#### Sample records for solve simple system

1. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

Science.gov (United States)

de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

2016-01-01

The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

2. Solving simple stochastic games with few coin toss positions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

2011-01-01

Gimbert and Horn gave an algorithm for solving simple stochastic games with running time O(r! n) where n is the number of positions of the simple stochastic game and r is the number of its coin toss positions. Chatterjee et al. pointed out that a variant of strategy iteration can be implemented...... to solve this problem in time 4^r r^{O(1)} n^{O(1)}. In this paper, we show that an algorithm combining value iteration with retrograde analysis achieves a time bound of O(r 2^r (r log r + n)), thus improving both time bounds. While the algorithm is simple, the analysis leading to this time bound...

3. Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Coin Toss Positions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

2012-01-01

Gimbert and Horn gave an algorithm for solving simple stochastic games with running time O(r! n) where n is the number of positions of the simple stochastic game and r is the number of its coin toss positions. Chatterjee et al. pointed out that a variant of strategy iteration can be implemented...... to solve this problem in time 4 r n O(1). In this paper, we show that an algorithm combining value iteration with retrograde analysis achieves a time bound of O(r 2 r (r logr + n)), thus improving both time bounds. We also improve the analysis of Chatterjee et al. and show that their algorithm in fact has...

4. A simple and low-cost Internet-based teleconsultation system that could effectively solve the health care access problems in underserved areas of developing countries.

Science.gov (United States)

Kuntalp, Mehmet; Akar, Orkun

2004-08-01

In many developing countries including Turkey, telemedicine systems are not in wide use due to the high cost and complexity of the required technology. Lack of these systems however has serious implications on patients who live in rural areas. The objective of this paper is to present a simple and economically affordable alternative to the current systems that would allow experts to easily access the medical data of their remote patients over the Internet. The system is developed in client-server architecture with a user-friendly graphical interface and various services are implemented as dynamic web pages based on PHP. The other key features of the system are its powerful security features and platform independency. An academic prototype is implemented and presented to the evaluation of a group of physicians. The results reveal that the system could find acceptance from the medical community and it could be an effective means of providing quality health care in developing countries.

5. A simple derivation of Kepler's laws without solving differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provost, J-P; Bracco, C

2009-01-01

Proceeding like Newton with a discrete time approach of motion and a geometrical representation of velocity and acceleration, we obtain Kepler's laws without solving differential equations. The difficult part of Newton's work, when it calls for non-trivial properties of ellipses, is avoided by the introduction of polar coordinates. Then a simple reconsideration of Newton's figure naturally leads to an explicit expression of the velocity and to the equation of the trajectory. This derivation, which can be fully apprehended by undergraduates or by secondary school teachers (who might use it with their pupils), can be considered as a first application of mechanical concepts to a physical problem of great historical and pedagogical interest

6. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

Science.gov (United States)

Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

2017-04-01

A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

7. Confluent-Functional solving systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V.N. Koval

2001-08-01

Full Text Available The paper proposes a statistical knowledge-acquision approach. The solving systems are considered, which are able to find unknown structural dependences between situational and transforming variables on the basis of statistically analyzed input information. Situational variables describe features, states and relations between environment objects. Transforming variables describe transforming influences, exerted by a goal-oriented system onto an environment. Unknown environment rules are simulated by a structural equations system, associating situational and transforming variables.

8. A Simple Derivation of Kepler's Laws without Solving Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Provost, J.-P.; Bracco, C.

2009-01-01

Proceeding like Newton with a discrete time approach of motion and a geometrical representation of velocity and acceleration, we obtain Kepler's laws without solving differential equations. The difficult part of Newton's work, when it calls for non-trivial properties of ellipses, is avoided by the introduction of polar coordinates. Then a simple…

9. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

... and processes in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation ...

10. A method of solving simple harmonic oscillator Schroedinger equation

Science.gov (United States)

Maury, Juan Carlos F.

1995-01-01

A usual step in solving totally Schrodinger equation is to try first the case when dimensionless position independent variable w is large. In this case the Harmonic Oscillator equation takes the form (d(exp 2)/dw(exp 2) - w(exp 2))F = 0, and following W.K.B. method, it gives the intermediate corresponding solution F = exp(-w(exp 2)/2), which actually satisfies exactly another equation, (d(exp 2)/dw(exp 2) + 1 - w(exp 2))F = 0. We apply a different method, useful in anharmonic oscillator equations, similar to that of Rampal and Datta, and although it is slightly more complicated however it is also more general and systematic.

11. The Improvement of Simple Explanation and Inferencetion Skills with Problem Solving

OpenAIRE

Dewanti, Fransiska Olivia; Diawati, Chansyanah; Fadiawati, Noor

2013-01-01

The learning process is strongly influenced by the ability and accuracy of teachers in selecting and applying the learning model. The model can be applied to improve of Â simple explanation and inferencetion skill is a model of problem solving. The purpose of this study was to describe the model of problem solving that are effective in improving simple explanation and inferencetion skills on the material electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. This research use a quasi-experimental methods ...

12. Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving

Science.gov (United States)

Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio

2011-01-01

Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…

13. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

CERN Document Server

Antill, Lyn

1980-01-01

Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

14. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

Science.gov (United States)

Land, L

This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

15. Solving Conic Systems via Projection and Rescaling

OpenAIRE

Pena, Javier; Soheili, Negar

2015-01-01

We propose a simple projection and rescaling algorithm to solve the feasibility problem \$\\text{ find } x \\in L \\cap \\Omega, \$ where $L$ and $\\Omega$ are respectively a linear subspace and the interior of a symmetric cone in a finite-dimensional vector space $V$. This projection and rescaling algorithm is inspired by previous work on rescaled versions of the perceptron algorithm and by Chubanov's projection-based method for linear feasibility problems. As in these predecessors, each main it...

16. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

Science.gov (United States)

Sriraman, Bharath

2004-01-01

An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

17. Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...

18. Simple clamped connection for bamboo truss systems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Blok, R.

2016-01-01

“How to make fast and simple tension connections for truss systems?” The Solution: The innovation is a connection that uses only widely available base components (boltsand threaded steel bars) and simple hand tools to install it. With a handsaw and aspanner, the bamboo stems can be combined into to

19. A simple method for solving the Bussian equation for electrical conduction in rocks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

P. W. J. Glover

2010-09-01

Full Text Available One of the most general and effective models for calculating the complex electrical conductivity and relative dielectric permittivity of rocks saturated with pore fluids is that of Bussian. Unlike most models, it is non-linear and cannot be solved algebraically. Consequently, researchers use reiterating numerical routines to obtain a solution of the equation, and then only for the real part of the solution. Here we present a different approach to the solution that uses conformal mapping in the complex plane, and implements it within MapleTM. The method is simple and elegant in that it requires, for example, only 3 lines of code in MapleTM 11 and little programming experience. The approach has been shown to be as precise as using the classical reiterating bisection method for real data implemented in C++ on an ordinary desktop computer to within a probability over 1 in 109. However, the conformal mapping approach is 52 times as fast. We show once more that the Bussian equation breaks down for low fluid conductivities, but recommend it (with the modified Archie's law for use with rocks saturated with high salinity fluids when the matrix is conductive.

20. A simple but accurate procedure for solving the five-parameter model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mares, Oana; Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel

2015-01-01

Highlights: • A new procedure for extracting the parameters of the one-diode model is proposed. • Only the basic information listed in the datasheet of PV modules are required. • Results demonstrate a simple, robust and accurate procedure. - Abstract: The current–voltage characteristic of a photovoltaic module is typically evaluated by using a model based on the solar cell equivalent circuit. The complexity of the procedure applied for extracting the model parameters depends on data available in manufacture’s datasheet. Since the datasheet is not detailed enough, simplified models have to be used in many cases. This paper proposes a new procedure for extracting the parameters of the one-diode model in standard test conditions, using only the basic data listed by all manufactures in datasheet (short circuit current, open circuit voltage and maximum power point). The procedure is validated by using manufacturers’ data for six commercially crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Comparing the computed and measured current–voltage characteristics the determination coefficient is in the range 0.976–0.998. Thus, the proposed procedure represents a feasible tool for solving the five-parameter model applied to crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. The procedure is described in detail, to guide potential users to derive similar models for other types of photovoltaic modules.

1. Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ

2009-06-01

Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.

2. He's homotopy perturbation method for solving systems of Volterra integral equations of the second kind

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biazar, J.; Ghazvini, H.

2009-01-01

In this paper, the He's homotopy perturbation method is applied to solve systems of Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Some examples are presented to illustrate the ability of the method for linear and non-linear such systems. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple.

3. The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng

2018-02-01

Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hassan Saberi Nik

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

5. Design of Simple Landslide Monitoring System

Science.gov (United States)

Meng, Qingjia; Cai, Lingling

2018-01-01

The simple landslide monitoring system is mainly designed for slope, collapse body and surface crack. In the harsh environment, the dynamic displacement data of the disaster body is transmitted to the terminal acquisition system in real time. The main body of the system adopt is PIC32MX795F512. This chip is to realize low power design, wakes the system up through the clock chip, and turns on the switching power supply at set time, which makes the wireless transmission module running during the interval to ensure the maximum battery consumption, so that the system can be stable long term work.

6. Simple simulation training system for short-wave radio station

Science.gov (United States)

Tan, Xianglin; Shao, Zhichao; Tu, Jianhua; Qu, Fuqi

2018-04-01

The short-wave radio station is a most important transmission equipment of our signal corps, but in the actual teaching process, which exist the phenomenon of fewer equipment and more students, making the students' short-wave radio operation and practice time is very limited. In order to solve the above problems, to carry out shortwave radio simple simulation training system development is very necessary. This project is developed by combining hardware and software to simulate the voice communication operation and signal principle of shortwave radio station, and can test the signal flow of shortwave radio station. The test results indicate that this system is simple operation, human-machine interface friendly and can improve teaching more efficiency.

7. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

1986-01-01

A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

8. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

Science.gov (United States)

Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

2014-01-01

We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

9. Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines

Science.gov (United States)

English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

2013-01-01

Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…

10. Clock Math — a System for Solving SLEs Exactly

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2013-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a GPU-accelerated hybrid system that solves ill-conditioned systems of linear equations exactly. Exactly means without rounding errors due to using integer arithmetics. First, we scale floating-point numbers up to integers, then we solve dozens of SLEs within different modular arithmetics and then we assemble sub-solutions back using the Chinese remainder theorem. This approach effectively bypasses current CPU floating-point limitations. The system is capable of solving Hilbert’s matrix without losing a single bit of precision, and with a significant speedup compared to existing CPU solvers.

11. A Simple Method for Solving Fully Intuitionistic Fuzzy Real Life Assignment Problem

OpenAIRE

Senthil Kumar, P.; Jahir Hussain, R.

2016-01-01

In solving real life assignment problem we often face the state of uncertainty as well as hesitation due to various uncontrollable factors. To deal with uncertainty and hesitation many authors have suggested the intuitionistic fuzzy representations for the data. So, in this paper, the authors consider the assignment problem having uncertainty and hesitation in cost/time/profit. They formulate the problem and utilize triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs) to deal with uncertainty and ...

12. Simple spectral method for solving propagation problems in cylindrical geometry with fast Fourier transforms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

1989-01-01

We describe a spectral method for solving the paraxial wave equation in cylindrical geometry that is based on expansion of the exponential evolution operator in a Taylor series and use of fast Fourier transforms to evaluate derivatives. A fourth-order expansion gives excellent agreement with a two-transverse-dimensional split-operator calculation at a fraction of the cost in computation time per z step and at a considerable savings in storage

13. A simple electron-beam lithography system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

2005-01-01

A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

14. Solved problems in dynamical systems and control

CERN Document Server

Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M

2016-01-01

This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.

15. Study of solving a Toda dynamic system with loop algebra

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhu Qiao; Yang Zhanying; Shi Kangjie; Wen Junqing

2006-01-01

The authors construct a Toda system with Loop algebra, and prove that the Lax equation L=[L,M] can be solved by means of solving a regular Riemann-Hilbert problem. In our system, M in Lax pair is an antisymmetrical matrix, while L=L + + M, and L + is a quasi-upper triangular matrix of loop algebra. In order to check our result, the authors exactly solve an R-H problem under a given initial condition as an example. (authors)

16. Chaos from simple models to complex systems

CERN Document Server

Cencini, Massimo; Vulpiani, Angelo

2010-01-01

Chaos: from simple models to complex systems aims to guide science and engineering students through chaos and nonlinear dynamics from classical examples to the most recent fields of research. The first part, intended for undergraduate and graduate students, is a gentle and self-contained introduction to the concepts and main tools for the characterization of deterministic chaotic systems, with emphasis to statistical approaches. The second part can be used as a reference by researchers as it focuses on more advanced topics including the characterization of chaos with tools of information theor

17. Algebraic polynomial system solving and applications

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bleylevens, I.W.M.

2010-01-01

The problem of computing the solutions of a system of multivariate polynomial equations can be approached by the Stetter-Möller matrix method which casts the problem into a large eigenvalue problem. This Stetter-Möller matrix method forms the starting point for the development of computational

18. Multiple equilibria in a simple elastocapillary system

KAUST Repository

Taroni, Michele

2012-09-28

We consider the elastocapillary interaction of a liquid drop placed between two elastic beams, which are both clamped at one end to a rigid substrate. This is a simple model system relevant to the problem of surface-tension-induced collapse of flexible micro-channels that has been observed in the manufacture of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We determine the conditions under which the beams remain separated, touch at a point, or stick along a portion of their length. Surprisingly, we show that in many circumstances multiple equilibrium states are possible. We develop a lubrication-type model for the flow of liquid out of equilibrium and thereby investigate the stability of the multiple equilibria. We demonstrate that for given material properties two stable equilibria may exist, and show via numerical solutions of the dynamic model that it is the initial state of the system that determines which stable equilibrium is ultimately reached. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

19. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

concepts of fuzzy set theory and then define a fully fuzzy linear system of equations. .... To represent the above problem as fully fuzzy linear system, we represent x .... Fully fuzzy linear systems can be solved by Linear programming approach, ...

20. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Bor-Shing; Lee, Cheng-Che; Chiang, Pei-Ying

2017-06-13

Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them.

1. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bor-Shing Lin

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them.

2. A convex optimization approach for solving large scale linear systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Debora Cores

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The well-known Conjugate Gradient (CG method minimizes a strictly convex quadratic function for solving large-scale linear system of equations when the coefficient matrix is symmetric and positive definite. In this work we present and analyze a non-quadratic convex function for solving any large-scale linear system of equations regardless of the characteristics of the coefficient matrix. For finding the global minimizers, of this new convex function, any low-cost iterative optimization technique could be applied. In particular, we propose to use the low-cost globally convergent Spectral Projected Gradient (SPG method, which allow us to extend this optimization approach for solving consistent square and rectangular linear system, as well as linear feasibility problem, with and without convex constraints and with and without preconditioning strategies. Our numerical results indicate that the new scheme outperforms state-of-the-art iterative techniques for solving linear systems when the symmetric part of the coefficient matrix is indefinite, and also for solving linear feasibility problems.

3. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefﬁcient matrix. The symmetric coefﬁcient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.

4. Automatic and directed search processes in solving simple semantic-memory problems.

Science.gov (United States)

Ben-Zur, H

1989-09-01

The cognitive processes involved in simple semantic-memory problems were investigated in four experiments. On each trial of Experiments 1 and 2, two stimulus words were presented, with the instructions to find a third word (i.e., the solution) that, when coupled with each of the stimuli, would yield two word pairs used in everyday language (e.g., surprise and birthday, for which the solution is party). The results of the two experiments indicated that informing the subject whether the solution constituted the first or the second element in the word pairs facilitated both likelihood and speed of solution attainment. In addition, solution attainment was relatively high for items based on frequently used word pairs (Experiment 1) and for items in which the stimuli appear, in everyday language, in a small number of word pairs (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the subjects were required to produce word pairs containing one of the two stimulus words from the items used in Experiment 2. Solution production was facilitated by rehearsing the second stimulus word of the specific item. The conclusion, supported by a post hoc analysis of the results of Experiments 2 and 3 (Experiment 4), was that indirect priming from one stimulus word may facilitate solution production from a searched word. These results are interpreted in terms of automatic and controlled processes, and their relevance to two different models for retrieval from semantic memory is discussed.

5. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

1996-12-31

We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

6. Multiparameter extrapolation and deflation methods for solving equation systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. J. Hughes Hallett

1984-01-01

Full Text Available Most models in economics and the applied sciences are solved by first order iterative techniques, usually those based on the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. This paper examines the convergence of multiparameter extrapolations (accelerations of first order iterations, as an improved approximation to the Newton method for solving arbitrary nonlinear equation systems. It generalises my earlier results on single parameter extrapolations. Richardson's generalised method and the deflation method for detecting successive solutions in nonlinear equation systems are also presented as multiparameter extrapolations of first order iterations. New convergence results are obtained for those methods.

7. Solving system of DAEs by homotopy analysis method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2009-01-01

Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to systems of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The HAM is proved to be very effective, simple and convenient to give approximate analytical solutions to DAEs.

8. Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-06-07

Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.

9. On Solving the Lorenz System by Differential Transformation Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-Sawalha, M. Mossa; Noorani, M. S. M.

2008-01-01

The differential transformation method (DTM) is employed to solve a nonlinear differential equation, namely the Lorenz system. Numerical results are compared to those obtained by the Runge–Kutta method to illustrate the preciseness and effectiveness of the proposed method. In particular, we examine the accuracy of the (DTM) as the Lorenz system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. It is shown that the (DTM) is robust, accurate and easy to apply

10. Solving or resolving inadequate and noisy tomographic systems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Nolet, G.

1985-01-01

Tomography in seismology often leads to underdetermined and inconsistent systems of linear equations. When solving, care must be taken to keep the propagation of data errors under control. In this paper I test the applicability of three types of damped least-squares algorithms to the kind of

11. Comments on new iterative methods for solving linear systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wang Ke

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Some new iterative methods were presented by Du, Zheng and Wang for solving linear systems in [3], where it is shown that the new methods, comparing to the classical Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel method, can be applied to more systems and have faster convergence. This note shows that their methods are suitable for more matrices than positive matrices which the authors suggested through further analysis and numerical examples.

12. A Proposed Method for Solving Fuzzy System of Linear Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Reza Kargar

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations with crisp coefficients matrix and fuzzy or interval right hand side. Some conditions for the existence of a fuzzy or interval solution of m×n linear system are derived and also a practical algorithm is introduced in detail. The method is based on linear programming problem. Finally the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples.

13. Eigenstructure of of singular systems. Perturbation analysis of simple eigenvalues

OpenAIRE

García Planas, María Isabel; Tarragona Romero, Sonia

2014-01-01

The problem to study small perturbations of simple eigenvalues with a change of parameters is of general interest in applied mathematics. After to introduce a systematic way to know if an eigenvalue of a singular system is simple or not, the aim of this work is to study the behavior of a simple eigenvalue of singular linear system family

14. Development and adjustment of programs for solving systems of linear equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fujimura, Toichiro

1978-03-01

Programs for solving the systems of linear equations have been adjusted and developed in expanding the scientific subroutine library SSL. The principal programs adjusted are based on the congruent method, method of product form of the inverse, orthogonal method, Crout's method for sparse system, and acceleration of iterative methods. The programs developed are based on the escalator method, direct parallel residue method and block tridiagonal method for band system. Described are usage of the programs developed and their future improvement. FORTRAN lists with simple examples in tests of the programs are also given. (auth.)

15. Exp-function method for solving Maccari's system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang Sheng

2007-01-01

In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to seek exact solutions of Maccari's system. As a result, single and combined generalized solitonary solutions are obtained, from which some known solutions obtained by extended sine-Gordon equation method and improved hyperbolic function method are recovered as special cases. It is shown that the Exp-function method provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics

16. CHEBYSHEV ACCELERATION TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING FUZZY LINEAR SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S.H. Nasseri

2011-07-01

Full Text Available In this paper, Chebyshev acceleration technique is used to solve the fuzzy linear system (FLS. This method is discussed in details and followed by summary of some other acceleration techniques. Moreover, we show that in some situations that the methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Sidel, SOR and conjugate gradient is divergent, our proposed method is applicable and the acquired results are illustrated by some numerical examples.

17. CHEBYSHEV ACCELERATION TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING FUZZY LINEAR SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S.H. Nasseri

2009-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper, Chebyshev acceleration technique is used to solve the fuzzy linear system (FLS. This method is discussed in details and followed by summary of some other acceleration techniques. Moreover, we show that in some situations that the methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Sidel, SOR and conjugate gradient is divergent, our proposed method is applicable and the acquired results are illustrated by some numerical examples.

18. AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.

19. System to solve three designs of the fuel management

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.; Marinez R, R.

2015-09-01

In this paper preliminary results are presented, obtained with the development of a computer system that resolves three stages of the nuclear fuel management, which are: the axial and radial designs of fuel, as well as the design of nuclear fuel reloads. The novelty of the system is that the solution is obtained solving the 3 mentioned stages, in coupled form. For this, heuristic techniques are used for each stage, in each one of these has a function objective that is applied to particular problems, but in all cases the obtained partial results are used as input data for the next stage. The heuristic techniques that were used to solve the coupled problem are: tabu search, neural networks and a hybrid between the scatter search and path re linking. The system applies an iterative process from the design of a fuel cell to the reload design, since are preliminary results the reload is designed using the operation strategy Haling type. In each one of the stages nuclear parameters inherent to the design are monitored. The results so far show the advantage of solving the problem in a coupled manner, even when a large amount of computer resources is used. (Author)

20. Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System of Equations in General Form

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-06-01

Full Text Available In this work, we propose an approach for computing the positive solution of a fully fuzzy linear system where the coefficient matrix is a fuzzy $nimes n$ matrix. To do this, we use arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers that introduced by Kaffman in and convert the fully fuzzy linear system into two $nimes n$ and $2nimes 2n$ crisp linear systems. If the solutions of these linear systems don't satisfy in positive fuzzy solution condition, we introduce the constrained least squares problem to obtain optimal fuzzy vector solution by applying the ranking function in given fully fuzzy linear system. Using our proposed method, the fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

1. Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orr, S.

1997-12-01

The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control

2. A simple polarized-based diffused reflectance colour imaging system

African Journals Online (AJOL)

A simple polarized-based diffuse reflectance imaging system has been developed. The system is designed for both in vivo and in vitro imaging of agricultural specimen in the visible region. The system uses a commercial web camera and a halogen lamp that makes it relatively simple and less expensive for diagnostic ...

3. Solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma of recommender systems

Science.gov (United States)

Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Runtong

2017-02-01

Recommender systems are of great significance in predicting the potential interesting items based on the target user's historical selections. However, the recommendation list for a specific user has been found changing vastly when the system changes, due to the unstable quantification of item similarities, which is defined as the recommendation stability problem. To improve the similarity stability and recommendation stability is crucial for the user experience enhancement and the better understanding of user interests. While the stability as well as accuracy of recommendation could be guaranteed by recommending only popular items, studies have been addressing the necessity of diversity which requires the system to recommend unpopular items. By ranking the similarities in terms of stability and considering only the most stable ones, we present a top- n-stability method based on the Heat Conduction algorithm (denoted as TNS-HC henceforth) for solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma. Experiments on four benchmark data sets indicate that the TNS-HC algorithm could significantly improve the recommendation stability and accuracy simultaneously and still retain the high-diversity nature of the Heat Conduction algorithm. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the TNS-HC algorithm with a number of benchmark recommendation algorithms. The result suggests that the TNS-HC algorithm is more efficient in solving the stability-accuracy-diversity triple dilemma of recommender systems.

4. Generalized Lotka—Volterra systems connected with simple Lie algebras

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charalambides, Stelios A; Damianou, Pantelis A; Evripidou, Charalambos A

2015-01-01

We devise a new method for producing Hamiltonian systems by constructing the corresponding Lax pairs. This is achieved by considering a larger subset of the positive roots than the simple roots of the root system of a simple Lie algebra. We classify all subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type A n for which the corresponding Hamiltonian systems are transformed, via a simple change of variables, to Lotka-Volterra systems. For some special cases of subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type A n , we produce new integrable Hamiltonian systems. (paper)

5. Generalized Lotka—Volterra systems connected with simple Lie algebras

Science.gov (United States)

Charalambides, Stelios A.; Damianou, Pantelis A.; Evripidou, Charalambos A.

2015-06-01

We devise a new method for producing Hamiltonian systems by constructing the corresponding Lax pairs. This is achieved by considering a larger subset of the positive roots than the simple roots of the root system of a simple Lie algebra. We classify all subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type An for which the corresponding Hamiltonian systems are transformed, via a simple change of variables, to Lotka-Volterra systems. For some special cases of subsets of the positive roots of the root system of type An, we produce new integrable Hamiltonian systems.

6. Efficient Method to Approximately Solve Retrial Systems with Impatience

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jose Manuel Gimenez-Guzman

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We present a novel technique to solve multiserver retrial systems with impatience. Unfortunately these systems do not present an exact analytic solution, so it is mandatory to resort to approximate techniques. This novel technique does not rely on the numerical solution of the steady-state Kolmogorov equations of the Continuous Time Markov Chain as it is common for this kind of systems but it considers the system in its Markov Decision Process setting. This technique, known as value extrapolation, truncates the infinite state space using a polynomial extrapolation method to approach the states outside the truncated state space. A numerical evaluation is carried out to evaluate this technique and to compare its performance with previous techniques. The obtained results show that value extrapolation greatly outperforms the previous approaches appeared in the literature not only in terms of accuracy but also in terms of computational cost.

7. Application of ANNs approach for solving fully fuzzy polynomials system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Novin

2017-11-01

Full Text Available In processing indecisive or unclear information, the advantages of fuzzy logic and neurocomputing disciplines should be taken into account and combined by fuzzy neural networks. The current research intends to present a fuzzy modeling method using multi-layer fuzzy neural networks for solving a fully fuzzy polynomials system. To clarify the point, it is necessary to inform that a supervised gradient descent-based learning law is employed. The feasibility of the method is examined using computer simulations on a numerical example. The experimental results obtained from the investigation of the proposed method are valid and delivers very good approximation results.

8. Multicriteria vehicle routing problem solved by artificial immune system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Vehicles route planning in large transportation companies, where drivers are workers, usually takes place on the basis of experience or intuition of the employees. Because of the cost and environmental protection, it is important to save fuel, thus planning routes in an optimal way. In this article an example of the problem is presented solving delivery vans route planning taking into account the distance and travel time within the constraints of vehicle capacities, restrictions on working time of drivers and having varying degrees of movement. An artificial immune system was used for the calculations.

9. Krylov subspace methods for solving large unsymmetric linear systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1981-01-01

Some algorithms based upon a projection process onto the Krylov subspace K/sub m/ = Span(r 0 , Ar 0 ,...,A/sup m/-1r 0 ) are developed, generalizing the method of conjugate gradients to unsymmetric systems. These methods are extensions of Arnoldi's algorithm for solving eigenvalue problems. The convergence is analyzed in terms of the distance of the solution to the subspace K/sub m/ and some error bounds are established showing, in particular, a similarity with the conjugate gradient method (for symmetric matrices) when the eigenvalues are real. Several numerical experiments are described and discussed

10. Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.

1985-01-01

Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)

11. A New Method to Solve Numeric Solution of Nonlinear Dynamic System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Min Hu

2016-01-01

Full Text Available It is well known that the cubic spline function has advantages of simple forms, good convergence, approximation, and second-order smoothness. A particular class of cubic spline function is constructed and an effective method to solve the numerical solution of nonlinear dynamic system is proposed based on the cubic spline function. Compared with existing methods, this method not only has high approximation precision, but also avoids the Runge phenomenon. The error analysis of several methods is given via two numeric examples, which turned out that the proposed method is a much more feasible tool applied to the engineering practice.

12. Multiple equilibria in a simple elastocapillary system

KAUST Repository

Taroni, Michele; Vella, Dominic

2012-01-01

properties two stable equilibria may exist, and show via numerical solutions of the dynamic model that it is the initial state of the system that determines which stable equilibrium is ultimately reached. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

13. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

Science.gov (United States)

Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

2014-11-01

In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

14. Characteristics of a simple blackbody measurement system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fu, C.; Anger, N.H.; Kaehms, R.; Jaeger, K.B.

1988-01-01

An axially symmetric blackbody (BB) measurement system with a circular aperture and a circular detector is considered. The BB can be of a right circular conical shape, a right cylindrical shape, or a combination of these two shapes. Assuming that the BB is ideal, the power received by the detector is calculated. 8 references

15. Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ibeh, G. J.; Mshelia, E. D.

2014-01-01

A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.

16. Coherent control in simple quantum systems

Science.gov (United States)

Prants, Sergey V.

1995-01-01

Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

17. Solving modified systems with multiple right-hand sides

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1996-12-31

In this talk we discuss the iterative solution of large linear systems of the form (A + USV{sup H})X = B, where A is an n x n non-Hermitian matrix, USV{sup H} is a rank-r modification of A and B is of rank s with s, r {much_lt} n. We analyze several approaches that exploit the structure of the coefficient matrix so as to solve the systems more efficiently than if one were to apply a non-hermitian solver to the original systems. In the development of procedures, we take into account the presence of both the low-rank modification and the several right-hand sides. Interesting issues connected to this problem originate from the quest for techniques that accelerate the underlying iterative solvers: preconditioning (e.g. inner-outer iteration strategies), domain decomposition, and continuation methods. Experiments are provided to analyze the behavior of the methods depending on the structure of the rectangular matrices. Preconditioning strategies are explored for an efficient implementation on the transformed systems.

18. Adams Predictor-Corrector Systems for Solving Fuzzy Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dequan Shang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available A predictor-corrector algorithm and an improved predictor-corrector (IPC algorithm based on Adams method are proposed to solve first-order differential equations with fuzzy initial condition. These algorithms are generated by updating the Adams predictor-corrector method and their convergence is also analyzed. Finally, the proposed methods are illustrated by solving an example.

19. New approach to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations using ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

Known example problems are solved to illustrate the efficacy and ... The concept of fuzzy set and fuzzy number were first introduced by Zadeh .... (iii) Fully fuzzy linear systems can be solved by linear programming approach, Gauss elim-.

20. The integration of marketing problem-solving modes and marketing management support systems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

B. Wierenga (Berend); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

1997-01-01

textabstractFocuses on the issue of problem solving in marketing and develops a classification of marketing problem-solving modes (MPSMs). Typology of MPSMs; Relationship among MPSMs; Marketing management support systems.

1. Appearance of gauge structure in simple dynamical systems

Science.gov (United States)

Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

1984-01-01

By generalizing a construction of Berry and Simon, it is shown that non-Abelian gauge fields arise in the adiabatic development of simple quantum mechanical systems. Characteristics of the gauge fields are related to energy splittings, which may be observable in real systems. Similar phenomena are found for suitable classical systems.

2. Solving polynomial systems using no-root elimination blending schemes

KAUST Repository

Barton, Michael

2011-12-01

Searching for the roots of (piecewise) polynomial systems of equations is a crucial problem in computer-aided design (CAD), and an efficient solution is in strong demand. Subdivision solvers are frequently used to achieve this goal; however, the subdivision process is expensive, and a vast number of subdivisions is to be expected, especially for higher-dimensional systems. Two blending schemes that efficiently reveal domains that cannot contribute by any root, and therefore significantly reduce the number of subdivisions, are proposed. Using a simple linear blend of functions of the given polynomial system, a function is sought after to be no-root contributing, with all control points of its BernsteinBézier representation of the same sign. If such a function exists, the domain is purged away from the subdivision process. The applicability is demonstrated on several CAD benchmark problems, namely surfacesurfacesurface intersection (SSSI) and surfacecurve intersection (SCI) problems, computation of the Hausdorff distance of two planar curves, or some kinematic-inspired tasks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Simple Impeller Systems for Maintenance of Oil Palm Culture Aggregates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tarmizi, A.H.; Zaiton, R.; Rosli, M.Y.

2016-01-01

Scaling up of liquid culture systems generally involves moving from the use of simple shake flasks to bioreactors or specialised vessels; this is costly. A new innovation called the Two-in-One MPOB Simple Impeller (2-in-1 MoSLIM) was developed using commonly available Schott bottles in the laboratory. This system provided simultaneous aeration and agitation (two-in-one) in a single device for tissue propagation in liquid culture. The 2-in-1 MoSLIM produced cell aggregates with fresh weight increments of two- to six-fold over 30-40 days. This system was a convenient alternative compared to the conventional shake flask system. Multiplication of cultures in the 2-in-1 MoSLIM did not require any shaker or a big space area. This system with a working volume of 300 - 700 ml used a simple impeller and a pump for agitation and aeration purposes. However, with the 2-in-1 MoSLIM, media replenishment remained a tedious task. To overcome this, modifications were made to the system to enable media replenishment on-site without the need of a sterile hood. The adaptation of 2-in-1 MoSLIM with an earlier innovation, Fast Transfer Technique (MoFaTT) in Liquid Culture System, resulted in the development of the Simple Impeller with Fast Transfer Technique (SLIM-FaTT) system. This new system can be applied to the liquid culture system of any crop with a potential towards automation. (author)

4. A simple observer of the generalized Chen chaotic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sun, Y.-J.

2009-01-01

In this paper, the generalized Chen chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Chen chaotic system is proposed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Furthermore, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main result.

5. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sun, Y.-J.

2010-01-01

In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

6. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ando, J; Matsumoto, D; Maita, S; Nakatake, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1997-10-01

This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

7. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saber, M.

1996-10-01

We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

8. Carbon dioxide angiography: a simple and safe system of delivery

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cronin, P.; Patel, J.V.; Kessel, D.O.; Robertson, I.; McPherson, S.J.

2005-01-01

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is an established alternate angiographic contrast agent, which can be delivered by pump or hand injection. We describe a simple, safe and inexpensive hand injection system that delivers a known volume of CO 2 at atmospheric pressure and prevents contamination with room air

9. A simple model for simultaneous methanogenic-denitrification systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Garibay-Orijel, C.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N.

2006-01-01

We describe a useful and simple model for studies of simultaneous methanogenic-denitrification (M-D) systems. One equation predicts an inverse relationship between the percentage of electron donor channeled into dissimilatory denitrification and the loading ratio X given by grams degradable COD per...

10. A simple approach to solving the kinematics of the 4-UPS/PS (3R1T) parallel manipulator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime; Gracio-Murillo, Mario A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya (Mexico); Islam, Md. Nazrul [Universiti Malasya Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia); Abedinnasab, Mohammad H. [Rowan University, New Jersey (United States)

2016-05-15

This work reports on the position, velocity and acceleration analyses of a four-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator, 4-DoF-PM for brevity, which generates Three-rotation-one-translation (3R1T) motion. Nearly closed-form solutions to solve the forward displacement analysis are easily obtained based on closure equations formulated upon linear combinations of the coordinates of three non-collinear points embedded in the moving platform. Then, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration of the robot manipulator are systematically established by resorting to the theory of screws. To this end, the Klein form of the Lie algebra se(3) of the Euclidean group SE(3) is systematically applied to the velocity and reduced acceleration state in screw form of the moving platform cancelling the passive joint rates of the parallel manipulator. Numerical examples, which are confirmed by means of commercially available software, are provided to show the application of the method.

11. A simple approach to solving the kinematics of the 4-UPS/PS (3R1T) parallel manipulator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime; Gracio-Murillo, Mario A.; Islam, Md. Nazrul; Abedinnasab, Mohammad H.

2016-01-01

This work reports on the position, velocity and acceleration analyses of a four-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator, 4-DoF-PM for brevity, which generates Three-rotation-one-translation (3R1T) motion. Nearly closed-form solutions to solve the forward displacement analysis are easily obtained based on closure equations formulated upon linear combinations of the coordinates of three non-collinear points embedded in the moving platform. Then, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration of the robot manipulator are systematically established by resorting to the theory of screws. To this end, the Klein form of the Lie algebra se(3) of the Euclidean group SE(3) is systematically applied to the velocity and reduced acceleration state in screw form of the moving platform cancelling the passive joint rates of the parallel manipulator. Numerical examples, which are confirmed by means of commercially available software, are provided to show the application of the method.

12. The Implementation of Problem-Solving Based Laboratory Activities to Teach the Concept of Simple Harmonic Motion in Senior High School

Science.gov (United States)

Iradat, R. D.; Alatas, F.

2017-09-01

Simple harmonic motion is considered as a relatively complex concept to be understood by students. This study attempts to implement laboratory activities that focus on solving contextual problems related to the concept. A group of senior high school students participated in this pre-experimental method from a group’s pretest-posttest research design. Laboratory activities have had a positive impact on improving students’ scientific skills, such as, formulating goals, conducting experiments, applying laboratory tools, and collecting data. Therefore this study has added to the theoretical and practical knowledge that needs to be considered to teach better complicated concepts in physics learning.

13. Integrator Performance Analysis In Solving Stiff Differential Equation System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

B, Alhadi; Basaruddin, T.

