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Sample records for solve complex tasks

  1. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  2. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  3. Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)

  4. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  5. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  6. The task complexity experiment 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laumann, Karin; Braarud, Per Oeivind; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore how additional tasks added to base case scenarios affected the operators' performance of the main tasks. These additional tasks were in different scenario variants intended to cause high time pressure, high information load, and high masking. The experiment was run in Halden Man-Machine Laboratory's BWR simulator. Seven crews participated, each for one week. There were three operators in each crew. Five main types of scenarios and 20 scenario variants were run. The data from the experiment were analysed by completion time for important actions and by in-depth qualitative analyses of the crews' communications. The results showed that high time pressure decreased some of the crews' performance in the scenarios. When a crew had problems in solving a task for which the time pressure was high, they had even more problems in solving other important tasks. High information load did not affect the operators' performance much and in general the crews were very good at selecting the most important tasks in the scenarios. The scenarios that included both high time pressure and high information load resulted in more reduced performance for the crews compared to the scenarios that only included high time pressure. The total amount of tasks to do and information load to attend to seemed to affect the crews' performance. To solve the scenarios with high time pressure well, it was important to have good communication and good allocation of tasks within the crew. Furthermore, the results showed that scenarios with an added complex, masked task created problems for some crews when solving a relatively simple main task. Overall, the results confirmed that complicating, but secondary tasks, that are not normally taken into account when modelling the primary tasks in a PRA scenario can adversely affect the performance of the main tasks modelled in the PRA scenario. (Author)

  7. Application of GIS Technology for Town Planning Tasks Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyashko, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    For developing territories, one of the most actual town-planning tasks is to find out the suitable sites for building projects. The geographic information system (GIS) allows one to model complex spatial processes and can provide necessary effective tools to solve these tasks. We propose several GIS analysis models which can define suitable settlement allocations and select appropriate parcels for construction objects. We implement our models in the ArcGIS Desktop package and verify by application to the existing objects in Primorsky Region (Primorye Territory). These suitability models use several variations of the analysis method combinations and include various ways to resolve the suitability task using vector data and a raster data set. The suitability models created in this study can be combined, and one model can be integrated into another as its part. Our models can be updated by other suitability models for further detailed planning.

  8. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffelbach, Matthew; Sempolinski, Peter; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Wei, Daniel; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex problems.

  9. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  10. Fluid Ability (Gf) and Complex Problem Solving (CPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Kyllonen; Cristina Anguiano Carrasco; Harrison J. Kell

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human pr...

  11. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  12. Subjective task complexity in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind

    2000-05-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. Previous exploratory work on complexity showed a potential for prediction and explanation of operator performance. This report investigates in further detail the theoretical background and the structure of operator rated task complexity. The report complements the previous work on complexity to make a basis for development of operator performance analysis tools. The first part of the report outlines an approach for studying the complexity of the control room crew's work. The approach draws upon man-machine research as well as problem solving research. The approach identifies five complexity-shaping components: 'task work characteristics', 'teamwork characteristics', 'individual skill', 'teamwork skill', and 'interface and support systems'. The crew's work complexity is related to concepts of human performance quality and human error. The second part of the report is a post-hoc exploratory analysis of four empirical HRP studies, where operators' conception of the complexity of control room work is assessed by questionnaires. The analysis deals with the structure of complexity questionnaire ratings, and the relationship between complexity ratings and human performance measures. The main findings from the analysis of structure was the identification of three task work factors which were named Masking, Information load and Temporal demand, and in addition the identification of one interface factor which was named Navigation. Post-hoc analysis suggests that operator's subjective complexity, which was assessed by questionnaires, is related to workload, task and system performance, and operator's self-rated performance. (Author). 28 refs., 47 tabs

  13. Toward a Learning Science for Complex Crowdsourcing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroudi, Shayan; Kamar, Ece; Brunskill, Emma; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We explore how crowdworkers can be trained to tackle complex crowdsourcing tasks. We are particularly interested in training novice workers to perform well on solving tasks in situations where the space of strategies is large and workers need to discover and try different strategies to be successful. In a first experiment, we perform a comparison…

  14. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  15. Teaching problem solving using non-routine tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Maureen Siew Fang; Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi

    2018-04-01

    Non-routine problems are related to real-life context and require some realistic considerations and real-world knowledge in order to resolve them. This study examines several activity tasks incorporated with non-routine problems through the use of an emerging mathematics framework, at two junior colleges in Brunei Darussalam. The three sampled teachers in this study assisted in selecting the topics and the lesson plan designs. They also recommended the development of the four activity tasks: incorporating the use of technology; simulation of a reality television show; designing real-life sized car park spaces for the school; and a classroom activity to design a real-life sized dustpan. Data collected from all four of the activity tasks were analyzed based on the students' group work. The findings revealed that the most effective activity task in teaching problem solving was to design a real-life sized car park. This was because the use of real data gave students the opportunity to explore, gather information and give or receive feedback on the effect of their reasons and proposed solutions. The second most effective activity task was incorporating the use of technology as it enhanced the students' understanding of the concepts learnt in the classroom. This was followed by the classroom activity that used real data as it allowed students to work and assess the results mathematically. The simulation of a television show was found to be the least effective since it was viewed as not sufficiently challenging to the students.

  16. Fluid Ability (Gf and Complex Problem Solving (CPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kyllonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.

  17. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  18. Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bogers, Toine; Kamps, Jaap; Kelly, Diane; Koolen, Marijn; Yilmaz, Emine

    2017-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is

  19. Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens F. Beckmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the

  20. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

  1. Towards effective partnerships in a collaborative problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Megan J; Winskel, Heather

    2008-12-01

    Collaborative learning is recognized as an effective learning tool in the classroom. In order to optimize the collaborative learning experience for children within a collaborative partnership, it is important to understand how to match the children by ability level, and whether assigning roles within these dyads is beneficial or not. The current study investigated the effect of partnering children with different task-specific abilities and assigning or not assigning helping roles within the dyads on the quality of talk used in a collaborative learning task. The participants in this study comprised 54 year 6 pupils from a Western Sydney government primary school (boys=26, girls=28). The ages ranged from 10 years 10 months to 12 years 4 months with a mean age of 11 years 4 months. The children were formed into 27 single sex dyads of low-middle- and low-high-ability partnerships. In half of each of these dyads the higher ability partner was asked to help the lower ability partner, which was compared with just asking partners to work together. The quality of talk used by the dyads while working collaboratively on the problem-solving task was analysed using a language analysis framework developed by Mercer and colleagues (e.g. Littleton et al., 2005; Mercer, 1994, 1996). Results of this study found that children who worked collaboratively in the low-middle-ability dyad condition demonstrated significantly more high-quality exploratory talk than those in the low-high-ability dyad condition. Although there was no significant difference between dyads who were assigned roles and those who were asked to work together, there was an interaction trend which suggests that low-high-ability dyads, who were given the roles of helper and learner, showed more exploratory talk than dyads who were asked just to work together. Mercer's re-conceptualization of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in terms of the Intermental Development Zone (IDZ), which is reliant on

  2. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  3. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  4. Solving Multiple Isolated, Interleaved, and Blended Tasks through Modular Neuroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Many challenging sequential decision-making problems require agents to master multiple tasks. For instance, game agents may need to gather resources, attack opponents, and defend against attacks. Learning algorithms can thus benefit from having separate policies for these tasks, and from knowing when each one is appropriate. How well this approach works depends on how tightly coupled the tasks are. Three cases are identified: Isolated tasks have distinct semantics and do not interact, interleaved tasks have distinct semantics but do interact, and blended tasks have regions where semantics from multiple tasks overlap. Learning across multiple tasks is studied in this article with Modular Multiobjective NEAT, a neuroevolution framework applied to three variants of the challenging Ms. Pac-Man video game. In the standard blended version of the game, a surprising, highly effective machine-discovered task division surpasses human-specified divisions, achieving the best scores to date in this game. In isolated and interleaved versions of the game, human-specified task divisions are also successful, though the best scores are surprisingly still achieved by machine discovery. Modular neuroevolution is thus shown to be capable of finding useful, unexpected task divisions better than those apparent to a human designer.

  5. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  6. Knowledge based method for solving complexity in design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The process of design aircraft systems is becoming more and more complex, due to an increasing amount of requirements. Moreover, the knowledge on how to solve these complex design problems becomes less readily available, because of a decrease in availability of intellectual resources and reduced

  7. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  8. Rediscovering Learning: Acquiring Expertise in Real World Problem Solving Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gott, Sherrie

    1998-01-01

    The importance of continuous learning in high-tech work settings is being rediscovered as industry and the military services react to external forces such as increasingly complex and rapidly changing...

  9. A problem with problem solving: motivational traits, but not cognition, predict success on novel operant foraging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horik, Jayden O; Madden, Joah R

    2016-04-01

    Rates of innovative foraging behaviours and success on problem-solving tasks are often used to assay differences in cognition, both within and across species. Yet the cognitive features of some problem-solving tasks can be unclear. As such, explanations that attribute cognitive mechanisms to individual variation in problem-solving performance have revealed conflicting results. We investigated individual consistency in problem-solving performances in captive-reared pheasant chicks, Phasianus colchicus , and addressed whether success depends on cognitive processes, such as trial-and-error associative learning, or whether performances may be driven solely via noncognitive motivational mechanisms, revealed through subjects' willingness to approach, engage with and persist in their interactions with an apparatus, or via physiological traits such as body condition. While subjects' participation and success were consistent within the same problems and across similar tasks, their performances were inconsistent across different types of task. Moreover, subjects' latencies to approach each test apparatus and their attempts to access the reward were not repeatable across trials. Successful individuals did not improve their performances with experience, nor were they consistent in their techniques in repeated presentations of a task. However, individuals that were highly motivated to enter the experimental chamber were more likely to participate. Successful individuals were also faster to approach each test apparatus and more persistent in their attempts to solve the tasks than unsuccessful individuals. Our findings therefore suggest that individual differences in problem-solving success can arise from inherent motivational differences alone and hence be achieved without inferring more complex cognitive processes.

