dot

  20. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-01-01

    This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic ...

  1. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  2. Method for production of fuel oils and diesel motor oils free of sediments and with unlimited miscibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-13

    A method is described for the production of fuel and diesel oils free of sediments and with unlimited miscibility by their recovery from substances poor in hydrogen, such as tars of fossil carbon, from lignite, from peat, from schist oils, from wood, or tar oils of corresponding extracts, poorly hydrogenated carbohydrates and the like, characterized by the fact that these substances are being subjected without mixing with selective solvents to a chemical purification and then immediately subjected to a redistillation and the obtained distillates being cut with hydrogen-rich oils to obtain normal diesel oils.

  3. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  5. Diesel-soluble lignin oils and methods of their production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Solvent consumption in supercritical ethanol, propanol or butanol treatment of either refined pre-extracted lignin or comparatively impure lignin-rich solid residual from hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic biomass can be minimized by conducting the reaction at very high loading of lignin...... to solvent. Comparatively impure, crude lignin- rich solid residual can be directly converted by supercritical alcohol treatment to significantly diesel-soluble lignin oil without requirement for pre-extraction or pre- solubilisation of lignin or for added reaction promoters such as catalysts, hydrogen donor...... co-solvents, acids, based or H2 gas. O:C ratio of product oil can readily be obtained using crude lignin residual in such a process at levels 0.20 or lower....

  6. Ultrasound aided in situ transesterification of crude palm oil adsorbed on spent bleaching clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boey, Peng-Lim; Ganesan, Shangeetha; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ali, Dafaalla Mohamed Hag

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Crude palm oil adsorbed on spent bleaching clay converted to biodiesel. → Ultrasound dislodges adsorbed oil from spent bleaching clay into reaction mixture. → Co-solvents promotes miscibility of the reactants. -- Abstract: Adsorbed crude palm oil on spent bleaching clay (SBC) was in situ transesterified to methyl esters (biodiesel) by the aid of ultrasound and organic co-solvents (petroleum ether (PE) or ethyl methyl ketone (EMK)). The SBC under study was found to contain 24.2-27.0% of crude oil with free fatty acids (FFA) of 3.01% and moisture content of 0.29%. The optimized reaction conditions were as follows: methanol to oil molar ratio of 150:1; catalyst (KOH), 20%; reaction temperature, 60 ± 2 o C; reaction time, 2 h. Using PE as a co-solvent, highest conversion of 75.2% was achieved while 60% was recorded with EMK.

  7. Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Histidine-Capped-Dialkoxy-Anthracene: A Visible Light Triggered Platform for facile siRNA Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Sachin; Moosa, Basem; Alsaiari, Shahad; Alamoudi, Kholod; Alshamsan, Aws; Almailk, Abdulaziz; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly of histidine-capped-dialkoxy-anthracene (HDA) results in the formation of light responsive nanostructures.Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of HDA shows two types of hydrogen bonding. The first hydrogen bond

  8. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin

    2009-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq 3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  9. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  10. Effects of parsley and camphor oils on mortality and trace elements of Chrysomyia albiceps larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.A.; El- Sebaay, S.S.; Amin, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of plant oils to protect sheep and other animals from infestation and myiasis of medical and veterinary pests are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of parsley oil (Petroselimum crispum) and camphor oil (Cinnamomum camphora) on mortality of Chrysomayia albiceps larvae and their effects on metal contents of the larvae. When the parsley oil used at the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100%, the larval mortality percent was increased with the decrease of the concentration and it reached 100% when the solvent used alone without oil. The pupation and the emergence percents decreased with the decrease of the concentration. The sex ratio was in favor of males at all concentrations except at the concentration of 100% where it was in favor of females. When camphor oil was used at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100%, the larval mortality percent was decreased with the decrease of the concentration and it reached 100% when the solvent was used alone without oil. The pupation percent increased with the decrease of the concentration. The emergence percent were similar in different treatments. The sex ratio was in favor of males at all concentrations except in the concentration of 50% it was in favor of females. In addition, the present study investigated the effect of parsley and camphor oils on the trace elements in the larval whole body. Eleven elements in C. albiceps larvae (untreated and treated with solvent (ethyl alcohol) and different concentrations of parsley oil) were detected. In untreated larvae Phosphorous was the most abundant element followed by magnesium and the least abundant element was ferric. In larvae treated with the solvent only (ethyl alcohol) potassium was the most abundant element followed by phosphorous and the least abundant element was ferric. In larvae treated with parsley oil at concentration of 25%, the elemental arrangement appeared to be similar to that of larvae treated with the solvent only. On the other hand, at the

  11. Oils; destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1928-03-01

    Coals, oil-shales, or other carbonaceous solids are dissolved in or extracted by solvents at temperatures over 200/sup 0/C, and under pressure, preferably over 30 atmospheres, in presence of halogens, hydrogen halides, or compounds setting free the halogen or halide under the conditions.

  12. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  13. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  14. Thermal equilibrium defects in anthracene probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Tachibana, Masaru; Shimizu, Mikio; Satoh, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenichi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kawano, Takao.

    1996-01-01

    Defects in anthracene were investigated by the positron annihilation technique. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured in the temperature range between 305 K and 516 K. The lifetime of positrons annihilated from the delocalized state was determined to be 0.306 ns around room temperature. Below the melting point, the observed temperature dependence of the line shape parameter S was explained assuming the formation energy of thermal equilibrium defects was 1 eV. Above the melting point, the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium in open spaces was observed, where the size of these spaces was estimated to be 0.2 nm 3 . The annihilation of positrons from the self-trapped state was also discussed. (author)

  15. Thermal equilibrium defects in anthracene probed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Tachibana, Masaru; Shimizu, Mikio; Satoh, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenichi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kawano, Takao

    1996-06-01

    Defects in anthracene were investigated by the positron annihilation technique. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured in the temperature range between 305 K and 516 K. The lifetime of positrons annihilated from the delocalized state was determined to be 0.306 ns around room temperature. Below the melting point, the observed temperature dependence of the line shape parameter S was explained assuming the formation energy of thermal equilibrium defects was 1 eV. Above the melting point, the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium in open spaces was observed, where the size of these spaces was estimated to be 0.2 nm{sup 3}. The annihilation of positrons from the self-trapped state was also discussed. (author)

  16. Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2015-03-01

    We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system.

  17. Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Producing Bacteria on Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Phenanthrene and Anthracene by Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Chouychai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-producing bacteria isolated from non-contaminated weed rhizosphere to enhance plant growth and PAH phytoremediation capacity was investigated. IAA-producing bacterial isolates, designated NSRU1, NSRU2, and NSRU3, were isolated from the rhizosphere of Eleusine indica (Poaceae and Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae. The isolates were able to produce IAA in nutrient broth. However, when grown in the presence of 100 mg/l of either phenanthrene or anthracene, the amount of IAA produced by each isolate was reduced significantly. Mungbean seedlings were planted in 100 mg/kg phenanthrene- or anthracene-contaminated soil without or with inoculation of ≈106 CFU/g dry soil with one of the bacterial isolates. Inoculation with either NSRU1 or NSRU2 was effective at enhancing shoot length of mungbean in phenanthrene-contaminated soil on day 16. Also, inoculation with isolate NSRU1 led to increased root dry weight of mungbean in phenanthrene-contaminated soil on day 30. Phenanthrene and anthracene degradation on day 16 and 30 in planted and inoculated soil ranged between 92 - 93.8% and 92.2 - 94.1%, respectively, which were not significantly different from planted and uninoculated soil (93.9 and 94.9%. These data showed that IAA-producing bacteria could enhance plant growth, but was unable to increase PAH biodegradation under the conditions tested.

  18. Use of reverse osmosis membranes for the separation of lemongrass essential oil and supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.V. Sarmento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is still used very little by industry, the process of essential oil extraction from vegetable matrices with supercritical CO2 is regarded as a potentially viable technique. The operation of separating the extract from the solvent is carried out by reducing the pressure in the system. Separation by membranes is an alternative that offers lower energy consumption and easier operation than traditional methods of separation. Combining the processes essential oil extraction with supercritical CO2 and separation by membranes permits the separation of solvent and oil without the need for large variations in extraction conditions. This results in a large energy savings in the case of solvent repressurisation and reuse. In this study, the effectiveness of reverse osmosis membranes in separating lemongrass essential oil from mixtures with supercritical CO2 was tested. The effects of feed oil concentration and transmembrane pressure on CO2 permeate flux and oil retention were studied for three membrane models.

  19. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin [Key Laboratory of Optical Engineering, College of Physics and Information Technology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China)], E-mail: gyxybsy@126.com, E-mail: niulb03@126.com

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq{sub 3} /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  20. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    methods involve potentiometric and colorimetric titrations , respectively. For both tests, a titration solvent is prepared and added to the oil. The...ASTM D 2896 and ASTM D 4739 [17]. Both methods involve potentiometric titrations . ASTM D 2896 uses a stronger acid and more polar solvent than ASTM D...Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration ASTM D 4739 Standard Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Titration Gas

  1. Phase equilibria study of systems composed of refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipert, Erika C. D'Anton; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Refining of vegetable oils. → Deacidification of babassu oil by liquid-liquid extraction using ethanol as solvent. → Distribution coefficient values of lauric acid and neutral oil were evaluated. → The carbon chain length of the molecules influenced the solubility of the system. - Abstract: Deacidification of vegetable oils can be performed using liquid-liquid extraction as an alternative method to the classical chemical and physical refining processes. This paper reports experimental data for systems containing refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K with different water mass fractions in the alcoholic solvent (0, 0.0557, 0.1045, 0.2029, and 0.2972). The dilution of solvent with water reduced the distribution coefficient values, which indicates a reduction in the loss of neutral oil. The experimental data were used to adjust the NRTL equation parameters. The global deviation between the observed and the estimated compositions was 0.0085, indicating that the model can accurately predict the behavior of the compounds at different levels of solvent hydration.

  2. Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by Ionic Liquids Coupled with Extraction by Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rashid; Gao, Shurong; Chen, Xiaochun; Yu, Guangren; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, desulfurization of real fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline was investigated in dual steps; first in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) using imidazolium and pyrrolidonium based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as solvent and catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. In second step, extractive desulfurization took place using organic solvents of furfural, furfural alcohol and ethylene glycol. Variety of factors such as temperature, time, mass ratio of oil/ILs and regene...