2001-01-01

In this paper we discuss the four-stage index-2 singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method, which is used to solve stiff ordinary differential equations (SODE). Stiff problems require a method where step size is not restricted by the method's stability. We desire SDIRK to be A-stable that has no stability restrictions when solving y'= λy with Reλ>0 and h>0, so by choosing suitable stability function we can determine appropriate constant g) to formulate SDIRK integrator to solve SODE. We select the second stage of the internal stage as embedded method to perform low order estimate for error predictor. The strategy for choosing the step size is adopted from the strategy proposed by Hall(1996:6). And the algorithm that is developed in this paper is implemented using MATLAB 5.3, which is running on Window's 95 environment. Our performance measurement's local truncation error accuracy, and efficiency were evaluated by statistical results of sum of steps, sum of calling functions, average of Newton iterations and elapsed times.As the results, our numerical experiment show that SDIRK is unconditionally stable. By using Hall's step size strategy, the method can be implemented efficiently, provided that suitable parameters are used

14. Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to Solve Relativistic Toda Lattice System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Qi

2010-01-01

In this letter, the homotopy analysis method is successfully applied to solve the Relativistic Toda lattice system. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. Analysis results show that homotopy analysis method is a powerful and easy-to-use analytic tool to solve systems of differential-difference equations. (general)

15. Solving nonlinear evolution equation system using two different methods

Science.gov (United States)

Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet N.

2015-12-01

This paper deals with constructing more general exact solutions of the coupled Higgs equation by using the (G0/G, 1/G)-expansion and (1/G0)-expansion methods. The obtained solutions are expressed by three types of functions: hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions with free parameters. It has been shown that the suggested methods are productive and will be used to solve nonlinear partial differential equations in applied mathematics and engineering. Throughout the paper, all the calculations are made with the aid of the Maple software.

16. The Development of Student’s Activity Sheets (SAS) Based on Multiple Intelligences and Problem-Solving Skills Using Simple Science Tools

Science.gov (United States)

Wardani, D. S.; Kirana, T.; Ibrahim, M.

2018-01-01

The aim of this research is to produce SAS based on MI and problem-solving skills using simple science tools that are suitable to be used by elementary school students. The feasibility of SAS is evaluated based on its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The completion Lesson Plan (LP) implementation and student’s activities are the indicators of SAS practicality. The effectiveness of SAS is measured by indicators of increased learning outcomes and problem-solving skills. The development of SAS follows the 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate) phase. However, this study was done until the third stage (develop). The written SAS was then validated through expert evaluation done by two experts of science, before its is tested to the target students. The try-out of SAS used one group with pre-test and post-test design. The result of this research shows that SAS is valid with “good” category. In addition, SAS is considered practical as seen from the increase of student activity at each meeting and LP implementation. Moreover, it was considered effective due to the significant difference between pre-test and post-test result of the learning outcomes and problem-solving skill test. Therefore, SAS is feasible to be used in learning.

17. Curcumin-Eudragit® E PO solid dispersion: A simple and potent method to solve the problems of curcumin.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Jinglei; Lee, Il Woo; Shin, Gye Hwa; Chen, Xiguang; Park, Hyun Jin

2015-08-01

Using a simple solution mixing method, curcumin was dispersed in the matrix of Eudragit® E PO polymer. Water solubility of curcumin in curcumin-Eudragit® E PO solid dispersion (Cur@EPO) was greatly increased. Based on the results of several tests, curcumin was demonstrated to exist in the polymer matrix in amorphous state. The interaction between curcumin and the polymer was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H NMR which implied that OH group of curcumin and carbonyl group of the polymer involved in the H bonding formation. Cur@EPO also provided protection function for curcumin as verified by the pH challenge and UV irradiation test. The pH value influenced curcumin release profile in which sustained release pattern was revealed. Additionally, in vitro transdermal test was conducted to assess the potential of Cur@EPO as a vehicle to deliver curcumin through this alternative administration route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

18. Quantitative tests of pion physics in simple nuclear systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ericson, T.E.O.

1984-01-01

The need for quantitative tests of pion physics in simple nuclear systems is discussed under eight topic headings. These include: one-pion exchange potential, p-wave NN scattering lengths, opep pole in forward NN dispersion relations, np → pn near the forward direction, pionic interactions, deuteron D/S ratio eta, deuteron quadrupole moment, and finally the joint case of eta and Q. (U.K.)

19. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit 233U systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Putman, V.L.

1997-06-01

Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL 233 U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in 233 U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed 233 U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k eff calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va

20. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2015-07-30

The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

1. Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alessandra Flammini

2007-07-01

Full Text Available This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10\$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user. Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

2. Simple model systems: a challenge for Alzheimer's disease

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Di Carlo Marta

2012-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract The success of biomedical researches has led to improvement in human health and increased life expectancy. An unexpected consequence has been an increase of age-related diseases and, in particular, neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders are generally late onset and exhibit complex pathologies including memory loss, cognitive defects, movement disorders and death. Here, it is described as the use of simple animal models such as worms, fishes, flies, Ascidians and sea urchins, have facilitated the understanding of several biochemical mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD, one of the most diffuse neurodegenerative pathologies. The discovery of specific genes and proteins associated with AD, and the development of new technologies for the production of transgenic animals, has helped researchers to overcome the lack of natural models. Moreover, simple model systems of AD have been utilized to obtain key information for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions and for testing efficacy of putative neuroprotective compounds.

3. Using a Recommendation System to Support Problem Solving and Case-Based Reasoning Retrieval

Science.gov (United States)

Tawfik, Andrew A.; Alhoori, Hamed; Keene, Charles Wayne; Bailey, Christian; Hogan, Maureen

2018-01-01

In case library learning environments, learners are presented with an array of narratives that can be used to guide their problem solving. However, according to theorists, learners struggle to identify and retrieve the optimal case to solve a new problem. Given the challenges novice face during case retrieval, recommender systems can be embedded…

4. Workflow Agents vs. Expert Systems: Problem Solving Methods in Work Systems Design

Science.gov (United States)

Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Seah, Chin

2009-01-01

During the 1980s, a community of artificial intelligence researchers became interested in formalizing problem solving methods as part of an effort called "second generation expert systems" (2nd GES). How do the motivations and results of this research relate to building tools for the workplace today? We provide an historical review of how the theory of expertise has developed, a progress report on a tool for designing and implementing model-based automation (Brahms), and a concrete example how we apply 2nd GES concepts today in an agent-based system for space flight operations (OCAMS). Brahms incorporates an ontology for modeling work practices, what people are doing in the course of a day, characterized as "activities." OCAMS was developed using a simulation-to-implementation methodology, in which a prototype tool was embedded in a simulation of future work practices. OCAMS uses model-based methods to interactively plan its actions and keep track of the work to be done. The problem solving methods of practice are interactive, employing reasoning for and through action in the real world. Analogously, it is as if a medical expert system were charged not just with interpreting culture results, but actually interacting with a patient. Our perspective shifts from building a "problem solving" (expert) system to building an actor in the world. The reusable components in work system designs include entire "problem solvers" (e.g., a planning subsystem), interoperability frameworks, and workflow agents that use and revise models dynamically in a network of people and tools. Consequently, the research focus shifts so "problem solving methods" include ways of knowing that models do not fit the world, and ways of interacting with other agents and people to gain or verify information and (ultimately) adapt rules and procedures to resolve problematic situations.

5. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

Science.gov (United States)

Gomez, Fernando

1989-01-01

It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

6. Solving large scale unit dilemma in electricity system by applying commutative law

Science.gov (United States)

Legino, Supriadi; Arianto, Rakhmat

2018-03-01

The conventional system, pooling resources with large centralized power plant interconnected as a network. provides a lot of advantages compare to the isolated one include optimizing efficiency and reliability. However, such a large plant need a huge capital. In addition, more problems emerged to hinder the construction of big power plant as well as its associated transmission lines. By applying commutative law of math, ab = ba, for all a,b €-R, the problem associated with conventional system as depicted above, can be reduced. The idea of having small unit but many power plants, namely “Listrik Kerakyatan,” abbreviated as LK provides both social and environmental benefit that could be capitalized by using proper assumption. This study compares the cost and benefit of LK to those of conventional system, using simulation method to prove that LK offers alternative solution to answer many problems associated with the large system. Commutative Law of Algebra can be used as a simple mathematical model to analyze whether the LK system as an eco-friendly distributed generation can be applied to solve various problems associated with a large scale conventional system. The result of simulation shows that LK provides more value if its plants operate in less than 11 hours as peaker power plant or load follower power plant to improve load curve balance of the power system. The result of simulation indicates that the investment cost of LK plant should be optimized in order to minimize the plant investment cost. This study indicates that the benefit of economies of scale principle does not always apply to every condition, particularly if the portion of intangible cost and benefit is relatively high.

7. EDDYMULT: a computing system for solving eddy current problems in a multi-torus system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nakamura, Yukiharu; Ozeki, Takahisa

1989-03-01

A new computing system EDDYMULT based on the finite element circuit method has been developed to solve actual eddy current problems in a multi-torus system, which consists of many torus-conductors and various kinds of axisymmetric poloidal field coils. The EDDYMULT computing system can deal three-dimensionally with the modal decomposition of eddy current in a multi-torus system, the transient phenomena of eddy current distributions and the resultant magnetic field. Therefore, users can apply the computing system to the solution of the eddy current problems in a tokamak fusion device, such as the design of poloidal field coil power supplies, the mechanical stress design of the intensive electromagnetic loading on device components and the control analysis of plasma position. The present report gives a detailed description of the EDDYMULT system as an user's manual: 1) theory, 2) structure of the code system, 3) input description, 4) problem restrictions, 5) description of the subroutines, etc. (author)

8. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-04-01

Full Text Available The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded project Intelligent Surgical Robotics (I-SUR. The main goal of the project is to demonstrate that autonomous robotic surgical systems can carry out simple surgical tasks effectively and without major intervention by surgeons. To fulfil this goal, we have developed innovative solutions (both in terms of technologies and algorithms for the following aspects: fabrication of soft organ models starting from CT images, surgical planning and execution of movement of robot arms in contact with a deformable environment, designing a surgical interface minimizing the cognitive load of the surgeon supervising the actions, intra-operative sensing and reasoning to detect normal transitions and unexpected events. All these technologies have been integrated using a component-based software architecture to control a novel robot designed to perform the surgical actions under study. In this work we provide an overview of our system and report on preliminary results of the automatic execution of needle insertion for the cryoablation of kidney tumours.

9. Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems

Science.gov (United States)

Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

2018-04-01

In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.

10. Shilnikov sense chaos in a simple three-dimensional system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wei, Wang; Qi-Chang, Zhang; Rui-Lan, Tian

2010-01-01

The Shilnikov sense Smale horseshoe chaos in a simple 3D nonlinear system is studied. The proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is improved by introducing the quadratic and cubic nonlinearities into the governing equations. For the discussion of chaos, the bifurcate parameter value is selected in a reasonable regime at the requirement of the Shilnikov theorem. The analytic expression of the Shilnikov type homoclinic orbit is accomplished. It depends on the series form of the manifolds surrounding the saddle-focus equilibrium. Then the methodology is extended to research the dynamical behaviours of the simplified solar-wind-driven-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. As is illustrated, the Lyapunov characteristic exponent spectra of the two systems indicate the existence of chaotic attractor under some specific parameter conditions

11. Solving polynomial systems using no-root elimination blending schemes

KAUST Repository

Barton, Michael

2011-01-01

Searching for the roots of (piecewise) polynomial systems of equations is a crucial problem in computer-aided design (CAD), and an efficient solution is in strong demand. Subdivision solvers are frequently used to achieve this goal; however

12. Analytical-Algebraic Approach to Solving Chaotic System

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Beran, Zdeněk; Čelikovský, Sergej

2016-01-01

Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 1650051. ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Laplace transform * Laplace-Adomian decomposition * Adomian polynomials * nonlinear systems * chaos Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/TR/beran-0458430.pdf

13. A Simple Instrumentation System for Large Structure Vibration Monitoring

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Didik R. Santoso

2010-12-01

Full Text Available Traditional instrumentation systems used for monitoring vibration of large-scale infrastructure building such as bridges, railway, and others structural building, generally have a complex design. Makes it simple would be very useful both in terms of low-cost and easy maintenance. This paper describes how to develop the instrumentation system. The system is built based on distributed network, with field bus topology, using single-master multi-slave architecture. Master is a control unit, built based on a PC equipped with RS-485 interface. Slave is a sensing unit; each slave was built by integrating a 3-axis vibration sensor with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. Vibration sensor is designed using the main components of a MEMS accelerometer. While the software is developed for two functions: as a control system hardware and data processing. To verify performance of the developed instrumentation system, several laboratory tests have been performed. The result shows that the system has good performance.

14. Australian health system restructuring - what problem is being solved?

Science.gov (United States)

Dwyer, Judith M

2004-11-19

BACKGROUND: In recent years, Australian state and territory governments have reviewed and restructured the health systems they lead and regulate. This paper examines the outcomes of the most recent official published reviews of systems and structures; identifies the common themes; and addresses two questions: what problems are being addressed? And how would we know if the changes were successful? RESULTS: In all the broad, systemic reviews, the main health system problems identified were money, hospital utilisation and a weak primary health care system. The solutions are various, but there is a common trend towards centralisation of governance, often at state health authority level, and stronger accountability measures. Other common themes are hospital substitution (services to avoid the need for admission); calls for cooperation across the Commonwealth:state divide, or for its abolition; and the expected range of current efficiency and effectiveness measures (eg amalgamate pathology and support services) and ideas in good currency (eg call centres). The top-down nature of the public review process is noted, along with the political nature of the immediate catalysts for calling on a review. CONCLUSION: The long-standing tension between the pull to centralisation of authority and the need for innovation in care models is heightened by recent changes, which may be counterproductive in an era dominated by the burden of chronic disease. I argue that the current reforms will not succeed in achieving the stated goals unless they make a difference for people with chronic illness. And if this is correct, the most useful focus for evaluation of the success of the reforms may be their impact on the system's ability to develop and deliver better models of care for this growing group of patients.

15. Testing reactive systems with data: enumerative methods and constraint solving

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Calamé, Jens Rüdiger

2008-01-01

Software faults are a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, they are just annoying – if the computer game does not work as expected – or expensive – if once again a space project fails due to some faulty data conversion. In critical systems, however, faults can have life-threatening consequences. It

16. Derivative free Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations

Science.gov (United States)

Mamat, M.; Dauda, M. K.; Mohamed, M. A. bin; Waziri, M. Y.; Mohamad, F. S.; Abdullah, H.

2018-03-01

Research from the work of engineers, economist, modelling, industry, computing, and scientist are mostly nonlinear equations in nature. Numerical solution to such systems is widely applied in those areas of mathematics. Over the years, there has been significant theoretical study to develop methods for solving such systems, despite these efforts, unfortunately the methods developed do have deficiency. In a contribution to solve systems of the form F(x) = 0, x ∈ Rn , a derivative free method via the classical Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) update is presented. This is achieved by simply approximating the inverse Hessian matrix with {Q}k+1-1 to θkI. The modified method satisfied the descent condition and possess local superlinear convergence properties. Interestingly, without computing any derivative, the proposed method never fail to converge throughout the numerical experiments. The output is based on number of iterations and CPU time, different initial starting points were used on a solve 40 benchmark test problems. With the aid of the squared norm merit function and derivative-free line search technique, the approach yield a method of solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations that is capable of significantly reducing the CPU time and number of iteration, as compared to its counterparts. A comparison between the proposed method and classical DFP update were made and found that the proposed methodis the top performer and outperformed the existing method in almost all the cases. In terms of number of iterations, out of the 40 problems solved, the proposed method solved 38 successfully, (95%) while classical DFP solved 2 problems (i.e. 05%). In terms of CPU time, the proposed method solved 29 out of the 40 problems given, (i.e.72.5%) successfully whereas classical DFP solves 11 (27.5%). The method is valid in terms of derivation, reliable in terms of number of iterations and accurate in terms of CPU time. Thus, suitable and achived the objective.

17. Solving Complex Logistics Problems with Multi-Artificial Intelligent System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Y.K. Tse

2009-10-01

Full Text Available The economy, which has become more information intensive, more global and more technologically dependent, is undergoing dramatic changes. The role of logistics is also becoming more and more important. In logistics, the objective of service providers is to fulfill all customers? demands while adapting to the dynamic changes of logistics networks so as to achieve a higher degree of customer satisfaction and therefore a higher return on investment. In order to provide high quality service, knowledge and information sharing among departments becomes a must in this fast changing market environment. In particular, artificial intelligence (AI technologies have achieved significant attention for enhancing the agility of supply chain management, as well as logistics operations. In this research, a multi-artificial intelligence system, named Integrated Intelligent Logistics System (IILS is proposed. The objective of IILS is to provide quality logistics solutions to achieve high levels of service performance in the logistics industry. The new feature of this agile intelligence system is characterized by the incorporation of intelligence modules through the capabilities of the case-based reasoning, multi-agent, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, achieving the optimization of the performance of organizations.

18. A simple tracking system to monitor solar PV panels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bentaher, H.; Kaich, H.; Ayadi, N.; Ben Hmouda, M.; Maalej, A.; Lemmer, U.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • We designed and constructed a solar tracking system based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). • A study was made to determine the optimal angle of LDRs inducing the best precision of the device. • An experimental system was built to test different values of the angle between LDRs. • Results showed a good agreement between the experience and the predicted values. • The obtained results are useful for the design of new trackers based on the use of LDRs. - Abstract: The solar tracking systems are a center of interest of a big number of researchers from the fifties. The deflection of sun rays on a solar photovoltaic panel can reduce its power output until 50%. For concentrators solar trackers are master parts of the systems. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Good agreement was recorded between numerical optimization results and experimental ones. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers

19. Nonlinear evolution equations and solving algebraic systems: the importance of computer algebra

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gerdt, V.P.; Kostov, N.A.

1989-01-01

In the present paper we study the application of computer algebra to solve the nonlinear polynomial systems which arise in investigation of nonlinear evolution equations. We consider several systems which are obtained in classification of integrable nonlinear evolution equations with uniform rank. Other polynomial systems are related with the finding of algebraic curves for finite-gap elliptic potentials of Lame type and generalizations. All systems under consideration are solved using the method based on construction of the Groebner basis for corresponding polynomial ideals. The computations have been carried out using computer algebra systems. 20 refs

20. Computer programs for solving systems of nonlinear equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asaoka, Takumi

1978-03-01

Computer programs to find a solution, usually the one closest to some guess, of a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations are provided for real functions of the real arguments. These are based on quasi-Newton methods or projection methods, which are briefly reviewed in the present report. Benchmark tests were performed on these subroutines to grasp their characteristics. As the program not requiring analytical forms of the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, we have dealt with NS01A of Powell, NS03A of Reid for a system with the sparse Jacobian and NONLIN of Brown. Of these three subroutines of quasi-Newton methods, NONLIN is shown to be the most useful because of its stable algorithm and short computation time. On the other hand, as the subroutine for which the derivatives of the Jacobian are to be supplied analytically, we have tested INTECH of a quasi-Newton method based on the Boggs' algorithm, PROJA of Georg and Keller based on the projection method and an option of NS03A. The results have shown that INTECH, treating variables which appear only linearly in the functions separately, takes the shortest computation time, on the whole, while the projection method requires further research to find an optimal algorithm. (auth.)

1. Inverse bifurcation analysis: application to simple gene systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Schuster Peter

2006-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifurcation analysis has proven to be a powerful method for understanding the qualitative behavior of gene regulatory networks. In addition to the more traditional forward problem of determining the mapping from parameter space to the space of model behavior, the inverse problem of determining model parameters to result in certain desired properties of the bifurcation diagram provides an attractive methodology for addressing important biological problems. These include understanding how the robustness of qualitative behavior arises from system design as well as providing a way to engineer biological networks with qualitative properties. Results We demonstrate that certain inverse bifurcation problems of biological interest may be cast as optimization problems involving minimal distances of reference parameter sets to bifurcation manifolds. This formulation allows for an iterative solution procedure based on performing a sequence of eigen-system computations and one-parameter continuations of solutions, the latter being a standard capability in existing numerical bifurcation software. As applications of the proposed method, we show that the problem of maximizing regions of a given qualitative behavior as well as the reverse engineering of bistable gene switches can be modelled and efficiently solved.

2. Solving the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma of recommender systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Tao; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Liu, Jian-Guo; Medo, Matús; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2010-03-09

Recommender systems use data on past user preferences to predict possible future likes and interests. A key challenge is that while the most useful individual recommendations are to be found among diverse niche objects, the most reliably accurate results are obtained by methods that recommend objects based on user or object similarity. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity and show how it can be used to resolve this apparent dilemma when combined in an elegant hybrid with an accuracy-focused algorithm. By tuning the hybrid appropriately we are able to obtain, without relying on any semantic or context-specific information, simultaneous gains in both accuracy and diversity of recommendations.

3. Multiobjective CVaR Optimization Model and Solving Method for Hydrothermal System Considering Uncertain Load Demand

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhongfu Tan

2015-01-01

Full Text Available In order to solve the influence of load uncertainty on hydrothermal power system operation and achieve the optimal objectives of system power generation consumption, pollutant emissions, and first-stage hydropower station storage capacity, this paper introduced CVaR method and built a multiobjective optimization model and its solving method. In the optimization model, load demand’s actual values and deviation values are regarded as random variables, scheduling objective is redefined to meet confidence level requirement and system operation constraints and loss function constraints are taken into consideration. To solve the proposed model, this paper linearized nonlinear constraints, applied fuzzy satisfaction, fuzzy entropy, and weighted multiobjective function theories to build a fuzzy entropy multiobjective CVaR model. The model is a mixed integer linear programming problem. Then, six thermal power plants and three cascade hydropower stations are taken as the hydrothermal system for numerical simulation. The results verified that multiobjective CVaR method is applicable to solve hydrothermal scheduling problems. It can better reflect risk level of the scheduling result. The fuzzy entropy satisfaction degree solving algorithm can simplify solving difficulty and get the optimum operation scheduling scheme.

4. A simple data loss model for positron camera systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eriksson, L.; Dahlbom, M.

1994-01-01

A simple model to describe data losses in PET cameras is presented. The model is not intended to be used primarily for dead time corrections in existing scanners, although this is possible. Instead the model is intended to be used for data simulations in order to determine the figures of merit of future camera systems, based on data handling state-of-art solutions. The model assumes the data loss to be factorized into two components, one describing the detector or block-detector performance and the other the remaining data handling such as coincidence determinations, data transfer and data storage. Two modern positron camera systems have been investigated in terms of this model. These are the Siemens-CTI ECAT EXACT and ECAT EXACT HR systems, which both have an axial field-of-view (FOV) of about 15 cm. They both have retractable septa and can acquire data from the whole volume within the FOV and can reconstruct volume image data. An example is given how to use the model for live time calculation in a futuristic large axial FOV cylindrical system

5. Metadata In, Library Out. A Simple, Robust Digital Library System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tonio Loewald

2010-06-01

Full Text Available Tired of being held hostage to expensive systems that did not meet our needs, the University of Alabama Libraries developed an XML schema-agnostic, light-weight digital library delivery system based on the principles of "Keep It Simple, Stupid!" Metadata and derivatives reside in openly accessible web directories, which support the development of web agents and new usability software, as well as modification and complete retrieval at any time. The file name structure is echoed in the file system structure, enabling the delivery software to make inferences about relationships, sequencing, and complex object structure without having to encapsulate files in complex metadata schemas. The web delivery system, Acumen, is built of PHP, JSON, JavaScript and HTML5, using MySQL to support fielded searching. Recognizing that spreadsheets are more user-friendly than XML, an accompanying widget, Archivists Utility, transforms spreadsheets into MODS based on rules selected by the user. Acumen, Archivists Utility, and all supporting software scripts will be made available as open source.

6. Simple optical readout for ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimetry system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

1999-01-01

Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) or Dvornik dosimetry system is based on the development of the coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance one displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It is shown that by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of this reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

7. Simple optical readout for ethanol - chlorobenzene dosimetry system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

1999-01-01

Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB or Dvornik dosimetry system) is based on the development of coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It was shown, by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution, the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of the same reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

8. The Improvement of Communication and Inference Skills in Colloid System Material by Problem Solving Learning Model

OpenAIRE

maisarera, yunita; diawati, chansyanah; fadiawati, noor

2012-01-01

The aim of this research is to describe the effectiveness of problem solving learning in improving communication and inference skills in colloid system material.Â Subjects in this research were students of XIIPA1 and XI IPA2 classrooms in Persada Junior High School in Bandar Lampung in academic year 2011-2012 where students of both classrooms had the same characteristics. This research used quasi experiment method and pretest-posttest control group design. Effectiveness of problem solving le...

9. New approach to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations using ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

This paper proposes two new methods to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations. The fuzzy system has been converted to a crisp system of linear equations by using single and double parametric form of fuzzy numbers to obtain the non-negative solution. Double parametric form of fuzzy numbers is defined and applied ...

10. Simple biophysical model of tumor evasion from immune system control

Science.gov (United States)

D'Onofrio, Alberto; Ciancio, Armando

2011-09-01

The competitive nonlinear interplay between a tumor and the host's immune system is not only very complex but is also time-changing. A fundamental aspect of this issue is the ability of the tumor to slowly carry out processes that gradually allow it to become less harmed and less susceptible to recognition by the immune system effectors. Here we propose a simple epigenetic escape mechanism that adaptively depends on the interactions per time unit between cells of the two systems. From a biological point of view, our model is based on the concept that a tumor cell that has survived an encounter with a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) has an information gain that it transmits to the other cells of the neoplasm. The consequence of this information increase is a decrease in both the probabilities of being killed and of being recognized by a CTL. We show that the mathematical model of this mechanism is formally equal to an evolutionary imitation game dynamics. Numerical simulations of transitory phases complement the theoretical analysis. Implications of the interplay between the above mechanisms and the delivery of immunotherapies are also illustrated.

11. Operational strategy and marginal costs in simple trigeneration systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lozano, M.A.; Carvalho, M.; Serra, L.M.

2009-01-01

As a direct result of economic pressures to cut expenses, as well as the legal obligation to reduce emissions, companies and businesses are seeking ways to use energy more efficiently. Trigeneration systems (CHCP: Combined Heating, Cooling and Power generation) allow greater operational flexibility at sites with a variable demand for energy in the form of heating and cooling. This is particularly relevant in buildings where the need for heating is restricted to a few winter months. In summer, the absorption chillers make use of the cogenerated heat to produce chilled water, avoiding waste heat discharge. The operation of a simple trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is interconnected to the electric utility grid, both to receive electricity and to deliver surplus electricity. For any given demand required by the users, a great number of operating conditions are possible. A linear programming model provides the operational mode with the lowest variable cost. A thermoeconomic analysis, based on marginal production costs, is used to obtain unit costs for internal energy flows and final products as well as to explain the best operational strategy as a function of the demand for energy services and the prices of the resources consumed. (author)

12. A simple wavelength division multiplexing system for active learning teaching

Science.gov (United States)

Zghal, Mourad; Ghalila, Hassen; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

2009-06-01

The active learning project consists in a series of workshops for educators, researchers and students and promotes an innovative method of teaching physics using simple, inexpensive materials that can be fabricated locally. The objective of the project is to train trainers and inspire students to learn physics. The workshops are based on the use of laboratory work and hands-on activities in the classroom. The interpretation of these experiments is challenging for some students, and the experiments can lead to a significant amount of discussion. The workshops are organized within the framework of the project Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP) mainly funded by UNESCO, with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE. ALOP workshops offer high school, college or university physics teachers the opportunity to improve their conceptual understanding of optics. These workshops usually run for five days and cover several of the topics usually found in any introductory university physics program. Optics and photonics are used as subject matter because it is relevant as well as adaptable to research and educational conditions in many developing countries [1]. In this paper, we will mainly focus on a specific topic of the ALOP workshops, namely optical communications and Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology (WDM). This activity was originally developed by Mazzolini et al [2]. WDM is a technology used in fibre-optic communications for transmitting two or more separate signals over a single fibre optic cable by using a separate wavelength for each signal. Multiple signals are carried together as separate wavelengths of light in a multiplexed signal. Simple and inexpensive WDM system was implemented in our laboratory using light emitting diodes or diode lasers, plastic optical fibres, a set of optical filters and lenses, prism or grating, and photodiodes. Transmission of audio signals using home-made, simple

13. Chosen interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix

Science.gov (United States)

Szyszka, Barbara

2013-10-01

The paper is devoted to chosen direct interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix. This kind of matrix: band matrix with a parameter, from finite difference problem is obtained. Such linear systems occur while solving one dimensional wave equation (Partial Differential Equations of hyperbolic type) by using the central difference interval method of the second order. Interval methods are constructed so as the errors of method are enclosed in obtained results, therefore presented linear interval systems contain elements that determining the errors of difference method. The chosen direct algorithms have been applied for solving linear systems because they have no errors of method. All calculations were performed in floating-point interval arithmetic.

14. Models of resource allocation optimization when solving the control problems in organizational systems

Science.gov (United States)

Menshikh, V.; Samorokovskiy, A.; Avsentev, O.

2018-03-01

The mathematical model of optimizing the allocation of resources to reduce the time for management decisions and algorithms to solve the general problem of resource allocation. The optimization problem of choice of resources in organizational systems in order to reduce the total execution time of a job is solved. This problem is a complex three-level combinatorial problem, for the solving of which it is necessary to implement the solution to several specific problems: to estimate the duration of performing each action, depending on the number of performers within the group that performs this action; to estimate the total execution time of all actions depending on the quantitative composition of groups of performers; to find such a distribution of the existing resource of performers in groups to minimize the total execution time of all actions. In addition, algorithms to solve the general problem of resource allocation are proposed.

15. A New Numerical Technique for Solving Systems Of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mountassir Hamdi Cherif

2017-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we apply an efficient method called the Aboodh decomposition method to solve systems of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. This method is a combined form of Aboodh transform with Adomian decomposition method. The theoretical analysis of this investigated for systems of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations is calculated in the explicit form of a power series with easily computable terms. Some examples are given to shows that this method is very efficient and accurate. This method can be applied to solve others nonlinear systems problems.

16. Effective methods of solving of model equations of certain class of thermal systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lach, J.

1985-01-01

A number of topics connected with solving of model equations of certain class of thermal systems by the method of successive approximations is touched. A system of partial differential equations of the first degree, appearing most frequently in practical applications of heat and mass transfer theory is reduced to an equivalent system of Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Among a few sample applications the thermal processes appearing in the fuel channel of nuclear reactor are solved. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by the results of numerical calculations given in tables and diagrams. 111 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs. (author)

17. MACEDONIAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUDICIAL SYSTEM FOR SOLVING ADMINISTRATIVE DISPUTES COMPARABLE TO EUROPEAN SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-07-01

Full Text Available The structure of the legal system, through history until today mostly depends on law and policy which is conducted by the country. In European countries, there is position for historical and cultural conceptions for administrative judicature, differences and similarity that leave mark for solving administrative disputes. The obligation – an internal judicial reform to be established in legal system, is conducted by each of the countries after the breaking down and division of Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY due to following the European law for constitution of legitimacy and constitutionality of acts as well as implementing of independent administrative judicature. Analyze of the current condition regarding the independency and objectiveness of the judicature is necessary in our country and it is important to be seen how the conditions for working of the administrative judicature can be improved.

18. A Simple and Effective Remedial Learning System with a Fuzzy Expert System

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, C.-C.; Guo, K.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.

2016-01-01

This study aims at implementing a simple and effective remedial learning system. Based on fuzzy inference, a remedial learning material selection system is proposed for a digital logic course. Two learning concepts of the course have been used in the proposed system: number systems and combinational logic. We conducted an experiment to validate…

19. Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat? The case of simple dynamic systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Lungwitz, Vivien; Sedlmeier, Peter; Schwarz, Marcus

2018-05-31

Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

20. A Flowchart-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Improving Problem-Solving Skills of Novice Programmers

Science.gov (United States)

Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.

2015-01-01

Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…

1. The mathematical statement for the solving of the problem of N-version software system design

Science.gov (United States)

Kovalev, I. V.; Kovalev, D. I.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Voroshilova, A. A.

2015-10-01

The N-version programming, as a methodology of the fault-tolerant software systems design, allows successful solving of the mentioned tasks. The use of N-version programming approach turns out to be effective, since the system is constructed out of several parallel executed versions of some software module. Those versions are written to meet the same specification but by different programmers. The problem of developing an optimal structure of N-version software system presents a kind of very complex optimization problem. This causes the use of deterministic optimization methods inappropriate for solving the stated problem. In this view, exploiting heuristic strategies looks more rational. In the field of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory, the so called method of varied probabilities (MVP) has been developed to solve problems with a large dimensionality.

2. Solving large-scale sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems of equations for accelerator modeling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gene Golub; Kwok Ko

2009-01-01

The solutions of sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems constitute one of the key computational kernels in the discretization of partial differential equations for the modeling of linear accelerators. The computational challenges faced by existing techniques for solving those sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems call for continuing research to improve on the algorithms so that ever increasing problem size as required by the physics application can be tackled. Under the support of this award, the filter algorithm for solving large sparse eigenvalue problems was developed at Stanford to address the computational difficulties in the previous methods with the goal to enable accelerator simulations on then the world largest unclassified supercomputer at NERSC for this class of problems. Specifically, a new method, the Hemitian skew-Hemitian splitting method, was proposed and researched as an improved method for solving linear systems with non-Hermitian positive definite and semidefinite matrices.

3. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

Science.gov (United States)

Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

2008-10-01

In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

4. Photolithography diagnostic expert systems: a systematic approach to problem solving in a wafer fabrication facility

Science.gov (United States)

Weatherwax Scott, Caroline; Tsareff, Christopher R.

1990-06-01

One of the main goals of process engineering in the semiconductor industry is to improve wafer fabrication productivity and throughput. Engineers must work continuously toward this goal in addition to performing sustaining and development tasks. To accomplish these objectives, managers must make efficient use of engineering resources. One of the tools being used to improve efficiency is the diagnostic expert system. Expert systems are knowledge based computer programs designed to lead the user through the analysis and solution of a problem. Several photolithography diagnostic expert systems have been implemented at the Hughes Technology Center to provide a systematic approach to process problem solving. This systematic approach was achieved by documenting cause and effect analyses for a wide variety of processing problems. This knowledge was organized in the form of IF-THEN rules, a common structure for knowledge representation in expert system technology. These rules form the knowledge base of the expert system which is stored in the computer. The systems also include the problem solving methodology used by the expert when addressing a problem in his area of expertise. Operators now use the expert systems to solve many process problems without engineering assistance. The systems also facilitate the collection of appropriate data to assist engineering in solving unanticipated problems. Currently, several expert systems have been implemented to cover all aspects of the photolithography process. The systems, which have been in use for over a year, include wafer surface preparation (HMDS), photoresist coat and softbake, align and expose on a wafer stepper, and develop inspection. These systems are part of a plan to implement an expert system diagnostic environment throughout the wafer fabrication facility. In this paper, the systems' construction is described, including knowledge acquisition, rule construction, knowledge refinement, testing, and evaluation. The roles

5. A Simple Neural Network System for Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Kaplan, Gulay

2001-01-01

.... A simple model based on winner take all network and multi layer perceptron suffices to model the affect of frontal lobe damage, which leads to perseveration as diminishing the influence of reinforcement...

6. Solving differential–algebraic equation systems by means of index reduction methodology

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sørensen, Kim; Houbak, Niels; Condra, Thomas

2006-01-01

of a number of differential equations and algebraic equations — a so called DAE system. Two of the DAE systems are of index 1 and they can be solved by means of standard DAE-solvers. For the actual application, the equation systems are integrated by means of MATLAB’s solver: ode23t, that solves moderately...... stiff ODEs and index 1 DAEs by means of the trapezoidal rule. The last sub-model that models the boilers steam drum consist of two differential and three algebraic equations. The index of this model is greater than 1, which means that ode23t cannot integrate this equation system. In this paper......, it is shown how the equation system, by means of an index reduction methodology, can be reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations — ODEs....

7. Solving differential-algebraic equation systems by means of index reduction methodology

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sørensen, Kim; Houbak, Niels; Condra, Thomas Joseph

2006-01-01

of a number of differential equations and algebraic equations - a so called DAE system. Two of the DAE systems are of index 1 and they can be solved by means of standard DAE-solvers. For the actual application, the equation systems are integrated by means of MATLAB’s solver: ode23t, that solves moderately...... stiff ODE’s and index 1 DAE’s by means of the trapezoidal rule. The last sub-model that models the boilers steam drum consist of two differential and three algebraic equations. The index of this model is greater than 1, which means that ode23t cannot integrate this equation system. In this paper......, it is shown how the equation system, by means of an index reduction methodology, can be reduced to a system of Ordinary- Differential-Equations - ODE’s....

8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: 1994 AND 1999 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Science.gov (United States)

These two national conferences, held in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1994 and 1999, addressed the area of environmental problem solving with Geographic Information Systems. This CD-ROM is a compilation of the proceedings in PDF format. The emphasis of the conference presentations were on ...

9. More on Generalizations and Modifications of Iterative Methods for Solving Large Sparse Indefinite Linear Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jen-Yuan Chen

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Continuing from the works of Li et al. (2014, Li (2007, and Kincaid et al. (2000, we present more generalizations and modifications of iterative methods for solving large sparse symmetric and nonsymmetric indefinite systems of linear equations. We discuss a variety of iterative methods such as GMRES, MGMRES, MINRES, LQ-MINRES, QR MINRES, MMINRES, MGRES, and others.