  10. Exploring Primary Student’s Problem-Solving Ability by Doing Tasks Like PISA's Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Novita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development students’ problem-solving ability. The tasks that have been developed by PISA meet both of these criteria. As stated by the NCTM, that problem-solving skill and ability should be developed to students when they were in primary school (K5-8, therefore, it is important to do an effort to guide students in developing problem-solving ability from primary school such as accustom students to do some mathematical solving-problem tasks. Thus, in this research we tried to investigate how to develop mathematical problem-solving tasks like PISA’s question that have potential effect toward students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities?. We used a  formative evaluation type of development research as an mean  to achieve this research goal. This type of research is conducted in two steps, namely preliminary stage and formative evaluation stage covering self evaluation, prototyping (expert reviews, one-to-one, and small group, and  field test. This research involve four primary schools in Palembang, there are SD Muhammadiyah 6 Palembang, MIN 1 & MIN 2 Palembang, and SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this research showed that the mathematical problem-solving tasks  that have been developed have potential effect in exploring mathematical problem-solving ability of the primary school students. It  is shown from their work in solving problem where all of the indicators of problem solving competency have emerged quite well category. In addition, based on interview

  11. Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

  12. The Effects of Authentic Tasks on Preservice Teachers' Attitudes towards Classes and Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Sinan; Zembat, Rengin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of authentic tasks on preschool preservice teachers' attitudes towards the course and problem solving skills. The study was designed in accordance with the pretest-posttest control group model. The data were collected by using the "Problem Solving Skills Inventory", the "Course Attitude…

  13. Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory.

  14. Successfully Carrying out Complex Learning-Tasks through Guiding Teams' Qualitative and Quantitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slof, B.; Erkens, G.; Kirschner, P. A.; Janssen, J.; Jaspers, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how scripting learners' use of representational tools in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)-environment fostered their collaborative performance on a complex business-economics task. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its phase-related part-task demands explicit, namely…

  15. Information Processing at the Memoryful and Memoryless Channel Levels in Problem-Solving and Recall Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Frank; Moser, Gene W.

    A probabilistic model (see SE 013 578) describing information processing during the cognitive tasks of recall and problem solving was tested, refined, and developed by testing graduate students on a number of tasks which combined oral, written, and overt "input" and "output" modes in several ways. In a verbal chain one subject…

  16. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  17. Cognitive Activities in Solving Mathematical Tasks: The Role of a Cognitive Obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    In the process of learning mathematics, students practice various forms of thinking activities aimed to substantially contribute to the development of their different cognitive structures. In this paper, the subject matter is a "cognitive obstacle", a phenomenon that occurs in the procedures of solving mathematical tasks. Each task in…

  18. Solving complex and disordered surface structures with electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The past of surface structure determination with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) will be briefly reviewed, setting the stage for a discussion of recent and future developments. The aim of these developments is to solve complex and disordered surface structures. Some efficient solutions to the theoretical and experimental problems will be presented. Since the theoretical problems dominate, the emphasis will be on theoretical approaches to the calculation of the multiple scattering of electrons through complex and disordered surfaces. 49 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  19. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  20. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERACTION IN SOLVING TASKS OF THE PLANNING DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alekseyevich Kucherov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues of human-machine interaction in solving tasks of the planning department under severe resource restrictions using information technology. The negative factors influencing specialists of the planning department in solving their tasks under the given circumstances are shown. Specific features of designing the user interface in this subject area are noted. Directions to increase the efficiency of reaction of the planning department’s specialists to change the current situation by visual and sound notification of various events are marked. Various ways to develop user interface to generate a conflict-free plan under severe resource restrictions are considered. The variants of informative presentation of operational and statistical information to stakeholders are analyzed. These issues are discussed by the example of the planning department which solves the tasks of allocation of control facilities for spacecraft (a subset of satellite range scheduling problem,

  1. Cross-national comparisons of complex problem-solving strategies in two microworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güss, C Dominik; Tuason, Ma Teresa; Gerhard, Christiane

    2010-04-01

    Research in the fields of complex problem solving (CPS) and dynamic decision making using microworlds has been mainly conducted in Western industrialized countries. This study analyzes the CPS process by investigating thinking-aloud protocols in five countries. Participants were 511 students from Brazil, Germany, India, the Philippines, and the United States who worked on two microworlds. On the basis of cultural-psychological theories, specific cross-national differences in CPS strategies were hypothesized. Following theories of situatedness of cognition, hypotheses about the specific frequency of problem-solving strategies in the two microworlds were developed. Results of the verbal protocols showed (a) modification of the theoretical CPS model, (b) task dependence of CPS strategies, and (c) cross-national differences in CPS strategies. Participants' CPS processes were particularly influenced by country-specific problem-solving strategies. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Exploring Primary Student's Problem-Solving Ability by Doing Tasks Like PISA's Question

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Rita; Zulkardi, Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development student...

  3. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  4. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  5. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  6. Web-Based Undergraduate Chemistry Problem-Solving: The Interplay of Task Performance, Domain Knowledge and Web-Searching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Li, Ta-Wei; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Pei-Zon; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chuang, Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of Web-based Chemistry Problem-Solving, with the attributes of Web-searching and problem-solving scaffolds, on undergraduate students' problem-solving task performance. In addition, the nature and extent of Web-searching strategies students used and its correlation with task performance and domain knowledge also…

  7. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2006-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases

  8. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  9. Patterns of brain and cardiovascular activation while solving rule-discovery and rule-application numeric tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Tytus; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Kępkowicz, Anna; Majewska, Adrianna; Pstrągowska, Aleksandra; Oleksy, Tomasz; Wypych, Marek; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-07-01

    It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks. In particular, RD tasks evoked greater activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus and selected areas in the parietal, and temporal cortices, including the precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the superior temporal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex. In addition, RA tasks caused larger increases in HR than RD tasks. The second study, carried out in a cardiovascular laboratory, showed greater increases in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) while solving RA tasks than while solving RD tasks. The results support the hypothesis that RD and RA tasks involve different modes of information processing, but the neuronal mechanism responsible for the observed greater cardiovascular response to RA tasks than to RD tasks is not completely clear. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Performance in complex motor tasks deteriorates in hyperthermic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Jacob Feder; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Trangmar, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    -motor tracking performance was reduced by 10.7 ± 6.5% following exercise-induced hyperthermia when integrated in the multipart protocol and 4.4 ± 5.7% when tested separately (bothP 1.3% (P math tasks...... of information or decision-making prior to responding. We hypothesized that divergences could relate to task complexity and developed a protocol consisting of 1) simple motor task [TARGET_pinch], 2) complex motor task [Visuo-motor tracking], 3) simple math task [MATH_type], 4) combined motor-math task [MATH...

  11. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  12. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance : a prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijken, van H.T.G.A.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, H.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  13. Successfully carrying out complex learning-tasks through guiding teams' qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, B.; Erkens, G.; Kirschner, P. A.; Janssen, J.; Jaspers, J. G. M.

    This study investigated whether and how scripting learners' use of representational tools in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)-environment fostered their collaborative performance on a complex business-economics task. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its

  14. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-06-01

    Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Robust Sex Differences in Jigsaw Puzzle Solving-Are Boys Really Better in Most Visuospatial Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Vid; Horvat, Marina; Majdic, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences are consistently reported in different visuospatial tasks with men usually performing better in mental rotation tests while women are better on tests for memory of object locations. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in solving jigsaw puzzles in children. In total 22 boys and 24 girls were tested using custom build tablet application representing a jigsaw puzzle consisting of 25 pieces and featuring three different pictures. Girls outperformed boys in solving jigsaw puzzles regardless of the picture. Girls were faster than boys in solving the puzzle, made less incorrect moves with the pieces of the puzzle, and spent less time moving the pieces around the tablet. It appears that the strategy of solving the jigsaw puzzle was the main factor affecting differences in success, as girls tend to solve the puzzle more systematically while boys performed more trial and error attempts, thus having more incorrect moves with the puzzle pieces. Results of this study suggest a very robust sex difference in solving the jigsaw puzzle with girls outperforming boys by a large margin.

  16. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either...... the same age (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 22) or older (Experiment 3, n = 24). Observer horses were allowed to observe the demonstrator being led three times through the detour route immediately before being given the opportunity to solve the task themselves. Controls were allowed only to observe...

  17. An account of cognitive flexibility and inflexibility for a complex dynamic task

    OpenAIRE

    De Obeso Orendain, Alberto; Wood, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving involves adapting known problem solving methods and strategies to the task at hand (Schunn & Reder, 2001) and cognitive flexibility is considered to be “the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unexpected conditions of the environment” (Cañas et al., 2005, p. 95). This work presents an ACT-R 6.0 model of complex problem solving behavior for the dynamic microworld game FireChief (Omodei & Wearing, 1995) that models the performance of partic...

  18. Representational scripting for carrying out complex learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, B.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to solve complex problems is important because in our rapidly changing modern society and work environments knowing the answer is often not possible. Although educators and instructional designers acknowledge the benefits of problem solving, they also realize that learners need good

  19. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  20. Report on the Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Kamps, Jaap; Bogers, Toine

    2017-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain-specific collections, and both in our professional and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks...