  3. Chemical examination of the organic matter in oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J B

    1914-01-01

    The analyses of Broxburn (Scotland), Pumpherston (Scotland), Armadale (Scotland), Australian, and Knightsbridge oil shales were given. Also, the action of nitric acid and solvents on some of the oil shales was determined. Carbon-hydrogen ratios of the oil shales varied from 6 to more than 8, and the shales with the lowest ratio (most hydrogen per carbon) produced the largest amount of oil from a given amount of organic matter. There was little resinous material in the oil shales, and most of the organic matter was insoluble in organic solvents. Nitric acid oxidized Australian torbanite, Broxburn shale, New Battle cannel coal (Scotland), and Glenfullock peat to organic acids. The hydrogen content of the organic acids obtained by oxidizing the following materials increased from ordinary coal to cannel coal to peat to Broxburn shale to torbanite. The organic substance in oil shale is a decomposition product of vegetable matter similar to that found in peat and cannel coal, and it was produced by a definite combination of external conditions.

  4. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  5. Optimization Study for Butanol Extraction from Butanol-Water Using Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) as Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Izzati Ab Rahim; Mohd Irfan Hatim Mohamed Dzahir; Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Othman

    2015-01-01

    The oil crisis, warned the humanity's depends on oil was not sustainable and recently, there are plenty of renewable resources had been developed. Much attention has been given to the solvent extraction process to separate butanol from butanol-water mixture using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a solvent. In this respect, the use of FAME as a green solvent which are locally available has greater potential for butanol extraction process. Therefore, an experimental work has been carried out to study its feasibility as a potential solvent. A single stage extraction process as performed to evaluate the ability to achieve optimal extract butanol. The extraction process was carried out to evaluate the distribution coefficient of butanol with the effects of other parameters such as reaction temperature (50-70 degree Celsius) and butanol-water mixture to solvent ratio (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2). The constant parameter is the stirring speed (300 rpm). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the Central Composition Design (CCD) as employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the butanol extraction process. It was found that the distribution coefficient has achieved an optimum level of 1.92 % at the following conditions: (i) butanol-water mixtures to solvent ratio (1:1.48) and (ii) reaction temperature (62.75 degree Celsius). (author)

  6. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil and Evaluation 
of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavdar, Hasene Keskin; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Gök, Uğur; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2017-03-01

    Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176-300 W), time (5-20 min), particle size ( d =0.125-0.800 mm) and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass). The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19%) was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d =0.125-0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass) in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70% in 8 h) or cold (17.50% in 8 h) extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86%) irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had better physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  7. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  8. Photoligation of self-assembled DNA constructs containing anthracene-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Karol; Pasternak, Anna; Gupta, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel anthracene-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA phosphoramidite derivative is described together with its incorporation into oligodeoxynucleotides. Two DNA strands with the novel 2'-N-anthracenylmethyl-2'-amino-LNA monomers can be effectively cross-linked by photoligation...... at 366nm in various types of DNA constructs. Successful application of three differently functionalized 2'-amino-LNA monomers in self-assembled higher ordered structures for simultaneous cross-linking and monitoring of assembly formation is furthermore demonstrated....

  9. Anthracene-Based Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthesis, Structure, Photoluminescence, and Radioluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan R. Mathis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Four anthracene-based lanthanide metal-organic framework structures (MOFs were synthesized from the combination of the lanthanide ions, Eu3+, Tb3+, Er3+, and Tm3+, with 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylic acid (H2ADC in dimethylformamide (DMF under hydrothermal conditions. The 3-D networks crystalize in the triclinic system with P-1 space group with the following compositions: (i {{[Ln2(ADC3(DMF4·DMF]}n, Ln = Eu (1 and Tb (2} and (ii {{[Ln2(ADC3(DMF2(OH22·2DMF·H2O]}n, Ln = Er (3 and Tm (4}. The metal centers exist in various coordination environments; nine coordinate in (i, while seven and eight coordinate in (ii. The deprotonated ligand, ADC, assumes multiple coordination modes, with its carboxylate functional groups severely twisted away from the plane of the anthracene moiety. The structures show ligand-based photoluminescence, which appears to be significantly quenched when compared with that of the parent H2ADC solid powder. Structure 2 is the least quenched and showed an average photoluminescence lifetime from bi-exponential decay of 0.3 ns. On exposure to ionizing radiation, the structures show radioluminescence spectral features that are consistent with the isolation of the ligand units in its 3-D network. The spectral features vary among the 3-D networks and appear to suggest that the latter undergo significant changes in their molecular and/or electronic structure in the presence of the ionizing radiation.

  10. Report for fiscal 1981 of Sunshine Program coal group. Basic research on Solvolysis liquefaction technology; 1981 nendo solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Basic research is conducted on the Solvolysis liquefaction process for the purpose of producing from coal an ashless, low-sulfur, pollution-free liquid fuel. In the research on the Solvolysis liquefaction (1st stage liquefaction) of coal using a hydrogenation solvent, the Solvolysis liquefaction of coal is studied, for which a refined Solvolysis pitch containing coal substances and a hydride of solvent refined coal are used as Solvolysis liquefaction solvents for the 1st stage. In the research on the 1st stage liquefaction reaction conditions using a high-temperature closed process, two methods are employed. One is a method that uses a mini-pump type reactor in which a small hermetic container is submerged in a high-temperature solvent for rapid heating and the other is a method that uses a pipe type reactor in which coal slurry is caused to travel through a pipe heated to a high temperature. For the analysis of the 2nd stage liquefaction (hydrogenation) reaction conditions, the properties of the 2nd coal liquid, and the constitution of the 2nd coal liquid, and the for the research on the 1st stage liquefaction capacity, the hydrogenation of anthracene oil and solvent refined coal as recyclable solvent models is studied. (NEDO)

  11. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasene Keskin Çavdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176–300 W, time (5–20 min, particle size (d=0.125–0.800 mm and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass. The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19 % was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d=0.125–0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70 % in 8 h or cold (17.50 % in 8 h extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86 % irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had bett er physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  12. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  13. A comparison of geochemical features of extracts from coal-seams source rocks with different polarity solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianping; Deng, Chunping; Wang, Huitong

    2009-02-15

    There exists a great difference in group-type fractions and biomarker distributions of chloroform extracts from coals and coal-seams oils, which makes the source identification of coal-seams oils in sedimentary basins rather difficult. The experiment, in which four different polarity solvents, n-hexane, benzene, dichloromethane and chloroform, were used to extract 9 coal-seams source rocks and 3 typical lacustrine source rocks, showed that the yield of extracts increased gradually with increasing solvent polarity. The distribution features of their n-alkanes, isoprenoids and sterane and terpane biomarkers remained, in general, similar, showing no distinct enrichment or depletion for a certain fraction by any solvent. The compositional analysis on n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed that the absolute amount (concentration) of biomarkers was relatively low for the n-hexane extract but comparatively high for the chloroform extract, this difference became great among coal-seams source rocks but small among lacustrine mudstones. The statistical analysis on the relative amount of the 18 major biomarkers in n-hexane and chloroform extracts from 10 source rock samples showed that extracts with a proportional error for the same biomarker of less than 5% (including the analytical error) accounted for 84% while those with a proportional error over 10% amounted to below 5%. This suggested that the outcome of oil-source correlation made by these biomarkers will be independent of variations in amounts of saturates and biomarkers arising from solvent polarity. Therefore, biomarkers obtained from organic-rich source rocks including coals by the extraction with the commonly used chloroform solvent can be applied for the oilsource correlation of coal-seams petroliferous basins.

  14. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  15. Test methods for determining asphaltene stability in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The development of test methods for the determination of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was rendered necessary, due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in harsh production environments, namely the underwater systems in offshore deepwater. The Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization were used for the purposes of this study, to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided, and the experimental data obtained as a result was presented. Correlation with data on the deposition histories of the oils was used to validate the experimental stability data. The author discussed the effectiveness of the different tests for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. The prediction of a crude oil's propensity towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., 31 figs.

  16. Characterization of Coconut Oil Fractions Obtained from Solvent Fractionation Using Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Rungprasertphol, Poonyawee; Nantipipat, Nantinee; Tungvongcharoan, Satinee; Laiyangkoon, Nantikan

    2017-09-01

    This work was aimed to study the solvent fraction of coconut oil (CNO). The fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, solid fat content (SFC) and the crystallization properties of CNO and its solid and liquid fractions obtained from fractionation at different conditions were investigated using various techniques. CNO was dissolved in acetone (1:1 w/v) and left to crystallize isothermally at 10°C for 0.5, 1 and 2 h and at 12°C for 2, 3 and 6 h. The solid fractions contained significantly lower contents of saturated fatty acids of ≤ 10 carbon atoms but considerably higher contents of saturated fatty acids with > 12 carbon atoms with respect to those of CNO and the liquid fractions. They also contained higher contents of high-melting triacylglycerol species with carbon number ≥ 38. Because of this, the DSC crystallization onset temperatures and the crystallization peak temperatures of the solid fractions were higher than CNO and the liquid fractions. The SFC values of the solid fractions were significantly higher than CNO at all measuring temperatures before reaching 0% just below the body temperature with the fraction obtained at 12°C for 2 h exhibiting the highest SFC. On the contrary, the SFC values of the liquid fractions were lower than CNO. The crystallization duration exhibited strong influence on the solid fractions. There was no effect on the crystal polymorphic structure possibly because CNO has β'-2 as a stable polymorph. The enhanced SFC of the solid fractions would allow them to find use in food applications where a specific melting temperature is desired such as sophisticated confectionery fats, and the decreased SFC of the liquid fractions would provide them with a higher cold stability which would be useful during extended storage time.

  17. Comparative analysis of essential oil contents of Juniperus excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cones/berries of Juniperus excelsa from three provenances in Balochistan, Pakistan were collected and essential oil was extracted by solvent method. Oil contents were analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Identification and quantification was made by using Wiley and NIST spectral library and HP ...