10. The Interactions between Problem Solving and Conceptual Change: System Dynamic Modelling as a Platform for Learning

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Chwee Beng

2010-01-01

This study examines the interactions between problem solving and conceptual change in an elementary science class where students build system dynamic models as a form of problem representations. Through mostly qualitative findings, we illustrate the interplay of three emerging intervening conditions (epistemological belief, structural knowledge…

11. Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method for Solving System of Fredholm Integral Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bahman Ghazanfari

2013-08-01

Full Text Available In this paper, optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM is applied to solve system of Fredholm integral equations. The effectiveness of optimal homotopy asymptotic method is presented. This method provides easy tools to control the convergence region of approximating solution series wherever necessary. The results of OHAM are compared with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and Taylor series expansion method (TSEM.

12. Asymptotic behavior of a diffusive scheme solving the inviscid one-dimensional pressureless gases system

OpenAIRE

Boudin , Laurent; Mathiaud , Julien

2012-01-01

In this work, we discuss some numerical properties of the viscous numerical scheme introduced in [Boudin, Mathiaud, NMPDE 2012] to solve the one-dimensional pressureless gases system, and study in particular, from a computational viewpoint, its asymptotic behavior when the viscosity parameter used in the scheme becomes smaller.

13. The Prehistory of Discovery: Precursors of Representational Change in Solving Gear System Problems.

Science.gov (United States)

Dixon, James A.; Bangert, Ashley S.

2002-01-01

This study investigated whether the process of representational change undergoes developmental change or different processes occupy different niches in the course of knowledge acquisition. Subjects--college, third-, and sixth-grade students--solved gear system problems over two sessions. Findings indicated that for all grades, discovery of the…

14. A simple multiprocessor management system for event-parallel computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bracker, S.; Gounder, K.; Hendrix, K.; Summers, D.

1996-01-01

Offline software using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) sockets to distribute particle physics events to multiple UNIX/RISC workstations is described. A modular, building block approach was taken that allowed tailoring to solve specific tasks efficiently and simply as they arose. The modest, initial cost was having to learn about sockets for interprocess communication. This multiprocessor management software has been used to control the reconstruction of eight billion raw data events from Fermilab Experiment E791

15. A matrix formalism to solve interface condition equations in a reactor system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Matausek, M V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

1970-05-15

When a nuclear reactor or a reactor lattice cell is treated by an approximate procedure to solve the neutron transport equation, as the last computational step often appears a problem of solving systems of algebraic equations stating the interface and boundary conditions for the neutron flux moments. These systems have usually the coefficient matrices of the block-bi diagonal type, containing thus a large number of zero elements. In the present report it is shown how such a system can be solved efficiently accounting for all the zero elements both in the coefficient matrix and in the free term vector. The procedure is presented here for the case of multigroup P{sub 3} calculation of neutron flux distribution in a cylindrical reactor lattice cell. Compared with the standard gaussian elimination method, this procedure is more advantageous both in respect to the number of operations needed to solve a given problem and in respect to the computer memory storage requirements. A similar formalism can also be applied for other approximate methods, for instance for multigroup diffusion treatment of a multi zone reactor. (author)

16. Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.

Science.gov (United States)

Musen, M A

1998-01-01

When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community.

17. A semi-analytical approach for solving of nonlinear systems of functional differential equations with delay

Science.gov (United States)

Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk

2017-07-01

In the paper, we propose a correct and efficient semi-analytical approach to solve initial value problem for systems of functional differential equations with delay. The idea is to combine the method of steps and differential transformation method (DTM). In the latter, formulas for proportional arguments and nonlinear terms are used. An example of using this technique for a system with constant and proportional delays is presented.

18. A simple time-delayed method to control chaotic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

2004-01-01

Based on the adaptive iterative learning strategy, a simple time-delayed controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. This controller includes two parts: one is a linear feedback part; the other is an adaptive iterative learning estimation part. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of this controller

19. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

Science.gov (United States)

Denny, Mark

2010-01-01

The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

20. A simple ion implantation system for solar cells

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kenny, M.J.; Bird, J.R.; Broe, H.G.

1982-11-01

A project has been initiated to investigate simple but effective ion implantation and pulsed annealing techniques for the fabrication of high efficiency silicon solar cells. In particular, the method aims to eliminate the mass analyser and associated components from the implanter. A solid feed source is used in a clean ultra high vacuum environment to minimise impurities

1. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

Science.gov (United States)

Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

2010-01-01

Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

2. A toolbox to solve coupled systems of differential and difference equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de

2016-01-01

We present algorithms to solve coupled systems of linear differential equations, arising in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions at 3-loop order, which do not request special choices of bases. Here we assume that the desired solution has a power series representation and we seek for the coefficients in closed form. In particular, if the coefficients depend on a small parameter ε (the dimensional parameter), we assume that the coefficients themselves can be expanded in formal Laurent series w.r.t. ε and we try to compute the first terms in closed form. More precisely, we have a decision algorithm which solves the following problem: if the terms can be represented by an indefinite nested hypergeometric sum expression (covering as special cases the harmonic sums, cyclotomic sums, generalized harmonic sums or nested binomial sums), then we can calculate them. If the algorithm fails, we obtain a proof that the terms cannot be represented by the class of indefinite nested hypergeometric sum expressions. Internally, this problem is reduced by holonomic closure properties to solving a coupled system of linear difference equations. The underlying method in this setting relies on decoupling algorithms, difference ring algorithms and recurrence solving. We demonstrate by a concrete example how this algorithm can be applied with the new Mathematica package SolveCoupledSystem which is based on the packages Sigma, HarmonicSums and OreSys. In all applications the representation in x-space is obtained as an iterated integral representation over general alphabets, generalizing Poincare iterated integrals.

3. A toolbox to solve coupled systems of differential and difference equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Linz Univ. (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)

2016-01-15

We present algorithms to solve coupled systems of linear differential equations, arising in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions at 3-loop order, which do not request special choices of bases. Here we assume that the desired solution has a power series representation and we seek for the coefficients in closed form. In particular, if the coefficients depend on a small parameter ε (the dimensional parameter), we assume that the coefficients themselves can be expanded in formal Laurent series w.r.t. ε and we try to compute the first terms in closed form. More precisely, we have a decision algorithm which solves the following problem: if the terms can be represented by an indefinite nested hypergeometric sum expression (covering as special cases the harmonic sums, cyclotomic sums, generalized harmonic sums or nested binomial sums), then we can calculate them. If the algorithm fails, we obtain a proof that the terms cannot be represented by the class of indefinite nested hypergeometric sum expressions. Internally, this problem is reduced by holonomic closure properties to solving a coupled system of linear difference equations. The underlying method in this setting relies on decoupling algorithms, difference ring algorithms and recurrence solving. We demonstrate by a concrete example how this algorithm can be applied with the new Mathematica package SolveCoupledSystem which is based on the packages Sigma, HarmonicSums and OreSys. In all applications the representation in x-space is obtained as an iterated integral representation over general alphabets, generalizing Poincare iterated integrals.

4. Volume reduction system by soil classifying. Soil-washing system and problems to be solved

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oshino, Yoshio

2016-01-01

Radioactive contamination of ground surfaces, buildings and forests in a broad area was caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The national government and municipalities have still been carrying out the decontamination works for livelihood areas after five years from the accident. The government estimated that the amounts of soils and wastes removed by the decontamination works would be about 28,000,000 cubic meters maximum including 20,000,000 cubic meters maximum of soils. The removed soils will be stored in “Interim Storage Facility” then will be finally disposed outside of Fukushima prefecture within 30 years. On the other hand, shortage of the soils as materials needed for the revitalization in Fukushima prefecture is expected. Technical Advisory Council on Remediation and Waste Management, which consists of about 90 companies, started a working group to investigate solutions to these problems. The working group focused on the investigation of the possibility to recycle the soils by washing and classification to use them as the materials for civil engineering works, and to reduce the volume of the interim storage. In the first part of this report, we have evaluated the applicability of various technologies for purification and volume reduction of the removed soils, and have researched usages, required quantities and specifications of the recycled soils. In the second part, we have made trial calculations of the volume reduction effects and costs using the washing and classification system. The calculated results showed the possibilities of reducing the storage capacity of the interim storage facility, as well as the construction and the operation costs by recycling the removed soils with the washing and classification system inside the interim storage facility. At the end of this report, we proposed problems to be solved in order to adopt the washing and classification system. (author)

5. The application of an artificial immune system for solving the identification problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Astachova Irina

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Ecological prognosis sets the identification task, which is to find the capacity of pollution sources based on the available experimental data. This problem is an inverse problem, for the solution of which the method of symbolic regression is considered. The distributed artificial immune system is used as an algorithm for the problem solving. The artificial immune system (AIS is a model that allows solving various problems of identification, its concept was borrowed from biology. The solution is sought using a distributed version of the artificial immune system, which is implemented through a network. This distributed network can operate in any heterogeneous environment, which is achieved through the use of cross-platform Python programming language. AIS demonstrates the ability to restore the original function in the problem of identification. The obtained solution for the test data is represented by the graph.

6. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asnafi, Alireza; Mahzoon, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

7. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asnafi, Alireza [Hydro-Aeronautical Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahzoon, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-09-15

Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

8. Solving linear systems in FLICA-4, thermohydraulic code for 3-D transient computations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allaire, G.

1995-01-01

FLICA-4 is a computer code, developed at the CEA (France), devoted to steady state and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor cores, for small size problems (around 100 mesh cells) as well as for large ones (more than 100000), on, either standard workstations or vector super-computers. As for time implicit codes, the largest time and memory consuming part of FLICA-4 is the routine dedicated to solve the linear system (the size of which is of the order of the number of cells). Therefore, the efficiency of the code is crucially influenced by the optimization of the algorithms used in assembling and solving linear systems: direct methods as the Gauss (or LU) decomposition for moderate size problems, iterative methods as the preconditioned conjugate gradient for large problems. 6 figs., 13 refs

9. Improved Quasi-Newton method via PSB update for solving systems of nonlinear equations

Science.gov (United States)

Mamat, Mustafa; Dauda, M. K.; Waziri, M. Y.; Ahmad, Fadhilah; Mohamad, Fatma Susilawati

2016-10-01

The Newton method has some shortcomings which includes computation of the Jacobian matrix which may be difficult or even impossible to compute and solving the Newton system in every iteration. Also, the common setback with some quasi-Newton methods is that they need to compute and store an n × n matrix at each iteration, this is computationally costly for large scale problems. To overcome such drawbacks, an improved Method for solving systems of nonlinear equations via PSB (Powell-Symmetric-Broyden) update is proposed. In the proposed method, the approximate Jacobian inverse Hk of PSB is updated and its efficiency has improved thereby require low memory storage, hence the main aim of this paper. The preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is practically efficient when applied on some benchmark problems.

10. Projective-Dual Method for Solving Systems of Linear Equations with Nonnegative Variables

Science.gov (United States)

Ganin, B. V.; Golikov, A. I.; Evtushenko, Yu. G.

2018-02-01

In order to solve an underdetermined system of linear equations with nonnegative variables, the projection of a given point onto its solutions set is sought. The dual of this problem—the problem of unconstrained maximization of a piecewise-quadratic function—is solved by Newton's method. The problem of unconstrained optimization dual of the regularized problem of finding the projection onto the solution set of the system is considered. A connection of duality theory and Newton's method with some known algorithms of projecting onto a standard simplex is shown. On the example of taking into account the specifics of the constraints of the transport linear programming problem, the possibility to increase the efficiency of calculating the generalized Hessian matrix is demonstrated. Some examples of numerical calculations using MATLAB are presented.

11. 2007 Microsoft® Office System Plain & Simple

CERN Document Server

Joyce, Jerry

2009-01-01

Here's WHAT You'll Learn Easily navigate the new user interfaceCreate documents, Web pages, and other publicationsOrganize your e-mail, calendar, and tasksBuild spreadsheets to manage and analyze dataBuild a simple databaseDesign and deliver a slide show presentation Here's HOW You'll Learn It Jump in wherever you need answersEasy-to-follow STEPS and SCREENSHOTS show exactly what to doHandy TIPS teach new techniques and shortcutsQuick TRY THIS! exercises help you apply what you learn right away

12. Open-source sensors system for doing simple physics experiments

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

César Llamas Bello

2018-04-01

Full Text Available An open-source platform to be used in high school or university laboratories has been developed. The platform permits the performance of dynamics experiments in a simple and affordable way, combining measurements of different sensors in the platform. The sensors are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller, which can be wirelessly accessed with smartphones or tablets. The platform constitutes an economical sensing alternative to commercial configurations and can easily be extended by including new sensors that broaden the range of covered experiments.

13. The Effect of Student Collaboration in Solving Physics Problems Using an Online Interactive Response System

OpenAIRE

Balta, Nuri; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza

2016-01-01

Advanced technology helps educational institutes to improve student learning performance and outcomes. In this study, our aim is to measure and assess student engagement and collaborative learning in engineering classes when using online technology in solving physics problems. The interactive response system used in this study is a collaborative learning tool that allows teachers to monitor their students’ response and progress in real time. Our results indicated that students have highly pos...

14. Using a grid platform for solving large sparse linear systems over GF(2)

OpenAIRE

Kleinjung , Thorsten; Nussbaum , Lucas; Thomé , Emmanuel

2010-01-01

International audience; In Fall 2009, the final step of the factorization of rsa768 was carried out on several clusters of the Grid'5000 platform, leading to a new record in integer factorization. This step involves solving a huge sparse linear system defined over the binary field GF(2). This article aims at describing the algorithm used, the difficulties encountered, and the methodology which led to success. In particular, we illustrate how our use of the block Wiedemann algorithm led to a m...

15. SIMPL Systems, or: Can We Design Cryptographic Hardware without Secret Key Information?

Science.gov (United States)

Rührmair, Ulrich

This paper discusses a new cryptographic primitive termed SIMPL system. Roughly speaking, a SIMPL system is a special type of Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) which possesses a binary description that allows its (slow) public simulation and prediction. Besides this public key like functionality, SIMPL systems have another advantage: No secret information is, or needs to be, contained in SIMPL systems in order to enable cryptographic protocols - neither in the form of a standard binary key, nor as secret information hidden in random, analog features, as it is the case for PUFs. The cryptographic security of SIMPLs instead rests on (i) a physical assumption on their unclonability, and (ii) a computational assumption regarding the complexity of simulating their output. This novel property makes SIMPL systems potentially immune against many known hardware and software attacks, including malware, side channel, invasive, or modeling attacks.

16. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ghassan Malkawi

2014-08-01

Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

17. Solving the Coupled System Improves Computational Efficiency of the Bidomain Equations

KAUST Repository

Southern, J.A.; Plank, G.; Vigmond, E.J.; Whiteley, J.P.

2009-01-01

The bidomain equations are frequently used to model the propagation of cardiac action potentials across cardiac tissue. At the whole organ level, the size of the computational mesh required makes their solution a significant computational challenge. As the accuracy of the numerical solution cannot be compromised, efficiency of the solution technique is important to ensure that the results of the simulation can be obtained in a reasonable time while still encapsulating the complexities of the system. In an attempt to increase efficiency of the solver, the bidomain equations are often decoupled into one parabolic equation that is computationally very cheap to solve and an elliptic equation that is much more expensive to solve. In this study, the performance of this uncoupled solution method is compared with an alternative strategy in which the bidomain equations are solved as a coupled system. This seems counterintuitive as the alternative method requires the solution of a much larger linear system at each time step. However, in tests on two 3-D rabbit ventricle benchmarks, it is shown that the coupled method is up to 80% faster than the conventional uncoupled method-and that parallel performance is better for the larger coupled problem.

18. An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pourakbari-Kasmaei, M.; Rashidi-Nejad, M.

2011-01-01

Highlights: → We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. → The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. → Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. → Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

19. Solving the Coupled System Improves Computational Efficiency of the Bidomain Equations

KAUST Repository

Southern, J.A.

2009-10-01

The bidomain equations are frequently used to model the propagation of cardiac action potentials across cardiac tissue. At the whole organ level, the size of the computational mesh required makes their solution a significant computational challenge. As the accuracy of the numerical solution cannot be compromised, efficiency of the solution technique is important to ensure that the results of the simulation can be obtained in a reasonable time while still encapsulating the complexities of the system. In an attempt to increase efficiency of the solver, the bidomain equations are often decoupled into one parabolic equation that is computationally very cheap to solve and an elliptic equation that is much more expensive to solve. In this study, the performance of this uncoupled solution method is compared with an alternative strategy in which the bidomain equations are solved as a coupled system. This seems counterintuitive as the alternative method requires the solution of a much larger linear system at each time step. However, in tests on two 3-D rabbit ventricle benchmarks, it is shown that the coupled method is up to 80% faster than the conventional uncoupled method-and that parallel performance is better for the larger coupled problem.

20. Ant colony system (ACS with hybrid local search to solve vehicle routing problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Suphan Sodsoon

2016-02-01

Full Text Available This research applied an Ant Colony System algorithm with a Hybrid Local Search to solve Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP from a single depot when the customers’ requirements are known. VRP is an NP-hard optimization problem and has usually been successfully solved optimum by heuristics. A fleet of vehicles of a specific capacity are used to serve a number of customers at minimum cost, without violating the constraints of vehicle capacity. There are meta-heuristic approaches to solve these problems, such as Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search and the Ant Colony System algorithm. In this case a hybrid local search was used (Cross-Exchange, Or-Opt and 2-Opt algorithm with an Ant Colony System algorithm. The Experimental Design was tested on 7 various problems from the data set online in the OR-Library. There are five different problems in which customers are randomly distributed with the depot in an approximately central location. The customers were grouped into clusters. The results are evaluated in terms of optimal routes using optimal distances. The experimental results are compared with those obtained from meta-heuristics and they show that the proposed method outperforms six meta-heuristics in the literature.

1. A simple high efficiency solar water purification system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Duff, W.S.; Hodgson, D.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2005-07-01

A new passive solar water pasteurization system based on density difference flow principles has been designed, built and tested. The system contains no valves and regulates flow based on the density difference between two columns of water. The new system eliminates boiling problems encountered in previous designs. Boiling is undesirable because it may contaminate treated water. The system with a total absorber area of 0.45 m2 has achieved a peak flow rate of 19.3 kg/h of treated water. Experiments with the prototype systems presented in this paper show that density driven systems are an attractive option to existing solar water pasteurization approaches. (author)

2. Transfer Hydrogenation: Employing a Simple, In Situ Prepared Catalytic System

KAUST Repository

Ang, Eleanor Pei Ling

2017-04-01

Transfer hydrogenation has been recognized to be an important synthetic method in both academic and industrial research to obtain valuable products including alcohols. Transition metal catalysts based on precious metals, such as Ru, Rh and Ir, are typically employed for this process. In recent years, iron-based catalysts have attracted considerable attention as a greener and more sustainable alternative since iron is earth abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic. In this work, a combination of iron disulfide with chelating bipyridine ligand was found to be effective for the transfer hydrogenation of a variety of ketones to the corresponding alcohols in the presence of a simple base. It provided a convenient and economical way to conduct transfer hydrogenation. A plausible role of sulfide next to the metal center in facilitating the catalytic reaction is demonstrated.

3. Spatial problem-solving strategies of middle school students: Wayfinding with geographic information systems

Science.gov (United States)

Wigglesworth, John C.

2000-06-01

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful computer software package that emphasizes the use of maps and the management of spatially referenced environmental data archived in a systems data base. Professional applications of GIS have been in place since the 1980's, but only recently has GIS gained significant attention in the K--12 classroom. Students using GIS are able to manipulate and query data in order to solve all manners of spatial problems. Very few studies have examined how this technological innovation can support classroom learning. In particular, there has been little research on how experience in using the software correlates with a child's spatial cognition and his/her ability to understand spatial relationships. This study investigates the strategies used by middle school students to solve a wayfinding (route-finding) problem using the ArcView GIS software. The research design combined an individual background questionnaire, results from the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, and analysis of reflective think-aloud sessions to define the characteristics of the strategies students' used to solve this particular class of spatial problem. Three uniquely different spatial problem solving strategies were identified. Visual/Concrete Wayfinders used a highly visual strategy; Logical/Abstract Wayfinders used GIS software tools to apply a more analytical and systematic approach; Transitional Wayfinders used an approach that showed evidence of one that was shifting from a visual strategy to one that was more analytical. The triangulation of data sources indicates that this progression of wayfinding strategy can be correlated both to Piagetian stages of logical thought and to experience with the use of maps. These findings suggest that GIS teachers must be aware that their students' performance will lie on a continuum that is based on cognitive development, spatial ability, and prior experience with maps. To be most effective, GIS teaching

4. Application of a Modal Approach in Solving the Static Stability Problem for Electric Power Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Sharov, J. V.

2017-12-01

Application of a modal approach in solving the static stability problem for power systems is examined. It is proposed to use the matrix exponent norm as a generalized transition function of the power system disturbed motion. Based on the concept of a stability radius and the pseudospectrum of Jacobian matrix, the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the static margins were determined. The capabilities and advantages of the modal approach in designing centralized or distributed control and the prospects for the analysis of nonlinear oscillations and rendering the dynamic stability are demonstrated.

5. An Application of Computer Vision Systems to Solve the Problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Aksenov Alexey Y.

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.

6. Reflection on Solutions in the Form of Refutation Texts versus Problem Solving: The Case of 8th Graders Studying Simple Electric Circuits

Science.gov (United States)

2017-01-01

This study compared students' learning in troubleshooting and problem solving activities. The troubleshooting activities provided students with solutions to conceptual problems in the form of refutation texts; namely, solutions that portray common misconceptions, refute them, and then present the accepted scientific ideas. They required students…

7. Dynamics of a Simple Quantum System in a Complex Environment

CERN Document Server

Bulgac, A; Kusnezov, D; Bulgac, Aurel; Dang, Gui Do; Kusnezov, Dimitri

1998-01-01

We present a theory for the dynamical evolution of a quantum system coupled to a complex many-body intrinsic system/environment. By modelling the intrinsic many-body system with parametric random matrices, we study the types of effective stochastic models which emerge from random matrix theory. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we derive the influence functional and obtain either analytical or numerical solutions for the time evolution of the entire quantum system. We discuss thoroughly the structure of the solutions for some representative cases and make connections to well known limiting results, particularly to Brownian motion, Kramers classical limit and the Caldeira-Leggett approach.

8. Model-based verification method for solving the parameter uncertainty in the train control system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cheng, Ruijun; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Dewang; Song, Yongduan

2016-01-01

This paper presents a parameter analysis method to solve the parameter uncertainty problem for hybrid system and explore the correlation of key parameters for distributed control system. For improving the reusability of control model, the proposed approach provides the support for obtaining the constraint sets of all uncertain parameters in the abstract linear hybrid automata (LHA) model when satisfying the safety requirements of the train control system. Then, in order to solve the state space explosion problem, the online verification method is proposed to monitor the operating status of high-speed trains online because of the real-time property of the train control system. Furthermore, we construct the LHA formal models of train tracking model and movement authority (MA) generation process as cases to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. In the first case, we obtain the constraint sets of uncertain parameters to avoid collision between trains. In the second case, the correlation of position report cycle and MA generation cycle is analyzed under both the normal and the abnormal condition influenced by packet-loss factor. Finally, considering stochastic characterization of time distributions and real-time feature of moving block control system, the transient probabilities of wireless communication process are obtained by stochastic time petri nets. - Highlights: • We solve the parameters uncertainty problem by using model-based method. • We acquire the parameter constraint sets by verifying linear hybrid automata models. • Online verification algorithms are designed to monitor the high-speed trains. • We analyze the correlation of key parameters and uncritical parameters. • The transient probabilities are obtained by using reliability analysis.

9. Raman spectroscopy on simple molecular systems at very high density

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schiferl, D.; LeSar, R.S.; Moore, D.S.

1988-01-01

We present an overview of how Raman spectroscopy is done on simple molecular substances at high pressures. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for studying these substances. It is often the quickest means to explore changes in crystal and molecular structures, changes in bond strength, and the formation of new chemical species. Raman measurements have been made at pressures up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar). Even more astonishing is the range of temperatures (4-5200/degree/K) achieved in various static and dynamic (shock-wave) pressure experiments. One point we particularly wish to emphasize is the need for a good theoretical understanding to properly interpret and use experimental results. This is particularly true at ultra-high pressures, where strong crystal field effects can be misinterpreted as incipient insulator-metal transitions. We have tried to point out apparatus, techniques, and results that we feel are particularly noteworthy. We have also included some of the /open quotes/oral tradition/close quotes/ of high pressure Raman spectroscopy -- useful little things that rarely or never appear in print. Because this field is rapidly expanding, we discuss a number of exciting new techniques that have been informally communicated to us, especially those that seem to open new possibilities. 58 refs., 18 figs

10. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

Science.gov (United States)

Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

2012-01-01

We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

11. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

Science.gov (United States)

Carle, G. C.

1972-01-01

Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

12. Tori and chaos in a simple C1-system

Science.gov (United States)

Roessler, O. E.; Kahiert, C.; Ughleke, B.

A piecewise-linear autonomous 3-variable ordinary differential equation is presented which permits analytical modeling of chaotic attractors. A once-differentiable system of equations is defined which consists of two linear half-systems which meet along a threshold plane. The trajectories described by each equation is thereby continuous along the divide, forming a one-parameter family of invariant tori. The addition of a damping term produces a system of equations for various chaotic attractors. Extension of the system by means of a 4-variable generalization yields hypertori and hyperchaos. It is noted that the hierarchy established is amenable to analysis by the use of Poincare half-maps. Applications of the systems of ordinary differential equations to modeling turbulent flows are discussed.

13. Results of numerically solving an integral equation for a two-fermion system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skachkov, N.B.; Solov'eva, T.M.

2003-01-01

A two-particle system is described by integral equations whose kernels are dependent on the total energy of the system. Such equations can be reduced to an eigenvalue problem featuring an eigenvalue-dependent operator. This nonlinear eigenvalue problem is solved by means of an iterative procedure developed by the present authors. The energy spectra of a two-fermion system formed by particles of identical masses are obtained for two cases, that where the total spin of the system is equal to zero and that where the total spin of the system is equal to unity. The splitting of the ground-state levels of positronium and dimuonium, the frequency of the transition from the ground state of orthopositronium to its first excited state, and the probabilities of parapositronium and paradimuonium decays are computed. The results obtained in this way are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

14. Algorithms to solve coupled systems of differential equations in terms of power series

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten

2016-08-01

Using integration by parts relations, Feynman integrals can be represented in terms of coupled systems of differential equations. In the following we suppose that the unknown Feynman integrals can be given in power series representations, and that sufficiently many initial values of the integrals are given. Then there exist algorithms that decide constructively if the coefficients of their power series representations can be given within the class of nested sums over hypergeometric products. In this article we work out the calculation steps that solve this problem. First, we present a successful tactic that has been applied recently to challenging problems coming from massive 3-loop Feynman integrals. Here our main tool is to solve scalar linear recurrences within the class of nested sums over hypergeometric products. Second, we will present a new variation of this tactic which relies on more involved summation technologies but succeeds in reducing the problem to solve scalar recurrences with lower recurrence orders. The article works out the different challenges of this new tactic and demonstrates how they can be treated efficiently with our existing summation technologies.

15. A new modified conjugate gradient coefficient for solving system of linear equations

Science.gov (United States)

Hajar, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shapiee, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Khadijah, W.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

2017-09-01

Conjugate gradient (CG) method is an evolution of computational method in solving unconstrained optimization problems. This approach is easy to implement due to its simplicity and has been proven to be effective in solving real-life application. Although this field has received copious amount of attentions in recent years, some of the new approaches of CG algorithm cannot surpass the efficiency of the previous versions. Therefore, in this paper, a new CG coefficient which retains the sufficient descent and global convergence properties of the original CG methods is proposed. This new CG is tested on a set of test functions under exact line search. Its performance is then compared to that of some of the well-known previous CG methods based on number of iterations and CPU time. The results show that the new CG algorithm has the best efficiency amongst all the methods tested. This paper also includes an application of the new CG algorithm for solving large system of linear equations

16. Curriculum providing cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills for anesthesia systems-based practice.

Science.gov (United States)

Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

2010-12-01

Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.

17. A Reconfigurable Logic Cell Based on a Simple Dynamical System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lixiang Li

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme to achieve a dynamic logic gate which can be adjusted flexibly to obtain different logic functions by adjusting specific parameters of a dynamical system. Based on graphical tools and the threshold mechanism, the distribution of different logic gates is studied, and a transformation method between different logics is given. Analyzing the performance of the dynamical system in the presence of noise, we discover that it is resistant to system noise. Moreover, we find some part of the system can be considered as a leaky integrator which has been already widely applied in engineering. Finally, we provide a proof-of-principle hardware implementation of the proposed scheme to illustrate its effectiveness. With the proposed scheme in hand, it is convenient to build the flexible, robust, and general purpose computing devices such as various network coding routers, communication encoders or decoders, and reconfigurable computer chips.

18. Autonomous learning by simple dynamical systems with delayed feedback.

Science.gov (United States)

Kaluza, Pablo; Mikhailov, Alexander S

2014-09-01

A general scheme for the construction of dynamical systems able to learn generation of the desired kinds of dynamics through adjustment of their internal structure is proposed. The scheme involves intrinsic time-delayed feedback to steer the dynamics towards the target performance. As an example, a system of coupled phase oscillators, which can, by changing the weights of connections between its elements, evolve to a dynamical state with the prescribed (low or high) synchronization level, is considered and investigated.

19. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

Science.gov (United States)

March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

2016-01-01

The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

20. Simple ML Detector for Multiple Antennas Communication System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2010-10-01

Full Text Available In order to support providing broadband wireless communication services against limited and expensive frequency bandwidth, we have to develop a bandwidth efficient system. Therefore, in this paper we propose a closed-loop MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output system using ML (Maximum Likelihood detector to optimize capacity and to increase system performance. What is especially exciting about the benefits offered by MIMO is that a high capacity and performance can be attained without additional frequency-spectral resource. The grand scenario of this concept is the attained advantages of transformation matrices having capability to allocate transmitted signals power suit to the channel. Furthermore, product of these matrices forms parallel singular channels. Due to zero inter-channels correlation, thus we can design ML detector to increase the system performance. Finally, computer simulations validates that at 0 dB SNR our system can reach optimal capacity up to 1 bps/Hz and SER up to 0.2 higher than opened-loop MIMO.

1. Simple MoCap System for Home Usage

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Martin Magdin

2017-08-01

Full Text Available Nowadays many MoCap systems exist. Generating 3D facial animation of characters is currently realized by using the motion capture data (MoCap data, which is obtained by tracking the facial markers from an actor/actress. In general it is a professional solution that is sophisticated and costly. This paper presents a solution with a system that is inexpensive. We propose a new easy-to-use system for home usage, through which we are making character animation. In its implementation we paid attention to the elimination of errors from the previous solutions. In this paper the authors describe the method how motion capture characters on a treadmill and as well as an own Java application that processes the video for its further use in Cinema 4D. This paper describes the implementation of this technology of sensing in a way so that the animated character authentically imitated human movement on a treadmill.

2. Bifurcation and chaos in simple jerk dynamical systems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

In recent years, it is observed that the third-order explicit autonomous differential equation, named as jerk equation, represents an interesting sub-class of dynamical systems that can exhibit many major features of the regular and chaotic motion. In this paper, we investigate the global dynamics of a special family of jerk ...

3. A simple and efficient optical character recognition system for basic ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

are on the way for the development of efficient OCR systems for Indian languages, .... Each vowel has a vowel sign (modifier) and each consonant has a basic form (prim- itive). ..... as a single class of character in the first stage of classification.

4. Mathematical modeling of the evolution of a simple biological system

Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Neetu, S.; Krishnan, K.P.; Attri, K.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

be constructed to simulate the observed movement. The comparison between the observed data and the predictions based on the model then tell us how satisfactory the model is. In physical systems the model is usually based on fundamental principles of physics...

5. The simple analytics of systemic liquidity risk regulation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Perotti, E.; Suarez, J.

2011-01-01

How to regulate systemic risk? This column presents a new CEPR discussion paper assessing the performance of Pigouvian taxes and quantity-based regulations in containing the social costs of high-risk banking. It finds that, depending on how banks differ, the socially efficient solution may be

6. Bifurcation and chaos in simple jerk dynamical systems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

- ferential equation, named as jerk equation, represents an interesting sub-class of dynam- ical systems that can exhibit many major features of the regular and chaotic motion. In this paper, we investigate the global dynamics of a special family ...

7. A heuristic for solving the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Coit, David W.

2004-01-01

The redundancy allocation problem is formulated with the objective of minimizing design cost, when the system exhibits a multi-state reliability behavior, given system-level performance constraints. When the multi-state nature of the system is considered, traditional solution methodologies are no longer valid. This study considers a multi-state series-parallel system (MSPS) with capacitated binary components that can provide different multi-state system performance levels. The different demand levels, which must be supplied during the system-operating period, result in the multi-state nature of the system. The new solution methodology offers several distinct benefits compared to traditional formulations of the MSPS redundancy allocation problem. For some systems, recognizing that different component versions yield different system performance is critical so that the overall system reliability estimation and associated design models the true system reliability behavior more realistically. The MSPS design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs) and the universal generating function. The specific problem being addressed is one where there are multiple component choices, but once a component selection is made, only the same component type can be used to provide redundancy. This is the first time that the MSPS design problem has been addressed without using GAs. The heuristic offers more efficient and straightforward analyses. Solutions to three different problem types are obtained illustrating the simplicity and ease of application of the heuristic without compromising the intended optimization needs

8. Simple automated system for simultaneous production of 11C-labeled tracers by solid supported methylation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quincoces, Gemma; Penuelas, Ivan; Valero, Marta; Serra, Patricia; Collantes, Maria; Marti-Climent, Josep; Arbizu, Javier; Jose Garcia-Velloso, Maria; Angel Richter, Jose

2006-01-01

We herein describe a simple setup for the automated simultaneous synthesis of L-[methyl- 11 C]methionine and N-[methyl- 11 C]choline by solid-supported methylation . The setup is extremely simple and easy to adapt to other automated systems and due to its versatility, the method can be utilized for the production of other radiopharmaceuticals requiring a simple [ 11 C]methylation step. Furthermore, it can be used for multiple simultaneous synthesis

9. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

Central Pattern Generators (CPG) are oscillatory systems that are responsible for generating rhythmic patterns at the origin of many biological activities such as for example locomotion or digestion. These systems are generally modelled as recurrent neural networks whose parameters are tuned so...... that the network oscillates in a suitable way, this tuning being a non trivial task. It also appears that the link with the physical body that these oscillatory entities control has a fundamental importance, and it seems that most bodies used for experimental validation in the literature (walking robots, lamprey...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

10. Systematics of q6 systems in a simple chromomagnetic model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silvestre-Brac, B.; Leandri, J.

1992-01-01

In the framework of a pure chromomagnetic Hamiltonian we study all the q 6 systems allowed by the Pauli principle. In a first step, where we consider an exact SU(3) F symmetry, the wave functions are analyzed by group-theoretical techniques. The breaking of the flavor symmetry is performed exactly by introducing a parameter δ. The emphasis is put on the corresponding energies relative to the q 3 +q 3 thresholds

11. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

2003-01-01

We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

12. Modern mathematics made simple

CERN Document Server

Murphy, Patrick

1982-01-01

Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

13. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

OpenAIRE

Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

2010-01-01

The green house effect is caused by the gases which absorb infrared ray (IR) emitted by the earth. It is worthwhile if we can adjudicate on which gas causes the greenhouse effect in our class. For this purpose, one of our authors, Kaneko has designed an educational tool for testing greenhouse effect \\cite{Kaneko}. This system (hereafter abbreviated PAS) is constructed based on photo acoustic effect. Without difficulty and high cost, we can build PAS and check the IR absorption of gas. In this...

14. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

Science.gov (United States)

Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

2018-03-01

In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

15. Solving Disparities Through Payment And Delivery System Reform: A Program To Achieve Health Equity.

Science.gov (United States)

DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H

2017-06-01

Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

16. Computational study of patterns in simple nonequilibrium systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barach, J.P.

1997-01-01

We present computational studies of a two component reaction diffusion system of the Grey and Scott type. The calculation involves a discrete treatment of the diffusion equation and some details of that problem are explained. As the simulation calculation runs over a 200x200 square spatial field ridge like patterns develop if one diffusion coefficient is about twice the size of the other and if the rate parameters are in a narrow range. Pattern development is faster when the reaction rates are larger, within this range. It is shown that for an advancing wave, the lead component has a wider front than the other although in steady state the two components obey a ridge/valley or valley/ridge equilibrium. We investigate ways in which a more complex time dependence could be introduced to the system and display one example of such a possible expansion of the study. A correlation coefficient study shows a modest but distinct difference between our pattern development and a random field. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

17. Biological complexity and adaptability of simple mammalian olfactory memory systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Brennan, P; Keverne, E B

2015-03-01

Chemosensory systems play vital roles in the lives of most mammals, including the detection and identification of predators, as well as sex and reproductive status and the identification of individual conspecifics. All of these capabilities require a process of recognition involving a combination of innate (kairomonal/pheromonal) and learned responses. Across very different phylogenies, the mechanisms for pheromonal and odour learning have much in common. They are frequently associated with plasticity of GABA-ergic feedback at the initial level of processing the chemosensory information, which enhances its pattern separation capability. Association of odourant features into an odour object primarily involves anterior piriform cortex for non-social odours. However, the medial amygdala appears to be involved in both the recognition of social odours and their association with chemosensory information sensed by the vomeronasal system. Unusually not only the sensory neurons themselves, but also the GABA-ergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb are continually being replaced, with implications for the induction and maintenance of learned chemosensory responses. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Artificial Immune Systems as a Modern Tool for Solving Multi-Purpose Optimization Tasks in the Field of Logistics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Skitsko Volodymyr I.