  1. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  2. The Role of Task Complexity, Modality, and Aptitude in Narrative Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Trebits, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the relationship between components of aptitude and the fluency, lexical variety, syntactic complexity, and accuracy of performance in two types of written and spoken narrative tasks. We also addressed the question of how narrative performance varies in tasks of different cognitive complexity in the…

  3. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: functional MR imaging study of response in posterior cingulate cortex and adjacent precuneus during problem-solving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangwei; Li, Kuncheng; Hu, Yingying; Qin, Yulin; Wang, Xiangqing; Xiang, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Lu, Jie; Zhong, Ning

    2011-11-01

    To compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response, measured with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and adjacent precuneus regions between healthy control subjects and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during problem-solving tasks. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Each subject provided written informed consent. Thirteen patients with amnestic MCI and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. The functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging tasks were simplified 4 × 4-grid number placement puzzles that were divided into a simple task (using the row rule or the column rule to solve the puzzle) and a complex task (using both the row and column rules to solve the puzzle). Behavioral results and functional imaging results between the healthy control group and the amnestic MCI group were analyzed. The accuracy for the complex task in the healthy control group was significantly higher than that in the amnestic MCI group (P < .05). The healthy control group exhibited a deactivated BOLD signal intensity (SI) change in the bilateral PCC and adjacent precuneus regions during the complex task, whereas the amnestic MCI group showed activation. The positive linear correlations between the BOLD SI change in bilateral PCC and adjacent precuneus regions and in bilateral hippocampi in the amnestic MCI group were significant (P < .001), while in the healthy control group, they were not (P ≥ .23). These findings suggest that an altered BOLD response in amnestic MCI patients during complex tasks might be related to a decline in problem-solving ability and to memory impairment and, thus, may indicate a compensatory response to memory impairment. RSNA, 2011

  4. The Use of Digital Technology in Finding Multiple Paths to Solve and Extend an Equilateral Triangle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical tasks are crucial elements for teachers to orient, foster and assess students' processes to comprehend and develop mathematical knowledge. During the process of working and solving a task, searching for or discussing multiple solution paths becomes a powerful strategy for students to engage in mathematical thinking. A simple task that…

  5. Implementation Authentic Task to Enhance Problem Solving and Self-Management for Physics College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festiyed; Djamas, D.; Pilendia, D.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the problem solving and self-management abilities of student teachers through individual and group authentic task. Preliminary results showed that the learning outcomes in high category, nevertheless problem solving and self-management abilities are still low and average categories (scattered at interval 40 ≤ N ≤ 65). Initiative to improve this condition is needed. Action research is the alternative solution for that condition through planning, acting, evaluating, and reflecting. This study is allowed in 4 cycles. The acting step result with integrated discuss method, case study, and presentation including self-assessment for individual and group. This method was effective to enhance problem solving and self-management abilities. The final learning outcomes seen from the correlation between student self-assessment and lecture-assessment (r=0.19). Its means there are unidirectional relationship between the result of self-assessment and lecture-assessment. The Conclusion of the research was effective to enhance problem solving and self-management ability.

  6. SOLVING OPTIMAL ASSEMBLY LINE CONFIGURATION TASK BY MULTIOBJECTIVE DECISION MAKING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján ČABALA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with looking for the optimal configuration of automated assembly line model placed within Department of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence (DCAI. In order to solve this problem, Stateflow model of each configuration was created to simulate the behaviour of particular assembly line configuration. Outputs from these models were used as inputs into the multiobjective decision making process. Multi-objective decision-making methods were subsequently used to find the optimal configuration of assembly line. Paper describes the whole process of solving this task, from building the models to choosing the best configuration. Specifically, the problem was resolved using the experts’ evaluation method for evaluating the weights of every decision-making criterion, while the ELECTRE III, TOPSIS and AGREPREF methods were used for ordering the possible solutions from the most to the least suitable alternative. Obtained results were compared and final solution of this multi-objective decisionmaking problem is chosen.

  7. Effective algorithm for solving complex problems of production control and of material flows control of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentsev, Yu A.; Baranova, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    A universal economical and mathematical model designed for determination of optimal strategies for managing subsystems (components of subsystems) of production and logistics of enterprises is considered. Declared universality allows taking into account on the system level both production components, including limitations on the ways of converting raw materials and components into sold goods, as well as resource and logical restrictions on input and output material flows. The presented model and generated control problems are developed within the framework of the unified approach that allows one to implement logical conditions of any complexity and to define corresponding formal optimization tasks. Conceptual meaning of used criteria and limitations are explained. The belonging of the generated tasks of the mixed programming with the class of NP is shown. An approximate polynomial algorithm for solving the posed optimization tasks for mixed programming of real dimension with high computational complexity is proposed. Results of testing the algorithm on the tasks in a wide range of dimensions are presented.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOZART EFFECT AND THE MISSIONARIES AND CANNIBALS PROBLEM SOLVING TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ROJAS CORREDOR

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relation between Mozart effect and problem solving test Missionaries and Cannibals was explored in female studentswith ages between 17 and 20 years old. This relation was measured with the interactive task Missionaries and Cannibalsand the Mozart’s Sonata para dos pianos K448. Statistical analysis with 0.05 significance level showed differences betweencontrol and experimental group; also when significance level was increased to 0.01 (confidence of 99% the testcontinue showing an association between test solution Missionaries and Cannibals and Mozart effect.

  9. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  10. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  11. Self-Efficacy, Task Complexity and Task Performance: Exploring Interactions in Two Versions of Vocabulary Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed for better understanding of the interactions between task complexity and students' self-efficacy beliefs and students' use of learning strategies, and finally their interacting effects on task performance. This investigation was carried out in the context of Chinese students learning English as a foreign language in a…

  12. Integration of the information problem-solving skill in an educational programme: The effects of learning with authentic tasks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan

    2008-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Wopereis, I. (2006). Integration of the information problem-solving skill in an educational programme: The effects of learning with authentic tasks. Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning, 4, 243-263.

  13. Insight Is Not in the Problem: Investigating Insight in Problem Solving across Task Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Margaret E; Little, Daniel R; Cropper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions.

  14. Effects of Task Performance and Task Complexity on the Validity of Computational Models of Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, L. de; Maanen, P.P. van; Dongen, K. van

    2008-01-01

    Computational models of attention can be used as a component of decision support systems. For accurate support, a computational model of attention has to be valid and robust. The effects of task performance and task complexity on the validity of three different computational models of attention were

  15. Task Complexity, Student Perceptions of Vocabulary Learning in EFL, and Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-ef?cacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a ?ne-tuned task-speci?c level. Aim: The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-ef?cacy beliefs, domain-related…

  16. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  17. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  18. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Computerization and skill bifurcation: the role of of task complexity in creating skill gains and losses

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Urtasun Alonso, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    Does computerization increase or reduce the extent of skills that workers are required to have? Autor, Levy and Murnane (2003) show empirically that adoption of computer-based technologies (CBT) was greater in industries historically intensive in routine tasks, and that computerization increased complex problem-solving and communication activities and reduced routine cognitive and manual activities. We extend this argument and argue that the effects of CBT are neither universal nor uniform, b...

  20. Analogy as a strategy for supporting complex problem solving under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joel; Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2012-11-01

    Complex problem solving in naturalistic environments is fraught with uncertainty, which has significant impacts on problem-solving behavior. Thus, theories of human problem solving should include accounts of the cognitive strategies people bring to bear to deal with uncertainty during problem solving. In this article, we present evidence that analogy is one such strategy. Using statistical analyses of the temporal dynamics between analogy and expressed uncertainty in the naturalistic problem-solving conversations among scientists on the Mars Rover Mission, we show that spikes in expressed uncertainty reliably predict analogy use (Study 1) and that expressed uncertainty reduces to baseline levels following analogy use (Study 2). In addition, in Study 3, we show with qualitative analyses that this relationship between uncertainty and analogy is not due to miscommunication-related uncertainty but, rather, is primarily concentrated on substantive problem-solving issues. Finally, we discuss a hypothesis about how analogy might serve as an uncertainty reduction strategy in naturalistic complex problem solving.

  1. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  2. Self-Controlled Feedback for a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-controlled augmented feedback enhances learning of simple motor tasks. Thereby, learners tend to request feedback after trials that were rated as good by themselves. Feedback after good trials promotes positive reinforcement, which enhances motor learning. The goal of this study was to investigate when naïve learners request terminal visual feedback in a complex motor task, as conclusions drawn on simple tasks can hardly be transferred to complex tasks. Indeed, seven of nine learners stated to have intended to request feedback predominantly after good trials, but in contrast to their intention, kinematic analysis showed that feedback was rather requested randomly (23% after good, 44% after intermediate, 33% after bad trials. Moreover, requesting feedback after good trials did not correlate with learning success. It seems that self-estimation of performance in complex tasks is challenging. As a consequence, learners might have focused on certain movement aspects rather than on the overall movement. Further studies should assess the current focus of the learner in detail to gain more insight in self-estimation capabilities during complex motor task learning.

  3. Estimating the operator's performance time of emergency procedural tasks based on a task complexity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dae; Park, Jink Yun

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the amount of time required to execute an emergency procedural task in a high-stress situation for managing human performance under emergencies in a nuclear power plant. However, the time to execute an emergency procedural task is highly dependent upon expert judgment due to the lack of actual data. This paper proposes an analytical method to estimate the operator's performance time (OPT) of a procedural task, which is based on a measure of the task complexity (TACOM). The proposed method for estimating an OPT is an equation that uses the TACOM as a variable, and the OPT of a procedural task can be calculated if its relevant TACOM score is available. The validity of the proposed equation is demonstrated by comparing the estimated OPTs with the observed OPTs for emergency procedural tasks in a steam generator tube rupture scenario.