  18. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of two carcinogenic polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was studied in expiants of human pancreatic duct and bronchus cultured in a chemically defined medium. In cultured human bronchial mucosa, activity of aryl hydrocarbon hy...

  19. Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber (Elaeis sp.) using supercritical ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline L P C; Almeida, Priscila S; Campos, Maria C V; Franceschi, Elton; Dariva, Cláudio; Borges, Gustavo R

    2017-04-01

    Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber was investigated using supercritical ethanol as solvent. A semi-continuous laboratory scale unit was developed to investigate the effects of temperature (300-500°C), heating rate (10-30°C.min -1 ) and cracking time (10-30min) on the conversion of biomass in bio-oil. The main advantage of the proposed process is that a pure solvent is pumping through the reactor that contains the biomass, dispensing the use of biomass slurries. The yield of bio-oil ranged from 56% to 84%, depending on the experimental conditions. It was observed that an increase in working temperature led to an increase in the bio-oil production. Cracking time and heating rate variation had not shown a considerable effect on the conversion of biomass. The chemical profiles of bio-oil determined by GC/MS, indicate that at low temperature mainly sugar derivatives are produced, while at higher temperatures alcohols and phenolic are the majority compounds of the bio-oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and migration of oil and solids in oily sludge during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Han, Xu; Huang, Qunxing; Ma, Zengyi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2018-05-01

    The migration behaviors of oil, water and solids in sludge during centrifugation were elaborated. Size distribution, surface topography and lypohydrophilic properties were studied in detail. The average size of solids was 61 μm in original sludge, 31 μm in upper layer and 235 μm in bottom layer. The result shows that solvent is essential to separate oil phase into molecular light and weight fractions during centrifugation. With solvent/oil ratio increases from 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 to 5:1, molecular weight in upper layer decreases from 1044, 1043, 1020 to 846 combined with that in bottom layer increases. A model was proposed to calculate the oil residue content in solid phases after sedimentation. The findings of this paper provide information for optimizing the oil recovery and clean treatment.

  1. A Review of Enzymatic Transesterification of Microalgal Oil-Based Biodiesel Using Supercritical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Hanifa; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Al-Marzouqi, Ali H.; Haik, Yousef; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered a promising replacement to petroleum-derived diesel. Using oils extracted from agricultural crops competes with their use as food and cannot realistically satisfy the global demand of diesel-fuel requirements. On the other hand, microalgae, which have a much higher oil yield per hectare, compared to oil crops, appear to be a source that has the potential to completely replace fossil diesel. Microalgae oil extraction is a major step in the overall biodiesel production process. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been proposed to replace conventional solvent extraction techniques because it is nontoxic, nonhazardous, chemically stable, and inexpensive. It uses environmentally acceptable solvent, which can easily be separated from the products. In addition, the use of SC-CO2 as a reaction media has also been proposed to eliminate the inhibition limitations that encounter biodiesel production reaction using immobilized enzyme as a catalyst. Furthermore, using SC-CO2 allows easy separation of the product. In this paper, conventional biodiesel production with first generation feedstock, using chemical catalysts and solvent-extraction, is compared to new technologies with an emphasis on using microalgae, immobilized lipase, and SC-CO2 as an extraction solvent and reaction media. PMID:21915372

  2. An Anthracene-Based Tripodal Chemosensor for Anion Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney A. Quinn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its anion binding ability toward fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate and nitrate by the fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The addition of an anion to the ligand resulted in an enhancement in fluorescence intensity at the excitation of 310 nm. Analysis of the spectral changes suggested that the ligand formed a 1:1 complex with each of the anions, showing strong affinity for fluoride and sulfate in DMSO. The unsubstituted tren was reacted with sulfuric acid to form a sulfate complex and the structure was determined by the X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the complex revealed that three sulfates are held between two ligands by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with protonated amines.

  3. Modified two-step emulsion solvent evaporation technique for fabricating biodegradable rod-shaped particles in the submicron size range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Hanieh; Adili, Reheman; Holinstat, Michael; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2018-05-15

    Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent. A two-step ESE protocol is evaluated where oil droplets are formed at low viscosity followed by a step increase in the aqueous phase viscosity to stretch droplets. Different surface-active molecules and oil phase solvents were evaluated to optimize the yield of biodegradable PLGA rods. Rods were assessed for drug loading via an imaging agent and vascular-targeted delivery application via blood flow adhesion assays. The two-step ESE method generated PLGA rods with major and minor axis down to 3.2 µm and 700 nm, respectively. Chloroform and sodium metaphosphate was the optimal solvent and surface-active molecule, respectively, for submicron rod fabrication. Rods demonstrated faster release of Nile Red compared to spheres and successfully targeted an inflamed endothelium under shear flow in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 2 July ... The solvents were all analytical grades and purified by distillation at their boiling point .... “Experimental methods in organic chemistry” 2nd ...

  5. Ionic Liquids as Benign Solvents for the Extraction of Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Lee, Jeesun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively investigated as promising alternatives to conventional organic solvents such as sulfolane and N,N-dimethylformamide for the selective extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from the C 6 -C 10 hydrocarbon mixtures produced from the cracking processes of naphtha and light oils. The most important advantage of ILs over conventional organic solvents is that they are immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and thus the back extraction of ILs from the raffinate phases and top hydrocarbon-rich layers is not necessary. In this paper, a brief review on the state of the art in the utilization of ILs for aromatics separation is presented

  6. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The color, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively.

  7. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  8. Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Peters, Richard D.; Melnick, Adam M. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and pollutant bioaccumulation.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01 from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Mao-Cheng; Li, Jing; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yi, Meisheng; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Morphological properties of the colonies and cells of strain HZ01. (A) Colonies of strain HZ01 on the LB solid plate; (B) Gram-negative bacterium of strain HZ01 (20 × 100); (C) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph of strain HZ01 (×15,000); and (D) Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) photograph of strain HZ01 (×5000). - Highlights: • A novel petroleum degrading bacterium HZ01 was obtained from the crude oil-contaminated seawater. • Strain HZ01 had been identified as Achromobacter sp. • Strain HZ01 could degrade the evaporated diesel oil with the degradability of 96.6%. • Strain HZ01 could effectively degrade anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrence. • Strain HZ01 may be employed to remove hydrocarbon contaminants. - Abstract: Microorganisms play an important role in the biodegradation of petroleum contaminants, which have attracted great concern due to their persistent toxicity and difficult biodegradation. In this paper, a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium HZ01 was isolated from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, South China Sea, and identified as Achromobacter sp. Under the conditions of pH 7.0, NaCl 3% (w/v), temperature 28 °C and rotary speed 150 rpm, its degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 96.6% after 10 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil. Furthermore, Achromobacter sp. HZ01 could effectively utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as its sole carbon source, and could remove anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrence about 29.8%, 50.6% and 38.4% respectively after 30 days of incubation. Therefore, Achromobacter sp. HZ01 may employed as an excellent degrader to develop one cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the bioremediation of marine environments polluted by crude oil

  10. Saskatchewan's place in Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Kramers, J.W. [Owl Ventures Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Isaacs, E.E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The current daily bitumen and synthetic crude production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is 180,000 m{sup 3}, which represents approximately 40 percent of crude oil produced in Canada. In a time of peaking conventional oil production, the search for new oil reserves has led to unconventional in-situ bitumen and heavy oil resources, including shallow in-situ resources. The great difficulty in producing bitumen and managing water flows in such reservoirs will require innovative approaches and increasingly environmentally sustainable practices. This paper presented an overview of shallow in-situ oil sands and the novel recovery technologies that are being developed that will reduce the use of steam and fresh water, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research and development programs are currently underway to develop and demonstrate such new technologies. Promising technologies include the solvent vapour extraction and hybrid thermal solvent extraction processes that are being developed and demonstrated in large-scale three-dimensional scaled physical models and associated numerical simulation models. Electrical heating and gravity stable combustion are other examples of technologies that could play a significant role in developing these resources. 81 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Effect of extraction methods on the stability of benniseed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 3.06mg KOH/g and 6.02mg KOH/g for the oil expeller, mechanical press and solvent freshly extracted oil samples respectively. The corresponding peroxide values were 1.47mg eq/g, 2.14mg eq/g and 2.89mg eq/g. The FFA for the oils after 4 ...

  12. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tars, and oils containing powdered coal, coke, oreat, sulphur in suspension, by passing air or other oxygen-containing gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air and c., is carried out in stages in a series of treatment zones, the pressure in at least one of the zones being above atmospheric pressre. The products of oxidation include acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, acrylic and phthalic acids, alcohols, acetone, solvents, gums, and substances adapted for use as motor fuels or burnign oils. The oxidizing gas may be enriched with oxygen or be diluted with steam, and its point of entry into the oil and c. layer may be varied to promote or retard settlement of suspended solids.

  13. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory: The C60-Anthracene Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen; Linares, Mathieu

    2016-09-21

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different behavior with respect to both applied field strength and applied field angle. The importance of the hot CT in helping the charge carrier dissociation is also analyzed in our scheme.