2017-03-01

Full Text Available The article investigates various aspects of the functioning of artificial immune systems and their using to solve different tasks. The analysis of the studied literature showed that nowadays there exist combinations of artificial immune systems, in particular with genetic algorithms, the particle swarm optimization method, artificial neural networks, etc., to solve different tasks. However, the solving of economic tasks is paid little attention. The article presents the basic terminology of artificial immune systems; the steps of the clonal selection algorithm are described, as well as a brief description of the negative selection algorithm, the immune network algorithm and the dendritic algorithm is given; conceptual aspects of the use of an artificial immune system for solving multi-purpose optimization problems are formulated, and an example of solving a problem in the field of logistics is described. Artificial immune systems as a means of solving various weakly structured, multi-criteria and multi-purpose economic tasks, in particular in the sphere of logistics, are a promising tool that requires further research. Therefore, it is advisable in the future to focus on the use of various existing immune algorithms for solving various economic problems.

19. A trial of patient-oriented problem-solving system for immunology teaching in China: a comparison with dialectic lectures

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Background The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, POPS has never been applied in teaching immunology in China. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching immunology and assess students’ and teachers’ perception to POPS. Methods 321 second-year medical students were divided into two groups: I and II. Group I, comprising 110 students, was taught by POPS, and 16 immunology teachers witnessed the whole teaching process. Group II including the remaining 211 students was taught through traditional lectures. The results of the pre- and post-test of both groups were compared. Group I students and teachers then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis before a discussion meeting attended only by the teachers was held. Results Significant improvement in the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores of those in Groups I and II was seen, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS teaching. Most students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps them to understand topics and creates interest, and 88.12% of students favored POPS over simple lectures. Moreover, while they responded that POPS facilitated student learning better than lectures, teachers pointed out that limited teaching resources would make it difficult for wide POPS application in China. Conclusions While POPS can break up the monotony of dialectic lectures and serve as a better teaching method, it may not be feasible for the current educational environment in China. The main reason for this is the relative shortage of teaching

20. A trial of patient-oriented problem-solving system for immunology teaching in China: a comparison with dialectic lectures.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Zhiren; Liu, Wei; Han, Junfeng; Guo, Sheng; Wu, Yuzhang

2013-01-28

The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, POPS has never been applied in teaching immunology in China. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching immunology and assess students' and teachers' perception to POPS. 321 second-year medical students were divided into two groups: I and II. Group I, comprising 110 students, was taught by POPS, and 16 immunology teachers witnessed the whole teaching process. Group II including the remaining 211 students was taught through traditional lectures. The results of the pre- and post-test of both groups were compared. Group I students and teachers then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis before a discussion meeting attended only by the teachers was held. Significant improvement in the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores of those in Groups I and II was seen, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS teaching. Most students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps them to understand topics and creates interest, and 88.12% of students favored POPS over simple lectures. Moreover, while they responded that POPS facilitated student learning better than lectures, teachers pointed out that limited teaching resources would make it difficult for wide POPS application in China. While POPS can break up the monotony of dialectic lectures and serve as a better teaching method, it may not be feasible for the current educational environment in China. The main reason for this is the relative shortage of teaching resources such as space, library facilities

1. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dell'Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

1995-01-01

Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species

2. A Min-max Relation for Monotone Path Systems in Simple Regions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cameron, Kathleen

1996-01-01

A monotone path system (MPS) is a finite set of pairwise disjointpaths (polygonal arcs) in the plane such that every horizontal line intersectseach of the paths in at most one point. We consider a simple polygon in thexy-plane which bounds the simple polygonal (closed) region D. Let T and B betwo...

3. Solving LFC problem in an interconnected power system using superconducting magnetic energy storage

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: mhs.farahani@gmail.com [Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjefar, Soheil [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-15

Highlights: ► Load frequency control of PID type is combined with a SMES. ► Damping speed of frequency and tie-line power flow deviations are considerably increased. ► Optimal parameters of PID and SMES control loop are obtained by PS optimization. -- Abstract: This paper proposes the combination of a load frequency control (LFC) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) to solve the LFC problem in interconnected power systems. By using this combination, the speed damping of frequency and tie-line power flow deviations is considerably increased. A new control strategy of SMES is proposed in this paper. The problem of determining optimal parameters of PID and SMES control loop is considered as an optimization problem and a pattern search algorithm (PS) optimization is employed to solve it. The simulation results show that if an SMES unit is installed in an interconnected power system, in addition to eliminating oscillations and deviations, the settling time in the frequency and tie-line power flow responses is considerably reduced.

4. Solving LFC problem in an interconnected power system using superconducting magnetic energy storage

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farahani, Mohsen; Ganjefar, Soheil

2013-01-01

Highlights: ► Load frequency control of PID type is combined with a SMES. ► Damping speed of frequency and tie-line power flow deviations are considerably increased. ► Optimal parameters of PID and SMES control loop are obtained by PS optimization. -- Abstract: This paper proposes the combination of a load frequency control (LFC) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) to solve the LFC problem in interconnected power systems. By using this combination, the speed damping of frequency and tie-line power flow deviations is considerably increased. A new control strategy of SMES is proposed in this paper. The problem of determining optimal parameters of PID and SMES control loop is considered as an optimization problem and a pattern search algorithm (PS) optimization is employed to solve it. The simulation results show that if an SMES unit is installed in an interconnected power system, in addition to eliminating oscillations and deviations, the settling time in the frequency and tie-line power flow responses is considerably reduced

5. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

Science.gov (United States)

Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

2013-03-01

Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

6. Management system of simple rental flats study based on technical aspect and health in Medan city

Science.gov (United States)

Novrial; Indra Cahaya, S.

2018-03-01

Medan city is a metropolis city in Sumatera that has slums area. Simple rental flats have been built to overcome the problem. However the preliminary survey result showed that the physical and non-physical environment management of simple rent flats is very bad. This study conducted in 3 simple rent flats. It has observed the simple rent flats environment and has interviewed occupants and related agencies. Results of conducted research showed the occupant’s characteristics based on the largest percentage are Javanese; last education is senior high with self-employed work with average income Rp 1,000,000 – Rp 2,500,000. Waste retribution submitted to their cleanliness except for Amplas simple rent flats, their waste management system does not manage properly and the garbage littered. The number of family members of Wisma Labuhan and Amplas simple rent flats exceeds the regulation number of occupants, so it is crowded and noisy. Physical conditions of Amplas simple rent flats are bad, septic tank is full and are not vacuumed. Clean water sources derived from wells and artesian wll are vulnerable to be contaminated by pollutants such as leachate and bad quality water. It is necessary to improve the physical, basic sanitation, and guidance for the simple rent flats occupants to the management system of Simple Rent Flats.

7. Spatio-temporal patterns in simple models of marine systems

Science.gov (United States)

Feudel, U.; Baurmann, M.; Gross, T.

2009-04-01

Spatio-temporal patterns in marine systems are a result of the interaction of population dynamics with physical transport processes. These physical transport processes can be either diffusion processes in marine sediments or in the water column. We study the dynamics of one population of bacteria and its nutrient in in a simplified model of a marine sediments, taking into account that the considered bacteria possess an active as well as an inactive state, where activation is processed by signal molecules. Furthermore the nutrients are transported actively by bioirrigation and passively by diffusion. It is shown that under certain conditions Turing patterns can occur which yield heterogeneous spatial patterns of the species. The influence of bioirrigation on Turing patterns leads to the emergence of ''hot spots, i.e. localized regions of enhanced bacterial activity. All obtained patterns fit quite well to observed patterns in laboratory experiments. Spatio-temporal patterns appear in a predator-prey model, used to describe plankton dynamics. These patterns appear due to the simultaneous emergence of Turing patterns and oscillations in the species abundance in the neighborhood of a Turing-Hopf bifurcation. We observe a large variety of different patterns where i) stationary heterogeneous patterns (e.g. hot and cold spots) compete with spatio-temporal patterns ii) slowly moving patterns are embedded in an oscillatory background iii) moving fronts and spiral waves appear.

8. Recent symbolic summation methods to solve coupled systems of differential and difference equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schneider, Carsten; Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de

2014-07-01

We outline a new algorithm to solve coupled systems of differential equations in one continuous variable x (resp. coupled difference equations in one discrete variable N) depending on a small parameter ε: given such a system and given sufficiently many initial values, we can determine the first coefficients of the Laurent-series solutions in ε if they are expressible in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. This systematic approach is based on symbolic summation algorithms in the context of difference rings/fields and uncoupling algorithms. The proposed method gives rise to new interesting applications in connection with integration by parts (IBP) methods. As an illustrative example, we will demonstrate how one can calculate the ε-expansion of a ladder graph with 6 massive fermion lines.

9. The potential for expert system support in solving the pressurized water reactor fuel shuffling problem

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rothleder, B.M.; Poetschat, G.R.; Faught, W.S.; Eich, V.J.

1988-01-01

The fuel shuffling problem is posed by the need to reposition partially burned assemblies to achieve minimum X-Y pin power peaks reload cycles of pressurized water reactors. This problem is a classic artificial intelligence (AI) problem and is highly suitable for AI expert system solution assistance, in contrast to the conventional solution, which ultimately depends solely on trial and error. Such a fuel shuffling assistant would significantly reduce engineering and computer execution time for conventional loading patterns and, much more importantly, even more significantly for low-leakage loading patterns. A successful hardware/software demonstrator has been introduced, paving the way for development of a broadly expert system program. Such a program, upon incorporating the recently developed technique perverse depletion, would provide a directed path for solving the low-leakage problem

10. Recent symbolic summation methods to solve coupled systems of differential and difference equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

2014-07-15

We outline a new algorithm to solve coupled systems of differential equations in one continuous variable x (resp. coupled difference equations in one discrete variable N) depending on a small parameter ε: given such a system and given sufficiently many initial values, we can determine the first coefficients of the Laurent-series solutions in ε if they are expressible in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. This systematic approach is based on symbolic summation algorithms in the context of difference rings/fields and uncoupling algorithms. The proposed method gives rise to new interesting applications in connection with integration by parts (IBP) methods. As an illustrative example, we will demonstrate how one can calculate the ε-expansion of a ladder graph with 6 massive fermion lines.

11. Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion

Science.gov (United States)

Abdullah, Helmi

2014-01-01

Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…

12. Pragmatic evaluation of the Toyota Production System (TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lukasz Maciej Mazur

2008-12-01

Full Text Available Medication errors occurring in hospitals are a growing national concern. These medication errors and their related costs (or wastes are seen as major factors leading to increased patient safety risks and increased waste in the hospital setting.  This article presents a study in which sixteen entry-level nurses utilized a Toyota Production System (TPS analysis procedure to solve medication delivery problems at one community hospital. The objective of this research was to study and evaluate the TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses. Personal journals, focus group discussions, and a survey study were used to collect data about entry-level nurses’ perceptions of using the TPS problem solving approach to study medication delivery. A regression analysis was used to identify characteristics that enhance problem solving efforts. In addition, propositions for effective problem solving by entry-level nurses to aid in the reduction of medication errors in healthcare delivery settings are offered.

13. New Ideas on the Design of the Web-Based Learning System Oriented to Problem Solving from the Perspective of Question Chain and Learning Community

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Yin; Chu, Samuel K. W.

2016-01-01

In recent years, a number of models concerning problem solving systems have been put forward. However, many of them stress on technology and neglect the research of problem solving itself, especially the learning mechanism related to problem solving. In this paper, we analyze the learning mechanism of problem solving, and propose that when…

14. The Simple Concurrent Online Processing System (SCOPS) - An open-source interface for remotely sensed data processing

Science.gov (United States)

Warren, M. A.; Goult, S.; Clewley, D.

2018-06-01

Advances in technology allow remotely sensed data to be acquired with increasingly higher spatial and spectral resolutions. These data may then be used to influence government decision making and solve a number of research and application driven questions. However, such large volumes of data can be difficult to handle on a single personal computer or on older machines with slower components. Often the software required to process data is varied and can be highly technical and too advanced for the novice user to fully understand. This paper describes an open-source tool, the Simple Concurrent Online Processing System (SCOPS), which forms part of an airborne hyperspectral data processing chain that allows users accessing the tool over a web interface to submit jobs and process data remotely. It is demonstrated using Natural Environment Research Council Airborne Research Facility (NERC-ARF) instruments together with other free- and open-source tools to take radiometrically corrected data from sensor geometry into geocorrected form and to generate simple or complex band ratio products. The final processed data products are acquired via an HTTP download. SCOPS can cut data processing times and introduce complex processing software to novice users by distributing jobs across a network using a simple to use web interface.

15. Comparative Study on a Solving Model and Algorithm for a Flush Air Data Sensing System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yanbin Liu

2014-05-01

Full Text Available With the development of high-performance aircraft, precise air data are necessary to complete challenging tasks such as flight maneuvering with large angles of attack and high speed. As a result, the flush air data sensing system (FADS was developed to satisfy the stricter control demands. In this paper, comparative stuides on the solving model and algorithm for FADS are conducted. First, the basic principles of FADS are given to elucidate the nonlinear relations between the inputs and the outputs. Then, several different solving models and algorithms of FADS are provided to compute the air data, including the angle of attck, sideslip angle, dynamic pressure and static pressure. Afterwards, the evaluation criteria of the resulting models and algorithms are discussed to satisfy the real design demands. Futhermore, a simulation using these algorithms is performed to identify the properites of the distinct models and algorithms such as the measuring precision and real-time features. The advantages of these models and algorithms corresponding to the different flight conditions are also analyzed, furthermore, some suggestions on their engineering applications are proposed to help future research.

16. Simple quantum systems in the momentum representation; Sistema de cuantica simple en la representacion de un momneto

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guillaumin-Espana, E; Salas Brito, A. L [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Martinez y Romero, R. P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Nunez-Yepez, H. N. [Universidad Autonoma-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

2001-02-01

The momentum representation is little used in quantum mechanics courses. Some students are hence surprised by the change in viewpoint when, in doing advanced work, they have to use the momentum rather than the coordinate representation. In this work, we give an introduction to quantum mechanics in momentum space. To this end we discuss standard elementary problems, namely, the free particle, the quantum motion under a constant potential function, a particle interacting with a potential step function, and the motion of a particle under a oscillatory potential function. What is not standard is that they are all conceived from momentum space and hence they, with the exception of the free particle, are not equivalent to the coordinate space ones with the same names. We solve for the bound eigenstates of the problems working within the momentum representation trying not to make explicit reference to the systems they correspond to in the coordinate representation. [Spanish] La representacion de los impetus es muy poco empleada en los cursos de mecanica cuantica. Ello es causa de que muchos estudiantes queden un tanto confundidos, por el cambio de representacion cuando tienen que usar aquella, en vez de la mas usual de las coordenadas, al comenzar trabajos mas avanzados. Esta contribucion ofrece una introduccion a la mecanica cuantica en el espacio de los impetus. Con este fin analizamos sistemas elementales tipicos, a saber, la particula libre, el movimiento cuantico bajo una funcion de potencial constante, la interaccion con una funcion de potencial de tipo escalon y el movimiento en una funcion oscilante de potencial. Lo que es poco usual es que los sistemas se conciben desde la representacion de los impetus y, por lo tanto, con la excepcion de la particula libre, no pueden considerarse equivalentes a aquellos con el mismo nombre pero en la representacion de las coordenadas. Encontramos los eigenestados ligados de los problemas trabajando en la representacion de los

17. A nearly orthogonal 2D grid system in solving the shallow water equations in the head bay of Bengal

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roy, G.D. . E.mail: roy_gd@hotmail.com; Hussain, Farzana . E.mail: farzana@sust.edu

2001-11-01

A typical nearly orthogonal grid system is considered to solve the shallow water equations along the head bay of Bengal. A pencil of straight lines at uniform angular distance through a suitable origin, O at the mean sea level (MSL), are considered as a system of grid lines. A system of concentric and uniformly distributed ellipses with center at O is considered as the other system of grid lines. In order to solve the shallow water equations numerically, a system of transformations is applied so that the grid system in the transformed domain becomes a rectangular one. Shallow water equations are solved using appropriate initial and boundary conditions to estimate the water level due to tide and surge. The typical grid system is found to be suitable in incorporating the bending of the coastline and the island boundaries accurately in the numerical scheme along the coast of Bangladesh. (author)

18. A composite step conjugate gradients squared algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems

Science.gov (United States)

Chan, Tony; Szeto, Tedd

1994-03-01

We propose a new and more stable variant of the CGS method [27] for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. The method is based on squaring the Composite Step BCG method, introduced recently by Bank and Chan [1,2], which itself is a stabilized variant of BCG in that it skips over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined and causes one kind of breakdown in BCG. By doing this, we obtain a method (Composite Step CGS or CSCGS) which not only handles the breakdowns described above, but does so with the advantages of CGS, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG. Our strategy for deciding whether to skip a step does not involve any machine dependent parameters and is designed to skip near breakdowns as well as produce smoother iterates. Numerical experiments show that the new method does produce improved performance over CGS on practical problems.

19. Solving Graph Laplacian Systems Through Recursive Bisections and Two-Grid Preconditioning

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ponce, Colin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

2016-02-18

We present a parallelizable direct method for computing the solution to graph Laplacian-based linear systems derived from graphs that can be hierarchically bipartitioned with small edge cuts. For a graph of size n with constant-size edge cuts, our method decomposes a graph Laplacian in time O(n log n), and then uses that decomposition to perform a linear solve in time O(n log n). We then use the developed technique to design a preconditioner for graph Laplacians that do not have this property. Finally, we augment this preconditioner with a two-grid method that accounts for much of the preconditioner's weaknesses. We present an analysis of this method, as well as a general theorem for the condition number of a general class of two-grid support graph-based preconditioners. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the studied methods.

20. SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Onica -Chipea Lavinia

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The paper aims to briefly review specific provisions of labor legislation for the solving of labor disputes. Those rules are found in matters of discrimination in the payment settlements, the public sector staff as well as some personnel status or disciplinary (work stops at Status of Teachers and established a derogationfrom the common law (Labor Code Law nr.62/2011 of Social Dialogue in resolving individual labor conflicts(former conflicts of rights. The role and importance of these regulations is that they give the parties the employment relationship, particularly employees, way, way more for rights enshrined in law. Appeals, complaints or expressions of individual grievances be settled outside the judicial system organ (the courts,authorizing officers, judicial administrative organs, which aim at restoring order violated.

1. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1996-12-31

An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

2. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

Science.gov (United States)

Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

2018-03-01

In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

3. A trial of patient-oriented problem-solving system for immunology teaching in China: a comparison with dialectic lectures

OpenAIRE

Zhang Zhiren; Liu Wei; Han Junfeng; Guo Sheng; Wu Yuzhang

2013-01-01

Abstract Background The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, P...

4. The influence of mechatronic learning systems on creative problem solving of pupils participating in technology class A pilot study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kai-Christian Tönnsen

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Without being creative and finding solutions for various problems of life mankind wouldn’t be what it is today. Problem solving always has been a key ability for development, in the past, the present and it will also be a key for the future. Creative problem solving is one of the most important ways of technical thinking and acting. Therefore, the ability of finding solutions for problems and realizing them is a primary goal for technological education, especially if it is part of a comprehensive school education. It can be assumed that the available resources affect the possibilities and the result of problem solving processes. In terms of technology classes there are numerous resources that aim for the development of pupils’ creative problem solving skills like for instance mechatronic educational environments (MEEs. Unfortunately there is currently no test instrument for rating the influence of these MEEs on the outcome in terms of creative technical problem solving processes. Therefore, we designed a trial for such purpose and tested it in a pilot study: 33 students (9th grade, average age of 15.24 years of comprehensive schools were given a problem, which had to be solved using three different MEEs. Solutions found by the students have been documented and analyzed to identify system characteristics which enhance or inhibit the creative outcome.Key words: Creative problem solving, technology education, mechatronic educational environments, Festo MecLab, Fischertechnik RoboTX, Lego Mindstorms EV3

5. A Simple Hybrid Synchronization for a Class of Chaotic Financial Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jiming Zheng

2017-01-01

Full Text Available It is an important to achieve the hybrid synchronization of the chaotic financial system. Chaos synchronization is equivalent to the error system which is asymptotically stable. The hybrid synchronization for a class of finance chaotic systems is discussed. First, a simple single variable controller is obtained to synchronize two identical chaotic financial systems with different initial conditions. Second, a novel algorithm is proposed to determine the variables of the master system that should antisynchronize with corresponding variables of the slave system and use this algorithm to determine the corresponding variables in the chaotic financial systems. The hybrid synchronization of the chaotic financial systems is realized by a simple controller. At the same time, different controllers can implement the chaotic financial system hybrid synchronization. In comparison with the existing results, the obtained controllers in this paper are simpler than those of the existing results. Finally, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

6. A Simple and Reliable Method of Design for Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Srinivasarao, Mantri; Sudha, K. Rama; Bhanu, C. V. K.

2017-06-01

Standalone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems are seen as a promoting method of electrifying areas of developing world that lack power grid infrastructure. Proliferations of these systems require a design procedure that is simple, reliable and exhibit good performance over its life time. The proposed methodology uses simple empirical formulae and easily available parameters to design SAPV systems, that is, array size with energy storage. After arriving at the different array size (area), performance curves are obtained for optimal design of SAPV system with high amount of reliability in terms of autonomy at a specified value of loss of load probability (LOLP). Based on the array to load ratio (ALR) and levelized energy cost (LEC) through life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, it is shown that the proposed methodology gives better performance, requires simple data and is more reliable when compared with conventional design using monthly average daily load and insolation.

7. Simple and reliable procedure for the evaluation of short-term dynamic processes in power systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Popovic, D P

1986-10-01

An efficient approach is presented to the solution of the short-term dynamics model in power systems. It consists of an adequate algebraic treatment of the original system of nonlinear differential equations, using linearization, decomposition and Cauchy's formula. The simple difference equations obtained in this way are incorporated into a model of the electrical network, which is of a low order compared to the ones usually used. Newton's method is applied to the model formed in this way, which leads to a simple and reliable iterative procedure. The characteristics of the procedure developed are demonstrated on examples of transient stability analysis of real power systems. 12 refs.

8. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rui eNouchi

2016-05-01

9. Developing a Creativity and Problem Solving Course in Support of the Information Systems Curriculum

Science.gov (United States)

Martz, Ben; Hughes, Jim; Braun, Frank

2016-01-01

This paper looks at and assesses the development and implementation of a problem solving and creativity class for the purpose of providing a basis for a Business Informatics curriculum. The development was fueled by the desire to create a broad based class that 1. Familiarized students to the underlying concepts of problem solving; 2. Introduced…

10. Problem Solving Method Based on E-Learning System for Engineering Education

Science.gov (United States)

Khazaal, Hasan F.

2015-01-01

Encouraging engineering students to handle advanced technology with multimedia, as well as motivate them to have the skills of solving the problem, are the missions of the teacher in preparing students for a modern professional career. This research proposes a scenario of problem solving in basic electrical circuits based on an e-learning system…

11. A Simple Method for Dynamic Scheduling in a Heterogeneous Computing System

OpenAIRE

Žumer, Viljem; Brest, Janez

2002-01-01

A simple method for the dynamic scheduling on a heterogeneous computing system is proposed in this paper. It was implemented to minimize the parallel program execution time. The proposed method decomposes the program workload into computationally homogeneous subtasks, which may be of the different size, depending on the current load of each machine in a heterogeneous computing system.

12. Key Choices in the Design of Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Baker, T; Bechhofer, S; Isaac, A.H.J.C.A.; Miles, A.; Schreiber, G.; Summers, E; Schreiber, Guus

2013-01-01

Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) provides a data model and vocabulary for expressing Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) such as thesauri and classification schemes in Semantic Web applications. This paper presents the main components of SKOS and their formal expression in Web Ontology

13. Using interactive problem-solving techniques to enhance control systems education for non English-speakers

Science.gov (United States)

Lamont, L. A.; Chaar, L.; Toms, C.

2010-03-01

Interactive learning is beneficial to students in that it allows the continual development and testing of many skills. An interactive approach enables students to improve their technical capabilities, as well as developing both verbal and written communicative ability. Problem solving and communication skills are vital for engineering students; in the workplace they will be required to communicate with people of varying technical abilities and from different linguistic and engineering backgrounds. In this paper, a case study is presented that discusses how the traditional method of teaching control systems can be improved. 'Control systems' is a complex engineering topic requiring students to process an extended amount of mathematical formulae. MATLAB software, which enables students to interactively compare a range of possible combinations and analyse the optimal solution, is used to this end. It was found that students became more enthusiastic and interested when given ownership of their learning objectives. As well as improving the students' technical knowledge, other important engineering skills are also improved by introducing an interactive method of teaching.

14. Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-11-06

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration.

15. A trial of patient-oriented problem-solving system for immunology teaching in China: a comparison with dialectic lectures

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhang Zhiren

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, POPS has never been applied in teaching immunology in China. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching immunology and assess students’ and teachers’ perception to POPS. Methods 321 second-year medical students were divided into two groups: I and II. Group I, comprising 110 students, was taught by POPS, and 16 immunology teachers witnessed the whole teaching process. Group II including the remaining 211 students was taught through traditional lectures. The results of the pre- and post-test of both groups were compared. Group I students and teachers then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis before a discussion meeting attended only by the teachers was held. Results Significant improvement in the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores of those in Groups I and II was seen, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS teaching. Most students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps them to understand topics and creates interest, and 88.12% of students favored POPS over simple lectures. Moreover, while they responded that POPS facilitated student learning better than lectures, teachers pointed out that limited teaching resources would make it difficult for wide POPS application in China. Conclusions While POPS can break up the monotony of dialectic lectures and serve as a better teaching method, it may not be feasible for the current educational environment in China. The main reason for this is the

16. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

Science.gov (United States)

Dekorvin, Andre

1989-01-01

The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

17. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: A Model to Guide Development of Student Expertise in Problem-Solving

Science.gov (United States)

Holder, Lauren N.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Herbert, Bruce E.

2017-01-01

Engaging students in problem-solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves developing student conceptualization of the Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge to the problems using practices that model those used by professionals. In this article, we review geoscience education research…

18. Ant-based extraction of rules in simple decision systems over ontological graphs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pancerz Krzysztof

2015-06-01

Full Text Available In the paper, the problem of extraction of complex decision rules in simple decision systems over ontological graphs is considered. The extracted rules are consistent with the dominance principle similar to that applied in the dominancebased rough set approach (DRSA. In our study, we propose to use a heuristic algorithm, utilizing the ant-based clustering approach, searching the semantic spaces of concepts presented by means of ontological graphs. Concepts included in the semantic spaces are values of attributes describing objects in simple decision systems

19. Island Megalopolises: Tunnel Systems as a Critical Alternative in Solving Transport Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-02-01

20. Algorithm for solving the linear Cauchy problem for large systems of ordinary differential equations with the use of parallel computations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moryakov, A. V., E-mail: sailor@orc.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2016-12-15

An algorithm for solving the linear Cauchy problem for large systems of ordinary differential equations is presented. The algorithm for systems of first-order differential equations is implemented in the EDELWEISS code with the possibility of parallel computations on supercomputers employing the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for the data exchange between parallel processes. The solution is represented by a series of orthogonal polynomials on the interval [0, 1]. The algorithm is characterized by simplicity and the possibility to solve nonlinear problems with a correction of the operator in accordance with the solution obtained in the previous iterative process.

1. Simple robust technique using time delay estimation for the control and synchronization of Lorenz systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jin, Maolin; Chang, Pyung Hun

2009-01-01

This work presents two simple and robust techniques based on time delay estimation for the respective control and synchronization of chaos systems. First, one of these techniques is applied to the control of a chaotic Lorenz system with both matched and mismatched uncertainties. The nonlinearities in the Lorenz system is cancelled by time delay estimation and desired error dynamics is inserted. Second, the other technique is applied to the synchronization of the Lue system and the Lorenz system with uncertainties. The synchronization input consists of three elements that have transparent and clear meanings. Since time delay estimation enables a very effective and efficient cancellation of disturbances and nonlinearities, the techniques turn out to be simple and robust. Numerical simulation results show fast, accurate and robust performance of the proposed techniques, thereby demonstrating their effectiveness for the control and synchronization of Lorenz systems.

2. Solving the Bateman equations in CASMO5 using implicit ode numerical methods for stiff systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hykes, J. M.; Ferrer, R. M.

2013-01-01

The Bateman equations, which describe the transmutation of nuclides over time as a result of radioactive decay, absorption, and fission, are often numerically stiff. This is especially true if short-lived nuclides are included in the system. This paper describes the use of implicit numerical methods for o D Es applied to the stiff Bateman equations, specifically employing the Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) form of the linear multistep method. As is true in other domains, using an implicit method removes or lessens the (sometimes severe) step-length constraints by which explicit methods must abide. To gauge its accuracy and speed, the BDF method is compared to a variety of other solution methods, including Runge-Kutta explicit methods and matrix exponential methods such as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM). A preliminary test case was chosen as representative of a PWR lattice depletion step and was solved with numerical libraries called from a Python front-end. The Figure of Merit (a combined measure of accuracy and efficiency) for the BDF method was nearly identical to that for CRAM, while explicit methods and other matrix exponential approximations trailed behind. The test case includes 319 nuclides, in which the shortest-lived nuclide is 98 Nb with a half-life of 2.86 seconds. Finally, the BDF and CRAM methods were compared within CASMO5, where CRAM had a FOM about four times better than BDF, although the BDF implementation was not fully optimized. (authors)

3. Integral transform method for solving time fractional systems and fractional heat equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Arman Aghili

2014-01-01

Full Text Available In the present paper, time fractional partial differential equation is considered, where the fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense. Laplace transform method has been applied to obtain an exact solution. The authors solved certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous time fractional heat equations using integral transform. Transform method is a powerful tool for solving fractional singular Integro - differential equations and PDEs. The result reveals that the transform method is very convenient and effective.

4. Simple explanations and reasoning: From philosophy of science to expert systems

Science.gov (United States)

Rochowiak, Daniel

1988-01-01

A preliminary prototype of a simple explanation system was constructed. Although the system, based on the idea of storytelling, did not incorporate all of the principles of simple explanation, it did demonstrate the potential of the approach. The system incorporated a hypertext system, an inference engine, and facilities for constructing contrast type explanations. The continued development of such a system should prove to be valuable. By extending the resources of the expert system paradigm, the knowledge engineer is not forced to learn a new set of skills, and the domain knowledge already acquired by him is not lost. Further, both the beginning user and the more advanced user can be accommodated. For the beginning user, corrective explanations and ES explanations provide facilities for more clearly understanding the way in which the system is functioning. For the more advanced user, the instance and state explanations allow him to focus on the issues at hand. The simple model of explanation attempts to exploit and show how the why and how facilities of the expert system paradigm can be extended by attending to the pragmatics of explanation and adding texture to the ordinary pattern of reasoning in a rule based system.

5. A Simple System for Observing Dynamic Phase Equilibrium via an Inquiry-Based Laboratory or Demonstration

Science.gov (United States)

Cloonan, Carrie A.; Andrew, Julie A.; Nichol, Carolyn A.; Hutchinson, John S.

2011-01-01

This article describes an activity that can be used as an inquiry-based laboratory or demonstration for either high school or undergraduate chemistry students to provide a basis for understanding both vapor pressure and the concept of dynamic phase equilibrium. The activity includes a simple setup to create a closed system of only water liquid and…

6. Simple skew category algebras associated with minimal partially defined dynamical systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nystedt, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

2013-01-01

In this article, we continue our study of category dynamical systems, that is functors s from a category G to Topop, and their corresponding skew category algebras. Suppose that the spaces s(e), for e∈ob(G), are compact Hausdorff. We show that if (i) the skew category algebra is simple, then (ii) G...

7. A Simple Method to Determine if a Music Information Retrieval System is a "Horse"

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sturm, Bob L.

2014-01-01

We propose and demonstrate a simple method to determine if a music information retrieval (MIR) system is using factors irrelevant to the task for which it is designed. This is of critical importance to certain use cases, but cannot be accomplished using standard approaches to evaluation in MIR...

8. Simple connection between conservation laws in the Korteweg--de Vriesand sine-Gordon systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chodos, A.

1980-01-01

An infinite sequence of conserved quantities follows from the Lax representation in both the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems. We show that these two sequences are related by a simple substitution. In an appendix, two different methods of deriving conservation laws from the Lax representation are presented

9. A simple optical fibre-linked remote control system for multiple devices

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

We report on the development of a simple control system which can handle multiple devices through an optical ﬁbre data link. The devices are controlled using a set of DACs through serial data communication via a serial port of a PC. Serial data from the PC get converted to parallel mode using a homemade “serial in ...

10. Soft Systems Methodology and Problem Framing: Development of an Environmental Problem Solving Model Respecting a New Emergent Reflexive Paradigm.

Science.gov (United States)

Gauthier, Benoit; And Others

1997-01-01

Identifies the more representative problem-solving models in environmental education. Suggests the addition of a strategy for defining a problem situation using Soft Systems Methodology to environmental education activities explicitly designed for the development of critical thinking. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

11. Instructional Supports for Representational Fluency in Solving Linear Equations with Computer Algebra Systems and Paper-and-Pencil

Science.gov (United States)

Fonger, Nicole L.; Davis, Jon D.; Rohwer, Mary Lou

2018-01-01

This research addresses the issue of how to support students' representational fluency--the ability to create, move within, translate across, and derive meaning from external representations of mathematical ideas. The context of solving linear equations in a combined computer algebra system (CAS) and paper-and-pencil classroom environment is…

12. Strategy for solving semi-analytically three-dimensional transient flow in a coupled N-layer aquifer system

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.

2008-01-01

Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own

13. A simple and low-cost recirculating aquaculture system for the production of arapaima juveniles

OpenAIRE

Burton, Andrew Mark; Moncayo Calderero, Edwin; Burgos Moran, Ricardo Ernesto; Anastacio Sánchez, Rogelio Lumbes; Avendaño Villamar, Ulises Tiberio; Ortega Torres, Nelson Guillermo

2016-01-01

A simple and low-cost recirculating system (RAS) for production of arapaima  (Arapaima gigas) juveniles is described. Twenty arapaima fry (mean 13.0 cm, 12.0 g) were housed in three production tanks and fed a high HUFA diet resulting in 90% of fry successfully progressing to juveniles (mean 17.4 cm long; 40.2 g). The fish were then reared for a further 72 days fed on commercial extruded pellet feed achieving a mean length of 42.6 cm and 656.6 g. The simple and low-cost RAS holds good potentia...

14. A new efficient analytical method for a system of vibration. Structural analysis using a new technique of partially solving method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gunyasu, Kenzo; Hiramoto, Tsuneyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsumori; Osano, Minetada

2002-01-01

We describe a new method for solving large-scale system of linear equations resulting from discretization of ordinary differential equation and partial differential equation directly. This new method effectively reduces the memory capacity requirements and computing time problems for analyses using finite difference method and finite element method. In this paper we have tried to solve one-million linear equations directly for the case that initial displacement and boundary displacement are known about the finite difference scheme of second order inhomogeneous differential equation for vibration of a 10 story structure. Excellent results were got. (author)

15. A Model of Discrete-Continuum Time for a Simple Physical System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Karimov A. R.

2008-04-01

Full Text Available Proceeding from the assumption that the time flow of an individual object is a real physical value, in the framework of a physical kinetics approach we propose an analogy between time and temperature. The use of such an analogy makes it possible to work out a discrete-continuum model of time for a simple physical system. The possible physical properties of time for the single object and time for the whole system are discussed.

16. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

Science.gov (United States)

Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

2018-02-01

This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

17. Regionally Implicit Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Solving the Relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell System Submitted to Iowa State University

Science.gov (United States)

Guthrey, Pierson Tyler

The relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system (RVM) models the behavior of collisionless plasma, where electrons and ions interact via the electromagnetic fields they generate. In the RVM system, electrons could accelerate to significant fractions of the speed of light. An idea that is actively being pursued by several research groups around the globe is to accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds by hitting a plasma with an intense laser beam. As the laser beam passes through the plasma it creates plasma wakes, much like a ship passing through water, which can trap electrons and push them to relativistic speeds. Such setups are known as laser wakefield accelerators, and have the potential to yield particle accelerators that are significantly smaller than those currently in use. Ultimately, the goal of such research is to harness the resulting electron beams to generate electromagnetic waves that can be used in medical imaging applications. High-order accurate numerical discretizations of kinetic Vlasov plasma models are very effective at yielding low-noise plasma simulations, but are computationally expensive to solve because of the high dimensionality. In addition to the general difficulties inherent to numerically simulating Vlasov models, the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system has unique challenges not present in the non-relativistic case. One such issue is that operator splitting of the phase gradient leads to potential instabilities, thus we require an alternative to operator splitting of the phase. The goal of the current work is to develop a new class of high-order accurate numerical methods for solving kinetic Vlasov models of plasma. The main discretization in configuration space is handled via a high-order finite element method called the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG). One difficulty is that standard explicit time-stepping methods for DG suffer from time-step restrictions that are significantly worse than what a simple Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL

18. A simple method of chaos control for a class of chaotic discrete-time systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jiang Guoping; Zheng Weixing

2005-01-01

In this paper, a simple method is proposed for chaos control for a class of discrete-time chaotic systems. The proposed method is built upon the state feedback control and the characteristic of ergodicity of chaos. The feedback gain matrix of the controller is designed using a simple criterion, so that control parameters can be selected via the pole placement technique of linear control theory. The new controller has a feature that it only uses the state variable for control and does not require the target equilibrium point in the feedback path. Moreover, the proposed control method cannot only overcome the so-called 'odd eigenvalues number limitation' of delayed feedback control, but also control the chaotic systems to the specified equilibrium points. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a two-dimensional discrete-time chaotic system

19. A Trigonometrically Fitted Block Method for Solving Oscillatory Second-Order Initial Value Problems and Hamiltonian Systems

OpenAIRE

Ngwane, F. F.; Jator, S. N.