  4. Artificial Immune Systems as a Modern Tool for Solving Multi-Purpose Optimization Tasks in the Field of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skitsko Volodymyr I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates various aspects of the functioning of artificial immune systems and their using to solve different tasks. The analysis of the studied literature showed that nowadays there exist combinations of artificial immune systems, in particular with genetic algorithms, the particle swarm optimization method, artificial neural networks, etc., to solve different tasks. However, the solving of economic tasks is paid little attention. The article presents the basic terminology of artificial immune systems; the steps of the clonal selection algorithm are described, as well as a brief description of the negative selection algorithm, the immune network algorithm and the dendritic algorithm is given; conceptual aspects of the use of an artificial immune system for solving multi-purpose optimization problems are formulated, and an example of solving a problem in the field of logistics is described. Artificial immune systems as a means of solving various weakly structured, multi-criteria and multi-purpose economic tasks, in particular in the sphere of logistics, are a promising tool that requires further research. Therefore, it is advisable in the future to focus on the use of various existing immune algorithms for solving various economic problems.

  5. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  6. Dual Task of Fine Motor Skill and Problem Solving in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Y; Sandroff, B M; DeLuca, J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) examine and compare dual-task performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) using mathematical problem-solving questions that included an everyday competence component while performing an upper extremity fine motor task; and (2) examine whether difficulties in dual-task performance are associated with problems in performing an everyday internet task. Pilot study, mixed-design with both a within and between subjects' factor. A nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and the community. Participants (N=38) included persons with MS (n=19) and HCs (n=19) who were recruited from a nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and from the community. Not applicable. Participant were presented with 2 testing conditions: (1) solving mathematical everyday problems or placing bolts into divots (single-task condition); and (2) solving problems while putting bolts into divots (dual-task condition). Additionally, participants were required to perform a test of everyday internet competence. As expected, dual-task performance was significantly worse than either of the single-task tasks (ie, number of bolts into divots or correct answers, and time to answer the questions). Cognitive but not motor dual-task cost was associated with worse performance in activities of everyday internet tasks. Cognitive dual-task cost is significantly associated with worse performance of everyday technology. This was not observed in the motor dual-task cost. The implications of dual-task costs on everyday activity are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Musical Experience and Hearing Loss on Solving an Audio-Based Gaming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experiment using a purposefully designed audio-based game called the Music Puzzle with Japanese university students with different levels of hearing acuity and experience with music in order to determine the effects of these factors on solving such games. A group of hearing-impaired students (n = 12 was compared with two hearing control groups with the additional characteristic of having high (n = 12 or low (n = 12 engagement in musical activities. The game was played with three sound sets or modes; speech, music, and a mix of the two. The results showed that people with hearing loss had longer processing times for sounds when playing the game. Solving the game task in the speech mode was found particularly difficult for the group with hearing loss, and while they found the game difficult in general, they expressed a fondness for the game and a preference for music. Participants with less musical experience showed difficulties in playing the game with musical material. We were able to explain the impacts of hearing acuity and musical experience; furthermore, we can promote this kind of tool as a viable way to train hearing by focused listening to sound, particularly with music.

  8. Mesoscale modeling: solving complex flows in biology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Zachary Grant; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Fluids are involved in practically all physiological activities of living organisms. However, biological and biorelated flows are hard to analyze due to the inherent combination of interdependent effects and processes that occur on a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Recent advances in mesoscale simulations enable researchers to tackle problems that are central for the understanding of such flows. Furthermore, computational modeling effectively facilitates the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Among other methods, dissipative particle dynamics and the lattice Boltzmann method have become increasingly popular during recent years due to their ability to solve a large variety of problems. In this review, we discuss recent applications of these mesoscale methods to several fluid-related problems in medicine, bioengineering, and biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using of P2P Networks for Acceleration of RTE Tasks Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iftene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the computational Grids have become an important research area in large-scale scientific and engineering research. Our approach is based on Peer-to-peer (P2P networks, which are recognized as one of most used architectures in order to achieve scalability in key components of Grid systems. The main scope in using of a computational Grid was to improve the computational speed of systems that solve complex problems from Natural Language processing field. We will see how can be implemented a computational Grid using the P2P model, and how can be used SMB protocol for file transfer. After that we will see how we can use this computational Grid, in order to improve the computational speed of a system used in RTE competition [1], a new complex challenge from Natural Language processing field.

  10. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Baggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI and complex problem-solving (CPS. OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.

  11. Clinical Complexity in Medicine: A Measurement Model of Task and Patient Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Weir, C; Del Fiol, G

    2016-01-01

    Complexity in medicine needs to be reduced to simple components in a way that is comprehensible to researchers and clinicians. Few studies in the current literature propose a measurement model that addresses both task and patient complexity in medicine. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to understand and measure clinical complexity by incorporating both task and patient complexity components focusing on the infectious disease domain. The measurement model was adapted and modified for the healthcare domain. Three clinical infectious disease teams were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed. Each team included an infectious diseases expert, one infectious diseases fellow, one physician assistant and one pharmacy resident fellow. The transcripts were parsed and the authors independently coded complexity attributes. This baseline measurement model of clinical complexity was modified in an initial set of coding processes and further validated in a consensus-based iterative process that included several meetings and email discussions by three clinical experts from diverse backgrounds from the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa. The proposed clinical complexity model consists of two separate components. The first is a clinical task complexity model with 13 clinical complexity-contributing factors and 7 dimensions. The second is the patient complexity model with 11 complexity-contributing factors and 5 dimensions. The measurement model for complexity encompassing both task and patient complexity will be a valuable resource for future researchers and industry to measure and understand complexity in healthcare.

  12. Expertise, Task Complexity, and Artificial Intelligence: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Michael K.; Florian, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between users' expertise, task complexity of information system use, and artificial intelligence to provide the basis for a conceptual framework for considering the role that artificial intelligence might play in information systems. Cognitive and conceptual models are discussed, and cost effectiveness is considered. (27…

  13. Is it health information technology? : Task complexity and work substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina Palomino, Hector; Rutkowski, Anne; Verhulst, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    New technology is making it possible to replace professions built on complex knowledge, e.g. medicine. In our exploratory research we examined how Information Technologies might be replacing some of the tasks formerly processed by physician anesthesiologists (MDAs). Data (N=1178) were collected at a

  14. New Airborne Sensors and Platforms for Solving Specific Tasks in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.

    2012-07-01

    A huge number of small and medium sized sensors entered the market. Today's mid format sensors reach 80 MPix and allow to run projects of medium size, comparable with the first big format digital cameras about 6 years ago. New high quality lenses and new developments in the integration prepared the market for photogrammetric work. Companies as Phase One or Hasselblad and producers or integrators as Trimble, Optec, and others utilized these cameras for professional image production. In combination with small camera stabilizers they can be used also in small aircraft and make the equipment small and easy transportable e.g. for rapid assessment purposes. The combination of different camera sensors enables multi or hyper-spectral installations e.g. useful for agricultural or environmental projects. Arrays of oblique viewing cameras are in the market as well, in many cases these are small and medium format sensors combined as rotating or shifting devices or just as a fixed setup. Beside the proper camera installation and integration, also the software that controls the hardware and guides the pilot has to solve much more tasks than a normal FMS did in the past. Small and relatively cheap Laser Scanners (e.g. Riegl) are in the market and a proper combination with MS Cameras and an integrated planning and navigation is a challenge that has been solved by different softwares. Turnkey solutions are available e.g. for monitoring power line corridors where taking images is just a part of the job. Integration of thermal camera systems with laser scanner and video capturing must be combined with specific information of the objects stored in a database and linked when approaching the navigation point.

  15. NEW AIRBORNE SENSORS AND PLATFORMS FOR SOLVING SPECIFIC TASKS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A huge number of small and medium sized sensors entered the market. Today's mid format sensors reach 80 MPix and allow to run projects of medium size, comparable with the first big format digital cameras about 6 years ago. New high quality lenses and new developments in the integration prepared the market for photogrammetric work. Companies as Phase One or Hasselblad and producers or integrators as Trimble, Optec, and others utilized these cameras for professional image production. In combination with small camera stabilizers they can be used also in small aircraft and make the equipment small and easy transportable e.g. for rapid assessment purposes. The combination of different camera sensors enables multi or hyper-spectral installations e.g. useful for agricultural or environmental projects. Arrays of oblique viewing cameras are in the market as well, in many cases these are small and medium format sensors combined as rotating or shifting devices or just as a fixed setup. Beside the proper camera installation and integration, also the software that controls the hardware and guides the pilot has to solve much more tasks than a normal FMS did in the past. Small and relatively cheap Laser Scanners (e.g. Riegl are in the market and a proper combination with MS Cameras and an integrated planning and navigation is a challenge that has been solved by different softwares. Turnkey solutions are available e.g. for monitoring power line corridors where taking images is just a part of the job. Integration of thermal camera systems with laser scanner and video capturing must be combined with specific information of the objects stored in a database and linked when approaching the navigation point.

  16. Effects of visual and verbal interference tasks on olfactory memory: the role of task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M; Leslie, J C

    1996-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that visual and verbal suppression tasks interfere with olfactory memory in a manner which is partially consistent with a dual coding interpretation. However, it has been suggested that total task complexity rather than modality specificity of the suppression tasks might account for the observed pattern of results. This study addressed the issue of whether or not the level of difficulty and complexity of suppression tasks could explain the apparent modality effects noted in earlier experiments. A total of 608 participants were each allocated to one of 19 experimental conditions involving interference tasks which varied suppression type (visual or verbal), nature of complexity (single, double or mixed) and level of difficulty (easy, optimal or difficult) and presented with 13 target odours. Either recognition of the odours or free recall of the odour names was tested on one occasion, either within 15 minutes of presentation or one week later. Both recognition and recall performance showed an overall effect for suppression nature, suppression level and time of testing with no effect for suppression type. The results lend only limited support to Paivio's (1986) dual coding theory, but have a number of characteristics which suggest that an adequate account of olfactory memory may be broadly similar to current theories of face and object recognition. All of these phenomena might be dealt with by an appropriately modified version of dual coding theory.