  14. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Malignancies in a Mouse Model of Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Samuel L; Watson, Jennifer; Sen, Nivedita; Brewer, Molly A; Barton, Jennifer K; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate because there are few symptoms in early disease development. The incidence of ovarian cancer increases in women after menopause. Understanding early events in this disease can best be achieved by using animal models. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and track the onset of ovarian tumorigenesis in mice mimicking characteristics of postmenopausal epithelial cancer in women. Female B6C3F1 mice (age, 28 d) received 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 160 mg/kg IV daily for 20 d) to cause ovarian failure. Four months after VCD treatment, via surgical intervention, each mouse received a single injection of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) or vehicle control (sesame oil) under the bursa of the right ovary to cause ovarian neoplasms. The experimental groups were untreated controls (Con–Con), DMBA-treatment only (Con–DMBA), VCD treatment only (VCD–Con), and VCD+DMBA-treated (VCD+DMBA) mice. At 3, 5, 7, and 9 mo after DMBA injection, ovaries were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. No tumors developed in Con–Con mice. All VCD-treated mice (with or without DMBA) exhibited ovarian failure. Mice that received both VCD and DMBA exhibited tumors at 3 mo (50%), 5 mo (14%), 7 mo (90%), and 9 mo (57%) after DMBA treatment; 31% of the tumors were epithelial in origin. Our findings confirm that inducing ovarian tumors in mice by chemical means is an effective method for studying early stages of tumor development that may be relevant to epithelial ovarian cancers that arise in postmenopausal women. PMID:23561932

  15. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  17. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  18. Synthesis, structural, spectroscopic, anti-cancer and molecular docking studies on novel 2-[(Anthracene-9-ylmethylene)amino]-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol using XRD, FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis spectra and DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavitha, P.; Prashanth, J.; Ramu, G.; Ramesh, G.; Mamatha, K.; Venkatram Reddy, Byru

    2017-11-01

    The novel titled compound 2-[(Anthracene-9-ylmethylene)amino]-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol (AMD) has been synthesized by slow evaporation technique from mixed solvent system of methanol with anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and 2-amino-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol. The synthesized molecule AMD was characterized experimentally by single crystal XRD, FTIR, NMR and UV-Vis spectra and density functional theory (DFT) computations. The structure of the crystal has been determined as orthorhombic system with space group P 21 21 21 and the cell parameters are obtained using XRD data. The optimized ground state geometry of the molecule is determined by evaluating torsional potentials as a function of angle of free rotation around Csbnd C bonds of functional groups by DFT method employing B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. All the fundamental vibrations of the molecule are assigned unambiguously using potential energy distribution (PED) obtained in the DFT computations. The rms error between the observed and scaled frequencies is 6.20 cm-1. The values of dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizability are evaluated to study the NLO behavior of the molecule. The HOMO-LUMO energies and thermodynamic parameters are also determined. The molecular electrostatic surface potential (MESP) is mapped to obtain the charge density distribution. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. UV-visible spectrum of the compound is also recorded in the region 200-800 nm to know the type of electronic transitions involved. The anti-cancer activity of AMD is determined against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and correlated the results with study of molecular docking against pharmacological protein IDO-1 receptor.

  19. Artificial neural network for modeling the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from lube oil cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrkesh, A.H.; Hajimirzaee, S. [Islamic Azad University, Majlesi Branch, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hatamipour, M.S.; Tavakoli, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to obtain a simulation model to predict the rotating disc contactor (RDC) performance during the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from lube oil cuts, to produce a lubricating base oil using furfural as solvent. The field data used for training the ANN model was obtained from a lubricating oil production company. The input parameters of the ANN model were the volumetric flow rates of feed and solvent, the temperatures of feed and solvent, and the disc rotation rate. The output parameters were the volumetric flow rate of the raffinate phase and the extraction yield. In this study, a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron neural network was successfully used to demonstrate the complex relationship between the mentioned input and output parameters. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Substitution of chlorinated and fluorinated solvents by biodegradable detergent solution in components cleaning of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Andre Luiz Pinto da Silva

    2000-01-01

    As the auxiliary oils used in machining evolved from integral into aqueous emulsion, and later on into aqueous-solution synthetic oils, the components cleaning process with organic solvents, originally adopted at the Fuel Element Factory (FEC), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB) began to present problems in removing oil residues from machined components, due to the incompatibility between aqueous and organic media. In order to eliminate such incompatibility and adapt the process to the environmental laws restricting production and use of chlorinated or fluorinated solvents as a measure for preserving the atmosphere's ozone layer, in 1995 INB initiated the development of a components cleaning process using biodegradable aqueous detergent. The effort was completed in 2000 with the construction of a machine in keeping with the specific geometry of the fuel-assembly components and the operating conditions required for working with the new process. (author)

  1. Tuning the properties of an anthracene-based PPE-PPV copolymer by fine variation of its macromolecular parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tinti, F.; Sabir, F. K.; Gazzano, M.; Righi, S.; Ulbricht, C.; Usluer, Ö.; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra; Yohannes, T.; Egbe, D. A. M.; Camaioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 19 (2013), s. 6972-6980 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : anthracene-containing PPE-PPV copolymer * macromolecular parameters * structural and transport properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.708, year: 2013

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil from Eucalyptus: Study of the Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Saoud

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical extraction of essential oil such as Soxhlet and steam distillation is still a formidable and time-solvent consuming. Microwave assisted process (MAP is used to accelerate the extraction process of target compounds. It can be used for the extraction of compounds from various plants and animal tissues, or the extraction of undesirable components from raw materials. The investigation of microwave extraction of eucalyptus (globules essential oil using ethanol as solvent was carried out. The influence of material (eucalyptus/solvent (ethanol ratio, required doses of microwave, and time of microwave exposure on extraction efficiency, was studied.

  3. Unraveling the electronic structures of low-valent naphthalene and anthracene iron complexes: X-ray, spectroscopic, and density functional theory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnoeckelborg, E.M.; Khusniyarov, M.M.; de Bruin, B.; Hartl, F.; Langer, T.; Eul, M.; Schulz, S.; Poettgen, R.; Wolf, R.

    2012-01-01

    Naphthalene and anthracene transition metalates are potent reagents, but their electronic structures have remained poorly explored. A study of four Cp*-substituted iron complexes (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) now gives rare insight into the bonding features of such species. The highly oxygen-

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  5. Radiolytic removal of PCBs from isooctane and hydraulic oil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Schwendimann, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has shown the ability to degrade PCBs by exposure to gamma radiation in a number of solvents, including hydraulic oils. Radiolysis with gamma-rays may be achieved in the absence of activation or contamination and does not result in a radiologically contaminated product. While much of the original work was done in isopropanol, recent studies have been performed in isooctane as an oil surrogate. Use of isooctane permits radiolysis studies in a surrogate reasonably similar to oils yet one in which analytical work is considerably simplified. Results in both isopropanol and isooctane show the mechanism to be one of reductive dechlorination, probably associated with electron capture of solvated electrons by the PCBs. The electrons are generated by radiolysis of the solvent. Data is presented showing rate constants for the radiolysis of individual PCB congeners, in isooctane and the decomposition of Aroclor 1260 in hydraulic oil

  6. Effects of organic solvents on hyaluronic acid nanoparticles obtained by precipitation and chemical crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo, Rafaela Costa Souza; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a hydrophilic mucopolysaccharide composed of alternating units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. It is used in many medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications, as sponges, films, or particle formulations. Hyaluronic acid nanoparticles can be synthesized free of oil and surfactants by nanoprecipitation in organic solvents, followed by chemical crosslinking. The organic solvent plays an important role in particles size and structure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of acetone, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol on the synthesis and physico-chemical properties of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles. Particles were crosslinked with adipic hydrazide and chloride carbodiimide under controlled conditions. The nanoparticles obtained with all three studied solvents were moderately electrostatically stable. Experiments with acetone produced the smallest particle size (120.44 nm) and polydispersity (0.27). The size and polydispersity of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles correlated with the surface tension between water and the organic solvents, not with the thermodynamic affinity of water for the organic solvents.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  8. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  9. A method of measuring the conductivity of air-sensitive substances in dependence on pressure (alkali metal anthracene addition compounds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad Luehder, Konrad

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity of alkali anthracene addition compounds of the general formula M x (atc) with x=2.0 and = 1.5 was measured in dependence on pressure up to 400 MPa, shoving values in the range of 10 -8 S/cm. A suitable apparatus is described. (authors)

  10. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. M. Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba (Carapa guianensis seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids. The required hydrophile-lipophile was around 11.0 and the optimal nanoemulsion was obtained using polysorbate 85. The particle size distribution suggested the presence of small droplets (mean diameter around 150 nm and low polydispersity index (around 0.150. The effect of temperature on particle size distribution revealed that no major droplet size increase occurred. The preliminary residual larvicidal assay suggested that the mortality increased as a function of time. The present study allowed achievement of a potential bioactive oil in water nanoemulsion that may be a promising controlled release system. Moreover, the ecofriendly approach involved in the preparation associated with the great bioactive potential of C. guianensis makes this nanoemulsion very promising for valorization of this Amazon raw material.

  11. Pre-electrocoalescer unit adapted to the extra-heavy oil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noik, C.; Dalmazzone, C. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Glenat, P. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a dehydration process that can break water oil emulsions to mobilize extra heavy oils and bitumen extra heavy oils. The dehydration process is based on solvent mixture with additives injection. It involves large amount of additives, fairly high operating temperatures, solvent addition, and long retention time inside the vessels. The process could be improved by electrocoalescence, thereby reducing the amount of additive and reducing the retention times of vessels to reach oil export specifications. However, commercial electrocoalescence processes are not suitable for extra heavy oils because of the presence of polar heavy components limiting the electrocoalescence effect and therefore, limiting the efficiency of electrostatic coalescer. This paper presented a study whose objective was to determine the most efficient electrocoalescence parameters considering the characteristics of two types of heavy crude oils issued from cold and thermal productions. The paper presented experimental results for electrocoalescence additive selection and for the optimization of electrical parameters. The paper described the materials and methods, including fluids characterization; viscosity; differential scanning calorimetry; dispersion rig; electrical stability tester; and electrocoalescer rig. It was concluded that crude oils produced by thermal production schemes seemed more sensitive to the temperature effect than crudes produced by cold production. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  12. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  13. Laboratory Tests to Determine the Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Propellant-Solvent-Fuel Oil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    isocyanates and many heterocyclic alcohols and ketones such as furfural and camphor also possess some I solvent power for nitrocellulose. Amines...34Estimation of Solvent Power by the Dilution-Ratio Method," J. Appl. Chem. (London) 7, 332 (1957). U R.P. Teulings, "A Multivariable Study of the Adsorption of

  14. Fate of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitz, A.R.; Squibb, K.S.; O'Connor, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are contaminants of surface waters and sediments, especially near urban centers. Although aquatic biota accumulate PAHs from environmental sources, metabolism may be rapid, and biota sampled from contaminated areas often have concentrations lower than might be estimated from bioconcentration factors. In some cases PAH metabolism by aquatic biota may create reactive intermediates, some of which have been related to chronic effects in fishes. This report describes the fate and distribution of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) after oral administration to rainbows trout (Salmo gairdneri). Emphasis has been placed on the disposition of DMBA among tissues and on DMBA transformation in the hepatobiliary system