2017-01-01

In this paper, we present a block hybrid trigonometrically fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström method (BHTRKNM), whose coefficients are functions of the frequency and the step-size for directly solving general second-order initial value problems (IVPs), including Hamiltonian systems such as the energy conserving equations and systems arising from the semidiscretization of partial differential equations (PDEs). Four discrete hybrid formulas used to formulate the BHTRKNM are provided by a continuous one...

20. Problem-Solving Test: Conditional Gene Targeting Using the Cre/loxP Recombination System

Science.gov (United States)

Szeberényi, József

2013-01-01

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: gene targeting, knock-out mutation, bacteriophage, complementary base-pairing, homologous recombination, deletion, transgenic organisms, promoter, polyadenylation element, transgene, DNA replication, RNA polymerase, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, restriction endonuclease, polymerase chain…

1. Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.

2007-01-01

Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236 ISSN 1574-0617 Grant - others:AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

2. Solving Linear Differential Equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

2010-01-01

The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

3. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pankaj Khanna

2014-04-01

Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

4. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

2018-01-01

A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

5. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Nuclear Reactor Directorate, DRN, Dept. of Reactor Studies, DER, Reactor and Innovative Systems Service, SERSI, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rouyer, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Pole Industrie, Div. Ingenierie et Services, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

2001-07-01

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

6. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nisan, S.; Rouyer, J.L.

2001-01-01

This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

7. A simple in-vessel/FW component viewing system for SST-1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Vasava, Kirit R.; Jaiswal, Snehal; Parekh, Tejas; Chauhan, Pradeep; Patel, Hiteshkumar; Pradhan, Subrata

2015-01-01

A simple compact system is being proposed for in-situ visual inspection of around 3800 First Wall (FW) graphite (armour) tiles in the vacuum vessel of SST-1 tokamak. The 2 DOF, manual driven system (permanently stationed inside vacuum vessel behind outer passive stabilizer) at top and bottom mid-plane locations consist of a rack and pinion mechanism operating a arm with a CCD camera/LED mounted on it, moving over a cam profile to cover approximately 1/8 th of the toroidal span of the vacuum vessel both at interior top/bottom locations with in the FW modules. The camera and LED light should withstand the ultrahigh vacuum conditions, prolonged baking temperatures of around 200°C along with high electromagnetic forces inside the vessel. This system can be operated remotely in-between shots from outside the VV through a linear motion feed through providing linear moment to a rack and pinion mechanism connected to the arm. This mechanism provides a better viewing of the inside FW components and vessel wall surface of tokamak with simple engineering and operational effort. Any information can be acquired from system regarding damages to FWC due to interaction with plasma as well as damage of other support structures inside VV. In comparison to more complicated and complex inspection system used in other tokamaks, this mechanism can be used for frequent in vessel visual inspection, which limits the system to be small, simple, occupying less space and custom made. This system is cheap with a minimum time for realization of the concept. The paper will present the conceptual and engineering design aspect of the in-viewing system, CAD images, its advantages and limitations, camera and LED details, data acquisition and the present status of realization of the project. (author)

8. Development of a Simple Radioactive marker System to Reduce Positioning Errors in Radiation Treatment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

William H. Miller; Dr. Jatinder Palta

2007-01-01

The objective of this research is to implement an inexpensive, quick and simple monitor that provides an accurate indication of proper patient position during the treatment of cancer by external beam X-ray radiation and also checks for any significant changes in patient anatomy. It is believed that this system will significantly reduce the treatment margin, provide an additional, independent quality assurance check of positioning accuracy prior to all treatments and reduce the probability of misadministration of therapeutic dose

9. Liquid lithium loop system to solve challenging technology issues for fusion power plant

Science.gov (United States)

Ono, M.; Majeski, R.; Jaworski, M. A.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Christenson, M.; Ruzic, D. N.

2017-11-01

Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues, while potentially improving reactor plasma performance. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium divertor concept and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept, taking advantage of the enhanced or non-coronal Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. To maintain the LL purity in a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ~1 l s-1 is envisioned. We examined two key technology issues: (1) dust or solid particle removal and (2) real time recovery of tritium from LL while keeping the tritium inventory level to an acceptable level. By running the LL-loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to the outside where the dust/impurities can be removed by relatively simple dust filter, cold trap and/or centrifugal separation systems. With ~1 l s-1 LL flow, even a small 0.1% dust content by weight (or 0.5 g s-1) suggests that the LL-loop could carry away nearly 16 tons of dust per year. In a 1 GW-electric (or ~3 GW fusion power) fusion power plant, about 0.5 g s-1 of tritium is needed to maintain the fusion fuel cycle

10. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Putman, V.L.

1997-06-01

Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

11. Revisiting the coupled-mass system and analogy with a simple band gap structure

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levesque, L

2006-01-01

A great deal of insight can be gained from the analysis of coupled masses connected to springs in order to understand better the origin of band gaps in physical systems. The approach is based on the application of the superposition principle for finding the general solution in simple mechanical systems involving functions, which vary periodically with time. Graphs show that sums of periodic functions oscillating at different frequencies lead to an exchange of energy from one oscillator to another in a simple mechanical system of three objects connected by identical springs. A system of a large number of masses connected to springs having the same spring constant K is then considered and compared with a system in which the spring constants alternate from K to another value G when connecting one mass to another. Using the results found from the mechanical systems, an analogy of charge oscillations excited on both uniform and corrugated surfaces is presented. The results obtained attempt to expand understanding of the origin of the band gap occurring in some systems involving periodic motions

12. A Note on Using Partitioning Techniques for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems on Parallel Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehiddin Al-Baali

2015-12-01

Full Text Available We deal with the design of parallel algorithms by using variable partitioning techniques to solve nonlinear optimization problems. We propose an iterative solution method that is very efficient for separable functions, our scope being to discuss its performance for general functions. Experimental results on an illustrative example have suggested some useful modifications that, even though they improve the efficiency of our parallel method, leave some questions open for further investigation.

13. Determining the theoretical reliability function of thermal power system using simple and complex Weibull distribution

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kalaba Dragan V.

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The main subject of this paper is the representation of the probabilistic technique for thermal power system reliability assessment. Exploitation research of the reliability of the fossil fuel power plant system has defined the function, or the probabilistic law, according to which the random variable behaves (occurrence of complete unplanned standstill. Based on these data, and by applying the reliability theory to this particular system, using simple and complex Weibull distribution, a hypothesis has been confirmed that the distribution of the observed random variable fully describes the behaviour of such a system in terms of reliability. Establishing a comprehensive insight in the field of probabilistic power system reliability assessment technique could serve as an input for further research and development in the area of power system planning and operation.

14. Constructing Frozen Jacobian Iterative Methods for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations, Associated with ODEs and PDEs Using the Homotopy Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Uswah Qasim

2016-03-01

Full Text Available A homotopy method is presented for the construction of frozen Jacobian iterative methods. The frozen Jacobian iterative methods are attractive because the inversion of the Jacobian is performed in terms of LUfactorization only once, for a single instance of the iterative method. We embedded parameters in the iterative methods with the help of the homotopy method: the values of the parameters are determined in such a way that a better convergence rate is achieved. The proposed homotopy technique is general and has the ability to construct different families of iterative methods, for solving weakly nonlinear systems of equations. Further iterative methods are also proposed for solving general systems of nonlinear equations.

15. Application of Decomposition Methodology to Solve Integrated Process Design and Controller Design Problems for Reactor-Separator-Recycle System

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

2010-01-01

This paper presents the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for a reactor-separator-recycle (RSR) system and evaluates a decomposition methodology to solve the IPDC problem. Accordingly, the IPDC problem is solved by decomposing it into four hierarchical stages: (i) pre...... the design of a RSR system involving consecutive reactions, A B -> C and shown to provide effective solutions that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights......-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process insights and the reverse design approach to arrive at the final process-controller design decisions. The developed methodology is illustrated through...

16. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

CERN Document Server

2016-01-01

This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

17. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. G. Sangam

2010-08-01

Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

18. Modeling the stylized facts in finance through simple nonlinear adaptive systems

Science.gov (United States)

Hommes, Cars H.

2002-01-01

Recent work on adaptive systems for modeling financial markets is discussed. Financial markets are viewed as evolutionary systems between different, competing trading strategies. Agents are boundedly rational in the sense that they tend to follow strategies that have performed well, according to realized profits or accumulated wealth, in the recent past. Simple technical trading rules may survive evolutionary competition in a heterogeneous world where prices and beliefs co-evolve over time. Evolutionary models can explain important stylized facts, such as fat tails, clustered volatility, and long memory, of real financial series. PMID:12011401

19. System to solve three designs of the fuel management; Sistema para resolver tres disenos de la administracion de combustible

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Marinez R, R., E-mail: alejandro.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, Av. Agustin Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, 24039 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche (Mexico)

2015-09-15

In this paper preliminary results are presented, obtained with the development of a computer system that resolves three stages of the nuclear fuel management, which are: the axial and radial designs of fuel, as well as the design of nuclear fuel reloads. The novelty of the system is that the solution is obtained solving the 3 mentioned stages, in coupled form. For this, heuristic techniques are used for each stage, in each one of these has a function objective that is applied to particular problems, but in all cases the obtained partial results are used as input data for the next stage. The heuristic techniques that were used to solve the coupled problem are: tabu search, neural networks and a hybrid between the scatter search and path re linking. The system applies an iterative process from the design of a fuel cell to the reload design, since are preliminary results the reload is designed using the operation strategy Haling type. In each one of the stages nuclear parameters inherent to the design are monitored. The results so far show the advantage of solving the problem in a coupled manner, even when a large amount of computer resources is used. (Author)

20. An OpenMI Implementation of a Water Resources System using Simple Script Wrappers

Science.gov (United States)

Steward, D. R.; Aistrup, J. A.; Kulcsar, L.; Peterson, J. M.; Welch, S. M.; Andresen, D.; Bernard, E. A.; Staggenborg, S. A.; Bulatewicz, T.

2013-12-01

This team has developed an adaption of the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI) that utilizes Simple Script Wrappers. Code is made OpenMI compliant through organization within three modules that initialize, perform time steps, and finalize results. A configuration file is prepared that specifies variables a model expects to receive as input and those it will make available as output. An example is presented for groundwater, economic, and agricultural production models in the High Plains Aquifer region of Kansas. Our models use the programming environments in Scilab and Matlab, along with legacy Fortran code, and our Simple Script Wrappers can also use Python. These models are collectively run within this interdisciplinary framework from initial conditions into the future. It will be shown that by applying model constraints to one model, the impact may be accessed on changes to the water resources system.

1. Lowest-order constrained variational method for simple many-fermion systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alexandrov, I.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Wong, C.W.

1975-01-01

The authors study the potential energy of many-fermion systems calculated by the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV) method of Pandharipande. Two simple two-body interactions are used. For a simple hard-core potential in a dilute Fermi gas, they find that the Huang-Yang exclusion correction can be used to determine a healing distance. The result is close to the older Pandharipande prescription for the healing distance. For a hard core plus attractive exponential potential, the LOCV result agrees closely with the lowest-order separation method of Moszkowski and Scott. They find that the LOCV result has a shallow minimum as a function of the healing distance at the Moszkowski-Scott separation distance. The significance of the absence of a Brueckner dispersion correction in the LOCV result is discussed. (Auth.)

2. Application of simple adaptive control to water hydraulic servo cylinder system

Science.gov (United States)

Ito, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ikeo, Shigeru; Takahashi, Koji

2012-09-01

Although conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) achieves good tracking performance for cylinder control, the controller structure is much more complicated and has less robustness to disturbance in real applications. This paper discusses the use of simple adaptive control (SAC) for positioning a water hydraulic servo cylinder system. Compared with MRAC, SAC has a simpler and lower order structure, i.e., higher feasibility. The control performance of SAC is examined and evaluated on a water hydraulic servo cylinder system. With the recent increased concerns over global environmental problems, the water hydraulic technique using pure tap water as a pressure medium has become a new drive source comparable to electric, oil hydraulic, and pneumatic drive systems. This technique is also preferred because of its high power density, high safety against fire hazards in production plants, and easy availability. However, the main problems for precise control in a water hydraulic system are steady state errors and overshoot due to its large friction torque and considerable leakage flow. MRAC has been already applied to compensate for these effects, and better control performances have been obtained. However, there have been no reports on the application of SAC for water hydraulics. To make clear the merits of SAC, the tracking control performance and robustness are discussed based on experimental results. SAC is confirmed to give better tracking performance compared with PI control, and a control precision comparable to MRAC (within 10 μm of the reference position) and higher robustness to parameter change, despite the simple controller. The research results ensure a wider application of simple adaptive control in real mechanical systems.

3. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

2014-12-10

The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

4. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rios, M. Jr.

1980-01-01

A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

5. Theory of finite periodic systems - I: General expressions and various simple and illustrative examples

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pereyra, Pedro; Castillo, Edith

2001-09-01

A comprehensive presentation of a new approach to finite periodic systems is given. The novel and general expressions obtained here, allow simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities characteristic of crystalline systems. Transmission amplitudes through n-cell multichannel quantum systems are rigorously derived. General expressions for several physical quantities are entirely expressed in terms of single-cell amplitudes and a new class of polynomials p N,n . Besides the general expressions, we study some superlattice properties as the band structure and its relation with the phase coherence phenomena, the level density and the Kronig-Penney model as its continuous espectrum limit. Bandstructure tailoring, optical multilayer systems, resonant energies and functions and channel-mixing effects in multichannel transport process are also analysed in the light of the new approach. (author)

6. Bookshelf: a simple curation system for the storage of biomolecular simulation data.

Science.gov (United States)

Vohra, Shabana; Hall, Benjamin A; Holdbrook, Daniel A; Khalid, Syma; Biggin, Philip C

2010-01-01

Molecular dynamics simulations can now routinely generate data sets of several hundreds of gigabytes in size. The ability to generate this data has become easier over recent years and the rate of data production is likely to increase rapidly in the near future. One major problem associated with this vast amount of data is how to store it in a way that it can be easily retrieved at a later date. The obvious answer to this problem is a database. However, a key issue in the development and maintenance of such a database is its sustainability, which in turn depends on the ease of the deposition and retrieval process. Encouraging users to care about meta-data is difficult and thus the success of any storage system will ultimately depend on how well used by end-users the system is. In this respect we suggest that even a minimal amount of metadata if stored in a sensible fashion is useful, if only at the level of individual research groups. We discuss here, a simple database system which we call 'Bookshelf', that uses python in conjunction with a mysql database to provide an extremely simple system for curating and keeping track of molecular simulation data. It provides a user-friendly, scriptable solution to the common problem amongst biomolecular simulation laboratories; the storage, logging and subsequent retrieval of large numbers of simulations. Download URL: http://sbcb.bioch.ox.ac.uk/bookshelf/

7. A simple and reliable health monitoring system for shoulder health: proposal.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long

2014-02-26

The current health care system is complex and inefficient. A simple and reliable health monitoring system that can help patients perform medical self-diagnosis is seldom readily available. Because the medical system is vast and complex, it has hampered or delayed patients in seeking medical advice or treatment in a timely manner, which may potentially affect the patient's chances of recovery, especially those with severe sicknesses such as cancer, and heart disease. The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology in designing a simple, low cost, Internet-based health-screening platform. This health-screening platform will enable patients to perform medical self-diagnosis over the Internet. Historical data has shown the importance of early detection to ensure patients receive proper treatment and speedy recovery. The platform is designed with special emphasis on the user interface. Standard Web-based user-interface design is adopted so the user feels ease to operate in a familiar Web environment. In addition, graphics such as charts and graphs are used generously to help users visualize and understand the result of the diagnostic. The system is developed using hypertext preprocessor (PHP) programming language. One important feature of this system platform is that it is built to be a stand-alone platform, which tends to have better user privacy security. The prototype system platform was developed by the National Cheng Kung University Ergonomic and Design Laboratory. The completed prototype of this system platform was submitted to the Taiwan Medical Institute for evaluation. The evaluation of 120 participants showed that this platform system is a highly effective tool in health-screening applications, and has great potential for improving the medical care quality for the general public.

8. A Simple and Reliable Health Monitoring System For Shoulder Health: Proposal

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Yann-Long

2014-01-01

Background The current health care system is complex and inefficient. A simple and reliable health monitoring system that can help patients perform medical self-diagnosis is seldom readily available. Because the medical system is vast and complex, it has hampered or delayed patients in seeking medical advice or treatment in a timely manner, which may potentially affect the patient’s chances of recovery, especially those with severe sicknesses such as cancer, and heart disease. Objective The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology in designing a simple, low cost, Internet-based health-screening platform. Methods This health-screening platform will enable patients to perform medical self-diagnosis over the Internet. Historical data has shown the importance of early detection to ensure patients receive proper treatment and speedy recovery. Results The platform is designed with special emphasis on the user interface. Standard Web-based user-interface design is adopted so the user feels ease to operate in a familiar Web environment. In addition, graphics such as charts and graphs are used generously to help users visualize and understand the result of the diagnostic. The system is developed using hypertext preprocessor (PHP) programming language. One important feature of this system platform is that it is built to be a stand-alone platform, which tends to have better user privacy security. The prototype system platform was developed by the National Cheng Kung University Ergonomic and Design Laboratory. Conclusions The completed prototype of this system platform was submitted to the Taiwan Medical Institute for evaluation. The evaluation of 120 participants showed that this platform system is a highly effective tool in health-screening applications, and has great potential for improving the medical care quality for the general public. PMID:24571980

9. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills.

Science.gov (United States)

Tian, Yanping; Xiao, Wengang; Li, Chengren; Liu, Yunlai; Qin, Maolin; Wu, Yi; Xiao, Lan; Li, Hongli

2014-04-09

Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p 0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p effects of the VM system in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, ease of communication and confidence. The VM system is an effective tool at Chinese medical university to promote undergraduates' active learning and problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform.

10. A simple satellite system to locate gamma-ray bursters using scintillating fiber technology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colavita, A.; Fratnik, F.

1993-07-01

We present a study on the feasibility of using a system of small, light, long-lived and simple satellites in order to locate gamma-ray bursters. Each small satellite possesses only electronics to discriminate gamma-rays out of the large background of cosmic rays and to time the arrival of the front of a gamma-ray burst. The arrival of a γ-ray strikes a plane made out of scintillating fibers. A layered structure of thin lead foils and scintillating fibers is used to obtain a low trigger threshold of approximately 20 MeV. To locate the burster applying triangulation methods, we use the time of arrival of the front of the gamma-ray burst and the position of the satellites at that very moment. We review an elementary version of the triangulation method to study the angular error in the determination of the burster position. We show that for almost all non-pathological distances among satellites we can determine the angular location of the source to better than one arc min. This precision allows us to find the visible counterpart of the burster, if it exists. These simple satellites can be made modular in order to customize their sizes or weights in order to use spare space available during major launches. We also propose a block diagram for the satellite architecture as well as a simple and strong detector using scintillating fiber technology. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

11. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

Science.gov (United States)

de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

2009-01-01

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

12. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

OpenAIRE

Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

2015-01-01

Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate s...

13. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

KAUST Repository

Castro, David

2013-10-28

This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

14. BioDAQ--a simple biosignal acquisition system for didactic use.

Science.gov (United States)

Csaky, Z; Mihalas, G I; Focsa, M

2002-01-01

A simple non expensive device for biosignal acquisition is presented. It mainly meets the requirements for didactic purposes specific in medical informatics laboratory classes. The system has two main types of devices: 'student unit'--the simplest one, used during lessons on real signals and 'demo unit', which can be also used in medical practice or for collecting biological signals. It is able to record: optical pulse, sphygmogram, ECG (1-4 leads) EEG or EMG (1-4 channels). For didactical purposes it has a large scale of recording options: variable sampling rate, gain and filtering. It can also be used in tele-acquisition via Internet.

15. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

KAUST Repository

Castro, David; Kodzius, Rimantas; Foulds, Ian G.

2013-01-01

This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

16. Application of simple approximate system analysis methods for reliability and availability improvement of reactor WWER-1000

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

2001-01-01

The method described on this report provides a set of simple, easily understood 'approximate' models applicable to a large class of system architectures. Constructing a Markov model of each redundant subsystem and its replacement after that by a pseudo-component develops the approximation models. Of equal importance, the models can be easily understood even of non-experts, including managers, high-level decision-makers and unsophisticated consumers. A necessary requirement for their application is the systems to be repairable and the mean time to repair to be much smaller than the mean time to failure. This ia a case most often met in the real practice. Results of the 'approximate' model application on a technological system of Kozloduy NPP are also presented. The results obtained can be compared quite favorably with the results obtained by using SAPHIRE software

17. Performance prediction of gas turbines by solving a system of non-linear equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kaikko, J

1998-09-01

This study presents a novel method for implementing the performance prediction of gas turbines from the component models. It is based on solving the non-linear set of equations that corresponds to the process equations, and the mass and energy balances for the engine. General models have been presented for determining the steady state operation of single components. Single and multiple shad arrangements have been examined with consideration also being given to heat regeneration and intercooling. Emphasis has been placed upon axial gas turbines of an industrial scale. Applying the models requires no information of the structural dimensions of the gas turbines. On comparison with the commonly applied component matching procedures, this method incorporates several advantages. The application of the models for providing results is facilitated as less attention needs to be paid to calculation sequences and routines. Solving the set of equations is based on zeroing co-ordinate functions that are directly derived from the modelling equations. Therefore, controlling the accuracy of the results is easy. This method gives more freedom for the selection of the modelling parameters since, unlike for the matching procedures, exchanging these criteria does not itself affect the algorithms. Implicit relationships between the variables are of no significance, thus increasing the freedom for the modelling equations as well. The mathematical models developed in this thesis will provide facilities to optimise the operation of any major gas turbine configuration with respect to the desired process parameters. The computational methods used in this study may also be adapted to any other modelling problems arising in industry. (orig.) 36 refs.

18. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

2012-07-27

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

19. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

20. Development of a simple, low cost, indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion implanters, accelerators

Science.gov (United States)

Suresh, K.; Balaji, S.; Saravanan, K.; Navas, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

2018-02-01

We developed a simple, low cost user-friendly automated indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion irradiation and analysis experiments requiring indirect beam fluence measurements unperturbed by sample conditions like low temperature, high temperature, sample biasing as well as in regular ion implantation experiments in the ion implanters and electrostatic accelerators with continuous beam. The system, which uses simple, low cost, off-the-shelf components/systems and two distinct layers of in-house built softwarenot only eliminates the need for costly data acquisition systems but also overcomes difficulties in using properietry software. The hardware of the system is centered around a personal computer, a PIC16F887 based embedded system, a Faraday cup drive cum monitor circuit, a pair of Faraday Cups and a beam current integrator and the in-house developed software include C based microcontroller firmware and LABVIEW based virtual instrument automation software. The automatic fluence measurement involves two important phases, a current sampling phase lasting over 20-30 seconds during which the ion beam current is continuously measured by intercepting the ion beam and the averaged beam current value is computed. A subsequent charge computation phase lasting 700-900 seconds is executed making the ion beam to irradiate the samples and the incremental fluence received by the sampleis estimated usingthe latest averaged beam current value from the ion beam current sampling phase. The cycle of current sampling-charge computation is repeated till the required fluence is reached. Besides simplicity and cost-effectiveness, other important advantages of the developed system include easy reconfiguration of the system to suit customisation of experiments, scalability, easy debug and maintenance of the hardware/software, ability to work as a standalone system. The system was tested with different set of samples and ion fluences and the results were verified using

1. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tri Pina Putri

2016-11-01

Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

2. Predicting hospital-acquired infections by scoring system with simple parameters.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ying-Jui Chang

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI are associated with increased attributable morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and economic costs. A simple, reliable prediction model for HAI has great clinical relevance. The objective of this study is to develop a scoring system to predict HAI that was derived from Logistic Regression (LR and validated by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN simultaneously. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 476 patients from all the 806 HAI inpatients were included for the study between 2004 and 2005. A sample of 1,376 non-HAI inpatients was randomly drawn from all the admitted patients in the same period of time as the control group. External validation of 2,500 patients was abstracted from another academic teaching center. Sixteen variables were extracted from the Electronic Health Records (EHR and fed into ANN and LR models. With stepwise selection, the following seven variables were identified by LR models as statistically significant: Foley catheterization, central venous catheterization, arterial line, nasogastric tube, hemodialysis, stress ulcer prophylaxes and systemic glucocorticosteroids. Both ANN and LR models displayed excellent discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.964 versus 0.969, p = 0.507 to identify infection in internal validation. During external validation, high AUC was obtained from both models (AUC: 0.850 versus 0.870, p = 0.447. The scoring system also performed extremely well in the internal (AUC: 0.965 and external (AUC: 0.871 validations. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a scoring system to predict HAI with simple parameters validated with ANN and LR models. Armed with this scoring system, infectious disease specialists can more efficiently identify patients at high risk for HAI during hospitalization. Further, using parameters either by observation of medical devices used or data obtained from EHR also provided good prediction

3. A simple carrier frequency offset synchronization strategy for multiple relay cooperative diversity ofdm system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mudassar, I.; Cheema, A.; Shoab, A.

2014-01-01

Cooperative Diversity Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (CD-OFDM) systems are very sensitive to synchronization errors. In CD-OFDM, synchronization is more complex because all cooperative nodes (CNs) have their own frequency oscillator and different channel path which results in different timing and carrier frequency offset (CFO) for each node. Consequently, each node has to be synchronized separately without affecting the synchronization process of other nodes. All CNs transmit simultaneously during cooperation phase (C-phase) and their aggregate signal is received at the destination node. A unique frequency domain (FD) preamble is proposed for each CN during C-phase that will allow simple separation of cooperative nodes. These FD multiplexed preambles make the synchronization problem identical to OFDMA uplink. OFDMA system typically uses highly complex iterative CFO estimators for uplink synchronization. However, a simple one-shot CFO estimator is proposed that uses repeated preamble of two OFDM symbol duration. The proposed method is computationally efficient because it relies on FFT operation for user separation and interference mitigation. Subsequently, time domain (TD) multiplication is used for CFO correction of each CN. Furthermore, a CD-OFDM protocol for data transmission is presented that suites the proposed estimator and harnesses spatial diversity. The proposed estimator shows good statistical results during simulations in AWGN and Rayleigh environments. During evaluation, estimator variance, mean square error and symbol error rate are used as performance measure. (author)

4. Feasibility of a simple drainage system in Cameroonian children after thoracotomy and decortication for empyema thoracis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Background: To analyse the outcome of children with empyema thoracis treated by decortication followed by a simple drainage system. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review from July 2001 to June 2010 of all cases of children who had a thoracotomy for empyema. We used an endotracheal tube as chest drain and a urinary bag as a collector. Statistical analyses were done using EXCEL and SPSS 9.0. Results: Forty one children underwent thoracotomy and decortication for empyema, there were 23 boys and 18 girls with a sex ratio of 1, 21. The mean age was 2½ years with a minimum of 1 month and a maximum of 15 years of age; 27 children were below two years of age. All the patients have received antibiotic for a long period before surgery. The culture was negative, except in two cases where we found Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. In five cases, the empyema was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Three children presented a complication: One child had a persistent purulent drainage for 2 weeks; another one was re-operated upon because of necrotic lung abscess and one child died of sepsis. In most cases, the chest tube was removed between day 4 and day 6 post-operatively. The average length of hospital stay after the surgery was 10 days. Conclusion: Thoracotomy and decortication in children with empyema can be safely done in Cameroon using a simple drainage system with good results compared to those in the literature.

5. Studying the effects of operators' problem solving behaviour when using a diagnostic expert system developed for the nuclear industry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Holmstroem, C.B.O.; Volden, F.S.; Endestad, T.

1992-01-01

This paper describes an experiment with the purpose to also illustrate and discuss some of the methodological problems when empirically studying problem solving. The experiment which was the second in a series, conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, aimed to assess the effect on nuclear power plant operators diagnostic behaviour when using a rule-based diagnostic expert system. The rule-based expert system used in the experiment is called DISKET (Diagnosis System Using Knowledge Engineering Technique) and was originally developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The experiment was performed in the Halden man-machine laboratory using a full scope pressurized water reactor simulator. Existing data collection methods and experimental design principles includes possibilities but also limitations. This is discussed and experiences are presented. Operator performance in terms of quality of diagnosis is improved by the use of DISKET. The use of the DISKET system also influences operators problem solving behaviour. The main difference between the two experimental conditions can be characterized as while the DISKET users during the diagnosis process are following a strategy which is direct and narrowed, the non-DISKET users are using a much broader and less focused search when trying to diagnose a disturbance. (author)

6. General beam position controlling method for 3D optical systems based on the method of solving ray matrix equations

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Meixiong; Yuan, Jie; Long, Xingwu; Kang, Zhenglong; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Yingying

2013-12-01

A general beam position controlling method for 3D optical systems based on the method of solving ray matrix equations has been proposed in this paper. As a typical 3D optical system, nonplanar ring resonator of Zero-Lock Laser Gyroscopes has been chosen as an example to show its application. The total mismatching error induced by Faraday-wedge in nonplanar ring resonator has been defined and eliminated quite accurately with the error less than 1 μm. Compared with the method proposed in Ref. [14], the precision of the beam position controlling has been improved by two orders of magnitude. The novel method can be used to implement automatic beam position controlling in 3D optical systems with servo circuit. All those results have been confirmed by related alignment experiments. The results in this paper are important for beam controlling, ray tracing, cavity design and alignment in 3D optical systems.

7. Scenario Analysis With Economic-Energy Systems Models Coupled to Simple Climate Models

Science.gov (United States)

Hanson, D. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Foster, I. T.; Franklin, M.; Zhu, E.; Patel, D. M.

2008-12-01

Here, we compare two scenarios based on Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum Study 22 on global cooperative and non-cooperative climate policies. In the former, efficient transition paths are implemented including technology Research and Development effort, energy conservation programs, and price signals for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the non-cooperative case, some countries try to relax their regulations and be free riders. Total emissions and costs are higher in the non-cooperative scenario. The simulations, including climate impacts, run to the year 2100. We use the Argonne AMIGA-MARS economic-energy systems model, the Texas AM University's Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM), and the University of Illinois's Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), with offline coupling between the FASOM and AMIGA-MARS and an online coupling between AMIGA-MARS and ISAM. This set of models captures the interaction of terrestrial systems, land use, crops and forests, climate change, human activity, and energy systems. Our scenario simulations represent dynamic paths over which all the climate, terrestrial, economic, and energy technology equations are solved simultaneously Special attention is paid to biofuels and how they interact with conventional gasoline/diesel fuel markets. Possible low-carbon penetration paths are based on estimated costs for new technologies, including cellulosic biomass, coal-to-liquids, plug-in electric vehicles, solar and nuclear energy. We explicitly explore key uncertainties that affect mitigation and adaptation scenarios.

8. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

Science.gov (United States)

Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

2015-09-01

Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

9. A simple-architecture fibered transmission system for dissemination of high stability 100 MHz signals

Science.gov (United States)

Bakir, A.; Rocher, C.; Maréchal, B.; Bigler, E.; Boudot, R.; Kersalé, Y.; Millo, J.

2018-05-01

We report on the development of a simple-architecture fiber-based frequency distribution system used to transfer high frequency stability 100 MHz signals. This work is focused on the emitter and the receiver performances that allow the transmission of the radio-frequency signal over an optical fiber. The system exhibits a residual fractional frequency stability of 1 × 10-14 at 1 s integration time and in the low 10-16 range after 100 s. These performances are suitable to transfer the signal of frequency references such as those of a state-of-the-art hydrogen maser without any phase noise compensation scheme. As an application, we demonstrate the dissemination of such a signal through a 100 m long optical fiber without any degradation. The proposed setup could be easily extended for operating frequencies in the 10 MHz-1 GHz range.

10. Diomres (k,m): An efficient method based on Krylov subspaces to solve big, dispersed, unsymmetrical linear systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

de la Torre Vega, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cesar Suarez Arriaga, M. [Universidad Michoacana SNH, Michoacan (Mexico)

1995-03-01

In geothermal simulation processes, MULKOM uses Integrated Finite Differences to solve the corresponding partial differential equations. This method requires to resolve efficiently big linear dispersed systems of non-symmetrical nature on each temporal iteration. The order of the system is usually greater than one thousand its solution could represent around 80% of CPU total calculation time. If the elapsed time solving this class of linear systems is reduced, the duration of numerical simulation decreases notably. When the matrix is big (N{ge}500) and with holes, it is inefficient to handle all the systems elements, because it is perfectly figured out by its elements distinct of zero, quantity greatly minor than N{sup 2}. In this area, iteration methods introduce advantages with respect to gaussian elimination methods, because these last replenish matrices not having any special distribution of their non-zero elements and because they do not make use of the available solution estimations. The iterating methods of the Conjugated Gradient family, based on the subspaces of Krylov, possess the advantage of improving the convergence speed by means of preconditioning techniques. The creation of DIOMRES(k,m) method guarantees the continuous descent of the residual norm, without incurring in division by zero. This technique converges at most in N iterations if the systems matrix is symmetrical, it does not employ too much memory to converge and updates immediately the approximation by using incomplete orthogonalization and adequate restarting. A preconditioned version of DIOMRES was applied to problems related to unsymmetrical systems with 1000 unknowns and less than five terms per equation. We found that this technique could reduce notably the time needful to find the solution without requiring memory increment. The coupling of this method to geothermal versions of MULKOM is in process.

11. SU-C-19A-01: A Simple Deep Inspiration Breath Hold System

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rasmussen, B; Kaznowski, L; Blackburn, J; Chu, K [Marquette General Hospital, Marquette, MI (United States); Duelge, J; Baldwin, B; Valenti, M; Hunsader, A [Dickinson County Healthcare System, Iron Mountain, MI (United States)

2014-06-15

Purpose: Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) Radiation therapy for left sided breast can reduce dose to the lungs and heart. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how to implement a simple method of DIBH for simulation and treatment using equipment readily available in most radiation oncology clinics. Methods: For simulation and treatment, a foam block is placed on the patient's abdomen or chest and a horizontal laser mounted on a movable slide is aimed at the center of the foam block. After a coaching session the block is marked at the average free breathing position and average DIBH position. The position of block relative to laser can be seen by the patient via prism glasses as well as the radiation therapists via a video camera system. Simulation CT scans and treatment delivery are performed under DIBH conditions. Imaging and treatment are performed by manually turning the beam on once the patient has achieved DIBH after being given verbal instructions. Results: Manually triggered imaging was used daily to verify DIBH reproducibility for all patients treated using this system. Sets of before and during port images were used to ensure patient position was appropriate for treatment. Results of the laser on block method were compared to a sister facility using surface mapping techniques for DIBH and the two methods were found to have clinically equivalent reproducibility. Conclusion: The laser and block system was found to be simple to implement and robust during patient treatment. This system can be created from readily available materials at low cost and provides adequate feedback to patient and therapists. During treatment images document the reproducibility of setup and give confidence to clinicians that this method is reproducible from day to day.