  17. Examining the locus of age effects on complex span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer; Hartman, Marilyn

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the locus of age effects on complex span tasks, the authors evaluated the contributions of working memory functions and processing speed. Age differences were found in measures of storage capacity, language processing speed, and lower level speed. Statistically controlling for each of these in hierarchical regressions substantially reduced, but did not eliminate, the complex span age effect. Accounting for lower level speed and storage, however, removed essentially the entire age effect, suggesting that both functions play important and independent roles. Additional evidence for the role of storage capacity was the absence of complex span age differences with span size calibrated to individual word span performance. Explanations for age differences based on inhibition and concurrent task performamce were not supported.

  18. The coordination of problem solving strategies: when low competence sources exert more influence on task processing than high competence sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiamzade, Alain; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has shown that low competence sources, compared to highly competent sources, can exert influence in aptitudes tasks in as much as they induce people to focus on the task and to solve it more deeply. Two experiments aimed at testing the coordination between self and source's problem solving strategies as a main explanation of such a difference in influence. The influence of a low versus high competence source has been examined in an anagram task that allows for distinguishing between three response strategies, including one that corresponds to the coordination between the source's strategy and participants' own strategy. In Study 1 the strategy suggested by the source was either relevant and useful or irrelevant and useless for solving the task. Results indicated that participants used the coordination strategy in a larger extend when they had been confronted to a low competence rather than a highly competent source but only when the source displayed a strategy that was useful to solve the task. In Study 2 the source's strategy was always relevant and useful, but a decentring procedure was introduced for half of the participants. This procedure induced participants to consider other points of view than their own. Results replicated the difference observed in Study 1 when no decentring was introduced. The difference however disappeared when decentring was induced, because of an increase of the high competence source's influence. These results highlight coordination of strategies as one mechanism underlying influence from low competence sources.

  19. Ontology-based indirect interaction of mobile robots for joint task solving: a scenario for obstacle overcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an ontology-based approach to interaction of users and mobile robots for joint task solving. The use of ontologies allows supporting semantic interoperability between robots. The ontologies store knowledge about the tasks to be performed, knowledge about the functionality of robots and the current situation factors like a robot location or busyness. Ontologies are published in a smart space which allows indirect interaction between participants. On the basis of the knowledge, a robot can define a task that is to be performed and get the current status of other robots. The paper presents a reference model of the approach to indirect interaction between mobile robots for joint task solving, an ontology model for the knowledge organization, and application of the presented approach for the scenario for obstacle overcoming.

  20. Moving your eyes to solution: effects of movements on the perception of a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K; Raab, M

    2014-01-01

    There is ample evidence suggesting a bidirectional connection between bodily movements and cognitive processes, such as problem solving. Current research suggests that previous movements can influence the problem-solving process, but it is unclear what phase of this process is affected. Therefore, we investigated participants' gaze behaviour in the first phase of arithmetic problem solving with two groups (plus group, minus group) to explore a spatial bias toward the left or the right while perceiving a problem-solving task (the water-jar problem) after two different movements-that is, for the plus group, sorting marbles from two outer bowls into one in the middle, and for the minus group, sorting marbles from the middle bowl to the outer ones. We showed a right shift of spatial bias for the plus and to the left for the minus group in the perception and problem tasks. Although movements affected gaze, the groups did not differ in their overall problem-solving strategies; however, the first correct solutions did differ. This study provides further evidence of sensorimotor effects on problem solving and spatial bias and offers insight into how a two-phase problem-solving process is guided by sensorimotor information.

  1. Decentralization of Decision Authority in Complex Task Structures DRUID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    -relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and manager?s expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation, and (b), if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories......We investigate tradeoffs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of micro-level data on the organization design of 761 decision tasks and we investigate the allocation of decision authority at the level of all observable individual decision tasks. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...

  2. Teachers' Teaching Practices and Beliefs Regarding Context-Based Tasks and Their Relation with Students' Difficulties in Solving These Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Doorman, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated teachers' teaching practices and their underlying beliefs regarding context-based tasks to find a possible explanation for students' difficulties with these tasks. The research started by surveying 27 Junior High School teachers from seven schools in Indonesia through a written questionnaire. Then, to further examine…

  3. Teachers’ teaching practices and beliefs regarding context-based tasks and their relation with students’ difficulties in solving these tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Doorman, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated teachers’ teaching practices and their underlying beliefs regarding context-based tasks to find a possible explanation for students’ difficulties with these tasks. The research started by surveying 27 Junior High School teachers from seven schools in Indonesia through

  4. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Matching presentational tools' ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Matching representational tools’ ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the

  6. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  7. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  8. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Apparently sophisticated behaviour during problem-solving is often the product of simple underlying mechanisms, such as associative learning or the use of procedural rules. These and other more parsimonious explanations need to be eliminated before higher-level cognitive processes such as causal reasoning or planning can be inferred. We presented three Bornean orangutans with 64 trial-unique configurations of a puzzle-tube to investigate whether they were able to consider multiple obstacles in two alternative paths, and subsequently choose the correct direction in which to move a reward in order to retrieve it. We were particularly interested in how subjects attempted to solve the task, namely which behavioural strategies they could have been using, as this is how we may begin to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underpinning their choices. To explore this, we simulated performance outcomes across the 64 trials for various procedural rules and rule combinations that subjects may have been using based on the configuration of different obstacles. Two of the three subjects solved the task, suggesting that they were able to consider at least some of the obstacles in the puzzle-tube before executing action to retrieve the reward. This is impressive compared with the past performances of great apes on similar, arguably less complex tasks. Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy.

  9. Features of Solving Retrospective (Successive Tasks of the Monitoring Subsystem in Systems for Strategic Control of the Regional Structure and Territorial Organization in the Agri-Food Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Serhii A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.

  10. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Lisiecka

    Full Text Available Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective.

  11. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Karolina; Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective.

  12. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium’s richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users’ perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  13. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. E-learning task analysis making temporal evolution graphics on symptoms of waves and the ability to solve problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdiana, L.; Widodo, W.; Nurita, T.; Fauziah, A. N. M.

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the ability of pre-service teachers to create graphs, solve the problem of spatial and temporal evolution on the symptoms of vibrations and waves. The learning was conducted using e-learning method. The research design is a quasi-experimental design with one-shot case study. The e-learning contained learning materials and tasks involving answering tasks, making questions, solving their own questions, and making graphs. The participants of the study was 28 students of Science Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The results obtained by using the e-learning were that the students’ ability increase gradually from task 1 to task 3 (the tasks consisted of three tasks). Additionally, based on the questionnaire with 28 respondents, it showed that 24 respondents stated that making graphs via e-learning were still difficult. Four respondents said that it was easy to make graphs via e-learning. Nine respondents stated that the e-learning did not help them in making graphs and 19 respondents stated that the e-learning help in creating graphs. The conclusion of the study is that the students was able to make graphs on paper sheet, but they got difficulty to make the graphs in e-learning (the virtual form).

  15. The effects of tradition on problem solving by two wild populations of bearded capuchin monkeys in a probing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-11-01

    The effects of culture on individual cognition have become a core issue among cultural primatologists. Field studies with wild populations provide evidence on the role of social cues in the ontogeny of tool use in non-human primates, and on the transmission of such behaviours over generations through socially biased learning. Recent experimental studies have shown that cultural knowledge may influence problem solving in wild populations of chimpanzees. Here, we present the results from a field experiment comparing the performance of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from two wild savannah populations with distinct toolkits in a probing task. Only the population that already exhibited the customary use of probing tools succeeded in solving the new problem, suggesting that their cultural repertoire shaped their approach to the new task. Moreover, only this population, which uses stone tools in a broader range of contexts, tried to use them to solve the problem. Social interactions can affect the formation of learning sets and they affect the performance of the monkeys in problem solving. We suggest that behavioural traditions affect the ways non-human primates solve novel foraging problems using tools. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an

  17. Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Van Strien, Johan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.

  18. Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? : Task support for teaching information problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; van Strien, J.L.H.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.

  19. Main tasks of studying strong regulation of excitation of complex electrical system generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Yekimova, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is made of the current state of studies of the damping properties of complex electricity systems. The calculation programs of stability are based on frequency methods using the method of D-division. Now, when ARV of strong effect dominates at the SG, the task of coordinating their adjustments develops. Consequently, the following questions are discussed: study of the properties of quality functional with several points of regulation in the circuits of different structure; development of the efficient procedures for coordinating the ARV adjustment of the related energy systems; and creation of resources for solving these tasks. Results are presented of coordinating the ARV adjustments of the generators of the 3-machine electricity system. As an example, nonlinear relationships are shown between the obtained degree of stability and the coefficient of stabilization.

  20. Task complexity modulates pilot electroencephalographic activity during real flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Suárez, Juan; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Roca-Dorda, Joaquín; Catena, Andrés

    2015-07-01

    Most research connecting task performance and neural activity to date has been conducted in laboratory conditions. Thus, field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as during real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of flight procedures of varied complexity on the in-flight EEG activity of military helicopter pilots. Flight procedural complexity modulated the EEG power spectrum: highly demanding procedures (i.e., takeoff and landing) were associated with higher EEG power in the higher frequency bands, whereas less demanding procedures (i.e., flight exercises) were associated with lower EEG power over the same frequency bands. These results suggest that EEG recordings may help to evaluate an operator's cognitive performance in challenging real-life scenarios, and thus could aid in the prevention of catastrophic events. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. The relationship between language and spatial ability an analysis of spatial language for reconstructing the solving of spatial tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Mizzi, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates how different fifth-grade students solve spatial-verbal tasks and the role of language in this process. Based on a synthesis of theoretical foundations and methodological issues for supporting the relationship between spatial ability and language, this present study examines and classifies strategies used by students as well as the obstacles they encounter when solving spatial tasks in the reconstruction method. Contents Theoretical Framework Design and Implementation Results and Discussion from the Inductive Data Analyses Target Groups Scholars and students of mathematics education Teachers of mathematics in primary and secondary schools About the Author Angel Mizzi works as a research assistant and lecturer at the University of Duisburg-Essen, where he has successfully completed his PhD studies in mathematics education.