  15. Saskatchewan's place in the Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kramers, J.W. [Owl Ventures Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Isaacs, E.E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a detailed description of the oil sands geology and physical properties and highlighted some of the novel recovery technologies that are being developed for shallow in-situ reservoirs in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Canada's oil sands are well known around the world, with Alberta's mined and in-situ oil sands reservoirs being well developed with mature commercial technologies. Shallow in-situ oil sands located in both Saskatchewan and Alberta will be the next frontier in Canadian petroleum development. Shallow reservoirs will need to be developed with new environmentally sound in-situ technologies that will reduce the use of steam and fresh water, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research and development programs are currently underway to develop and demonstrate such new technologies. It was concluded that innovation has been the key to developing the immense and complex technology oil contained in Canada's heavy oil reservoirs and also in its shallow and deep in-situ oil sands reservoirs. Promising technologies include the solvent vapour extraction and hybrid thermal solvent extraction processes that are being developed and demonstrated in large-scale three-dimensional scaled physical models and associated numerical simulation models. Electrical heating and gravity stable combustion are other examples of technologies that could play a significant role in developing these resources. 88 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Development of the gaharu oil quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Gaharu (Agar wood) is a secondary metabolite produces by the Aquilaria spp. and accumulates in the plant cell in oleoresin form. The essential oil known as gaharu oil can be extracted from this oleoresin gaharu via varies extraction method such as the water distillation, solvent extraction, pressurize extraction and etc. The gaharu oil extracted through different methods will give different fragrances. Besides, different source of materials will also give different in chemical profiles. In gaharu oil trading market, most of the buyers request quality assurance from the gaharu oil manufacturer to assure the gaharu oil purchased meets their standard requirement. Since there is a demand on gaharu oil quality assurance then it become a need to develop the gaharu oil quality control method in order to have a standard quality control of gaharu oil presented in a certificate of analysis and verified by laboratory. (author)

  17. Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2013-03-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.

  18. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  19. PEMUNGUTAN MINYAK ATSIRI MAWAR (Rose Oil DENGAN METODE MASERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Minyak mawar merupakan salah satu produk minyak bunga yang memungkinkan diproduksi di Indonesia dengan kualitas ekspor. Manfaat dari minyak mawar adalah untuk parfum, kosmestik, dan obat-obatan. Minyak mawar dapat diproduksi dengan menggunakan metode diantaranya maserasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui rendemen minyak atsiri mawar merah (Rosa damascena dan komponen minyak atsiri yang terambil dengan etanol dan n-heksana. Bahan baku yang digunakan berupa mahkota bunga mawar sebanyak 50 gram yang dipotong kecil-kecil, kemudian direndam dalam pelarut dengan perbandingan 1:3. Pelarut yang digunakan yaitu etanol dan n-heksana. Proses maserasi dilakukan dengan pengadukan selama 1 menit secara manual pada suhu ruang dan didiamkan selama 12 jam di tempat tertutup dan gelap (tanpa terkena cahaya. Hasil maserasi berupa ekstrak mawar dipisahkan dengan cara penyaringan dan pemerasan bunga. Filtrat yang mengandung minyak bunga mawar dievaporasi dengan  rotary vacuum evaporator. Maserasi menggunakan etanol pada suhu 60ºC selama 20 menit, sedangkan maserasi menggunakan n-heksana pada suhu 55 ºC selama 10 menit. Minyak atsiri hasil maserasi bunga mawar merah dilakukan uji GC-MS. Komponen utama minyak atsiri dari bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol dan pelarut n-heksana secara berurutan adalah phenyl ethyl alcohol (2,73% dan (31,69%. Rendemen hasil maserasi minyak bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol adalah 8,76%, sedangkan pelarut n-heksana menghasilkan 0,34 %. Rose oil is one of the flower oil products which is potentially produced in Indonesia with export quality. The uses of rose oils are for perfume, cosmestics, and medicine. Rose oil can be produced using methods such as maceration. The purpose of this reasearch was to determine the yield of essential oil of red roses (Rosa damascena and the essential oil components taken using ethanol and n-hexane. The raw material used was 50 grams of red roses which subsequently soaked into solvent with

  20. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  1. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  2. The effect of oil type on network formation by protein aggregates into oleogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oil type on the network formation of heat-set protein aggregates in liquid oil. The gelling properties of such aggregates to structure oil into so-called ‘oleogels’ are related to both the particle-particle and particle-solvent interactions. To

  3. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  4. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  5. Manufacturing of ashless coal by using solvent de-ashing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Do Kim; Kwang-Jae Woo; Soon-Kwan Jeong; Young-Jun Rhim; Si-Huyn Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Maintenance of a high oil value has an influence to energy crisis and national security in South Korea which does not have energy resources. The coals which have characterized by the abundant reserves and the inexpensive price can be said to be the alternative energy source. Hyper-coal process, which has been developed in Japan since 1999, is a new effective process to produce a clean coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. When coal is extracted with organic solvent, only the organic portion of coal is dissolved in the solvents. That is possible to apply the low rank coal. This study was performed to produce ashless coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. The experiment was conducted in the batch(or semi-batch) type reactor with two solvents such as NMP(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and 1-MN(1-methylnaphthalene) and various coals such as Kideko coal, Roto South coal and Sunhwa coal at 200-400{sup o}C. As a result of the test, extraction yield of coals was more than 60% on daf. Ash concentration which contains the extracted coal was 0.11-1.0wt%. The heat value was increased from 5,400 kcal/kg to 7,920 kcal/kg in the Roto South coal. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Costagli; Matteo Betti

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill.) is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or sol...

  7. Characterization of Carya illinoiensis and Juglans regia oils obtained by different extraction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Costa-Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to evaluate the extraction processes of vegetable oils used in food, considering that the nuts are rich sources of triacylglycerols. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing the methods of solvent extraction and extraction by pressing of the lipid fractions of walnut (Juglans regia and pecan nut (Carya illinoensis, in order to elucidate their influence on the content of bioactive substances. The samples were analyzed regarding fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, presenting relevant quantities of these bioactive substances. It was found that the extraction of oils by pressing minimized degradation of tocopherol when compared to solvent extraction. However, solvent extraction is more efficient to extract bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

  8. Investigation of In-situ Biogeochemical Reduction of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater by Reduced Iron Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeochemical transformation is a process in which chlorinated solvents are degraded abiotically by reactive minerals formed by, at least in part or indirectly from, anaerobic biological processes. Five mulch biowall and/or vegetable oil-based bioremediation applications for tr...

  9. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of furfural from local waste agricultural products and its use to refine lube oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, A.

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of some United Arab Republic waste agricultural products as raw materials for the production of furfural. Batch scale preparations from corn cobs and bagasse were carried out and the furfural produced was used to extract aromatics from two waxy oil distillates. The effect of variations in extraction temperature, solvent, and addition of water to the solvent was studied. High grade lube oils were obtained by this technique. Data and tables are provided.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  14. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  15. Bioastrophysical Aspects of Low Energy Ion Irradiation of Frozen Anthracene Containing Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L.; Madej, J.

    2001-01-01

    The origin of life on Earth remains a fascinating mystery in spite of many theories existing on this subject. However, it seems that simple prebiotic molecules could play an essential role in the formation of more complex organisms. In our experiment, we synthesized a class of these molecules (quinones) bombarding frozen anthracene containing water with low energy hydrogen ions. This experiment roughly simulated the astrophysical conditions which one can find in the solar system. Thus, we can hypothesize that prebiotic molecules could be created by interaction of the solar wind with interplanetary dust grains. The delivery of these molecules to early Earth may have contributed to the generation of life on our planet

  16. Bioplastic from Chitosan and Yellow Pumpkin Starch with Castor Oil as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M.; Rahmayani, R. F. I.; Munandar

    2018-03-01

    This study has been conducted on bioplastic synthesis of chitosan and yellow pumpkin starch (Cucurbita moschata) with castor oil as plasticizer. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the effect of chitosan and starch composition of pumpkins against solvent absorption, tensile strength and biodegradable. The first stage of the research is the making of bioplastic by blending yellow pumpkin starch, chitosan and castor oil. Further, it tested the absorption capacity of the solvent, tensile strength test, and biodegradable analysis. The optimum absorption capacity of the solvent is obtained on the composition of Pumpkin/Chitosan was 50/50 in H2O and C2H5OH solvent. Meanwhile the optimum absorbency in HCl and NaOH solvents is obtained by 60/40 composition. The characterization of the optimum tensile strength test was obtained on the 40/60 composition of 6.787 ± 0.274 Mpa and the fastest biodegradation test process within 5-10 days occurred in the 50/50 composition. The more chitosan content the higher the value of tensile strength test obtained, while the fastest biodegradation rate occureds in the composition of yellow pumpkin starch and chitosan balanced 50:50.

  17. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...... conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  19. Optimization of conditions for the extraction of phorbol esters from Jatropha oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devappa, Rakshit K.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Becker, K. [Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480b), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The production of Jatropha curcas seeds as a biodiesel feedstock is expected to reach 160 Mt by 2017. The present study aims at extracting phorbol esters (PEs) as a co-product from Jatropha oil before processing it to biodiesel. The conditions were optimized for extraction of PEs in organic solvents by using a magnetic stirrer and an Ultra turrax. The extent of reduction in PEs was >99.4% in methanol using any of the stirring tools. However, the extraction using Ultra turrax affected considerably the colour of the remaining oil. Therefore, further solvent:oil ratio, time and temperature were optimized using a magnetic stirrer to get PE rich fraction-I (48.4 mg PEs g{sup -1}) and virtually PE-free oil. PEs were 14 fold higher in this fraction than the control oil. PEs, extracted in methanol from the untreated Jatropha oil, at 1 mg L{sup -1} produced 100% mortality in snails (Physa fontinalis). The methanol extract from virtually PE-free oil when concentrated 20 and 25 time the untreated Jatropha oil (equivalent of 20 mg L{sup -1} and 25 mg L{sup -1} PEs in the control oil) was nontoxic to snails. PE rich fraction-I, obtained as a co-product, can be used in agricultural, medicinal and pharmaceutical applications and the remaining oil can be used for biodiesel preparation. The remaining oil will be friendly to the environment and workers. (author)

  20. Box-Behnken design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of patchouli oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the essential oil from patchouli (Pogostemon cablin). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of patchouli oil were determined by response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (A: 400-800 W), plant material to solvent ratio (B: 0.10-0.20 g mL-1) and extraction time (C: 20-60 min)) on the extraction yield of patchouli oil. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of patchouli oil. The optimal extraction conditions of patchouli oil was microwave power 634.024 W, plant material to solvent ratio 0.147648 g ml-1 and extraction time 51.6174 min. The maximum patchouli oil yield was 2.80516% under these optimal conditions. Under the extraction condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted results by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing and reflect the expected extraction condition.