12. SU-C-19A-01: A Simple Deep Inspiration Breath Hold System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rasmussen, B; Kaznowski, L; Blackburn, J; Chu, K; Duelge, J; Baldwin, B; Valenti, M; Hunsader, A

2014-01-01

Purpose: Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) Radiation therapy for left sided breast can reduce dose to the lungs and heart. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how to implement a simple method of DIBH for simulation and treatment using equipment readily available in most radiation oncology clinics. Methods: For simulation and treatment, a foam block is placed on the patient's abdomen or chest and a horizontal laser mounted on a movable slide is aimed at the center of the foam block. After a coaching session the block is marked at the average free breathing position and average DIBH position. The position of block relative to laser can be seen by the patient via prism glasses as well as the radiation therapists via a video camera system. Simulation CT scans and treatment delivery are performed under DIBH conditions. Imaging and treatment are performed by manually turning the beam on once the patient has achieved DIBH after being given verbal instructions. Results: Manually triggered imaging was used daily to verify DIBH reproducibility for all patients treated using this system. Sets of before and during port images were used to ensure patient position was appropriate for treatment. Results of the laser on block method were compared to a sister facility using surface mapping techniques for DIBH and the two methods were found to have clinically equivalent reproducibility. Conclusion: The laser and block system was found to be simple to implement and robust during patient treatment. This system can be created from readily available materials at low cost and provides adequate feedback to patient and therapists. During treatment images document the reproducibility of setup and give confidence to clinicians that this method is reproducible from day to day

13. A simple and automated sample preparation system for subsequent halogens determination: Combustion followed by pyrohydrolysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Pereira, L S F; Pedrotti, M F; Vecchia, P Dalla; Pereira, J S F; Flores, E M M

2018-06-20

A simple and automated system based on combustion followed by a pyrohydrolysis reaction was proposed for further halogens determination. This system was applied for digestion of soils containing high (90%) and also low (10%) organic matter content for further halogens determination. The following parameters were evaluated: sample mass, use of microcrystalline cellulose and heating time. For analytes absorption, a diluted alkaline solution (6 mL of 25 mmol L -1  NH 4 OH) was used in all experiments. Up to 400 mg of soil with high organic matter content and 100 mg of soil with low organic matter content (mixed with 400 mg of cellulose) could be completely digested using the proposed system. Quantitative results for all halogens were obtained using less than 12 min of sample preparation step (about 1.8 min for sample combustion and 10 min for pyrohydrolysis). The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of coal and spiked samples. No statistical difference was observed between the certified values and results obtained by the proposed method. Additionally, the recoveries obtained using spiked samples were in the range of 98-103% with relative standard deviation values lower than 5%. The limits of quantification obtained for F, Cl, Br and I for soil with high (400 mg of soil) and low (100 mg of soil) organic matter were in the range of 0.01-2 μg g -1 and 0.07-59 μg g -1 , respectively. The proposed system was considered as a simple and suitable alternative for soils digestion for further halogens determination by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. D. Zoric

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

15. Using LEGO Kits to Teach Higher Level Problem Solving Skills in System Dynamics: A Case Study

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Yi; de Vries, Charlotte; Dunsworth, Qi

2018-01-01

System Dynamics is a required course offered to junior Mechanical Engineering students at Penn State Erie, the Behrend College. It addresses the intercoupling dynamics of a wide range of dynamic systems: including mechanical, electrical, fluid, hydraulic, electromechanical, and biomedical systems. This course is challenging for students due to the…

16. A simple vector system to improve performance and utilisation of recombinant antibodies

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Vincent Karen J

2006-12-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of recombinant antibody fragments from antibody libraries is well established using technologies such as phage display. Phage display vectors are ideal for efficient display of antibody fragments on the surface of bacteriophage particles. However, they are often inefficient for expression of soluble antibody fragments, and sub-cloning of selected antibody populations into dedicated soluble antibody fragment expression vectors can enhance expression. Results We have developed a simple vector system for expression, dimerisation and detection of recombinant antibody fragments in the form of single chain Fvs (scFvs. Expression is driven by the T7 RNA polymerase promoter in conjunction with the inducible lysogen strain BL21 (DE3. The system is compatible with a simple auto-induction culture system for scFv production. As an alternative to periplasmic expression, expression directly in the cytoplasm of a mutant strain with a more oxidising cytoplasmic environment (Origami 2™ (DE3 was investigated and found to be inferior to periplasmic expression in BL21 (DE3 cells. The effect on yield and binding activity of fusing scFvs to the N terminus of maltose binding protein (a solubility enhancing partner, bacterial alkaline phosphatase (a naturally dimeric enzymatic reporter molecule, or the addition of a free C-terminal cysteine was determined. Fusion of scFvs to the N-terminus of maltose binding protein increased scFv yield but binding activity of the scFv was compromised. In contrast, fusion to the N-terminus of bacterial alkaline phosphatase led to an improved performance. Alkaline phosphatase provides a convenient tag allowing direct enzymatic detection of scFv fusions within crude extracts without the need for secondary reagents. Alkaline phosphatase also drives dimerisation of the scFv leading to an improvement in performance compared to monovalent constructs. This is illustrated by ELISA, western blot and

17. A simple levitation system using wireless power supply system and Lorentz force

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oka, Koichi; Tanaka, Masako

2016-01-01

A new type of magnetic levitation mechanism has been proposed. The feature of this mechanism is using wireless power supply system and Lorentz forces for levitation. The stability of levitation is performed by passive control by magnetic flux configuration between permanent magnets and active control of electromagnets. In this paper, the concept of levitation mechanism is introduced, FEM analyses for levitation force and wireless power supply performance is examined. In concept two types of levitation systems which are different on the point of active control directions are introduced. In FEM analyses, the required current for levitation and the directions of generating forces are calculated. In the study of wireless power supply system, the required voltage for the levitation is expected. Finally the feasibility of the proposed levitation system will be verified. (paper)

18. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational optimisation; Simple modeller for fjernvarmesystemer med henblik pae belastningsudjaevning og driftsoptimering

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boehm, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Larsen, H.V. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)

2004-12-01

The purpose of this research project has been to further develop and test simple (aggregated) models of district heating (DH) systems for simulation and operational optimization, and to investigate the influence of Load Management and Demand Side Management (DMS) on the total operational costs. The work is based on physical-mathematical modelling and simulation of DH systems, and is a continuation of previous EFP-96 work. In the present EFP-2001 project the goals have been to improve the Danish method of aggregation by addressing the problem of aggregation of pressure losses, and to test the methods on a much larger data set than in the EFP-1996 project. In order to verify the models it is crucial to have good data at disposal. Full information on the heat loads and temperatures not only at the DH plant but also at every consumer (building) is needed, and therefore only a few DH systems in Denmark can supply such data. (BA)

19. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

2010-08-15

In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

20. Comparing energy payback and simple payback period for solar photovoltaic systems

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Kessler Will

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Installing a solar photovoltaic (PV array is both an environmental and a financial decision. The financial arguments often take priority over the environmental because installing solar is capital-intensive. The Simple Payback period (SPB is often assessed prior to the adoption of solar PV at a residence or a business. Although it better describes the value of solar PV electricity in terms of sustainability, the Energy Payback period (EPB is seldom used to gauge the merits of an installation. Using published estimates of embodied energies, EPB was calculated for four solar PV plants utilizing crystalline-Si technology: three being actual commercial installations located in the northeastern U.S., and a fourth installation based on a simulated 20-kilowatt roof-mounted system, in Wrocław, Poland. Simple Payback was calculated based on initial capital cost, and on the availability of avoided electricity costs based on net-metering tariffs, which at present in the U.S. are 1:1 credit ratio, and in Poland is 1:0.7 credit ratio. For all projects, the EPB time was estimated at between 1.9 and 2.6 years. In contrast, the SPB for installed systems in the northeastern U.S. ranged from 13.3 to 14.6 years, and was estimated at 13.5 years for the example system in Lower Silesia, Poland. The comparison between SPB and EPB shows a disparity between motivational time frames, in which the wait for financial return is considerably longer than the wait for net energy harvest and the start of sustainable power production.

1. Comparing energy payback and simple payback period for solar photovoltaic systems

Science.gov (United States)

Kessler, Will

2017-11-01

Installing a solar photovoltaic (PV) array is both an environmental and a financial decision. The financial arguments often take priority over the environmental because installing solar is capital-intensive. The Simple Payback period (SPB) is often assessed prior to the adoption of solar PV at a residence or a business. Although it better describes the value of solar PV electricity in terms of sustainability, the Energy Payback period (EPB) is seldom used to gauge the merits of an installation. Using published estimates of embodied energies, EPB was calculated for four solar PV plants utilizing crystalline-Si technology: three being actual commercial installations located in the northeastern U.S., and a fourth installation based on a simulated 20-kilowatt roof-mounted system, in Wrocław, Poland. Simple Payback was calculated based on initial capital cost, and on the availability of avoided electricity costs based on net-metering tariffs, which at present in the U.S. are 1:1 credit ratio, and in Poland is 1:0.7 credit ratio. For all projects, the EPB time was estimated at between 1.9 and 2.6 years. In contrast, the SPB for installed systems in the northeastern U.S. ranged from 13.3 to 14.6 years, and was estimated at 13.5 years for the example system in Lower Silesia, Poland. The comparison between SPB and EPB shows a disparity between motivational time frames, in which the wait for financial return is considerably longer than the wait for net energy harvest and the start of sustainable power production.

2. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio

2017-01-01

The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

3. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Vecchio, Antonio, E-mail: tommaso.alberti@unical.it, E-mail: tommasoalberti89@gmail.com [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190, Meudon (France)

2017-07-20

The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

4. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

Science.gov (United States)

Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

2011-01-01

Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

5. DIFFUSION - WRS system module number 7539 for solving a set of multigroup diffusion equations in one dimension

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grimstone, M.J.

1978-06-01

The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to solve a set of multigroup diffusion equations for a system represented in one-dimensional plane, cylindrical or spherical geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

6. Experimental applications of an expert system to operator problem solving in process control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, J.P.

1985-01-01

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored a program to assess the effectiveness of expert systems for nuclear reactor operators. The project has included two human factors experimental evaluations of the Response Tree expert system, a prototype expert system for helping nuclear reactor operators respond to emergency conditions. This paper discusses the Response Tree expert system, the experiments which have been performed to test its effectiveness, and the results of the experiments. Reference is made to the accident at TMI. 12 refs

7. Modeling coupled heat and mass transfer during drying in tape casting with a simple ceramics-water system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper

2016-01-01

process of thin sheets produced by the tape casting process. The rate of mass loss in the drying process is a key factor that often is of interest, as it affects the final properties of the tapes. The 1D heat conduction equation is solved numerically to obtain the temperature field in a ceramic sheet...... dominant since the fraction of water approaches zero. The developed model is used to simulate a simple test for the drying process. The drying rate is simply calculated by examining the water content in each time step. It is found that the mass loss due to the evaporation is increasing close to linearly...

8. Modeling and Controlling Flow Transient in Pipeline Systems: Applied for Reservoir and Pump Systems Combined with Simple Surge Tank

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Itissam ABUIZIAH

2014-03-01

Full Text Available When transient conditions (water hammer exist, the life expectancy of the system can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe rupture. Hence, transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. To protect the pipeline systems from transient effects, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in hydraulic systems based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occuring in the transient. We applied this model for two main pipeline systems: Valve and pump combined with a simple surge tank connected to reservoir. The results obtained by using this model indicate that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover, using a simple surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients by reducing pressure fluctuations.

9. A knowledge-based diagnosis system for welding machine problem solving

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bonnieres, P. de; Boutes, J.L.; Calas, M.A.; Para, S.

1986-06-01

This paper presents a knowledge-based diagnosis system which can be a valuable aid in resolving malfunctions and failures encountered using the automatic hot-wire TIG weld cladding process. This knowledge-based system is currently under evaluation by welding operators at the Framatome heavy fabricating facility. Extension to other welding processes is being considered

10. The New Jersey Performance Management System: A State System and Uses of Simple Measures.

Science.gov (United States)

Kamis-Gould, Edna

1987-01-01

The New Jersey Performance Management System (PMS) is a major mechanism used by the leadership of the New Jersey Division of Mental Health and Hospitals to contract for, monitor, and manage community mental health services. This paper describes PMS, its components, implementation, and limitations. (Author/LMO)

11. A simple teaching tool for training the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system.

Science.gov (United States)

Geiss, Ingrid M; Riss, Paul A; Hanzal, Engelbert; Dungl, Andrea

2007-09-01

The pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) system is currently the most common and specific system describing different prolapse stages. Nevertheless, its use is not yet accepted worldwide in routine care. Our aim was to develop a simple teaching tool for the POPQ system capable of simulating different stages of uterovaginal prolapse for use in medical education with hands on training. We constructed a moveable and flexible tool with an inverted Santa Claus' cap, which simulated the vaginal cuff and the tassel at the end representing the cervix. A wooden embroidery frame fixed the cap and served as the hymen, the reference point for all measurements. Inside the cap, we sewed buttons to define the anatomic landmark points Aa and Ap located 3 cm distal from the frame. After explaining the device to the students, we used the three-by-three grid for recording the quantitative description of the pelvic organ support. First, each student had to demonstrate a specific prolapse with his cap device. Then, a prolapse was simulated on the cap, and the student had to take the relevant measurements and record them in the POPQ grid. The main training effect to understand the POPQ system seems to be the possibility for each trainee to simulate a three-dimensional prolapse with this flexible vagina model.

12. Establishment of a simple and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Phytophthora palmivora.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Dongliang; Navet, Natasha; Liu, Yingchao; Uchida, Janice; Tian, Miaoying

2016-09-06

As an agriculturally important oomycete genus, Phytophthora contains a large number of destructive plant pathogens that severely threaten agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Among them is the broad host range pathogen P. palmivora, which infects many economically important plant species. An essential way to dissect their pathogenesis mechanisms is genetic modification of candidate genes, which requires effective transformation systems. Four methods were developed for transformation of Phytophthora spp., including PEG(polyethylene glycol)/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation, electroporation of zoospores, microprojectile bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Among them, AMT has many advantages over the other methods such as easy handling and mainly generating single-copy integration in the genome. An AMT method previously reported for P. infestans and P. palmivora has barely been used in oomycete research due to low success and low reproducibility. In this study, we report a simple and efficient AMT system for P. palmivora. Using this system, we were able to reproducibly generate over 40 transformants using zoospores collected from culture grown in a single 100 mm-diameter petri dish. The generated GFP transformants constitutively expressed GFP readily detectable using a fluorescence microscope. All of the transformants tested using Southern blot analysis contained a single-copy T-DNA insertion. This system is highly effective and reproducible for transformation of P. palmivora and expected to be adaptable for transformation of additional Phytophthora spp. and other oomycetes. Its establishment will greatly accelerate their functional genomic studies.

13. Inverse dynamics of underactuated mechanical systems: A simple case study and experimental verification

Science.gov (United States)

Blajer, W.; Dziewiecki, K.; Kołodziejczyk, K.; Mazur, Z.

2011-05-01

Underactuated systems are featured by fewer control inputs than the degrees-of-freedom, m strategy that forces such a system to complete a set of m specified motion tasks is a challenging task, and the explicit solution existence is conditioned to differential flatness of the problem. The flatness-based solution denotes that all the 2 n states and m control inputs can be algebraically expressed in terms of the m specified outputs and their time derivatives up to a certain order, which is in practice attainable only for simple systems. In this contribution the problem is posed in a more practical way as a set of index-three differential-algebraic equations, and the solution is obtained numerically. The formulation is then illustrated by a two-degree-of-freedom underactuated system composed of two rotating discs connected by a torsional spring, in which the pre-specified motion of one of the discs is actuated by the torque applied to the other disc, n = 2 and m = 1. Experimental verification of the inverse simulation control methodology is reported.

14. SOME SIMPLE APPROACHES TO PLANNING THE INVENTORY OF SPARE COMPONENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alenka Brezavšek

2016-02-01

Full Text Available Two variants of a simple stochastic model for planning the inventory of spare components supporting maintenance of an industrial system are developed. In both variants, the aim is to determine how many spare components are needed at the beginning of a planning interval to fulfil demand for corrective replacements during this interval. Under the first variant, the acceptable probability of spare shortage during the planning interval is chosen as a decision variable while in the second variant, the adequate spare inventory level is assessed taking into account the expected number of component failures within the planning interval. Calculation of the number of spare components needed depends on the form of the probability density function of component failure times. Different statistical density functions that are useful to describe this function are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of using a particular density function in our model are discussed. The applicability of the model is given through illustrative numerical examples.

15. Pressure distribution-based texture sensing by using a simple artificial mastication system.

Science.gov (United States)

Yamamoto, Takeshi; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Nakauma, Makoto; Nakao, Satomi; Ikegami, Akira; Ishihara, Sayaka

2014-01-01

This paper proposes a novel texture sensing method for nursing-care gel by using an artificial mastication system, in which not only mechanical characteristics but also geometrical ones are objectively and quantitatively evaluated. When human masticates gel food, she or he perceives the changes of the shape and contact force simultaneously. Based on the impressions, they evaluate the texture. For reproducing such a procedure, the pressure distribution of gel is measured in the simple artificial mastication, and the information associated to both the geometrical and mechanical characteristics is simultaneously acquired. The relationship between the value of sensory evaluation (i.e. impression human perceives), and the pressure distribution data is numerically modeled by applying the image texture analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method succeeds in estimating the values of sensory evaluation of nine kinds of gel with the coefficient of determination greater than 0.93.

16. Decision support system of e-book provider selection for library using Simple Additive Weighting

Science.gov (United States)

Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.

2018-01-01

Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.

17. Testing Convergence of Different Free-Energy Methods in a Simple Analytical System with Hidden Barriers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Alexis Paz

2018-03-01

Full Text Available In this work, we study the influence of hidden barriers on the convergence behavior of three free-energy calculation methods: well-tempered metadynamics (WTMD, adaptive-biasing forces (ABF, and on-the-fly parameterization (OTFP. We construct a simple two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces (PES that allows for an exact analytical result for the free-energy in any one-dimensional order parameter. Then we chose different CV definitions and PES parameters to create three different systems with increasing sampling challenges. We find that all three methods are not greatly affected by the hidden-barriers in the simplest case considered. The adaptive sampling methods show faster sampling while the auxiliary high-friction requirement of OTFP makes it slower for this case. However, a slight change in the CV definition has a strong impact in the ABF and WTMD performance, illustrating the importance of choosing suitable collective variables.

18. DOE's nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

1996-07-01

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location's level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals

19. Proposal of a framework for solving human factors of artificial systems and its application to maintenance work

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagamatsu, Takashi; Otsuji, Tomoo; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shiba, Shigenari

2004-01-01

A framework for solving human factors of artificial systems is proposed in this study, where a whole system of machines and the human organization that involves in the operation and management of machines is defined as an 'artificial system'. Five aspects of human factors in the artificial system are first discussed, and the types of artificial system with respect to the human factors are divided into three levels from a viewpoint of complexity. A framework that can treat artificial systems by unified methodology has been proposed for treating both the complexity level and the different kinds of human factors. As a concrete example of this framework application, a prototype system has been developed for advanced plant maintenance support by using ES-HMD (Eye Sensing-Head Mounted Display). This is a remote communication system of cooperative maintenance work between the expert in a remote support center and the maintenance worker at a certain machine in the plant site to conduct a complicated task without committing human error. It was confirmed by laboratory experiment that the expert would instruct the worker so that he or she could perform the task successfully, by observing the worker's eye gazing point and by pointing the right place of action on the transferred display of the worker's eyesight through the ES-MHD. (author)

20. An implicit iterative scheme for solving large systems of linear equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barry, J.M.; Pollard, J.P.

1986-12-01

An implicit iterative scheme for the solution of large systems of linear equations arising from neutron diffusion studies is presented. The method is applied to three-dimensional reactor studies and its performance is compared with alternative iterative approaches

1. Methods of solving of the optimal stabilization problem for stationary smooth control systems. Part I

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. Kondrat'ev

1999-10-01

Full Text Available In this article some ideas of Hamilton mechanics and differential-algebraic Geometry are used to exact definition of the potential function (Bellman-Lyapunov function in the optimal stabilization problem of smooth finite-dimensional systems.

2. MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN HEALT PROTECTION SYSTEM SOLVES THE PROBLEM OF RENDERING QUALITY MEDICAL AID TO POPULATION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. A. Alexeev

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Last two dozen years, permanent growth of death rate and decrease birth rate take place in Russia. To great extent, this is owing to inadequate health protection system. The practice of personal payments for medical services in amounts unattainable for overwhelming majority of thepopulation grows. RF President’s Administration sets an example: cardiologist’s advice in their clinics costs 40 times more that according to obligatory medical insurance rates. 84% of the country citizens do not approve this approach and consider it socially unjust. An important national project aimed at modernization of the health protection system started in 2011. Non-private medical establishments are to be equipped with up-to-date equipment, modern information systems and medical service standards based on CRM system adopted in developed countries; salaries of health personnel are to be increased.

3. Learning classifier systems with memory condition to solve non-Markov problems

OpenAIRE

Zang, Zhaoxiang; Li, Dehua; Wang, Junying

2012-01-01

In the family of Learning Classifier Systems, the classifier system XCS has been successfully used for many applications. However, the standard XCS has no memory mechanism and can only learn optimal policy in Markov environments, where the optimal action is determined solely by the state of current sensory input. In practice, most environments are partially observable environments on agent's sensation, which are also known as non-Markov environments. Within these environments, XCS either fail...

4. A fuzzy logic approach toward solving the analytic enigma of health system financing.

Science.gov (United States)

Chernichovsky, Dov; Bolotin, Arkady; de Leeuw, David

2003-09-01

Improved health, equity, macroeconomic efficiency, efficient provision of care, and client satisfaction are the common goals of any health system. The relative significance of these goals varies, however, across nations, communities and with time. As for health care finance, the attainment of these goals under varying circumstances involves alternative policy options for each of the following elements: sources of finance, allocation of finance, payment to providers, and public-private mix. The intricate set of multiple goals, elements and policy options defies human reasoning, and, hence, hinders effective policymaking. Indeed, "health system finance" is not amenable to a clear set of structural relationships. Neither is there a universe that can be subject to statistical scrutiny: each health system is unique. "Fuzzy logic" models human reasoning by managing "expert knowledge" close to the way it is handled by human language. It is used here for guiding policy making by a systematic analysis of health system finance. Assuming equal welfare weights for alternative goals and mutually exclusive policy options under each health-financing element, the exploratory model we present here suggests that a German-type health system is best. Other solutions depend on the welfare weights for system goals and mixes of policy options.

5. An enhanced artificial bee colony algorithm (EABC) for solving dispatching of hydro-thermal system (DHTS) problem.

Science.gov (United States)

Yu, Yi; Wu, Yonggang; Hu, Binqi; Liu, Xinglong

2018-01-01

The dispatching of hydro-thermal system is a nonlinear programming problem with multiple constraints and high dimensions and the solution techniques of the model have been a hotspot in research. Based on the advantage of that the artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) can efficiently solve the high-dimensional problem, an improved artificial bee colony algorithm has been proposed to solve DHTS problem in this paper. The improvements of the proposed algorithm include two aspects. On one hand, local search can be guided in efficiency by the information of the global optimal solution and its gradient in each generation. The global optimal solution improves the search efficiency of the algorithm but loses diversity, while the gradient can weaken the loss of diversity caused by the global optimal solution. On the other hand, inspired by genetic algorithm, the nectar resource which has not been updated in limit generation is transformed to a new one by using selection, crossover and mutation, which can ensure individual diversity and make full use of prior information for improving the global search ability of the algorithm. The two improvements of ABC algorithm are proved to be effective via a classical numeral example at last. Among which the genetic operator for the promotion of the ABC algorithm's performance is significant. The results are also compared with those of other state-of-the-art algorithms, the enhanced ABC algorithm has general advantages in minimum cost, average cost and maximum cost which shows its usability and effectiveness. The achievements in this paper provide a new method for solving the DHTS problems, and also offer a novel reference for the improvement of mechanism and the application of algorithms.

6. An enhanced artificial bee colony algorithm (EABC for solving dispatching of hydro-thermal system (DHTS problem.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yi Yu

Full Text Available The dispatching of hydro-thermal system is a nonlinear programming problem with multiple constraints and high dimensions and the solution techniques of the model have been a hotspot in research. Based on the advantage of that the artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC can efficiently solve the high-dimensional problem, an improved artificial bee colony algorithm has been proposed to solve DHTS problem in this paper. The improvements of the proposed algorithm include two aspects. On one hand, local search can be guided in efficiency by the information of the global optimal solution and its gradient in each generation. The global optimal solution improves the search efficiency of the algorithm but loses diversity, while the gradient can weaken the loss of diversity caused by the global optimal solution. On the other hand, inspired by genetic algorithm, the nectar resource which has not been updated in limit generation is transformed to a new one by using selection, crossover and mutation, which can ensure individual diversity and make full use of prior information for improving the global search ability of the algorithm. The two improvements of ABC algorithm are proved to be effective via a classical numeral example at last. Among which the genetic operator for the promotion of the ABC algorithm's performance is significant. The results are also compared with those of other state-of-the-art algorithms, the enhanced ABC algorithm has general advantages in minimum cost, average cost and maximum cost which shows its usability and effectiveness. The achievements in this paper provide a new method for solving the DHTS problems, and also offer a novel reference for the improvement of mechanism and the application of algorithms.

7. A simple 5-DoF MR-compatible motion signal measurement system.

Science.gov (United States)

Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Yang, Jae-Woong; Lee, Su-Jeong; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yeon, Hong-Won; Park, Jang-Yeon; Yi, Jeong-Han; Tack, Gye-Rae

2011-09-01

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple motion measurement system with magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility and safety. The motion measurement system proposed here can measure 5-DoF motion signals without deteriorating the MR images, and it has no effect on the intense and homogeneous main magnetic field, the temporal-gradient magnetic field (which varies rapidly with time), the transceiver radio frequency (RF) coil, and the RF pulse during MR data acquisition. A three-axis accelerometer and a two-axis gyroscope were used to measure 5-DoF motion signals, and Velcro was used to attach a sensor module to a finger or wrist. To minimize the interference between the MR imaging system and the motion measurement system, nonmagnetic materials were used for all electric circuit components in an MR shield room. To remove the effect of RF pulse, an amplifier, modulation circuit, and power supply were located in a shielded case, which was made of copper and aluminum. The motion signal was modulated to an optic signal using pulse width modulation, and the modulated optic signal was transmitted outside the MR shield room using a high-intensity light-emitting diode and an optic cable. The motion signal was recorded on a PC by demodulating the transmitted optic signal into an electric signal. Various kinematic variables, such as angle, acceleration, velocity, and jerk, can be measured or calculated by using the motion measurement system developed here. This system also enables motion tracking by extracting the position information from the motion signals. It was verified that MR images and motion signals could reliably be measured simultaneously.

8. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Barkana, Itzhak, E-mail: ibarkana@gmail.com [BARKANA Consulting, Ramat Hasharon (Israel)

2014-12-10

9. A Trigonometrically Fitted Block Method for Solving Oscillatory Second-Order Initial Value Problems and Hamiltonian Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

F. F. Ngwane

2017-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a block hybrid trigonometrically fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström method (BHTRKNM, whose coefficients are functions of the frequency and the step-size for directly solving general second-order initial value problems (IVPs, including Hamiltonian systems such as the energy conserving equations and systems arising from the semidiscretization of partial differential equations (PDEs. Four discrete hybrid formulas used to formulate the BHTRKNM are provided by a continuous one-step hybrid trigonometrically fitted method with an off-grid point. We implement BHTRKNM in a block-by-block fashion; in this way, the method does not suffer from the disadvantages of requiring starting values and predictors which are inherent in predictor-corrector methods. The stability property of the BHTRKNM is discussed and the performance of the method is demonstrated on some numerical examples to show accuracy and efficiency advantages.

10. Mathematical Modelling to Solve Tasks of Profiled Cross of Robot Systems with a Wheel-Legged Propulsion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. S. Diakov

2014-01-01

Full Text Available One of the main trends for development of promising military equipment is to create transport robot systems (TRS.To conduct a theoretical study of the potential properties of TRS mobility was used a software package for invariant simulation of multibody dynamics system "Euler", which allows us to solve problems regarding the "large displacements", typical for TRS.The modelling results of TRS motion dynamics when overcoming the single-stage and two stages, which are higher than the roller diameter of propeller are obtained.Analysis of modelling results of the TRS motion dynamics to overcome obstacles commensurate with its dimensions allows us to conclude that the use of wheel-legged three-roller propulsion can provide the required level of permeability and, as a result, increasing TRS mobility.

11. The successive formation and disappearance of density structures in simple expanding systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karimov, A R; Schamel, H

2015-01-01

The Lagrangian fluid description is employed to solve the initial value problem for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flows represented by the Euler–Poisson system. Exact nonlinear and time-dependent solutions are obtained, which exhibit a variety of transient phenomena such as a density collapse in finite space–time or the appearance and, for the first time, a successive dissolution of wavelet structures during the same event. The latter are superimposed on the gross density pattern in the course of the uni-directional expansion of an initially localized density hump. Whereas self-gravitating fluids will always experience collapse, neutral fluids and fluids with repulsive forces, such as a non-neutral, pure electron fluid, can exhibit an evolution of the second type, being determined by the initial conditions. For an electron fluid, being embedded in a neutralizing ion background, these nonlinearities are, however, strongly diminished due to the omnipresent plasma oscillations, which weaken and alternatively change the sign of the collective force. (paper)

12. Practical and Simple Wireless Channel Models for Use in Multipolarized Antenna Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

KwangHyun Jeon

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The next-generation wireless systems are expected to support data rates of more than 100 Mbps in outdoor environments. In order to support such large payloads, a polarized antenna may be employed as one of the candidate technologies. Recently, the third generation partnership standards bodies (3GPP/3GPP2 have defined a cross-polarized channel model in SCM-E for MIMO systems; however, this model is quite complex since it considers a great many channel-related parameters. Furthermore, the SCM-E channel model combines the channel coefficients of all the polarization links into one complex output, making it impossible to exploit the MIMO spatial multiplexing or diversity gains in the case of employing polarized antenna at transmitter and receiver side. In this paper, we present practical and simple 2D and 3D multipolarized multipath channel models, which take into account both the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD and the Rician factor. After verifying the proposed channel models, the BER and PER performances and throughput using the EGC and MRC combining techniques are evaluated in multipolarized antenna systems.

13. Simple group password-based authenticated key agreements for the integrated EPR information system.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Wang, Ching-Cheng

2013-04-01

The security and privacy are important issues for electronic patient records (EPRs). The goal of EPRs is sharing the patients' medical histories such as the diagnosis records, reports and diagnosis image files among hospitals by the Internet. So the security issue for the integrated EPR information system is essential. That is, to ensure the information during transmission through by the Internet is secure and private. The group password-based authenticated key agreement (GPAKE) allows a group of users like doctors, nurses and patients to establish a common session key by using password authentication. Then the group of users can securely communicate by using this session key. Many approaches about GAPKE employ the public key infrastructure (PKI) in order to have higher security. However, it not only increases users' overheads and requires keeping an extra equipment for storing long-term secret keys, but also requires maintaining the public key system. This investigation presents a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) protocol for the integrated EPR information system. The proposed SGPAKE protocol does not require using the server or users' public keys. Each user only remembers his weak password shared with a trusted server, and then can obtain a common session key. Then all users can securely communicate by using this session key. The proposed SGPAKE protocol not only provides users with convince, but also has higher security.

14. Design and construction of a simple blade pitch measurement system for small wind turbines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whale, Jonathan [Research Institute of Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

2009-02-15

For small wind turbines to be reliable they must have in place good mechanisms to protect themselves against very high winds or sudden removal of load. One common protection method in small wind turbines is that of blade feathering. It is important that the blade feathering mechanism of a small wind turbine is tested before the turbine is installed in the field. This paper presents a simple system for monitoring the blade feathering of a turbine with an overall component cost that small wind turbine manufacturers can afford. The Blade Pitch Measurement System (BPMS) has been designed and constructed by the Research Institute of Sustainable Energy (RISE) and aids small wind turbine manufacturers in testing and optimising the settings of the blade feathering mechanisms on their machines. The results show that the BPMS was successful in recording the behaviour of the blade feathering mechanism in field trials with a 20 kW and a 30 kW wind turbine. The BPMS displays significant potential as an effective, inexpensive system for small wind turbine manufacturers to ensure the reliability of their pitch regulating over-speed protection mechanisms. (author)

15. Poinsettia protoplasts - a simple, robust and efficient system for transient gene expression studies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pitzschke Andrea

2012-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient gene expression systems are indispensable tools in molecular biology. Yet, their routine application is limited to few plant species often requiring substantial equipment and facilities. High chloroplast and chlorophyll content may further impede downstream applications of transformed cells from green plant tissue. Results Here, we describe a fast and simple technique for the high-yield isolation and efficient transformation (>70% of mesophyll-derived protoplasts from red leaves of the perennial plant Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulccherrima. In this method no particular growth facilities or expensive equipments are needed. Poinsettia protoplasts display an astonishing robustness and can be employed in a variety of commonly-used downstream applications, such as subcellular localisation (multi-colour fluorescence or promoter activity studies. Due to low abundance of chloroplasts or chromoplasts, problems encountered in other mesophyll-derived protoplast systems (particularly autofluorescence are alleviated. Furthermore, the transgene expression is detectable within 90 minutes of transformation and lasts for several days. Conclusions The simplicity of the isolation and transformation procedure renders Poinsettia protoplasts an attractive system for transient gene expression experiments, including multi-colour fluorescence, subcellular localisation and promoter activity studies. In addition, they offer hitherto unknown possibilities for anthocyan research and industrial applications.

16. A simple and versatile system for the ATP-dependent assembly of chromatin.

Science.gov (United States)

Khuong, Mai T; Fei, Jia; Cruz-Becerra, Grisel; Kadonaga, James T

2017-11-24

Chromatin is the natural form of DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus and is the substrate for diverse biological phenomena. The functional analysis of these processes ideally would be carried out with nucleosomal templates that are assembled with customized core histones, DNA sequences, and chromosomal proteins. Here we report a simple, reliable, and versatile method for the ATP-dependent assembly of evenly spaced nucleosome arrays. This minimal chromatin assembly system comprises the Drosophila nucleoplasmin-like protein (dNLP) histone chaperone, the imitation switch (ISWI) ATP-driven motor protein, core histones, template DNA, and ATP. The dNLP and ISWI components were synthesized in bacteria, and each protein could be purified in a single step by affinity chromatography. We show that the dNLP-ISWI system can be used with different DNA sequences, linear or circular DNA, bulk genomic DNA, recombinant or native Drosophila core histones, native human histones, the linker histone H1, the non-histone chromosomal protein HMGN2, and the core histone variants H3.3 and H2A.V. The dNLP-ISWI system should be accessible to a wide range of researchers and enable the assembly of customized chromatin with specifically desired DNA sequences, core histones, and other chromosomal proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

17. A simple and robust vector-based shRNA expression system used for RNA interference.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Xue-jun; Li, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Xie, Pei-wen; Hu, Wei; Li, Dan-dan; Wang, Sheng-qi

2013-01-01

RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive. In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a >95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV) knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.

18. A simple and robust vector-based shRNA expression system used for RNA interference.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xue-jun Wang

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive. RESULTS: In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a >95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.

19. Accumulation Systems of Electric Energy Solved by Multicriteria Analysis Methods IPA and Topsis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2008-01-01

Full Text Available This work deals with utilization of multicriteria analysis methods IPA and TOPSIS to assess three storage systems (Fuel Cells, Lead Acid Batteries and Pumped Storage Hydro Plants. Procedures of IPA and TOPSIS methods are described here as like as calculation of mentioned problem. Storage systems are assessed in terms of four criteria (Start up Time, Efficiency of Accumulation, Lifetime and Specific Costs/ kW of Power Output. Weights of criteria are also focused here. They are suggested by experts and statistically calculated.

20. A Discrete-Time Recurrent Neural Network for Solving Rank-Deficient Matrix Equations With an Application to Output Regulation of Linear Systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Tao; Huang, Jie

2017-04-17

This paper presents a discrete-time recurrent neural network approach to solving systems of linear equations with two features. First, the system of linear equations may not have a unique solution. Second, the system matrix is not known precisely, but a sequence of matrices that converges to the unknown system matrix exponentially is known. The problem is motivated from solving the output regulation problem for linear systems. Thus, an application of our main result leads to an online solution to the output regulation problem for linear systems.

1. A neural network method for solving a system of linear variational inequalities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lan Hengyou; Cui Yishun

2009-01-01

In this paper, we transmute the solution for a new system of linear variational inequalities to an equilibrium point of neural networks, and by using analytic technique, some sufficient conditions are presented. Further, the estimation of the exponential convergence rates of the neural networks is investigated. The new and useful results obtained in this paper generalize and improve the corresponding results of recent works.

2. Systemic-institutional approach to solving the problems of prejudgement in the criminal court procedure

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bulat Raisovich Burganov

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Objective to consider the historical and legal aspects of the use of prejudgement in the criminal procedure and to allocate its characteristic features as of a systemic object to disclose the key system elements of the mechanism of legal regulation of prejudgement in the criminal procedure. Methods the basis of the research was historicallegal method and systemicinstitutional approach to the analysis of regulatory processes as well as special and private law research methods elements of structuralfunctional approach with formal logical analysis. Results the evolution is shown of formation and development of the prejudgement institution the necessity is grounded of systemicholistic analysis of prejudgement legal regulation in the criminal procedure. According to the author it is a systematic approach that will allow to create the effectively functioning prejudgement institution. The article investigates the content side of the prejudgement institution in the criminalprocedural law. Scientific novelty for the first time the article discusses the prejudgement institution as a system of interrelated elements. In this context the substantial side of this system is characterized. Practical significance the research results and conclusions can be used in research legislative and applied activity for the effective application of the principles of prejudgement opportunities in the criminal procedure. nbsp

3. Session IV. Problem Solving. Vehicle lighting system. Four steps in glare reduction.

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Schreuder, D.A.

1972-01-01

A number of proposals are described that may help to reduce glare. The systems are either only a partial improvement, or they are expensive, or their introduction raises severe problems. One solution, already widely in use, is applica- tion of overhead lighting. In order to really improve the

4. A Portfolio for Optimal Collaboration of Human and Cyber Physical Production Systems in Problem-Solving

Science.gov (United States)

Ansari, Fazel; Seidenberg, Ulrich

2016-01-01

This paper discusses the complementarity of human and cyber physical production systems (CPPS). The discourse of complementarity is elaborated by defining five criteria for comparing the characteristics of human and CPPS. Finally, a management portfolio matrix is proposed for examining the feasibility of optimal collaboration between them. The…

5. Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System

Science.gov (United States)

2001-09-01

Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred

6. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

2016-01-01

The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various

7. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predatorprey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Variational Iteration Method

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ghotbi, Abdoul R; Barari, Amin

2009-01-01

Due to wide range of interest in use of bio-economic models to gain insight in to the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort...