  2. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nicotine intake and problem solving strategies are modified during a cognitively demanding water maze task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Pogun, Sakire

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is the major addictive component in tobacco, and despite well-established adverse health effects of tobacco addiction, some smokers have difficulty quitting. The acute cognitive enhancement and/or the amelioration of the cognitive disruption during withdrawal that some smokers experience after smoking are among important factors that hinder quit attempts. The animal model presented in the current study is comparable to the human smoking condition although nicotine intake routes are different. Rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine starting at adolescence, and given a water maze (WM) task as adults. This design allowed us to see if rats alter their nicotine intake during the WM task and if nicotine preference and intake modify abilities and strategies rats use for problem solving. Male and female rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine/water for 24weeks, starting at five weeks of age. After this period, they were selected based on their nicotine intake and, together with control animals that received only water, were subjected to a place-learning task in the WM. Free-choice nicotine exposure continued during WM testing. Following acquisition, the probe trial presented the rats with a choice between using two different strategies for problem solving. Nicotine supported acquisition and rats increased their nicotine intake during WM testing; this effect was more pronounced in male rats with minimum nicotine preference and intake. Furthermore, nicotine modified the "female type" strategy in solving the place-learning task and nicotine treated female rats, unlike control females, behaved like males. The increase in nicotine intake during mental engagement, and the sexually dimorphic effect of nicotine on problem solving strategies that we have observed in rats, may suggest that implementing sex-specific smoking cessation approaches, especially under stressful and cognitively demanding conditions, may be useful in helping smokers quit

  4. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  5. Formulae of differentiation for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Dong Hun

    1999-01-01

    Generalizing the work of Shapiro and Loginov, we derive new formulae of differentiation useful for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients. We apply the formulae to the quantum-mechanical problem of noninteracting electrons moving in a correlated random potential in one dimension

  6. Identification of effective visual problem solving strategies in a complex visual domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Students in complex visual domains must acquire visual problem solving strategies that allow them to make fast decisions and come up with good solutions to real-time problems. In this study, 31 air traffic controllers at different levels of expertise (novice, intermediate, expert) were confronted

  7. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  8. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: The effect of action versus state orientation on solving a goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Gieselmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus

  9. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  10. Nonlinearly Activated Neural Network for Solving Time-Varying Complex Sylvester Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Yangming

    2013-10-28

    The Sylvester equation is often encountered in mathematics and control theory. For the general time-invariant Sylvester equation problem, which is defined in the domain of complex numbers, the Bartels-Stewart algorithm and its extensions are effective and widely used with an O(n³) time complexity. When applied to solving the time-varying Sylvester equation, the computation burden increases intensively with the decrease of sampling period and cannot satisfy continuous realtime calculation requirements. For the special case of the general Sylvester equation problem defined in the domain of real numbers, gradient-based recurrent neural networks are able to solve the time-varying Sylvester equation in real time, but there always exists an estimation error while a recently proposed recurrent neural network by Zhang et al [this type of neural network is called Zhang neural network (ZNN)] converges to the solution ideally. The advancements in complex-valued neural networks cast light to extend the existing real-valued ZNN for solving the time-varying real-valued Sylvester equation to its counterpart in the domain of complex numbers. In this paper, a complex-valued ZNN for solving the complex-valued Sylvester equation problem is investigated and the global convergence of the neural network is proven with the proposed nonlinear complex-valued activation functions. Moreover, a special type of activation function with a core function, called sign-bi-power function, is proven to enable the ZNN to converge in finite time, which further enhances its advantage in online processing. In this case, the upper bound of the convergence time is also derived analytically. Simulations are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the neural network with different parameters and activation functions. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. [Interest of complex tasks on laparoscopic virtual reality simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, L; Rabischong, B; Compan, C; Botchorichvili, R; Pereira, B; Avan, P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of complex tasks on virtual reality simulator (VRS) for novice surgeons in laparoscopy learning. Fifty-five medical students were prospectively randomized in two groups (A: basic skills, n=28 and B: basic and complex skills, n=27) and then trained during two sessions on VRS. Evaluations took place before and after each training. These evaluations consisted of the achievement of an intracorporeal suture, recorded on video, with the left then with the right hand. Two independent experts evaluated those gestures blindly. A significant progression in terms of times and technical scores was observed in both groups between the first and the last evaluations (P between 0.001 and 0.04). Students in group B improved slower and longer than those in group A. However, left and right hands results confused did not highlight significant differences between the two groups. At the third session, the first hand to train is significantly faster in group B than in group A (P=0.04). This study found only a late and minimal impact of complex skills to reduce the execution time of intracorporeal suture. It also showed an slower and longer overall progression for those who use them compared to subjects using basic skills only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Connectionist Network for Solving Long Time-Lag Prediction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; MacNish, Cara

    Traditional Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) perform poorly on learning tasks involving long time-lag dependencies. More recent approaches such as LSTM and its variants significantly improve on RNNs ability to learn this type of problem. We present an alternative approach to encoding temporal dependencies that associates temporal features with nodes rather than state values, where the nodes explicitly encode dependencies over variable time delays. We show promising results comparing the network's performance to LSTM variants on an extended Reber grammar task.

  13. Modelling Problem-Solving Situations into Number Theory Tasks: The Route towards Generalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the way two 10th graders cope with a non-standard generalisation problem that involves elementary concepts of number theory (more specifically linear Diophantine equations) in the geometrical context of a rectangle's area. Emphasis is given on how the students' past experience of problem solving (expressed through interplay…

  14. The Effect of Problem Solving Task on Critical Reading of Intermediate EFL Learners in Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attempt in this study is to investigate the effect of teaching critical thinking through problem solving on  reading comprehension performance of EFL intermediate learners. In so doing, forty including twenty male and twenty female intermediate students studying English in an institute in Ardabil, Iran, were selected based on their scores on Preliminary English Test and assigned into control and experimental groups. Afterwards, the sample TOEFL reading comprehension pre-test was administered to both of these groups to ensure homogeneity. The learners in experimental group were taught through problem solving instruction and the learners in control group were taught through traditional method of instructing reading comprehension. After ten sessions of instruction, the same sample TOEFL reading comprehension as post-test was given to the learners to measure the possible differences between pre-test and post-test. The finding revealed teaching problem solving had statistically significant effect on EFL learners reading comprehension performance. Conclusion can be drawn to confirm that teaching critical thinking through problem solving bring better understanding of the text.

  15. Highly efficient parallel direct solver for solving dense complex matrix equations from method of moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the vectorised and cache optimised kernel, a parallel lower upper decomposition with a novel communication avoiding pivoting scheme is developed to solve dense complex matrix equations generated by the method of moments. The fine-grain data rearrangement and assembler instructions are adopted to reduce memory accessing times and improve CPU cache utilisation, which also facilitate vectorisation of the code. Through grouping processes in a binary tree, a parallel pivoting scheme is designed to optimise the communication pattern and thus reduces the solving time of the proposed solver. Two large electromagnetic radiation problems are solved on two supercomputers, respectively, and the numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms those in open source and commercial libraries.

  16. Motivating Learning in Mathematics Through Collaborative Problem Solving: A Focus on Using Rich Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Hussain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the concept that lively and interactive math classes are possible by incorporating rich tasks to meet the needs of students operating at different levels in the classrooms. A study was carried out to find out the impact on learning and motivation of using rich tasks at secondary level in the maths class by incorporating co-operative learning. Qualitative research paradigm was opted for the study using an action research approach and the data were collected through two semi-structured interviews conducted at the onset of the research and after the intervention. Few important findings indicate that rich tasks demand different levels of challenge and extend opportunities to those students who need them.

  17. [The current status and outlook for molecular genetic methods in solving the tasks of medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintsburg, A L; Zigangirova, N A; Romanova, Iu M

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with modern methods, viz. PCR, molecular display and genotherapy, which permit the new approach to the solution of problems connected with the identification of infective agents, the study of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and their treatment. In this article concrete examples, clearly demonstrating how each of the above-mentioned technologies makes it possible to broaden the circle of problems solved in infectious pathology of man, are presented.

  18. Solving peg-in-hole tasks by human demonstration and exception strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Dakka, Fares; Nemec, Bojan; Kramberger, Aljaz

    2014-01-01

    that the proposed approach combined with exception strategies outperforms traditional approaches for robot-based assembly. Experimental evaluation was carried out on Cranfield Benchmark, which constitutes a standardized assembly task in robotics. This paper also performed statistical evaluation based on experiments...... available robot controller. Originality/value – This paper proposes a new approach to the robot assembly based on the Learning by Demonstration (LbD) paradigm. The proposed framework enables to quickly program new assembly tasks without the need for detailed analysis of the geometric and dynamic...

  19. Conversational Interactions between Intellectually Disabled and Normal Progress Adolescents during a Problem-Solving Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrainec, J. Alexa; Hughes, M. Jeffry

    This study investigated the features of verbal disagreements arising among 25 adolescent students with mild intellectual disabilities and 25 of their typical peers. Transcripts of a learning task were coded using an adaptation of Eisenberg's (1992) scheme for analyzing verbal conflicts. Findings of the study indicate: (1) in verbal conflict…

  20. The ATB Framework : quantifying and Classifying Epistemic Strategies in Tangible Problem-Solving Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, A.E.; Bakker, S.; Antle, A.N. (Alissa); May, A.; Warren, J.; Oakley, I.