  1. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  2. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for systems composed of clove and allspice essential oil compounds and hydrous ethanol at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Umeda, Thayla K.; Nakamoto, Karina T.; Venâncio, Larissa L.; Aracava, Keila K.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A fraction enriched in oxyterpenes can be obtained via the deterpenation process. • Liquid extraction with hydrous ethanol can be applied to essential oil deterpenation. • Distribution coefficients of caryophyllene, methyl eugenol and eugenol were studied. • Eugenol has the highest distribution coefficient compared to the data in the literature. • Phase compositions were well described by the NRTL parameters. - Abstract: In the deterpenation process of essential oils, a fraction enriched in oxyterpenes is obtained. When compared to terpenic hydrocarbons, this fraction is more stable and soluble in water, maintaining the characteristic flavor and fragrance of the crude oil. Solvent extraction is an interestingly popular technique that is proposed for the fractionation of essential oils (once it can be performed under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature) and contributes to the maintenance of the sensory quality of essential oils. The use of hydrous ethanol as a solvent for the (liquid + liquid) extraction process has shown advantages when the components of interest are completely soluble in ethanol, and their partition can be adjusted based on the level of hydration of the solvent. In addition, for some purposes, the fractions obtained from the separation process can be used without removing the solvent. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to investigate the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K of model systems composed of (caryophyllene + eugenol + ethanol + water) (i.e., a clove essential oil model system) and (caryophyllene + methyl eugenol + eugenol + ethanol + water) (i.e., an allspice essential oil model system) to provide the information required for the proper design and optimization of the associated deterpenation processes. For both systems studied, it was noted that increased water content in the solvent decreases the extraction of the essential compounds and increases the selectivity of the

  3. Technical difficulties and solutions of direct transesterification process of microbial oil for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu; Khan, Maksudur Rahman; Islam, M Amirul; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils are considered as alternative to vegetable oils or animal fats as biodiesel feedstock. Microalgae and oleaginous yeast are the main candidates of microbial oil producers' community. However, biodiesel synthesis from these sources is associated with high cost and process complexity. The traditional transesterification method includes several steps such as biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction and solvent recovery. Therefore, direct transesterification or in situ transesterification, which combines all the steps in a single reactor, has been suggested to make the process cost effective. Nevertheless, the process is not applicable for large-scale biodiesel production having some difficulties such as high water content of biomass that makes the reaction rate slower and hurdles of cell disruption makes the efficiency of oil extraction lower. Additionally, it requires high heating energy in the solvent extraction and recovery stage. To resolve these difficulties, this review suggests the application of antimicrobial peptides and high electric fields to foster the microbial cell wall disruption.

  4. The use of stability indices in predicting asphaltene problems in upstream and downstream oil operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    A series of test methods have been developed to determine the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. They were developed due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in offshore operations. This study described the characteristics of the Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization. Each method is used to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided along with experimental data. The effectiveness of the different tests in predicting the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was also assessed. Results indicate that the prediction of a crude oil's tendency towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective in predicting the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., figs.

  5. Oligomerization of jojoba oil in super-critical carbon dioxide (green solvent) for different applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, non-polluting, and relatively harmless to the environment. Approximately 80% of the global plant oil and fat production is from vegetable oil, whereas 20% is from animal origin (share decreasing). Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial sh...

  6. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  7. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  8. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  9. Use of Ultrasound and Co-solvents to improve the in-situ Transesterification of Microalgae Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Sun, Zhifa; Carrington, Gerry C.

    2012-01-01

    and transesterification process. To further improve the feasibility of the use of the in-situ method, this paper investigates modifications to reduce the large process methanol requirements, and potentially improve the oil to methyl esters conversion and biodiesel yields. The results obtained showed that use...... of ultrasound agitation for the in-situ process, as well as combining this stirring regime with co-solvent use (n-pentane and diethyl ether) significantly improved the Chlorella oil to methyl esters conversion with reduced reacting methanol volumes....

  10. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  11. Extensive experimental investigation of the effect of drainage height and solvent type on the stabilized drainage rate in vapour extraction (VAPEX process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadpoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The low cost of the injected solvent, which can be also recovered and recycled, and the applicability of VAPEX technique in thin reservoirs are among the main advantages of VAPEX process compared to thermal heavy oil recovery techniques. In this research, an extensive experimental investigation is carried out to first evaluate the technical feasibility of utilization of various solvents for VAPEX process. Then the effect of drainage height on the stabilized drainage rate in VAPEX process was studied by conducting series of experiments in two large-scale 2D VAPEX models of 24.5 cm and 47.5 cm heights. Both models were packed with low permeability Ottawa sand (#530 and saturated with a heavy oil sample from Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs with viscosity of 5650 mPa s. Propane, butane, methane, carbon dioxide, propane/carbon dioxide (70%/30% and propane/methane (70%/30% were considered as respective solvents for the experiments, and a total of twelve VAPEX tests were carried out. Moreover, separate experiments were carried out at the end of each VAPEX experiment to measure the asphaltene precipitation at various locations of the VAPEX models. It was found that injecting propane would result in the highest drainage rate and oil recovery factor. Further analysis of results showed stabilized drainage rate significantly increased in the larger physical model.

  12. Investigation of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction on heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Lur' e, M.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, an investigation has been made of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction during heat treatment under various conditions. On the basis of the results obtained, a kinetic model of the process has been developed which permits rational conditions for obtaining a heat-treated product of the necessary group composition to be found. 6 refs.

  13. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  14. Chemical approach to solvent removal during nanoencapsulation: its application to preparation of PLGA nanoparticles with non-halogenated solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngme [Ewha Womans University, College of Pharmacy (Korea, Republic of); Sah, Eric [University of Notre Dame, College of Science (United States); Sah, Hongkee, E-mail: hsah@ewha.ac.kr [Ewha Womans University, College of Pharmacy (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a new oil-in-water emulsion-based nanoencapsulation method for the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles using a non-halogenated solvent. PLGA (60–150 mg) was dissolved in 3 ml of methyl propionate, which was vortexed with 4 ml of a 0.5–4 % polyvinyl alcohol solution. This premix was sonicated for 2 min, added into 30 ml of the aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution, and reacted with 3 ml of 10 N NaOH. Solvent removal was achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl propionate dissolved in an aqueous phase into water-soluble methanol and sodium propionate. It was a simple but effective technique to quickly harden nanoemulsion droplets into nanoparticles. The appearing PLGA nanoparticles were recovered by ultracentrifugation and/or dialysis, lyophilized with trehalose, and redispersed by water. This nanoencapsulation technique permitted a control of their mean diameters over 151.7 ± 3.8 to 440.2 ± 22.2 nm at mild processing conditions. When the aqueous polyvinyl alcohol concentration was set at ≥1 %, nanoparticles showed uniform distributions with polydispersity indices below 0.1. There were no significant changes in their mean diameters and size distribution patterns before and after lyophilization. When mestranol was encapsulated into nanoparticles, the drug was completely nanoencapsulated: depending on experimental conditions, their encapsulation efficiencies were determined to be 99.4 ± 7.2 to 105.8 ± 6.3 %. This simple, facile nanoencapsulation technique might have versatile applications for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticulate dosage forms.Graphical AbstractSchematic illustration of an innovative chemical approach to solvent removal during nanoencapsulation. Methyl propionate present in the aqueous continuous phase reacts with sodium hydroxide, thereby producing methanol and sodium propionate. Its alkaline hydrolysis allows the continuous extraction of the solvent out of nanoemulsion

  15. Chemical approach to solvent removal during nanoencapsulation: its application to preparation of PLGA nanoparticles with non-halogenated solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngme; Sah, Eric; Sah, Hongkee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new oil-in-water emulsion-based nanoencapsulation method for the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles using a non-halogenated solvent. PLGA (60–150 mg) was dissolved in 3 ml of methyl propionate, which was vortexed with 4 ml of a 0.5–4 % polyvinyl alcohol solution. This premix was sonicated for 2 min, added into 30 ml of the aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution, and reacted with 3 ml of 10 N NaOH. Solvent removal was achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl propionate dissolved in an aqueous phase into water-soluble methanol and sodium propionate. It was a simple but effective technique to quickly harden nanoemulsion droplets into nanoparticles. The appearing PLGA nanoparticles were recovered by ultracentrifugation and/or dialysis, lyophilized with trehalose, and redispersed by water. This nanoencapsulation technique permitted a control of their mean diameters over 151.7 ± 3.8 to 440.2 ± 22.2 nm at mild processing conditions. When the aqueous polyvinyl alcohol concentration was set at ≥1 %, nanoparticles showed uniform distributions with polydispersity indices below 0.1. There were no significant changes in their mean diameters and size distribution patterns before and after lyophilization. When mestranol was encapsulated into nanoparticles, the drug was completely nanoencapsulated: depending on experimental conditions, their encapsulation efficiencies were determined to be 99.4 ± 7.2 to 105.8 ± 6.3 %. This simple, facile nanoencapsulation technique might have versatile applications for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticulate dosage forms.Graphical AbstractSchematic illustration of an innovative chemical approach to solvent removal during nanoencapsulation. Methyl propionate present in the aqueous continuous phase reacts with sodium hydroxide, thereby producing methanol and sodium propionate. Its alkaline hydrolysis allows the continuous extraction of the solvent out of nanoemulsion

  16. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  17. Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone Alves da; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2017-04-15

    Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg -1 ) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg -1 ), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (analysis of PAHs in the vegetable oils evaluated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Edgar; Zandbiglari, Tannaz

    2002-05-01

    The solubility of 8 different root canal sealers in chloroform and in eucalyptus oil was compared. For standardized samples (n=12), ring molds were filled with mixed sealers based on epoxy resin, silicone, calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide-eugenol, glass ionomer, and polyketone. These samples were immersed in chloroform or eucalyptus oil for 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 20 minutes. Then, the mean weight loss was determined and statistically analyzed. With the exception of the silicone, all the sealers showed significantly higher solubilities (P <.05) in chloroform than in eucalyptus oil. Epoxy resin was the most soluble sealer in chloroform. In eucalyptus oil, calcium hydroxide, and zinc oxide-eugenol showed the highest solubility. Under the conditions of this study, chloroform was a far more effective solvent of root canal sealers than eucalyptus oil. Because of the potential hazards of chloroform, further studies on the dissolution of root canal sealers in different solvents seem to be necessary.