8. Biology-inspired Microphysiological System Approaches to Solve the Prediction Dilemma of Substance Testing

Science.gov (United States)

Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B.; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R.; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B.; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H.; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J. A. M.; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A.; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

2017-01-01

Summary The recent advent of microphysiological systems – microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro – is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-five experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale. PMID:27180100

9. Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System

Science.gov (United States)

Brooker, Peter

It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

10. Simple Scoring System to Predict In-Hospital Mortality After Surgery for Infective Endocarditis.

Science.gov (United States)

Gatti, Giuseppe; Perrotti, Andrea; Obadia, Jean-François; Duval, Xavier; Iung, Bernard; Alla, François; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Hoen, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Delahaye, François; Tattevin, Pierre; Le Moing, Vincent; Pappalardo, Aniello; Chocron, Sidney

2017-07-20

Aspecific scoring systems are used to predict the risk of death postsurgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The purpose of the present study was both to analyze the risk factors for in-hospital death, which complicates surgery for IE, and to create a mortality risk score based on the results of this analysis. Outcomes of 361 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.1±15.4 years) who had undergone surgery for IE in 8 European centers of cardiac surgery were recorded prospectively, and a risk factor analysis (multivariable logistic regression) for in-hospital death was performed. The discriminatory power of a new predictive scoring system was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Score validation procedures were carried out. Fifty-six (15.5%) patients died postsurgery. BMI >27 kg/m 2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; P =0.049), estimated glomerular filtration rate 55 mm Hg (OR, 1.78; P =0.032), and critical state (OR, 2.37; P =0.017) were independent predictors of in-hospital death. A scoring system was devised to predict in-hospital death postsurgery for IE (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.780; 95% CI, 0.734-0.822). The score performed better than 5 of 6 scoring systems for in-hospital death after cardiac surgery that were considered. A simple scoring system based on risk factors for in-hospital death was specifically created to predict mortality risk postsurgery in patients with IE. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

11. Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem Based on The Genetic Reactive Bone Route Algorithm whit Ant Colony System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

2016-07-01

Full Text Available The TSP is considered one of the most well-known combinatorial optimization tasks and researchers have paid so much attention to the TSP for many years. In this problem, a salesman starts to move from an arbitrary place called depot and after visits all of the nodes, finally comes back to the depot. The objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the salesman.  Because this problem is a non-deterministic polynomial (NP-hard problem in nature, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm called REACSGA is used for solving the TSP. In REACSGA, a reactive bone route algorithm that uses the ant colony system (ACS for generating initial diversified solutions and the genetic algorithm (GA as an improved procedure are applied. Since the performance of the Metaheuristic algorithms is significantly influenced by their parameters, Taguchi Method is used to set the parameters of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested on several standard instances involving 24 to 318 nodes from the literature. The computational result shows that the results of the proposed algorithm are competitive with other metaheuristic algorithms for solving the TSP in terms of better quality of solution and computational time respectively. In addition, the proposed REACSGA is significantly efficient and finds closely the best known solutions for most of the instances in which thirteen best known solutions are also found.

12. TENSOLVE: A software package for solving systems of nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares problems using tensor methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bouaricha, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Schnabel, R.B. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1996-12-31

This paper describes a modular software package for solving systems of nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares problems, using a new class of methods called tensor methods. It is intended for small to medium-sized problems, say with up to 100 equations and unknowns, in cases where it is reasonable to calculate the Jacobian matrix or approximate it by finite differences at each iteration. The software allows the user to select between a tensor method and a standard method based upon a linear model. The tensor method models F({ital x}) by a quadratic model, where the second-order term is chosen so that the model is hardly more expensive to form, store, or solve than the standard linear model. Moreover, the software provides two different global strategies, a line search and a two- dimensional trust region approach. Test results indicate that, in general, tensor methods are significantly more efficient and robust than standard methods on small and medium-sized problems in iterations and function evaluations.

13. Application of Computer Algebra Systems to the Construction of the Collocations and Least Residuals Method for Solving the 3D Navier–Stokes Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. P. Shapeev

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The method of collocations and least residuals (CLR, which was proposed previously for the numerical solution of two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations governing the stationary flows of a viscous incompressible fluid, is extended here for the three-dimensional case. The solution is sought in the implemented version of the method in the form of an expansion in the basis solenoidal functions. At all stages of the CLR method construction, a computer algebra system (CAS is applied for the derivation and verification of the formulas of the method and for their translation into arithmetic operators of the Fortran language. For accelerating the convergence of iterations a sufficiently universal algorithm is proposed, which is simple in its implementation and is based on the use of the Krylov’s subspaces. The obtained computational formulas of the CLR method were verified on the exact analytic solution of a test problem. Comparisons with the published numerical results of solving the benchmark problem of the 3D driven cubic cavity flow show that the accuracy of the results obtained by the CLR method corresponds to the known high-accuracy solutions.

14. New Quasi-Newton Method for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

2017-01-01

Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 121-134 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonlinear equations * systems of equations * trust-region methods * quasi-Newton methods * adjoint Broyden methods * numerical algorithms * numerical experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/146699

15. Monotone methods for solving a boundary value problem of second order discrete system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wang Yuan-Ming

1999-01-01

Full Text Available A new concept of a pair of upper and lower solutions is introduced for a boundary value problem of second order discrete system. A comparison result is given. An existence theorem for a solution is established in terms of upper and lower solutions. A monotone iterative scheme is proposed, and the monotone convergence rate of the iteration is compared and analyzed. The numerical results are given.

16. The topologic information processing by the artificial intellingence systems for the logic tasks' solving

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Demyokhin V. V.

2008-04-01

Full Text Available The new method of parallel logic gates realization is described. The implementation of the parallel logic for a binary patterns considered on the basis of the topological information processing, used also in recognizing of visual images of single-layer systems of artificial intelligence. The estimates of the main parameters of TIP devices indicate that their performance can reach 1016 operations / sec and the amount of the structural elements is much less than in the known opto-logic devices.

17. Solving Boundary Value Problem for a Nonlinear Stationary Controllable System with Synthesizing Control

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Alexander N. Kvitko

2017-01-01

Full Text Available An algorithm for constructing a control function that transfers a wide class of stationary nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations from an initial state to a final state under certain control restrictions is proposed. The algorithm is designed to be convenient for numerical implementation. A constructive criterion of the desired transfer possibility is presented. The problem of an interorbital flight is considered as a test example and it is simulated numerically with the presented method.

18. A comparison of iterative methods to solve complex valued linear algebraic systems

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Axelsson, Owe; Neytcheva, M.; Ahmad, B.

2013-01-01

Roč. 66, č. 4 (2013), s. 811-841 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : linear systems * complex symmetric * real valued form * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2013 http://www.it.uu.se/research/publications/reports/2013-005/2013-005-nc.pdf

19. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

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Abdoul R. Ghotbi

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Due to wide range of interest in use of bioeconomic models to gain insight into the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, homotopy perturbation method is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort prey harvesting. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method. The results show that, in new model, there are less computations needed in comparison to Adomian decomposition method.

20. A New-Trend Model-Based to Solve the Peak Power Problems in OFDM Systems

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Ashraf A. Eltholth

2008-01-01

Full Text Available The high peak to average power ration (PAR levels of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM signals attract the attention of many researchers during the past decade. Existing approaches that attack this PAR issue are abundant, but no systematic framework or comparison between them exists to date. They sometimes even differ in the problem definition itself and consequently in the basic approach to follow. In this paper, we propose a new trend in mitigating the peak power problem in OFDM system based on modeling the effects of clipping and amplifier nonlinearities in an OFDM system. We showed that the distortion due to these effects is highly related to the dynamic range itself rather than the clipping level or the saturation level of the nonlinear amplifier, and thus we propose two criteria to reduce the dynamic range of the OFDM, namely, the use of MSK modulation and the use of Hadamard transform. Computer simulations of the OFDM system using Matlab are completely matched with the deduced model in terms of OFDM signal quality metrics such as BER, ACPR, and EVM. Also simulation results show that even the reduction of PAR using the two proposed criteria is not significat, and the reduction in the amount of distortion due to HPA is truley delightful.

1. Improved Analysis of Earth System Models and Observations using Simple Climate Models

Science.gov (United States)

Nadiga, B. T.; Urban, N. M.

2016-12-01

Earth system models (ESM) are the most comprehensive tools we have to study climate change and develop climate projections. However, the computational infrastructure required and the cost incurred in running such ESMs precludes direct use of such models in conjunction with a wide variety of tools that can further our understanding of climate. Here we are referring to tools that range from dynamical systems tools that give insight into underlying flow structure and topology to tools that come from various applied mathematical and statistical techniques and are central to quantifying stability, sensitivity, uncertainty and predictability to machine learning tools that are now being rapidly developed or improved. Our approach to facilitate the use of such models is to analyze output of ESM experiments (cf. CMIP) using a range of simpler models that consider integral balances of important quantities such as mass and/or energy in a Bayesian framework.We highlight the use of this approach in the context of the uptake of heat by the world oceans in the ongoing global warming. Indeed, since in excess of 90% of the anomalous radiative forcing due greenhouse gas emissions is sequestered in the world oceans, the nature of ocean heat uptake crucially determines the surface warming that is realized (cf. climate sensitivity). Nevertheless, ESMs themselves are never run long enough to directly assess climate sensitivity. So, we consider a range of models based on integral balances--balances that have to be realized in all first-principles based models of the climate system including the most detailed state-of-the art climate simulations. The models range from simple models of energy balance to those that consider dynamically important ocean processes such as the conveyor-belt circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation, MOC), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and eddy mixing. Results from Bayesian analysis of such models using

2. Integral design method for simple and small Mars lander system using membrane aeroshell

Science.gov (United States)

Sakagami, Ryo; Takahashi, Ryohei; Wachi, Akifumi; Koshiro, Yuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Yasko; Nakasuka, Shinichi

2018-03-01

To execute Mars surface exploration missions, spacecraft need to overcome the difficulties of the Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequences. Previous landing missions overcame these challenges with complicated systems that could only be executed by organizations with mature technology and abundant financial resources. In this paper, we propose a novel integral design methodology for a small, simple Mars lander that is achievable even by organizations with limited technology and resources such as universities or emerging countries. We aim to design a lander (including its interplanetary cruise stage) whose size and mass are under 1 m3 and 150 kg, respectively. We adopted only two components for Mars EDL process: a "membrane aeroshell" for the Mars atmospheric entry and descent sequence and one additional mechanism for the landing sequence. The landing mechanism was selected from the following three candidates: (1) solid thrusters, (2) aluminum foam, and (3) a vented airbag. We present a reasonable design process, visualize dependencies among parameters, summarize sizing methods for each component, and propose the way to integrate these components into one system. To demonstrate the effectiveness, we applied this methodology to the actual Mars EDL mission led by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the University of Tokyo. As a result, an 80 kg class Mars lander with a 1.75 m radius membrane aeroshell and a vented airbag was designed, and the maximum landing shock that the lander will receive was 115 G.

3. Measuring the Accuracy of Simple Evolving Connectionist System with Varying Distance Formulas

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Khowarizmi; Sitompul, O. S.; Suherman; Nababan, E. B.

2017-12-01

Simple Evolving Connectionist System (SECoS) is a minimal implementation of Evolving Connectionist Systems (ECoS) in artificial neural networks. The three-layer network architecture of the SECoS could be built based on the given input. In this study, the activation value for the SECoS learning process, which is commonly calculated using normalized Hamming distance, is also calculated using normalized Manhattan distance and normalized Euclidean distance in order to compare the smallest error value and best learning rate obtained. The accuracy of measurement resulted by the three distance formulas are calculated using mean absolute percentage error. In the training phase with several parameters, such as sensitivity threshold, error threshold, first learning rate, and second learning rate, it was found that normalized Euclidean distance is more accurate than both normalized Hamming distance and normalized Manhattan distance. In the case of beta fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism patients used as training data, the highest mean absolute percentage error value is obtained with normalized Manhattan distance compared to normalized Euclidean distance and normalized Hamming distance. However, the differences are very small that it can be concluded that the three distance formulas used in SECoS do not have a significant effect on the accuracy of the training results.

4. Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system.

Science.gov (United States)

Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

2014-11-28

The isomorph theory is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. If the potential energy as a function of all particle coordinates is denoted by U(R), this requirement translates into U(Ra) < U(Rb) ⇒ U(λRa) < U(λRb). Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

5. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z H; Khan, Muhammed Tanweer; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Faber, Klaas Nico

2015-12-15

Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring human cells. Here, we describe the development of a coculture system for intestinal Caco-2 cells and an anaerobic symbiont, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, making use of 50 mL culture tubes. F. prausnitzii was grown in 40 mL YCFAG-agar with glass-adhered Caco-2 cells placed on top in 10 mL DMEM medium. Grown for 18-36 h in a humidified incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO2, coverslip-attached Caco-2 cells promoted growth and metabolism of F. prausnitzii, while F. prausnitzii suppressed inflammation and oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. F. prausnitzii did not compromise Caco-2 cell viability. Exogenously added porcine mucin also promoted growth of F. prausnitzii, suggesting that it may be part of the mechanism of Caco-2-stimulated growth of F. prausnitzii. This 'Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic' (HoxBan) coculturing system uniquely establishes host-microbe mutualism of a beneficial anaerobic gut microbe in vitro and principally allows the analysis of host-microbe interactions of pure and mixed cultures of bacteria and human cells.

6. GAPTrap: A Simple Expression System for Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tim Kao

2016-09-01

Full Text Available The ability to reliably express fluorescent reporters or other genes of interest is important for using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs as a platform for investigating cell fates and gene function. We describe a simple expression system, designated GAPTrap (GT, in which reporter genes, including GFP, mCherry, mTagBFP2, luc2, Gluc, and lacZ are inserted into the GAPDH locus in hPSCs. Independent clones harboring variations of the GT vectors expressed remarkably consistent levels of the reporter gene. Differentiation experiments showed that reporter expression was reliably maintained in hematopoietic cells, cardiac mesoderm, definitive endoderm, and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Similarly, analysis of teratomas derived from GT-lacZ hPSCs showed that β-galactosidase expression was maintained in a spectrum of cell types representing derivatives of the three germ layers. Thus, the GAPTrap vectors represent a robust and straightforward tagging system that enables indelible labeling of PSCs and their differentiated derivatives.

7. Simple display system of mechanical properties of cells and their dispersion.

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Yuji Shimizu

Full Text Available The mechanical properties of cells are unique indicators of their states and functions. Though, it is difficult to recognize the degrees of mechanical properties, due to small size of the cell and broad distribution of the mechanical properties. Here, we developed a simple virtual reality system for presenting the mechanical properties of cells and their dispersion using a haptic device and a PC. This system simulates atomic force microscopy (AFM nanoindentation experiments for floating cells in virtual environments. An operator can virtually position the AFM spherical probe over a round cell with the haptic handle on the PC monitor and feel the force interaction. The Young's modulus of mesenchymal stem cells and HEK293 cells in the floating state was measured by AFM. The distribution of the Young's modulus of these cells was broad, and the distribution complied with a log-normal pattern. To represent the mechanical properties together with the cell variance, we used log-normal distribution-dependent random number determined by the mode and variance values of the Young's modulus of these cells. The represented Young's modulus was determined for each touching event of the probe surface and the cell object, and the haptic device-generating force was calculated using a Hertz model corresponding to the indentation depth and the fixed Young's modulus value. Using this system, we can feel the mechanical properties and their dispersion in each cell type in real time. This system will help us not only recognize the degrees of mechanical properties of diverse cells but also share them with others.

8. Modified Differential Transform Method for Solving the Model of Pollution for a System of Lakes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Brahim Benhammouda

2014-01-01

present the posttreatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé resummation method as a useful strategy to extend the domain of convergence of the approximate solutions. The Fehlberg fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta method with degree four interpolant (RKF45 numerical solution of the lakes system problem is used as a reference to compare with the analytical approximations showing the high accuracy of the results. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it is based on a few straightforward steps and does not generate secular terms or depend of a perturbation parameter.

9. Problem-solving tools for analyzing system problems. The affinity map and the relationship diagram.

Science.gov (United States)

Lepley, C J

1998-12-01

The author describes how to use two management tools, an affinity map and a relationship diagram, to define and analyze aspects of a complex problem in a system. The affinity map identifies the key influencing elements of the problem, whereas the relationship diagram helps to identify the area that is the most important element of the issue. Managers can use the tools to draw a map of problem drivers, graphically display the drivers in a diagram, and use the diagram to develop a cause-and-effect relationship.

10. Algorithm for predicting the evolution of series of dynamics of complex systems in solving information problems

Science.gov (United States)

Kasatkina, T. I.; Dushkin, A. V.; Pavlov, V. A.; Shatovkin, R. R.

2018-03-01

In the development of information, systems and programming to predict the series of dynamics, neural network methods have recently been applied. They are more flexible, in comparison with existing analogues and are capable of taking into account the nonlinearities of the series. In this paper, we propose a modified algorithm for predicting the series of dynamics, which includes a method for training neural networks, an approach to describing and presenting input data, based on the prediction by the multilayer perceptron method. To construct a neural network, the values of a series of dynamics at the extremum points and time values corresponding to them, formed based on the sliding window method, are used as input data. The proposed algorithm can act as an independent approach to predicting the series of dynamics, and be one of the parts of the forecasting system. The efficiency of predicting the evolution of the dynamics series for a short-term one-step and long-term multi-step forecast by the classical multilayer perceptron method and a modified algorithm using synthetic and real data is compared. The result of this modification was the minimization of the magnitude of the iterative error that arises from the previously predicted inputs to the inputs to the neural network, as well as the increase in the accuracy of the iterative prediction of the neural network.

11. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spolaore, P.

2016-03-11

A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

12. Transport equation solving methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granjean, P.M.

1984-06-01

This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

13. VIM for Solving the Pollution Problem of a System of Lakes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

J. Biazar

2010-01-01

Full Text Available Pollution has become a very serious threat to our environment. Monitoring pollution is the first step toward planning to save the environment. The use of differential equations of monitoring pollution has become possible. In this paper the pollution problem of three lakes with interconnecting channels has been studied. The variational iteration method has been applied to compute an approximate solution of the system of differential equations, governing on the problem. Three different types of input models: sinusoidal, impulse, and step will be considered for monitoring the pollution in the lakes. The results are compared with those obtained by Adomian decomposition method. This comparison reveals that the variational iteration method is easier to be implemented.

14. On problems to be solved for utilizing shock isolation systems to NPP

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shibata, H.; Shigeta, T.; Komine, H.

1989-01-01

This paper discusses the development of difficulties with light water fast breeder reactors (LFBR). The authors focus their discussion on thin wall reactor vessels, thin wall sodium loops, and large sodium pools with free surfaces. Conclusions considered are to lower the center of gravity and the use of shock isolation system. Since the success of Super-phenix, the interest to develop a large fast reactor, so called LFBR, has become more realistic one in Japan. However, the anti-earthquake design of a pool-type large fast reactor is more difficult than that of light water reactors for high seismicity areas like Japan. The reason of difficulties come from the difference of the structural requirement for LFBR. Three major points are as follows: thin wall reactor vessel, thin wall sodium loops, large sodium pool with free surface

15. A Chess-Like Game for Teaching Engineering Students to Solve Large System of Simultaneous Linear Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Nguyen, Duc T.; Mohammed, Ahmed Ali; Kadiam, Subhash

2010-01-01

Solving large (and sparse) system of simultaneous linear equations has been (and continues to be) a major challenging problem for many real-world engineering/science applications [1-2]. For many practical/large-scale problems, the sparse, Symmetrical and Positive Definite (SPD) system of linear equations can be conveniently represented in matrix notation as [A] {x} = {b} , where the square coefficient matrix [A] and the Right-Hand-Side (RHS) vector {b} are known. The unknown solution vector {x} can be efficiently solved by the following step-by-step procedures [1-2]: Reordering phase, Matrix Factorization phase, Forward solution phase, and Backward solution phase. In this research work, a Game-Based Learning (GBL) approach has been developed to help engineering students to understand crucial details about matrix reordering and factorization phases. A "chess-like" game has been developed and can be played by either a single player, or two players. Through this "chess-like" open-ended game, the players/learners will not only understand the key concepts involved in reordering algorithms (based on existing algorithms), but also have the opportunities to "discover new algorithms" which are better than existing algorithms. Implementing the proposed "chess-like" game for matrix reordering and factorization phases can be enhanced by FLASH [3] computer environments, where computer simulation with animated human voice, sound effects, visual/graphical/colorful displays of matrix tables, score (or monetary) awards for the best game players, etc. can all be exploited. Preliminary demonstrations of the developed GBL approach can be viewed by anyone who has access to the internet web-site [4]!

16. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G., E-mail: erla.hafsteinsdottir@gmail.com [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); White, Duanne A., E-mail: duanne.white@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Gore, Damian B., E-mail: damian.gore@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stark, Scott C., E-mail: scott.stark@aad.gov.au [Environmental Protection and Change, Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

2011-12-15

Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] or sodium phosphate [Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}]) reacts with lead (PbSO{sub 4} or PbCl{sub 2}) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: > Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. > Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. > Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. > Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

17. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G.; White, Duanne A.; Gore, Damian B.; Stark, Scott C.

2011-01-01

Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ] or sodium phosphate [Na 3 PO 4 ]) reacts with lead (PbSO 4 or PbCl 2 ) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: → Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. → Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. → Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. → Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

18. Solving the puzzle of yeast survival in ephemeral nectar systems: exponential growth is not enough.

Science.gov (United States)

Hausmann, Sebastian L; Tietjen, Britta; Rillig, Matthias C

2017-12-01

Flower nectar is a sugar-rich ephemeral habitat for microorganisms. Nectar-borne yeasts are part of the microbial community and can affect pollination by changing nectar chemistry, attractiveness to pollinators or flower temperature if yeast population densities are high. Pollinators act as dispersal agents in this system; however, pollination events lead potentially to shrinking nectar yeast populations. We here examine how sufficiently high cell densities of nectar yeast can develop in a flower. In laboratory experiments, we determined the remaining fraction of nectar yeast cells after nectar removal, and used honeybees to determine the number of transmitted yeast cells from one flower to the next. The results of these experiments directly fed into a simulation model providing an insight into movement and colonization ecology of nectar yeasts. We found that cell densities only reached an ecologically relevant size for an intermediate pollination probability. Too few pollination events reduce yeast inoculation rate and too many reduce yeast population size strongly. In addition, nectar yeasts need a trait combination of at least an intermediate growth rate and an intermediate remaining fraction to compensate for highly frequent decimations. Our results can be used to predict nectar yeast dispersal, growth and consequently their ecological effects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

19. Budget management in the system of solving ecological contradictions of development of the national economy: territorial approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Petrushenko Mykola M.

2013-03-01

Full Text Available The article analyses organisational and economic factors and forms a theoretical and methodical approach to budget management in the system of solving ecological contradictions of development of territorial systems of the national economy. The article justifies improvement of processes of managing budgets, directed at overcoming ecological contradictions, on the basis of conceptual provisions of the budgeting oriented at the result. It develops a scheme-model of the organisational and structural solution of ecological contradictions, with reinforcement of the integration role of the budgeting method, in the system of managing an administrative and territorial unit using example of the Sumy oblast. The offered theoretical and methodical approach to improvement of the budget management in the territorial and economic system allows development of principles of the on trust management in the field of ecological and economic relations and also activation of practical introduction of managerial instruments of consensual solution of ecologically caused conflict situations with application of specialised management-consulting activity.

20. Variations Method to Solve Terminal Problems for the Second Order Systems of Canonical Form with State Constraints

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T. S. Kasatkina

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Terminal control problem with fixed finite time for the second order affine systems with state constraints is considered. A solution of such terminal problem is suggested for the systems with scalar control of regular canonical form.In this article it is shown that the initial terminal problem is equivalent to the problem of auxiliary function search. This function should satisfy some conditions. Such function design consists of two stages. The first stage includes search of function which corresponds the solution of the terminal control problem without state constraints. This function is designed as polynom of the fifth power which depends on time variable. Coefficients of the polynom are defined by boundary conditions. The second stage includes modification of designed function if corresponding to that function trajectory is not satisfied constraints. Modification process is realized by adding to the current function supplementary polynom. Influence of that polynom handles by variation of a parameter value. Modification process can include a few iterations. After process termination continuous control is found. This control is the solution of the initial terminal prUsing presented scheme the terminal control problem for system, which describes oscillations of the mathematical pendulum, is solved. This approach can be used for the solution of terminal control problems with state constraints for affine systems with multi-dimensional control.

1. Using simple wind-diesel systems without energy storage to obtain high penetration and market acceptance in the near future

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lundsager, P.; Sherwin, R.W. Jr.

1991-01-01

A wind/diesel hybrid power system combines wind energy technology with diesel generation to provide continous AC electrical power with reduced fuel consumption. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the reasoning behind the simple Wind-Diesel system concept using low or negative load operation of the diesels, including the diesel backdrive technique proposed by Atlantic Orient, and to outline a strategy within an international framework to make simple Wind-Diesel systems with standard induction generator wind turbines commercially available and accepted by the market. (au) (11 refs.)

2. Design and Development of Nonlinear Optical Microscope System: Simple Implementation with epi-Illumination Platform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ryu Jiheun

2015-01-01

Full Text Available During the research using fluorescence-tagged or auto-fluorescence molecules, meaningful information is often buried deep inside the tissue, not its surface. Therefore, especially in the field of biomedical imaging, acquiring optically sectioned images from deep inside the tissue is very important. As well know already, confocal laser scanning microscopy (the most well-known optical sectioning microscopy gives axially-resolved fluorescence information using the physical background blocking component called pinhole. However, the axial range of imaging is practically limited due to such optical phenomena as the light scattered and absorbed in the tissue. However, nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g. Multiphoton microscopy, harmonic generation microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy realized by the development of ultrafast light sources has been used for visualizing various tissues, especially in vivo, because of their low sensitivity to the limitation caused by the scattering and the absorption of light. Although nonlinear optical microscopy gives deep tissue image, it is not easy for many researcher to build customized nonlinear system. Here, we introduce an easy and simple way designing and developing such nonlinear optical microscope with upright or inverted epi-illumination platform using commercial optical components only.

3. Foam separation of Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue using a simple separatory bottle system.

Science.gov (United States)

Dasarathy, Dhweeja; Ito, Yoichiro

2017-09-29

A simple separatory glass bottle was used to improve separation effectiveness and cost efficiency while simultaneously creating a simpler system for separating biological compounds. Additionally, it was important to develop a scalable separation method so this would be applicable to both analytical and preparative separations. Compared to conventional foam separation methods, this method easily forms stable dry foam which ensures high purity of yielded fractions. A negatively charged surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as the ligand to carry a positively charged Rhodamine-G, leaving a negatively charged Evans Blue in the bottle. The performance of the separatory bottle was tested for separating Rhodamine-G from Evans Blue with sample sizes ranged from 1 to 12mg in preparative separations and 1-20μg in analytical separations under optimum conditions. These conditions including N 2 gas pressure, spinning speed of contents with a magnetic stirrer, concentration of the ligand, volume of the solvent, and concentration of the sample, were all modified and optimized. Based on the calculations at their peak absorbances, Rhodamine-G and Evans Blue were efficiently separated in times ranging from 1h to 3h, depending on sample volume. Optimal conditions were found to be 60psi N 2 pressure and 2mM SDS for the affinity ligand. This novel separation method will allow for rapid separation of biological compounds while simultaneously being scalable and cost effective. Published by Elsevier B.V.

4. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

Science.gov (United States)

Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

2015-06-01

Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

5. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system

Science.gov (United States)

Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

2010-05-01

We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

6. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system.

Science.gov (United States)

Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

2010-05-01

We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

7. Medically relevant assays with a simple smartphone and tablet based fluorescence detection system.

Science.gov (United States)

Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M

2015-05-20

Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

8. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Piotr Wargocki

2015-05-01

Full Text Available Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

9. A simple automated system for appetitive conditioning of zebrafish in their home tanks.

Science.gov (United States)

Doyle, Jillian M; Merovitch, Neil; Wyeth, Russell C; Stoyek, Matthew R; Schmidt, Michael; Wilfart, Florentin; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P

2017-01-15

We describe here an automated apparatus that permits rapid conditioning paradigms for zebrafish. Arduino microprocessors were used to control the delivery of auditory or visual stimuli to groups of adult or juvenile zebrafish in their home tanks in a conventional zebrafish facility. An automatic feeder dispensed precise amounts of food immediately after the conditioned stimuli, or at variable delays for controls. Responses were recorded using inexpensive cameras, with the video sequences analysed with ImageJ or Matlab. Fish showed significant conditioned responses in as few as 5 trials, learning that the conditioned stimulus was a predictor of food presentation at the water surface and at the end of the tank where the food was dispensed. Memories of these conditioned associations persisted for at least 2days after training when fish were tested either as groups or as individuals. Control fish, for which the auditory or visual stimuli were specifically unpaired with food, showed no comparable responses. This simple, low-cost, automated system permits scalable conditioning of zebrafish with minimal human intervention, greatly reducing both variability and labour-intensiveness. It will be useful for studies of the neural basis of learning and memory, and for high-throughput screening of compounds modifying those processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

10. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

1995-12-31

The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

11. Simple Fourier optics formalism for high-angular-resolution systems and nulling interferometry.

Science.gov (United States)

Hénault, François

2010-03-01

Reviewed are various designs of advanced, multiaperture optical systems dedicated to high-angular-resolution imaging or to the detection of exoplanets by nulling interferometry. A simple Fourier optics formalism applicable to both imaging arrays and nulling interferometers is presented, allowing their basic theoretical relationships to be derived as convolution or cross-correlation products suitable for fast and accurate computation. Several unusual designs, such as a "superresolving telescope" utilizing a mosaicking observation procedure or a free-flying, axially recombined interferometer are examined, and their performance in terms of imaging and nulling capacity are assessed. In all considered cases, it is found that the limiting parameter is the diameter of the individual telescopes. A final section devoted to nulling interferometry shows an apparent superiority of axial versus multiaxial recombining schemes. The entire study is valid only in the framework of first-order geometrical optics and scalar diffraction theory. Furthermore, it is assumed that all entrance subapertures are optically conjugated with their associated exit pupils.

12. Multi-Stream Saline-Jet Dissection Using a Simple Irrigation System Defines Difficult Tissue Planes

Science.gov (United States)

Ng, Philip CH

2010-01-01

Introduction: Single-stream hydro-jet dissection is increasingly used in various laparoscopic procedures, but its use requires special equipment. We describe a simple method for using an irrigation system for saline-jet tissue dissection as a useful adjunct prior to adhesiolysis. Material and Methods: Intraabdominal adhesions prolong laparoscopic procedures, because tissue planes are difficult to identify. We performed multi-jet saline dissection (MSSJ) between 2000 and 2009 in more than 500 patients during laparoscopy involving hernias, gallbladders, appendices, and intestinal obstructions. We use a standard suction irrigation probe, which is attached to a 1-liter saline bag with an inflatable cuff around to create a pressure of 250mm Hg to 300mm Hg. In effect, this is the standard setup generally used for irrigation. After using saline dissection, tissue planes can be better defined and the structures can then be separated. Result and Discussion: Using this method, we have successfully identified tissue planes in spite of dense adhesions, and our conversion rates to open have been reduced dramatically. This method is relatively safer than other modalities of tissue dissection, such as diathermy, ultrasonic, blunt or sharp dissection. The disadvantage is that with tissues saturated with saline it becomes more difficult to use diathermy hemostasis. Care has to be exercised in monitoring the temperature and volume of the fluid used. PMID:20529528

13. Parallel processing and learning in simple systems. Final report, 10 January 1986-14 January 1989

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mpitsos, G.J.

1989-03-15

Work over the three-year tenure of this grant has dealt with interrelated studies of (1) neuropharmacology, (2) behavior, and (3) distributed/parallel processing in the generation of variable motor patterns in the buccal-oral system of the sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. (4) Computer simulations of simple neutral networks have been undertaken to examine neurointegrative principles that could not be examined in biological preparations. The simulation work has set the basis for further simulations dealing with networks having characteristics relating to real neurons. All of the work has had the goal of developing interdisciplinary tools for understanding the scale-independent problem of how individuals, each possessing only local knowledge of group activity, act within a group to produce different and variable adaptive outputs, and, in turn, of how the group influences the activity of the individual. The pharmacologic studies have had the goal of developing biochemical tools with which to identify groups of neurons that perform specific tasks during the production of a given behavior but are multifunctional by being critically involved in generating several different behaviors.

14. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

1995-01-01

The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials

15. A simple distributed mechanism for accounting system self-configuration in next-generation charging and billing

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kuehne, Ralph; Huitema, George; Carle, Georg

2011-01-01

Modern communication systems are becoming increasingly dynamic and complex. In this article a novel mechanism for next generation charging and billing is presented that enables self-configurability for accounting systems consisting of heterogeneous components. The mechanism is required to be simple,

16. A simple data acquisition system based on arduino platform for non-self-sustained gas discharge plasma diagnostics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Misiruk, I.O.; Garkusha, I.E.; Timoshenko, O.I.; Taran, V.S.

2016-01-01

A simple data acquisition system based on Arduino Nano platform is developed. Bluetooth wireless protocol is used for data transmission. Android OS application for data visualization and recording is developed. The system was success-fully applied for acquiring data of Langmuir probe measurements in the non-self-sustained discharge with a hollow anode.

17. FEMSYN - a code system to solve multigroup diffusion theory equations using a variety of solution techniques. Part 1 : Description of code system - input and sample problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jagannathan, V.

1985-01-01

A modular computer code system called FEMSYN has been developed to solve the multigroup diffusion theory equations. The various methods that are incorporated in FEMSYN are (i) finite difference method (FDM) (ii) finite element method (FEM) and (iii) single channel flux synthesis method (SCFS). These methods are described in detail in parts II, III and IV of the present report. In this report, a comparison of the accuracy and the speed of different methods of solution for some benchmark problems are reported. The input preparation and listing of sample input and output are included in the Appendices. The code FEMSYN has been used to solve a wide variety of reactor core problems. It can be used for both LWR and PHWR applications. (author)

18. New simple evaluation method of the monosyllable /sa/ using a psychoacoustic system in maxillectomy patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Chowdhury, Nafees Uddin; Otomaru, Takafumi; Murase, Mai; Inohara, Ken; Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

2011-01-01

An objective assessment of speech would benefit the prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. This study aimed to establish a simple, objective evaluation of monosyllable /sa/ utterances in maxillectomy patients by using a psychoacoustic system typically used in industry. This study comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 involved analysis of the psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, sharpness and roughness) in monosyllable /sa/ utterances by 18 healthy subjects (9 males, 9 females). The utterances were recorded in a sound-treated room. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each parameter was compared to identify the most suitable parameter for objective evaluation of speech. Experiment 2 involved analysis of /sa/ utterances by 18 maxillectomy patients (9 males, 9 females) with and without prosthesis, and comparisons of the psychoacoustic data between the healthy subjects and maxillectomy patients without prosthesis, between the maxillectomy patients with and without prosthesis, and between the healthy subjects and maxillectomy patients with prosthesis. The CV for sharpness was the lowest among the three psychoacoustic parameters in both the healthy males and females. There were significant differences in the sharpness of /sa/ between the healthy subjects and the maxillectomy patients without prosthesis (but not with prosthesis), and between the maxillectomy patients with and without prosthesis. We found that the psychoacoustic parameters typically adopted in industrial research could also be applied to evaluate the psychoacoustics of the monosyllable /sa/ utterance, and distinguished the monosyllable /sa/ in maxillectomy patients with an obturator from that without an obturator using the system. Copyright © 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Quality Control System using Simple Implementation of Seven Tools for Batik Textile Manufacturing

Science.gov (United States)

Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Sugarindra, Muchamad; Erfaisalsyah, Hendy

2017-06-01

In order to produce better products and mitigate defect in products, every company must implement a quality control system. Company will find means to implement a quality control system that is capable and reliable. One of the methods is using the simple implementation of the seven tools in quality control defects. The case studied in this research was the level of disability xyz grey fabric on a shuttle loom 2 on the Batik manufacturing company. The seven tools that include: flowchart, check sheet, histogram, scatter diagram combined with control charts, Pareto diagrams and fishbone diagrams (causal diagram). Check sheet results obtained types of defects in the grey fabric was woven xyz is warp, double warp, the warp break, double warp, empty warp, warp tenuous, ugly edges, thick warp, and rust. Based on the analysis of control chart indicates that the process is out of control. This can be seen in the graph control where there is still a lot of outlier data. Based on a scatter diagram shows a positive correlation between the percentage of disability and the number of production. Based on Pareto diagram, repair needs priority is for the dominant type of defect is warp (44%) and based on double warp value histogram is also the highest with a value of 23635.11 m. In addition, based on the analysis of the factors causing defect by fishbone diagram double warp or other types of defects originating from the materials, methods, machines, measurements, man and environment. Thus the company can take to minimize the prevention and repair of defects and improve product quality.