    2015-01-01

    In task performance, pragmatic actions refer to behaviors that make direct progress, while epistemic actions involve altering the world so that cognitive processes are faster, more reliable or less taxing. Epistemic actions are frequently presented as a beneficial consequence of interacting with

  1. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  2. Developing an agent-based model on how different individuals solve complex problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Bozkurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Research that focuses on the emotional, mental, behavioral and cognitive capabilities of individuals has been abundant within disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others. However, when facing complex problems, a new perspective to understand individuals is necessary. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an agent-based model and simulation to gain understanding on the decision-making and problem-solving abilities of individuals. Design/Methodology/approach: The micro-level analysis modeling and simulation paradigm Agent-Based Modeling Through the use of Agent-Based Modeling, insight is gained on how different individuals with different profiles deal with complex problems. Using previous literature from different bodies of knowledge, established theories and certain assumptions as input parameters, a model is built and executed through a computer simulation. Findings: The results indicate that individuals with certain profiles have better capabilities to deal with complex problems. Moderate profiles could solve the entire complex problem, whereas profiles within extreme conditions could not. This indicates that having a strong predisposition is not the ideal way when approaching complex problems, and there should always be a component from the other perspective. The probability that an individual may use these capabilities provided by the opposite predisposition provides to be a useful option. Originality/value: The originality of the present research stems from how individuals are profiled, and the model and simulation that is built to understand how they solve complex problems. The development of the agent-based model adds value to the existing body of knowledge within both social sciences, and modeling and simulation.

  3. Using cognitive architectures to study issues in team cognition in a complex task environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Tang, Yuqing

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive social simulation is a computer simulation technique that aims to improve our understanding of the dynamics of socially-situated and socially-distributed cognition. This makes cognitive social simulation techniques particularly appealing as a means to undertake experiments into team cognition. The current paper reports on the results of an ongoing effort to develop a cognitive social simulation capability that can be used to undertake studies into team cognition using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This capability is intended to support simulation experiments using a team-based problem solving task, which has been used to explore the effect of different organizational environments on collective problem solving performance. The functionality of the ACT-R-based cognitive social simulation capability is presented and a number of areas of future development work are outlined. The paper also describes the motivation for adopting cognitive architectures in the context of social simulation experiments and presents a number of research areas where cognitive social simulation may be useful in developing a better understanding of the dynamics of team cognition. These include the use of cognitive social simulation to study the role of cognitive processes in determining aspects of communicative behavior, as well as the impact of communicative behavior on the shaping of task-relevant cognitive processes (e.g., the social shaping of individual and collective memory as a result of communicative exchanges). We suggest that the ability to perform cognitive social simulation experiments in these areas will help to elucidate some of the complex interactions that exist between cognitive, social, technological and informational factors in the context of team-based problem-solving activities.

  4. A teaching strategy for solving tasks integrating physics and artistic components in senior high school teacher’s training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito, Raúl Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at describing the results of a study intended to find a solution to shortcomings in the training of teacher of Physics, particularly in relation to the acquisition of an artistic cultural insight as a result of the process of learning Physics, which naturally hinders the fulfillment of junior high school general goal. A teaching strategy, centered in solving tasks of physics and artistic integrating nature, is suggested to contribute to enlarge cultural understanding and illustrating science and art relationship.

  5. Number line estimation and complex mental calculation: Is there a shared cognitive process driving the two tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Semenza, Carlo

    2018-05-17

    It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults. Participants' performance in two-digit mental additions and subtractions using visual stimuli was compared with their performance in a mental bisection task using auditory numerical intervals. Results showed significant correlations between participants' performance in number line bisection and that in two-digit mental arithmetic operations, especially in additions, providing a first proof of a shared cognitive mechanism (or multiple shared cognitive mechanisms) between auditory number bisection and complex mental calculation.

  6. Inverse sex effects on performance of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a repeated problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranton, Charlotte; Rödel, Heiko G; Bedossa, Thierry; Belkhir, Séverine

    2015-02-01

    The authors investigated differences between female and male pet dogs in physical cognition using an object manipulation task. Subjects (24 females and 23 males of different breeds) had to open a box in order to obtain a food reward during 3 consecutive trials, and latency times before success were measured. Males were significantly more successful in opening the box during the first trial. However, this sex difference was inversed when successful individuals were retested. During the following 2 trials, females were more successful than males, indicating that they were able to improve their skills more quickly once they had managed to succeed for a first time. Sex-specific dynamics in repeated problem-solving tasks might be an important contributor to individual differences in cognitive performance of pet dogs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. "One Task Fits All"? The Roles of Task Complexity, Modality, and Working Memory Capacity in L2 Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbidea, Janire

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores the independent and interactive effects of task complexity and task modality on linguistic dimensions of second language (L2) performance and investigates how these effects are modulated by individual differences in working memory capacity. Thirty-two intermediate learners of L2 Spanish completed less and more complex…

  9. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  10. The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marije C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2…

  11. Task Complexity and Modality: Exploring Learners' Experience from the Perspective of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minyoung

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increased awareness of language learner performance in task-based instruction, little is known about how learners perceive and respond to different task factors. This study investigates the effects of task complexity and modality on (a) learners' perception of task difficulty, skill, and its balance, and on (b) learners' task…

  12. Model-Based Approach to the Evaluation of Task Complexity in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong Han

    2007-02-01

    This study developed a model-based method for evaluating task complexity and examined the ways of evaluating the complexity of tasks designed for abnormal situations and daily task situations in NPPs. The main results of this study can be summarised as follows. First, this study developed a conceptual framework for studying complexity factors and a model of complexity factors that classifies complexity factors according to the types of knowledge that human operators use. Second, this study developed a more practical model of task complexity factors and identified twenty-one complexity factors based on the model. The model emphasizes that a task is a system to be designed and its complexity has several dimensions. Third, we developed a method of identifying task complexity factors and evaluating task complexity qualitatively based on the developed model of task complexity factors. This method can be widely used in various task situations. Fourth, this study examined the applicability of TACOM to abnormal situations and daily task situations, such as maintenance and confirmed that it can be reasonably used in those situations. Fifth, we developed application examples to demonstrate the use of the theoretical results of this study. Lastly, this study reinterpreted well-know principles for designing information displays in NPPs in terms of task complexity and suggested a way of evaluating the conceptual design of displays in an analytical way by using the concept of task complexity. All of the results of this study will be used as a basis when evaluating the complexity of tasks designed on procedures or information displays and designing ways of improving human performance in NPPs

  13. Model-based identification and use of task complexity factors of human integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong-Han; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Task complexity is one of the conceptual constructs that are critical to explain and predict human performance in human integrated systems. A basic approach to evaluating the complexity of tasks is to identify task complexity factors and measure them. Although a great deal of task complexity factors have been studied, there is still a lack of conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing them analytically, which can be generally used irrespective of the types of domains and tasks. This study proposes a model-based approach to identifying and using task complexity factors, which has two facets—the design aspects of a task and complexity dimensions. Three levels of design abstraction, which are functional, behavioral, and structural aspects of a task, characterize the design aspect of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types. The complexity dimensions explain a task complexity from different perspectives, which are size, variety, and order/organization. Twenty-one task complexity factors are identified by the combination of the attributes of each facet. Identification and evaluation of task complexity factors based on this model is believed to give insights for improving the design quality of tasks. This model for complexity factors can also be used as a referential framework for allocating tasks and designing information aids. The proposed approach is applied to procedure-based tasks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a case study to demonstrate its use. Last, we compare the proposed approach with other studies and then suggest some future research directions.

  14. Language, arithmetic word problems, and deaf students: Linguistic strategies used to solve tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Robyn; Hyde, Merv; Power, Des

    2001-12-01

    There has been limited examination of the intersection between language and arithmetic in the performance of deaf students, although some previous research has shown that deaf and hearing-impaired1 students are delayed in both their language acquisition and arithmetic performance. This paper examines the performance of deaf and hearing-impaired students in South-East Queensland, Australia, in solving arithmetic word problems. It was found that the subjects' solutions of word problems confirmed trends for hearing students, but that their performance was delayed in comparison. The results confirm other studies where deaf and hearing-impaired students are delayed in their language acquisition and this impacts on their capacity to successfully undertake the resolution of word problems.

  15. THE USE OF AHP METHOD IN THE MULTI‐CRITERIA TASK SOLVING PROCESS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt KORBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the decision‐making process, both single‐ and multi‐criteria tasks are dealt with. In the majority of cases, the selection of a solution comes down to determination of the “best” decision (most often based on the subjective assessment or to organisation of the set of decisions. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of the methods used for evaluation of qualitative features in the multi‐criteria optimisation processes. This article discusses the possibilities of using the above‐mentioned method, illustrated with an example of purchasing technical equipment for one of the municipal landfill sites in the Silesian Province.