  19. Determination of the Acidity of Oils Using Paraformaldehyde as a Thermometric End-Point Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mário J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the acidity of oils by catalytic thermometric titrimetry using paraformaldehyde as the thermometric end-point indicator was investigated. The sample solvent was a 1:1 (v/v mixture of toluene and 2-propanol and the titrant was 0.1 mol L-1 aqueous sodium hydroxide. Paraformaldehyde, being insoluble in the sample solvent, does not present the inconvenience of other indicators that change the properties of the solvent due to composition changes. The titration can therefore be done effectively in the same medium as the standard potentiometric and visual titration methods. The results of the application of the method to both non-refined and refined oils are presented herein. The proposed method has advantages in relation to the potentiometric method in terms of speed and simplicity.

  20. Deterpenation of eucalyptus essential oil by liquid + liquid extraction: Phase equilibrium and physical properties for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Daniel; Koshima, Cristina Chiyoda; Nakamoto, Karina Thiemi; Umeda, Thayla Karla; Aracava, Keila Kazue; Gonçalves, Cintia Bernardo; Rodrigues, Christianne Elisabete da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractionation of essential oil compounds. • Liquid + liquid equilibria of limonene, citronellal, ethanol and water were studied. • Distribution coefficients of limonene and citronellal were evaluated. • Densities and viscosities of the phases were experimentally determined. • Solvent selectivities and physical properties were dependent on citronellal and water mass fractions. -- Abstract: As the principal source in Brazil of eucalyptus essential oil extracts, Eucalyptus citriodora contains citronellal, an oxygenated compound responsible for the flavour characteristics. Deterpenation processes, consisting of the removal of terpenic hydrocarbons with the subsequent concentration of the oxygenated compounds, can be used to improve the aromatic characteristics of this essential oil. The purpose of this work was to perform a study of the technical feasibility of using a liquid + liquid extraction process to deterpenate eucalyptus essential oil. Model systems with various mixtures of limonene and citronellal (representing eucalyptus essential oil) as well as solvent (ethanol with various water mass fractions) were used to obtain liquid + liquid equilibrium data. The raffinate and extract phases were also analyzed to characterize the physical properties (density and viscosity). The equilibrium data were used to adjust the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters. Two empirical models, the simple mixing rule and the Grunberg–Nissan model, were evaluated for use in the descriptions of the densities and viscosities, respectively, of the samples. Increasing the water content in the solvent resulted in decreases in the limonene and citronellal distribution coefficients, with consequential increases in the solvent selectivity values. Increasing values of the densities and viscosities, especially for the solvent-rich phases, were associated with systems using high amounts of hydrated ethanolic solvents

  1. Effect of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by conventional and non-conventional techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.15217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by three techniques, ultrasound shaker, and soxhlet, and of environment-friendly solvents are evaluated. Ratio variables of seed weight, solvent volume (R, time of extraction (T, and type of solvent (S were evaluated. The significant variables for oil extraction from passion fruit seeds were R and S by ultrasound and shaker techniques and T for soxhlet extraction. Comparison of the three techniques showed that the soxhlet technique had the highest yield with 65% of total oil in the initial matrix.

  2. Polymers with alternating anthracene and phenylene building blocks linked by ethynylene and/or vinylene units: Studying structure-properties-relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudiba, S.; Růžička, Aleš; Ulbricht, C.; Enengl, S.; Enengl, C.; Gasiorowski, J.; Yumusak, C.; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Hingerl, K.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Tinti, F.; Camaioni, N.; Bouguessa, S.; Gouasmia, A.; Cimrová, Věra; Egbe, D. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 129-143 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : anthracene building block * charge transport * conjugated polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2016

  3. Selection of propolis Tetragonula sp. extract solvent with flavonoids and polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Daisy; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Rohmatin, Etin; Sahlan, Muhamad; Pratami, Diah Kartika; Mun'im, Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants are inhibitory compounds that can inhibit auto oxidation reaction by binding to free radicals and highly reactive molecules. The human body needs antioxidant. Antioxidants can be obtained from a variety of natural ingredients, including propolis. Propolis is the natural sap of the bees, obtained from the herbs around the honeycomb. Ethanol is the solvent that often used to extract propolis. Although it has many advantages, ethanol also has weaknesses such as intolerance to alcohol by some people. Therefore, this research was to extract propolis Tetragonula sp. coarse (C) and soft (S) using four varieties of organic solvent, i.e. olive oil (OO), virgin coconut oil (VCO), propylene glycol (PG), and lecithin (L). It was expected to get the best solvent in extracting propolis. The selection of the best solvent was determined by total flavonoids and polyphenols content assay and antioxidant activity. At each test, the absorbance value read by a microplate reader. Flavonoids content assay is using AlCl3 method with best result on rough-VCO propolis extract of 2509,767 ± 615,02 µg/mL. Polyphenols content assay was using Folin Ciocalteu method with the best results on soft-VCO propolis extract of 1391 ± 171.47 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity assay is using DPPH method with best result on soft-VCO propolis extract with IC50 value of 1,559 ± 0,222 µg/mL.

  4. Method for purification of combustible oils, adapted particularly for diesel motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-13

    A method is described for the purification of oils for diesel motors from mixtures of tar oils, predominantly aromatic with aliphatic hydrocarbon oils by treatment with refining means which are dissolved in organic solvents and mixed with the oil to be purified and also with water; separation of the separate impurities and washing of the material of treatment with water characcterized by the fact that this refining agent used consists of monobasic and polybasic organic acids, saturated or unsaturated, and also their anhydrides, and substituted acids and their anhydrides.

  5. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Lei [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Yu, Yang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Meng, Xingbang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Sharma, Sharanya [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Huang, Siyuan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Shen, Ziqi [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhang, Yao [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wang, Xiukun [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Carey, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nguyen, Phong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mody, Fersheed [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, Warren [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Cook, Tim [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Griffith, Paul [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  6. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  7. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  8. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei

    2016-11-15

    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  9. Phase Behavior and Evaporation Profile of Tween 20 - Eugenol System. Effect of Different Alkane Chain Length and Solvent System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Lim, W.H.; Kuangl, D.; Rusmawati, W.W.M.; Abdullah, A.H.; Teoh, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The isotropic region of Tween 20/eugenol/n-alkane in aqueous systems was determined. The solubilisation trend of isotropic solution formed in the presence of eugenol was studied as a function of different alkyl chain length of n-alkane. The solubility of solvent in surfactant solution is dependent on their molecular polarity. An increase in n-alkane chain length (lower polarity) lead to smaller isotropic region which will affect the surfactant partitioning between the interface, the oil phase and the aqueous phase of the microemulsion as the oil chain length is varied. The changes of evaporation behaviour were affected strongly by the types of phases existed in the systems. The increment of n-alkane and water content led to higher evaporation rate. But the formation of w/o microemulsion would lower the evaporation rate because water molecules were trapped in the core of aggregates. In solubilisation system, evaporation rate is dependent on the solvent content and the interaction between Tween 20 and solvent molecules in the mixed composition. (author)

  10. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the rapid analysis of pheophytins and pyropheophytins in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqi; Woodman, Michael; Wang, Selina C

    2015-08-01

    Pheophytins and pyropheophytin are degradation products of chlorophyll pigments, and their ratios can be used as a sensitive indicator of stress during the manufacturing and storage of olive oil. They increase over time depending on the storage condition and if the oil is exposed to heat treatments during the refining process. The traditional analysis method includes solvent- and time-consuming steps of solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. We developed an improved dilute/fluorescence method where multi-step sample preparation was replaced by a simple isopropanol dilution before the high-performance liquid chromatography injection. A quaternary solvent gradient method was used to include a fourth strong solvent wash on a quaternary gradient pump, which avoided the need to premix any solvents and greatly reduced the oil residues on the column from previous analysis. This new method not only reduces analysis cost and time but shows reliability, repeatability, and improved sensitivity, especially important for low-level samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polymorphism in Self-Assembled Structures of 9-Anthracene Carboxylic Acid on Ag(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface self-assembly process of 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (AnCA on Ag(111 was investigated using STM. Depending on the molecular surface density, four spontaneously formed and one annealed AnCA ordered phases were observed, namely a straight belt phase, a zigzag double-belt phase, two simpler dimer phases, and a kagome phase. The two high-density belt phases possess large unit cells on the scale length of 10 nm, which are seldom observed in molecular self-assembled structures. This structural diversity stems from a complicated competition of different interactions of AnCA molecules on metal surface, including intermolecular and molecular-substrate interactions, as well as the steric demand from high molecular surface density.

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis essential oil obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction: comparison with hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Oksal, Birsen S; Kose, Elif Odabas; Deniz, I Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    The components of the essential oils (EOs) obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) from endemic Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis were identified by using GC/MS. The main constituents of both EOs obtained by SFME and HD, respectively, from O. saccatum were p-cymene (72.5 and 70.6%), thymol (9.32 and 8.11%), and carvacrol (7.18 and 6.36%). The EO obtained by SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than did the EO obtained by HD. The antibacterial activities of the EOs obtained by SFME and HD were evaluated with the disc diffusion method by comparison with 10 different bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of the EO extracted by SFME was found to be more effective than that of the EO extracted by HD against seven of the tested bacteria.

  14. Optimization of Steam Distillation of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors considered were mass of solute/solvent ratio (A), extraction time. (B) and steam rate (C). ..... fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products. ... liquid extraction of antioxidants from apple pomace by response.