20. A simple planning technique of craniospinal irradiation in the eclipse treatment planning system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hemalatha Athiyaman

2014-01-01

Full Text Available A new planning method for Craniospinal Irradiation by Eclipse treatment planning system using Field alignment, Field-in-Field technique was developed. Advantage of this planning method was also studied retrospectively for previously treated five patients of medulloblastoma with variable spine length. Plan consists of half beam blocked parallel opposed cranium, and a single posterior cervicospine field was created by sharing the same isocenter, which obviates divergence matching. Further, a single symmetrical field was created to treat remaining Lumbosacral spine. Matching between a inferior diverging edge of cervicospine field and superior diverging edge of a Lumbosacral field was done using the field alignment option. ′Field alignment′ is specific option in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, which automatically matches the field edge divergence as per field alignment rule. Multiple segments were applied in both the spine field to manage with hot and cold spots created by varying depth of spinal cord. Plan becomes fully computerized using this field alignment option and multiple segments. Plan evaluation and calculated mean modified Homogeneity Index (1.04 and 0.1 ensured that dose to target volume is homogeneous and critical organ doses were within tolerance. Dose variation at the spinal field junction was verified using ionization chamber array (I′MatriXX for matched, overlapped and gap junction spine fields; the delivered dose distribution confirmed the ideal clinical match, over exposure and under exposure at the junction, respectively. This method is simple to plan, executable in Record and Verify mode and can be adopted for various length of spinal cord with only two isocenter in shorter treatment time.

1. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

Science.gov (United States)

Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

2015-04-01

Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

2. A Novel Low-Power-Consumption All-Fiber-Optic Anemometer with Simple System Design.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Duan, Zhihui; Liu, Zexu; Liu, Zigeng; Wu, Zhenlin; Gu, Yiying; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

2017-09-14

A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure. The fabricated TFBG was immobilized with an SWCNT film on the fiber surface. SWCNTs, a kind of innovative nanomaterial, were utilized as light-heat conversion medium instead of traditional metallic materials, due to its excellent infrared light absorption ability and competitive thermal conductivity. When the SWCNT film strongly absorbs the light in the fiber, the sensor head can be heated and form a "hot wire". As the sensor is put into wind field, the wind will take away the heat on the sensor resulting in a temperature variation that is then accurately measured by the TFBG. Benefited from the high coupling and absorption efficiency, the heating and sensing light source was shared with only one broadband light source (BBS) without any extra pumping laser complicating the system. This not only significantly reduces power consumption, but also simplifies the whole sensing system with lower cost. In experiments, the key parameters of the sensor, such as the film thickness and the inherent angle of the TFBG, were fully investigated. It was demonstrated that, under a very low BBS input power of 9.87 mW, a 0.100 nm wavelength response can still be detected as the wind speed changed from 0 to 2 m/s. In addition, the sensitivity was found to be -0.0346 nm/(m/s) under the wind speed of 1 m/s. The proposed simple and low-power-consumption wind speed sensing system exhibits promising potential for future long-term remote monitoring and on-chip sensing in

3. A dynamical stabilizer in the climate system: a mechanism suggested by a simple model

Science.gov (United States)

Bates, J. R.

1999-05-01

A simple zonally averaged hemispheric model of the climate system is constructed, based on energy equations for two ocean basins separated at 30° latitude with the surface fluxes calculated explicitly. A combination of empirical input and theoretical calculation is used to determine an annual mean equilibrium climate for the model and to study its stability with respect to small perturbations. The insolation, the mean albedos and the equilibrium temperatures for the two model zones are prescribed from observation. The principal agent of interaction between the zones is the vertically integrated poleward transport of atmospheric angular momentum across their common boundary. This is parameterized using an empirical formula derived from a multiyear atmospheric data set. The surface winds are derived from the angular momentum transport assuming the atmosphere to be in a state of dynamic balance on the climatic timescales of interest. A further assumption that the air sea temperature difference and low level relative humidity remain fixed at their mean observed values then allows the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat to be calculated. Results from a radiative model, which show a positive lower tropospheric water vapour/infrared radiative feedback on SST perturbations in both zones, are used to calculate the net upward infrared radiative fluxes at the surface. In the model's equilibrium climate, the principal processes balancing the solar radiation absorbed at the surface are evaporation in the tropical zone and net infrared radiation in the extratropical zone. The stability of small perturbations about the equilibrium is studied using a linearized form of the ocean energy equations. Ice-albedo and cloud feedbacks are omitted and attention is focussed on the competing effects of the water vapour/infrared radiative feedback and the turbulent surface flux and oceanic heat transport feedbacks associated with the angular momentum cycle. The perturbation equations

4. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system.

Science.gov (United States)

Rayhan, Rakib U; Zheng, Yin; Uddin, Ebsan; Timbol, Christian; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; Baraniuk, James N

2013-01-01

5. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rakib Uddin RAYHAN

2013-09-01

6. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

Science.gov (United States)

Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

2015-10-01

Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

7. Hybrid and Cooperative Strategies Using Harmony Search and Artificial Immune Systems for Solving the Nurse Rostering Problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Suk Ho Jin

2017-06-01

Full Text Available The nurse rostering problem is an important search problem that features many constraints. In a nurse rostering problem, these constraints are defined by processes such as maintaining work regulations, assigning nurse shifts, and considering nurse preferences. A number of approaches to address these constraints, such as penalty function methods, have been investigated in the literature. We propose two types of hybrid metaheuristic approaches for solving the nurse rostering problem, which are based on combining harmony search techniques and artificial immune systems to balance local and global searches and prevent slow convergence speeds and prematurity. The proposed algorithms are evaluated against a benchmarking dataset of nurse rostering problems; the results show that they identify better or best known solutions compared to those identified in other studies for most instances. The results also show that the combination of harmony search and artificial immune systems is better suited than using single metaheuristic or other hybridization methods for finding upper-bound solutions for nurse rostering problems and discrete optimization problems.

8. ON THE WAYS OF AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF SPATIAL GEOMETRY OF THE SYSTEM “GATE-CASTING” FOR SOLVING OF THE CLASSIFICATION PROBLEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. N. Chichko

2007-01-01

Full Text Available The system parameterization of castings, allowing to formalize spatial geometry of casting, is offered. The algorithm of taxonomy, which can be used for solving of problems of castings classification in the systems of computeraided design of foundry technologies, is described. The method is approved on castings of type ''cover”.

9. Use of simple finite elements for mechanical systems impact analysis based on stereomechanics, stress wave propagation, and energy method approaches

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McCoy, Michael L.; Moradi, Rasoul; Lankarani, Hamid M.

2011-01-01

This paper examines the effectiveness of analyzing impact events in mechanical systems for design purposes using simple or low ordered finite elements. Traditional impact dynamics analyses of mechanical systems namely stereomechanics, energy method, stress-wave propagation and contact mechanics approaches are limited to very simplified geometries and provide basic analyses in making predictions and understanding the dominant features of the impact in a mechanical system. In engineering practice, impacted systems present a complexity of geometry, stiffness, mass distributions, contact areas and impact angles that are impossible to analyze and design with the traditional impact dynamics methods. In real cases, the effective tool is the finite element (FE) method. The high-end FEA codes though may be not available for typical engineer/designer. This paper provides information on whether impact events of mechanical systems can be successfully modeled using simple or low-order finite elements. FEA models using simple elements are benchmarked against theoretical impact problems and published experimental impact results. As a case study, an FE model using simple plastic beam elements is further tested to predict stresses and deflections in an experimental structural impact

10. Developing a File System Structure to Solve Healthy Big Data Storage and Archiving Problems Using a Distributed File System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Atilla Ergüzen

2018-06-01

Full Text Available Recently, the use of internet has become widespread, increasing the use of mobile phones, tablets, computers, Internet of Things (IoT devices and other digital sources. In the health sector with the help of new generation digital medical equipment, this digital world also has tended to grow in an unpredictable way in that it has nearly 10% of the global wide data itself and continues to keep grow beyond what the other sectors have. This progress has greatly enlarged the amount of produced data which cannot be resolved with conventional methods. In this work, an efficient model for the storage of medical images using a distributed file system structure has been developed. With this work, a robust, available, scalable, and serverless solution structure has been produced, especially for storing large amounts of data in the medical field. Furthermore, the security level of the system is extreme by use of static Internet protocol (IP, user credentials, and synchronously encrypted file contents. One of the most important key features of the system is high performance and easy scalability. In this way, the system can work with fewer hardware elements and be more robust than others that use name node architecture. According to the test results, it is seen that the performance of the designed system is better than 97% from a Not Only Structured Query Language (NoSQL system, 80% from a relational database management system (RDBMS, and 74% from an operating system (OS.

11. Issues in visual support to real-time space system simulation solved in the Systems Engineering Simulator

Science.gov (United States)

Yuen, Vincent K.

1989-01-01

The Systems Engineering Simulator has addressed the major issues in providing visual data to its real-time man-in-the-loop simulations. Out-the-window views and CCTV views are provided by three scene systems to give the astronauts their real-world views. To expand the window coverage for the Space Station Freedom workstation a rotating optics system is used to provide the widest field of view possible. To provide video signals to as many viewpoints as possible, windows and CCTVs, with a limited amount of hardware, a video distribution system has been developed to time-share the video channels among viewpoints at the selection of the simulation users. These solutions have provided the visual simulation facility for real-time man-in-the-loop simulations for the NASA space program.

12. On the Evaluation of Computational Results Obtained from Solving System of linear Equations With matlab The Dual affine Scalling interior Point

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murfi, Hendri; Basaruddin, T.

2001-01-01

The interior point method for linear programming has gained extraordinary interest as an alternative to simplex method since Karmarkar presented a polynomial-time algorithm for linear programming based on interior point method. In implementation of the algorithm of this method, there are two important things that have impact heavily to performance of the algorithm; they are data structure and used method to solve linear equation system in the algorithm. This paper describes about solving linear equation system in variants of the algorithm called dual-affine scaling algorithm. Next, we evaluate experimentally results of some used methods, either direct method or iterative method. The experimental evaluation used Matlab

13. Solving Immunology?

Science.gov (United States)

Vodovotz, Yoram; Xia, Ashley; Read, Elizabeth L; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hafler, David A; Sontag, Eduardo; Wang, Jin; Tsang, John S; Day, Judy D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Matthew C; Hammond, Ross; Sealfon, Stuart C

2017-02-01

Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology. Here, we present the perspectives that emerged from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) workshop 'Complex Systems Science, Modeling and Immunity' and subsequent discussions regarding the potential synergy of high-throughput data acquisition, data-driven modeling, and mechanistic modeling to define new mechanisms of immunological disease and to accelerate the translation of these insights into therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. An Isotopic Dilution Experiment Using Liquid Scintillation: A Simple Two-System, Two-Phase Analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Moehs, Peter J.; Levine, Samuel

1982-01-01

A simple isotonic, dilution analysis whose principles apply to methods of more complex radioanalyses is described. Suitable for clinical and instrumental analysis chemistry students, experimental manipulations are kept to a minimum involving only aqueous extraction before counting. Background information, procedures, and results are discussed.…

15. Constant pressure mode extended simple gradient liquid chromatography system for micro and nanocolumns

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav

2014-01-01

Roč. 1350, Jul (2014), s. 68-71 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : constant pressure HPLC * gradient elution * simple liquid chromatograph Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0233990

16. The spring balance: a simple monitoring system for fluid overload during hysteroscopic surgery

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ankum, W. M.; Vonk, J.

1994-01-01

Fluid overload may arise during hysteroscopic surgery, caused by absorption of fluid used to distend the uterus. Continuous monitoring of the fluid balance is required to prevent this serious complication. Commercial equipment does not serve this purpose adequately. We describe a simple solution. We

17. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Sadaghian, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z. H.; Khan, Muhammad; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

2015-01-01

Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic

18. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C.

1990-01-01

Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients

19. The construction of arbitrary order ERKN methods based on group theory for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems with applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mei, Lijie, E-mail: bxhanm@126.com; Wu, Xinyuan, E-mail: xywu@nju.edu.cn

2016-10-15

In general, extended Runge–Kutta–Nyström (ERKN) methods are more effective than traditional Runge–Kutta–Nyström (RKN) methods in dealing with oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. However, the theoretical analysis for ERKN methods, such as the order conditions, the symplectic conditions and the symmetric conditions, becomes much more complicated than that for RKN methods. Therefore, it is a bottleneck to construct high-order ERKN methods efficiently. In this paper, we first establish the ERKN group Ω for ERKN methods and the RKN group G for RKN methods, respectively. We then rigorously show that ERKN methods are a natural extension of RKN methods, that is, there exists an epimorphism η of the ERKN group Ω onto the RKN group G. This epimorphism gives a global insight into the structure of the ERKN group by the analysis of its kernel and the corresponding RKN group G. Meanwhile, we establish a particular mapping φ of G into Ω so that each image element is an ideal representative element of the congruence class in Ω. Furthermore, an elementary theoretical analysis shows that this map φ can preserve many structure-preserving properties, such as the order, the symmetry and the symplecticity. From the epimorphism η together with its section φ, we may gain knowledge about the structure of the ERKN group Ω via the RKN group G. In light of the theoretical analysis of this paper, we obtain high-order structure-preserving ERKN methods in an effective way for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are carried out and the results are very promising, which strongly support our theoretical analysis presented in this paper.

20. Using the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for Solving the Large Linear System of Equations Related to Global Gravity Field Recovery up to Degree and Order 120

Science.gov (United States)

Safari, A.; Sharifi, M. A.; Amjadiparvar, B.

2010-05-01

The GRACE mission has substantiated the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) concept. The LL-SST configuration can be combined with the previously realized high-low SST concept in the CHAMP mission to provide a much higher accuracy. The line of sight (LOS) acceleration difference between the GRACE satellite pair is the mostly used observable for mapping the global gravity field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper, mathematical formulae for LOS acceleration difference observations have been derived and the corresponding linear system of equations has been set up for spherical harmonic up to degree and order 120. The total number of unknowns is 14641. Such a linear equation system can be solved with iterative solvers or direct solvers. However, the runtime of direct methods or that of iterative solvers without a suitable preconditioner increases tremendously. This is the reason why we need a more sophisticated method to solve the linear system of problems with a large number of unknowns. Multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm is a domain decomposition method, which allows it to split the normal matrix of the system into several smaller overlaped submatrices. In each iteration step the multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm solves linear systems with the matrices obtained from the splitting successively. It reduces both runtime and memory requirements drastically. In this paper we propose the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for solving the large linear system of gravity field recovery. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)-simulated data of the GRACE mission. The achieved results indicate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving the linear system of equations from accuracy and runtime points of view. Keywords: Gravity field recovery, Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm, Low

1. Small, simple but useful: the SSI approach to a real-time system for decision making support

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baeverstam, U.

1993-01-01

In case of a nuclear accident or a threat of a release, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) is responsible for advising and informing the Government, other authorities and the public. The institute's experts are supported by a newly developed, small computerised system. Some components of the system are: a simple model for atmospheric dispersion and dose predictions; databases including maps, nuclides, instruments and facilities to store and handle measured values; on-line connection to nationwide system of automatic measuring stations; a number of data display facilities; and computer based handbooks. Most software for the system is written for the MS Windows environment. (author)

2. Optimal synthesis and design of extractive distillation systems for bioethanol separation: From simple to complex columns

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Errico, M.; Rong, B. G.; Tola, G.

2013-01-01

Bioethanol has been considered as a green fuel and a valid alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil distillates. The development of an optimal separation process is considered as a key element in the design of an efficient process able to be cost effective and competitive. Despite many....... The subspace of simple distillation configurations was generated considering the possibility to employ partial or total condensers to transfer the non-product mixtures between the columns, moreover different numbers of columns are considered. Once the most promising sequences are obtained, the complex columns...... considering the total condenser and reboiler duty as energy index. The capital costs and the solvent consumption are also taken into account in the final selection. Among all the complex configurations considered the two-column sequence can reduce the capital cost above 10% compared to the best simple column...

3. An easy-to-use microfluidic interconnection system to create quick and reversibly interfaced simple microfluidic devices

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pfreundt, Andrea; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Dimaki, Maria

2015-01-01

The presented microfluidic interconnection system provides an alternative for the individual interfacing of simple microfluidic devices fabricated in polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and cyclic olefin polymer. A modification of the device inlet enables the direct attachment...... pressures above 250 psi and therefore supports applications with high flow rates or highly viscous fluids. The ease of incorporation, configuration, fabrication and use make this interconnection system ideal for the rapid prototyping of simple microfluidic devices or other integrated systems that require...... microfluidic interfaces. It provides a valuable addition to the toolbox of individual and small arrays of connectors suitable for micromachined or template-based injection molded devices since it does not require protruding, threaded or glued modifications on the inlet and avoids bulky and expensive fittings....

4. Coordinate measurement by current division: a simple system for multichannel detectors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gottschalk, B.

1981-08-01

A simple current-division scheme is described based on an unorthodox connection of the 733 amplifier chip: a common-base input can be obtained by grounding the normal inputs and driving a gain control terminal. With ganged multiwire chambers detecting cosmic rays in the proportional region, under realistic operating conditions (charge approx. 2 picocoulombs per gap), the resolution is about 2% of full length. Calibration procedures are discussed, as are the effects of changing various parameters

5. Simple machines

CERN Document Server

Graybill, George

2007-01-01

Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

6. Combining the CORS and BiCORSTAB Iterative Methods with MLFMA and SAI Preconditioning for Solving Large Linear Systems in Electromagnetics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Carpentieri, Bruno; Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Pi, Wei-Chao; Sheng, Xin-Qing

We report on experiments with a novel family of Krylov subspace methods for solving dense, complex, non-Hermitian systems of linear equations arising from the Galerkin discretization of surface integral equation models in Electromagnetics. By some experiments on realistic radar-cross-section

7. A simple finite element method for linear hyperbolic problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu

2017-01-01

Here, we introduce a simple finite element method for solving first order hyperbolic equations with easy implementation and analysis. Our new method, with a symmetric, positive definite system, is designed to use discontinuous approximations on finite element partitions consisting of arbitrary shape of polygons/polyhedra. Error estimate is established. Extensive numerical examples are tested that demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the method.

8. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

Science.gov (United States)

Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

2017-07-01

We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

9. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

Science.gov (United States)

Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey

2018-01-01

Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

10. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems

KAUST Repository

Oubei, Hassan M.

2017-06-16

In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

11. Simple routine tests to improve the performance of the DPRSN TLD-based individual monitoring system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alves, J.G.; Batel, V.I.; Silva, P.B.; Roda, A.; Santos, L.

2002-01-01

This paper presents some of the results of a simple quality control program developed and implemented at the thermoluminescence sector of the IMS. The European Union (EU) Directive 96/29/EURATOM has not yet been transposed to national legislation and Portuguese law concerning the monitoring of radiation workers still establishes an annual dose limit of 50 mSv. However, new legislation has recently been published with requirements on the performance of dosimetric services. Some of the results of the tests reported herein will show compliance with the above mentioned requirements

12. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

Science.gov (United States)

Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

2014-05-01

Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

13. Appreciative Problem Solving

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, David

2012-01-01

Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

14. Exergy analysis and optimisation of a marine molten carbonate fuel cell system in simple and combined cycle configuration

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimopoulos, George G.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Process modelling and optimisation of an integrated marine MCFC system. • Component-level and spatially distributed exergy analysis and balances. • Optimal simple cycle MCFC system with 45.5% overall exergy efficiency. • Optimal combined cycle MCFC system with 60% overall exergy efficiency. • Combined cycle MCFC system yields 30% CO_2 relative emissions reduction. - Abstract: In this paper we present the exergy analysis and design optimisation of an integrated molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for marine applications, considering waste heat recovery options for additional power production. High temperature fuel cells are attractive solutions for marine energy systems, as they can significantly reduce gaseous emissions, increase efficiency and facilitate the introduction of more environmentally-friendly fuels, like LNG and biofuels. We consider an already installed MCFC system onboard a sea-going vessel, which has many tightly integrated sub-systems and components: fuel delivery and pre-reforming, internal reforming sections, electrochemical conversion, catalytic burner, air supply and high temperature exhaust gas. The high temperature exhaust gasses offer significant potential for heat recovery that can be directed into both covering the system’s auxiliary heat requirements and power production. Therefore, an integrated systems approach is employed to accurately identify the true sources of losses in the various components and to optimise the overall system with respect to its energy efficiency, taking into account the various trade-offs and subject to several constraints. Here, we present a four-step approach: a. dynamic process models development of simple and combined-cycle MCFC system; b. MCFC components and system models calibration via onboard MCFC measurements; c. exergy analysis, and d. optimisation of the simple and combined-cycle systems with respect to their exergetic performance. Our methodology is based on the

15. SIRW: A web server for the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System that combines sequence motif searches with keyword searches.

Science.gov (United States)

Ramu, Chenna

2003-07-01

SIRW (http://sirw.embl.de/) is a World Wide Web interface to the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System (SIR) that is capable of parsing and indexing various flat file databases. In addition it provides a framework for doing sequence analysis (e.g. motif pattern searches) for selected biological sequences through keyword search. SIRW is an ideal tool for the bioinformatics community for searching as well as analyzing biological sequences of interest.

16. A similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the dynamic cellular facility layout for manufacturing systems

Science.gov (United States)

Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Surya Prakash

2017-11-01

The dynamic cellular facility layout problem (DCFLP) is a well-known NP-hard problem. It has been estimated that the efficient design of DCFLP reduces the manufacturing cost of products by maintaining the minimum material flow among all machines in all cells, as the material flow contributes around 10-30% of the total product cost. However, being NP hard, solving the DCFLP optimally is very difficult in reasonable time. Therefore, this article proposes a novel similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the DCFLP optimally considering multiple products in multiple times to be manufactured in the manufacturing layout. In the first phase of the proposed heuristic, a machine-cell cluster is created based on similarity scores between machines. This is provided as an input to the second phase to minimize inter/intracell material handling costs and rearrangement costs over the entire planning period. The solution methodology of the proposed approach is demonstrated. To show the efficiency of the two-phase heuristic approach, 21 instances are generated and solved using the optimization software package LINGO. The results show that the proposed approach can optimally solve the DCFLP in reasonable time.

17. Design, System, Value: The Role of Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking Capabilities in Technology Education, as Perceived by Teachers

Science.gov (United States)

Schooner, Patrick; Nordlöf, Charlotta; Klasander, Claes; Hallström, Jonas

2017-01-01

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2013) defines its views on necessary skills for 21st century citizenship and life-long learning, advocating a generic skillset of literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving in technology-rich environments. Other sources also include critical thinking as a vital 21st Century skill.…

18. Secular Orbit Evolution in Systems with a Strong External Perturber—A Simple and Accurate Model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Andrade-Ines, Eduardo [Institute de Mécanique Céleste et des Calcul des Éphémérides—Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France); Eggl, Siegfried, E-mail: eandrade.ines@gmail.com, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, 91109 Pasadena, CA (United States)

2017-04-01

We present a semi-analytical correction to the seminal solution for the secular motion of a planet’s orbit under gravitational influence of an external perturber derived by Heppenheimer. A comparison between analytical predictions and numerical simulations allows us to determine corrective factors for the secular frequency and forced eccentricity in the coplanar restricted three-body problem. The correction is given in the form of a polynomial function of the system’s parameters that can be applied to first-order forced eccentricity and secular frequency estimates. The resulting secular equations are simple, straight forward to use, and improve the fidelity of Heppenheimers solution well beyond higher-order models. The quality and convergence of the corrected secular equations are tested for a wide range of parameters and limits of its applicability are given.

19. Simple interphase drag model for numerical two-fluid modeling of two-phase flow systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chow, H.; Ransom, V.H.

1984-01-01

The interphase drag model that has been developed for RELAP5/MOD2 is based on a simple formulation having flow regime maps for both horizontal and vertical flows. The model is based on a conventional semi-empirical formulation that includes the product of drag coefficient, interfacial area, and relative dynamic pressure. The interphase drag model is implemented in the RELAP5/MOD2 light water reactor transient analysis code and has been used to simulate a variety of separate effects experiments to assess the model accuracy. The results from three of these simulations, the General Electric Company small vessel blowdown experiment, Dukler and Smith's counter-current flow experiment, and a Westinghouse Electric Company FLECHT-SEASET forced reflood experiment, are presented and discussed

20. Incorporation of soft shaped hydrogel sheets into microfluidic systems using a simple adhesion masking process

Science.gov (United States)

Young, Dylan C.; Newsome, Isabel G.; Scrimgeour, Jan

2017-12-01

We report the use of simple adhesion masking in fabricating shaped, photo-polymerizable hydrogel sheets with very small elastic moduli on glass substrates. Direct ink masking of surface crosslinking groups allows for low cost hydrogel patterning that is compatible with materials where crosslinking is both photo- and chemically initiated. Mechanical removal of the unwanted polymerized material reveals the shaped hydrogel. The mechanical properties of the shaped hydrogels were characterized by exposure to well-defined shear flow inside the microfluidic device. We show that hydrogel sheets with elastic moduli down to 7.5 Pa can be shaped with millimeter feature sizes using this approach. The shaped hydrogels are suitable for applications such as the detection of shear flow, cell culture, and traction force microscopy.

1. NeuronDepot: Keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Philipp L Rautenberg

2014-06-01

Full Text Available Neuroscience today deals with a data deluge derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1 a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2 a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3 an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing – thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

2. NeuronDepot: keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications.

Science.gov (United States)

Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kumaraswamy, Ajayrama; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Doblander, Christoph; Norouzian, Mohammad R; Kai, Kazuki; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Ai, Hiroyuki; Wachtler, Thomas; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

Neuroscience today deals with a "data deluge" derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1) a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2) a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3) an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing-thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

3. Electrical biopsy of irradiated intestinal tissue with a simple electrical impedance spectroscopy system for radiation enteropathy in rats—a pilot study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Eng-Yen

2011-01-01

Electrical impedance is one of the most often used parameters for characterizing material properties, especially in biomedical applications. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), used for revealing both resistive and capacitive characteristics, is good for use in tissue characterization. In this study, a portable and simple EIS system based on a commercially available chip was used to assess rat intestinal tissues following irradiation. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor and capacitor electrical circuit model to solve the electrical properties of the tissue. The variation in the tissue's electrical characteristics was compared to the morphological and histological findings. From the experimental results, it was clear that the electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve analysis, demonstrated good detection performance relative to the histological changes. The electrical parameters of the tissues could be used to distinguish the tissue's status for investigation, which introduced a concept of 'electrical biopsy', and this 'electrical biopsy' approach may be used to complement histological examinations

4. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTER VISION SYSTEM SEDERHANA UNTUK MENENTUKAN KUALITAS TOMAT Development of a simple Computer Vision System to determine tomato quality

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rudiati Evi Masithoh

2012-05-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a simple computer vision system (CVS to non-destructively measure tomato quality based on its Red Gren Blue (RGB color parameter. Tomato quality parameters measured were Brix, citric acid, vitamin C, and total sugar. This system consisted of a box to place object, a webcam to capture images, a computer to process images, illumination system, and an image analysis software which was equipped with artificial neural networks technique for determining tomato quality. Network architecture was formed with 3 layers consisting of1 input layer with 3 input neurons, 1 hidden layer with 14 neurons using logsig activation function, and 5 output layers using purelin activation function by using backpropagation training algorithm. CVS developed was able to predict the quality parameters of a Brix value, vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar. To obtain the predicted values which were equal or close to the actual values, a calibration model was required. For Brix value, the actual value obtained from the equation y = 12,16x – 26,46, with x was Brix predicted. The actual values of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar were obtained from y = 1,09x - 3.13, y = 7,35x – 19,44,  and  y = 1.58x – 0,18,, with x was the value of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar, respectively. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan computer vision system (CVS sederhana untuk menentukan kualitas tomat secara non­destruktif berdasarkan parameter warna Red Green Blue (RGB. Parameter kualitas tomat yang diukur ada­ lah Brix, asam sitrat, vitamin C, dan gula total. Sistem ini terdiri peralatan utama yaitu kotak untuk meletakkan obyek, webcam untuk menangkap citra, komputer untuk mengolah data, sistem penerangan, dan perangkat lunak analisis citra yang dilengkapi dengan jaringan syaraf tiruan untuk menentukan kualitas tomat. Arsitektur jaringan dibentuk dengan3 lapisan yang terdiri dari 1 lapisan masukan dengan 3 sel

5. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

Science.gov (United States)

Poon, Kin-Keung

2012-01-01

This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

6. Features of Solving Retrospective (Successive Tasks of the Monitoring Subsystem in Systems for Strategic Control of the Regional Structure and Territorial Organization in the Agri-Food Sphere

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tkachenko Serhii A.

2016-02-01

Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.

7. Monoacylglycerol synthesis via enzymatic glycerolysis using a simple and efficient reaction system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Yang, Tiankui; MORTEN, REBSDORF; ULRIK, ENGELRUD

2005-01-01

TL IM and Novozym 435 were employed in a batch reaction system. Novozym 435 showed better properties in glycerolysis. The increased temperature and high glycerol/oil ratio had little effect on the yield of MAGs in such a system. The reaction in a packed bed reactor (PBR) gave lower yield of MAGs...

8. The failure combination method: presentation, application to a simple collection of systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

1981-11-01

The main advantages of this particular method for analyzing the reliability and safety of systems, the method of failure combinations, are presented. This is an inductive method of analysis; it makes it possible to pursue the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) until overall failures are obtained. In this manner, through an inductive approach all the combinations of failure modes leading to abnormal functioning of systems are obtained. It also makes it possible to carry out the overall study of complex systems in interaction and the systematic inventory of abnormal functioning of these systems, as from the failure modes of the components and their combinations. It can be used as from the design stages of systems and is an excellent dialogue tool between the various specialists concerned in problems of safety, operation and reliability [fr

9. A simple method for the comparison of commercially available ATP hygiene-monitoring systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Colquhoun, K O; Timms, S; Fricker, C R

1998-04-01

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a methodology which could easily be used in any test laboratory in a uniform and consistent way for determining the sensitivity and reproducibility of results obtained with three ATP hygiene-monitoring systems. The test protocol discussed here allows such comparison to be made, thereby establishing a method of benchmarking both new systems and developments of existing systems. The sensitivity of the LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab (Charm Sciences) was found to be between 0.4 and 4.0 nmol of ATP with poor reproducibility at the 40.0 nmol level (CV, 35%). The sensitivity of the IDEXX LIGHTING system and the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel were both between 0.04 and 0.4 nmol with coefficients of variation (CVs) of between 9% at 0.04 nmol and 10% at 0.4 nmol for the IDEXX system and 17% at 0.04 nmol and 21% at 0.4 nmol for the Biotrace system. The three systems were tested with a range of dilutions of different food residues: orange juice, raw milk, and ground beef slurry. All three test systems allowed detection of orange juice and raw milk at dilutions of 1:1,000, although the CV of results from the Charm system (54 and 74% respectively) was poor at this dilution for both residues. The sensitivity of the test systems was poorer for ground beef slurry than it was for orange juice and raw milk. Both the Biotrace and IDEXX systems were able to detect a 1:100 dilution of beef slurry (with CVs of 17 and 10% respectively), whilst at this dilution results from the Charm system had a CV of 55%. It was possible by using the method described in this paper to rank in order of sensitivity and reproducibility the three single-shot ATP hygiene-monitoring systems investigated, with the IDEXX LIGHTNING being the best, followed by the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel, and then the charm LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab.

10. A GA based penalty function technique for solving constrained redundancy allocation problem of series system with interval valued reliability of components

Science.gov (United States)

Gupta, R. K.; Bhunia, A. K.; Roy, D.

2009-10-01

In this paper, we have considered the problem of constrained redundancy allocation of series system with interval valued reliability of components. For maximizing the overall system reliability under limited resource constraints, the problem is formulated as an unconstrained integer programming problem with interval coefficients by penalty function technique and solved by an advanced GA for integer variables with interval fitness function, tournament selection, uniform crossover, uniform mutation and elitism. As a special case, considering the lower and upper bounds of the interval valued reliabilities of the components to be the same, the corresponding problem has been solved. The model has been illustrated with some numerical examples and the results of the series redundancy allocation problem with fixed value of reliability of the components have been compared with the existing results available in the literature. Finally, sensitivity analyses have been shown graphically to study the stability of our developed GA with respect to the different GA parameters.

11. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

Science.gov (United States)

Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

2011-01-01

Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

12. Neural Network Models of Simple Mechanical Systems Illustrating the Feasibility of Accelerated Life Testing

Science.gov (United States)

Fusaro, Robert L.; Jones, Steven P.; Jansen, Ralph

1996-01-01

A complete evaluation of the tribological characteristics of a given material/mechanical system is a time-consuming operation since the friction and wear process is extremely systems sensitive. As a result, experimental designs (i.e., Latin Square, Taguchi) have been implemented in an attempt to not only reduce the total number of experimental combinations needed to fully characterize a material/mechanical system, but also to acquire life data for a system without having to perform an actual life test. Unfortunately, these experimental designs still require a great deal of experimental testing and the output does not always produce meaningful information. In order to further reduce the amount of experimental testing required, this study employs a computer neural network model to investigate different material/mechanical systems. The work focuses on the modeling of the wear behavior, while showing the feasibility of using neural networks to predict life data. The model is capable of defining which input variables will influence the tribological behavior of the particular material/mechanical system being studied based on the specifications of the overall system.

13. [A design of simple ventilator control system based on LabVIEW].

Science.gov (United States)

Pei, Baoqing; Xu, Shengwei; Li, Hui; Li, Deyu; Pei, Yidong; He, Haixing

2011-01-01

This paper designed a ventilator control system to control proportional valves and motors. It used LabVIEW to control the object mentioned above and design ,validate, evaluate arithmetic, and establish hardware in loop platform. There are two system' s hierarchies. The high layer was used to run non-real time program and the low layer was used to run real time program. The two layers communicated through TCP/IP net. The program can be divided into several modules, which can be expanded and maintained easily. And the harvest in the prototype designing can be seamlessly used to embedded products. From all above, this system was useful in employing OEM products.

14. A simple system for detection of EEG artifacts in polysomnographic recordings.

Science.gov (United States)

Durka, P J; Klekowicz, H; Blinowska, K J; Szelenberger, W; Niemcewicz, Sz

2003-04-01

We present an efficient parametric system for automatic detection of electroencephalogram (EEG) artifacts in polysomnographic recordings. For each of the selected types of artifacts, a relevant parameter was calculated for a given epoch. If any of these parameters exceeded a threshold, the epoch was marked as an artifact. Performance of the system, evaluated on 18 overnight polysomnographic recordings, revealed concordance with decisions of human experts close to the interexpert agreement and the repeatability of expert's decisions, assessed via a double-blind test. Complete software (Matlab source code) for the presented system is freely available from the Internet at http://brain.fuw.edu.pl/artifacts.

15. A Simple Adaptive Overcurrent Protection of Distribution Systems With Distributed Generation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

2011-01-01

current when the system is connected to the grid and when it is islanded. This paper proposes the use of adaptive protection, using local information, to overcome the challenges of the overcurrent protection in distribution systems with distributed generation. The trip characteristics of the relays...... are updated by detecting operating states (grid connected or island) and the faulted section. The paper also proposes faulted section detection using the time over-current characteristics of the protective relays. Simulation results show that the operating state and faulted section can be correctly identified......A significant increase in the penetration of distributed generation has resulted in a possibility of operating distribution systems with distributed generation in islanded mode. However, over-current protection of an islanded distribution system is still an issue due to the difference in fault...

16. Autonomous learning by simple dynamical systems with a discrete-time formulation

Science.gov (United States)

Bilen, Agustín M.; Kaluza, Pablo

2017-05-01

We present a discrete-time formulation for the autonomous learning conjecture. The main feature of this formulation is the possibility to apply the autonomous learning scheme to systems in which the errors with respect to target functions are not well-defined for all times. This restriction for the evaluation of functionality is a typical feature in systems that need a finite time interval to process a unit piece of information. We illustrate its application on an artificial neural network with feed-forward architecture for classification and a phase oscillator system with synchronization properties. The main characteristics of the discrete-time formulation are shown by constructing these systems with predefined functions.

17. Simple and fast system for analysis of charged particle tracks in multiplane hodoscopes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reuter, J P [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

1977-01-15

A digital-analog system is described, which performs in less than 400 ns the recognition of a linear relation between three 10-bit-coded digital coordinates, giving a 10/sup -3/ precision on track location.

18. Protection of simple series and parallel systems with components of different values

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bier, Vicki M.; Nagaraj, Aniruddha; Abhichandani, Vinod

2005-01-01

We apply game theory, optimization, and reliability analysis to identify optimal defenses against intentional threats to system reliability. The goals are to identify optimal strategies for allocating resources among possible defensive investments, and to develop qualitative guidelines that reflect those strategies. The novel feature of the approach is the use of reliability analysis together with game theory and optimization to study optimal management of intentional threats to system reliability. Thus, this work extends and adapts the existing body of game-theoretic work on security to systems with series or parallel structures. The results yield insights into the nature of optimal defensive investments that yield the best tradeoff between investment cost and security. In particular, the results illustrate how the optimal allocation of defensive investments depends on the structure of the system, the cost-effectiveness of infrastructure protection investments, and the adversary's goals and constraints

19. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Krisztina Barczi

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

20. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

Science.gov (United States)

Jun, An Won

2006-01-01

We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.