  15. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  16. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  17. Optimization of oil extraction from waste “Date pits” for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Farrukh; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Al-Haj, Lamya; Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Hellier, Paul; Rashid, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil extraction from “Date pits” has been optimized first time by using RSM. • Optimized conditions for oil extraction gave oil yield of 16.5%. • “Date pits” oil as non-edible feedstock was transformed to biodiesel. • Biodiesel from “Date pits” oil posses potential fuel properties. - Abstract: Biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks is increasingly attractive alternative to both fossil diesels and renewable fuels derived from food crops. Date pits are one such lipid containing feedstock, and are widely available in Oman as a waste stream. This study analyses the effects of soxhlet process parameters (temperature, solvent to seed ratio and time) on the extraction of oils from waste Date pits and the subsequent production of biodiesel from it. The highest yield of oil extracted from the Date pits was 16.5 wt% obtained at a temperature of 70 °C, solvent to seed ratio of 4:1 and extraction duration of 7 h. Gas Chromatography analysis showed that Date pits oil consisted of 54.85% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Transesterification of the oil extracted was undertaken at 65 °C, a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 1 h for biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from the Date pits oil was found to have a cetane number of 58.23, density 870 of kg m"−"3, cloud point of 4 °C, pour point of −1 °C, CFPP of −0.5 °C and kinematic viscosity of 3.97 mm"2 s"−"1 (40 °C). In general, Date pit oil appears to be a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.

  18. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  19. Optimisation of steam extraction of oil from maritime pine needles

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Essential oil from pine maritime needles is generally extracted by steam distillation process at atmospheric pressure for more than one hour, or by solvent extraction process. In the last decade, there has been an increasing demand for new extraction techniques enabling automation, shorter extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of two processing parameters of an alte...

  20. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  1. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  2. EXTRACTION OF OIL SEED PIN (Citrullus vulgaris BY LEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of seed oil initially consisted in physicochemical study of the seed, in order to meet their nutritional content by performing various analyzes as moisture, ash, fat, phosphorus, proteins and carbohydrates. Then we proceeded with oil extraction equipment using solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet using hexane as a solvent using the factorial design of the type 23. After, the crude oil was characterized and refined by the methodology of COVENIN norms, where the oil presented potential properties to elaborate soap in the cosmetic industry. Finally, a lipid profile was obtained by a gas chromatographic, the results showed highly unsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and oleic that gives it the potential to be applied as a capable oil with excellent properties and quality to human consume.

  3. Radiation modification of vanadium catalyst for anthracene oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, J.; Vymetal, J.; Mucka, V.; Pospisil, M.; Cabicar, J.

    1985-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide on a suitable carrier is often used as catalyst for the oxidation of anthracene in the gaseous phase to 9,10-anthraquinone. The activity and selectivity of the catalyst may be affected by irradiation. The effects were studied of gamma radiation on the properties of the catalyst where the active system was a V 2 O 5 -KOH-K 2 SO 4 mixture on a Al 2 O 3 +SiO 2 carrier. The 60 Co radiation source had an activity of 185 TBq; the carrier of the catalyst was irradiated at a dose rate of 3.05, 1.98 and 0.084 kGy/h to a total dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation increased the selectivity of the catalyst such that in the oxidation temperature optimum of 300 to 400 degC the yield of 9,10-anthraquinone increased by 4.6 to 4.8 %mol. to roughly 90 %mol.; a significant reduction of the content of acid components (phthalanhydride) in the oxidation product also occurred. This effect remained unchanged for 5 months after irradiation. A reduction of selectivity was observed at lower dose rates only in the temperature range between 400 and 480 degC. (A.K.)

  4. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  5. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations. 3. The Polyacenes Anthracene, Tetracene, and Pentacene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous, ionized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Unfortunately, very little infrared spectroscopic data are available on ionized PAH's. Here we present the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the polyacene cations anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene. We also report the vibrational frequencies and relative intensities of the pentacene anion. The cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically about 10-20 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands which are an order of magnitude stronger than for the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands which are 3-20 times weaker than in the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found for most other PAH cations. The most intense PAH cation bands fall within the envelopes of the most intense interstellar features. The strongest absorptions in the polyacenes anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene tend to group around 1400 / cm (between about 1340 and 1500 / cm) and near 1180 /cm, regions of only moderate interstellar emission. These very strong polyacene bands tend to fall in gaps in the spectra of the other PAH cations studied to date suggesting that while PAHs with polyacene structures may contribute to specific regions of the interstellar emission spectra, they are not dominant members of the interstellar PAH family.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations. 3; The Polyacenes Anthracene, Tetracence, and Pentacene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Unfortunately, very little infrared spectroscopic data are available on ionized PAHS. Here we present the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the polyacene cations anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene. We also report the vibrational frequencies and relative intensities of the pentacene anion. The cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically about 10-20 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands which are an order of magnitude stronger than for the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands which are 3-20 times weaker than in the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found for most other PAH cations. The most intense PAH cation bands fall within the envelopes of the most intense interstellar features. The strongest absorptions in the polyacenes anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene tend to group around 1400/cm (between about 1340 and 1500/cm) and near 1180/cm, regions of only moderate interstellar emission. These very strong polyacene bands tend to fall in gaps in the spectra of the other PAH cations studied to date suggesting that while PAHs with polyacene structures may contribute to specific regions of the interstellar emission spectra, they are not dominant members of the interstellar PAH family.

  8. Identifying oil/marine snow associations in mesocosm simulations of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Patrick G; Obeid, Wassim; Wozniak, Andrew S; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Santschi, Peter H; Quigg, Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill stimulated the release of marine snow made up of dead/living plankton/bacteria and their exopolymeric polysaccharide substances (EPS), termed marine oil snow (MOS), promoting rapid removal of oil from the water column into sediments near the well site. Mesocosm simulations showed that Macondo surrogate oil readily associates with the marine snow. Quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR readily distinguishes this oil from naturally formed marine snow and reveals that adding the dispersant Corexit enhances the amount of oil associated with the MOS, thus contributing to rapid removal from the water column. Solvent extraction of MOS removes the oil-derived compounds for analysis by one and two-dimensional GC/MS and evaluation of potential transformations they undergo when associated with the EPS. The results reveal that the oil associated with EPS is subjected to rapid transformation, in a matter of days, presumably by bacteria and fungi associated with EPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulj, Jelena; Brlek, Tea; Pezo, Lato; Brkljača, Jovana; Popović, Sanja; Zeković, Zoran; Bodroža Solarov, Marija

    2016-08-01

    Amaranthus sp. is a fast-growing crop with well-known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium, and containing a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, a compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg(-1) ) and squalene (4.7 g kg(-1) ) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. Post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. The results of this study indicate that it is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimal oil and squalene yield. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. PENGAMBILAN MINYAK ATSIRI BUNGA CENGKEH (Clove Oil MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT n-HEKSANA DAN BENZENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hadi

    2013-05-01

    content of 80-85%. The clove oil is mostly composed of eugenol, which is useful in the production of vanillin, eugenil methyl ether, eugenil acetate, etc. The extraction using solvent is one of the methods used for the extraction of essential oils of clove flower. The solvents used for the extraction process were n-hexane and benzene. This study aimed to determine the yield of the essential oil obtained from the extraction using n-hexane and benzene as well as to know its components. The first step of the process was initiated by drying the cloves in the sun for a week. Then the dried cloves were finely ground. Clove was extracted using a Soxhlet with 100 mL of solvent at its boiling temperature for 15 cycles (+ 80 minutes. The obtained yield of the extraction process using n-hexane was 17.61% with the eugenol content of 65.02%. While the obtained yield from the extraction process using benzene solvent was 18.90% with the eugenol content of 8.81%. Therefore, the clove essential oil extraction using n-hexane solvent is relatively better than using benzene because it produces greater eugenol content.

  11. Fixed Oil Composition and Biological Screening of Viola betonicifolia in Different Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.; Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Saeed, M.; Ullah, S.; Khan, S. S.; Shareef, H.; Khan, Z.; Zahoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper to report a chemical study on fixed oils isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform/ ethyl acetate fractions of the whole plant Viola betonicifolia by column chromatography. The chemical compositions of the crude fixed oils were determined by using GC and GC-MS analysis. The subfractions of oils (NM 1-6) were screened for their possible antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, insecticidal, leishmanicidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity. In antifungal assay, NM-4 and NM-6 fractions showed 30 and 40 percent inhibition against Microsporum canis, while NM-6 exhibited 30 percent activity against Candida albicans. A dose-dependent phytotoxic activity was recorded for fractions NM-1, NM-3 and NM-6. Some subfractions showed low to moderate insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica and Callosobruchus analis. NM-5 and NM-6 fractions were cytotoxic, with LD50 values of 175.341 and 160.734 micro g/ml, respectively. (author)

  12. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase.

  13. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  14. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  16. Effect of the type of ammonium salt on the extractive desulfurization of fuels using deep eutectic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrag, Samah E.E.; Adeyemi, Idowu; Rodriguez, Nerea R.; Nashef, Inas M.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Kroon, Maaike C.; Peters, Cor J.

    2018-01-01

    In a previous work, we proved that the deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of tetraalkylammonium salts with polyols are promising candidates for oil desulfurization based on the obtained liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. In this study, the capability of DESs containing other

  17. Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

  18. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries. I Physicochemical properties of propionitrile/water two-phase solvent relevant to zinc-bromine batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; White, K.; Parker, A. J.

    1983-11-01

    The properties of bromine/propionitrile solution are investigated with a view to its use as an electrolyte in zinc-bromine batteries which use circulating electrolyte. The solution, which forms a two-phase system with water, has higher conductivity than the oils formed by complexation of bromine with organic salts such as N,N-methoxymethyl methylpiperidinium bromide and N,N-ethyl methylmorpholinium bromide. The activity of bromine in the aqueous phase of the bromine-propionitrile/water, two-phase system is very low; thus, coulombic efficiencies greater than 85 percent are achieved. Zinc-bromine batteries containing this solvent system show good charge/discharge characteristics.