  16. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-06

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  18. Generic Tasks for Knowledge-Based Problem Solving: Extension and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    modularizing the problem solver appropriately, the complexity inherent in credit assignment can be managed . 3 Acknowledgements 5 This work is supported...explanatory hy- E R-Soar with other methods without modifying existing pohss IEETascin nSses ln ncontr-ol knowlede , potheses. IEEE Trarnsact-oni on Systems

  19. Effects of traumatic brain injury on a virtual reality social problem solving task and relations to cortical thickness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanten, Gerri; Cook, Lori; Orsten, Kimberley; Chapman, Sandra B; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-02-01

    Social problem solving was assessed in 28 youth ages 12-19 years (15 with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 13 uninjured) using a naturalistic, computerized virtual reality (VR) version of the Interpersonal Negotiations Strategy interview (Yeates, Schultz, & Selman, 1991). In each scenario, processing load condition was varied in terms of number of characters and amount of information. Adolescents viewed animated scenarios depicting social conflict in a virtual microworld environment from an avatar's viewpoint, and were questioned on four problem solving steps: defining the problem, generating solutions, selecting solutions, and evaluating the likely outcome. Scoring was based on a developmental scale in which responses were judged as impulsive, unilateral, reciprocal, or collaborative, in order of increasing score. Adolescents with TBI were significantly impaired on the summary VR-Social Problem Solving (VR-SPS) score in Condition A (2 speakers, no irrelevant information), p=0.005; in Condition B (2 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.035; and Condition C (4 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.008. Effect sizes (Cohen's D) were large (A=1.40, B=0.96, C=1.23). Significant group differences were strongest and most consistent for defining the problems and evaluating outcomes. The relation of task performance to cortical thickness of specific brain regions was also explored, with significant relations found with orbitofrontal regions, the frontal pole, the cuneus, and the temporal pole. Results are discussed in the context of specific cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying social problem solving deficits after childhood TBI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  1. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation

  2. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvili, Sahar [Mälardalen University (Sweden); Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University (Sweden); Biteus, Jonas [Scania CV (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  3. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. The composite complex span: French validation of a short working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Corentin; Thomassin, Noémylle; Roulin, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    Most studies in individual differences in the field of working memory research use complex span tasks to measure working memory capacity. Various complex span tasks based on different materials have been developed, and these tasks have proven both reliable and valid; several complex span tasks are often combined to provide a domain-general estimate of working memory capacity with even better psychometric properties. The present work sought to address two issues. Firstly, having participants perform several full-length complex span tasks in succession makes for a long and tedious procedure. Secondly, few complex span tasks have been translated and validated in French. We constructed a French working memory task labeled the Composite Complex Span (CCS). The CCS includes shortened versions of three classic complex span tasks: the reading span, symmetry span, and operation span. We assessed the psychometric properties of the CCS, including test-retest reliability and convergent validity, with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and with an alpha span task; the CCS demonstrated satisfying qualities in a sample of 1,093 participants. This work provides evidence that shorter versions of classic complex span tasks can yield valid working memory estimates. The materials and normative data for the CCS are also included.

  5. Robotics and STEM Learning: Students' Achievements in Assignments According to the P3 Task Taxonomy--Practice, Problem Solving, and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Assal, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This study presents the case of development and evaluation of a STEM-oriented 30-h robotics course for junior high school students (n = 32). Class activities were designed according to the P3 Task Taxonomy, which included: (1) practice-basic closed-ended tasks and exercises; (2) problem solving--small-scale open-ended assignments in which the…

  6. A Problem-Solving Intervention Using iPads to Improve Transition-Related Task Performance of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Zeleke, Waganesh A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of teaching problem-solving to improve transition-related task performance of three students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined using a multiple probe across students design. Target behaviors included various transition-related tasks individualized for each student based on their individual…

  7. Knowledge to action for solving complex problems: insights from a review of nine international cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, B L; Robinson, K L; Gamble, J; Finegood, D T; Sheppard, D; Penney, T L; Best, A

    2015-05-01

    Solving complex problems such as preventing chronic diseases introduces unique challenges for the creation and application of knowledge, or knowledge to action (KTA). KTA approaches that apply principles of systems thinking are thought to hold promise, but practical strategies for their application are not well understood. In this paper we report the results of a scan of systems approaches to KTA with a goal to identify how to optimize their implementation and impact. A 5-person advisory group purposefully selected 9 initiatives to achieve diversity on issues addressed and organizational forms. Information on each case was gathered from documents and through telephone interviews with primary contacts within each organization. Following verification of case descriptions, an inductive analysis was conducted within and across cases. The cases revealed 5 guidelines for moving from conceiving KTA systems to implementing them: (1) establish and nurture relationships, (2) co-produce and curate knowledge, (3) create feedback loops, (4) frame as systems interventions rather than projects, and (5) consider variations across time and place. Results from the environmental scan are a modest start to translating systems concepts for KTA into practice. Use of the strategies revealed in the scan may improve KTA for solving complex public health problems. The strategies themselves will benefit from the development of a science that aims to understand adaptation and ongoing learning from policy and practice interventions, strengthens enduring relationships, and fills system gaps in addition to evidence gaps. Systems approaches to KTA will also benefit from robust evaluations.

  8. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  9. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  10. Modified task-based learning program promotes problem-solving capacity among Chinese medical postgraduates: a mixed quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanping; Li, Chengren; Wang, Jiali; Cai, Qiyan; Wang, Hanzhi; Chen, Xingshu; Liu, Yunlai; Mei, Feng; Xiao, Lan; Jian, Rui; Li, Hongli

    2017-09-07

    Despite great advances, China's postgraduate education faces many problems, for example traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method provides fewer oppotunities to apply knowledge in a working situation. Task-based learning (TBL) is an efficient strategy for increasing the connections among skills, knowledge and competences. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a modified TBL model on problem-solving abilities among postgraduate medical students in China. We allocated 228 first-year postgraduate students at Third Military Medical University into two groups: the TBL group and LBL group. The TBL group was taught using a TBL program for immunohistochemistry. The curriculum consisted of five phases: task design, self-learning, experimental operations, discussion and summary. The LBL group was taught using traditional LBL. After the course, learning performance was assessed using theoretical and practical tests. The students' preferences and satisfaction of TBL and LBL were also evaluated using questionnaires. There were notable differences in the mean score rates in the practical test (P 80) in the TBL group was higher than that in the LBL group. We observed no substantial differences in the theoretical test between the two groups (P > 0.05). The questionnaire results indicated that the TBL students were satisfied with teaching content, teaching methods and experiment content. The TBL program was also beneficial for the postgraduates in completing their research projects. Furthermore, the TBL students reported positive effects in terms of innovative thinking, collaboration, and communication. TBL is a powerful educational strategy for postgraduate education in China. Our modified TBL imparted basic knowledge to the students and also engaged them more effectively in applying knowledge to solve real-world issues. In conclusion, our TBL established a good foundation for the students' future in both medical research and clinical work.

  11. Effects of task complexity on online search behavior of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, Jaap; Oomen, Paula; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of information during information problem solving processes already starts when trying to select the appropriate search result on a search engine results page (SERP). Up to now, research has mainly focused on the evaluation of webpages while the evaluation of SERPs received less

  12. SIMULATION OF CARS ACCUMULATION PROCESSES FOR SOLVING TASKS OF OPERATIONAL PLANNING IN CONDITIONS OF INITIAL INFORMATION UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. A. Tereshchenko

    2017-06-01

    simulation the cars accumulation was proposed to optimize the transportation process, depending on the chosen criterion. Findings. The developed methodology of simulation of cars accumulation process was reflected in the dynamic models created with the participation of the author and implemented on the Belarusian Railroad on the basis of IAS SMD CT. They are designed to provide operational planning of the transportation process on the basis of methods that allow assessing technological risks. Originality. The innovative component of the work is due to the expansion of existing models of the accumulation of cars for cases of uncertainty of the initial information. Thus, the earlier deterministic models are particular cases of the proposed model. Also, unlike existing ones, the technique allows to take into account the influence of random processes in a complex manner. Due to this, technological risks can be further assessed and the necessary regulatory measures can be implemented promptly. In general, the results obtained by modeling the proposed method allow to improve the quality of output solutions in the system of shift and daily operational planning, increasing the reliability of operational plans. Practical value. To date, there is a favorable opportunity to use the proposed methodology of modeling in existing in the railway transport systems of automated operational planning for operational work, including the optimization of local railways and the solution of a number of urgent tasks of train formation.

  13. Weak task-related modulation and stimulus representations during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tenison, Caitlin; Menon, Vinod

    2012-02-15

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a disability that impacts math learning and skill acquisition in school-age children. Here we investigate arithmetic problem solving deficits in young children with DD using univariate and multivariate analysis of fMRI data. During fMRI scanning, 17 children with DD (ages 7-9, grades 2 and 3) and 17 IQ- and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) children performed complex and simple addition problems which differed only in arithmetic complexity. While the TD group showed strong modulation of brain responses with increasing arithmetic complexity, children with DD failed to show such modulation. Children with DD showed significantly reduced activation compared to TD children in the intraparietal sulcus, superior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to arithmetic complexity. Critically, multivariate representational similarity revealed that brain response patterns to complex and simple problems were less differentiated in the DD group in bilateral anterior IPS, independent of overall differences in signal level. Taken together, these results show that children with DD not only under-activate key brain regions implicated in mathematical cognition, but they also fail to generate distinct neural responses and representations for different arithmetic problems. Our findings provide novel insights into the neural basis of DD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of long-term practice and task complexity on brain activities when performing abacus-based mental calculations: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tung-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Lin; Huang, Yung-Hui; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Lee, Jason J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for the exceptional mental calculation ability possessed by Chinese abacus experts through PET imaging. We compared the different regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns using 15 O-water PET in 10 abacus experts and 12 non-experts while they were performing each of the following three tasks: covert reading, simple addition, and complex contiguous addition. All data collected were analyzed using SPM2 and MNI templates. For non-experts during the tasks of simple addition, the observed activation of brain regions were associated with coordination of language (inferior frontal network) and visuospatial processing (left parietal/frontal network). Similar activation patterns but with a larger visuospatial processing involvement were observed during complex contiguous addition tasks, suggesting the recruitment of more visuospatial memory for solving the complex problems. For abacus experts, however, the brain activation patterns showed slight differences when they were performing simple and complex addition tasks, both of which involve visuospatial processing (bilateral parietal/frontal network). These findings supported the notion that the experts were completing all the calculation process on a virtual mental abacus and relying on this same computational strategy in both simple and complex tasks, which required almost no increasing brain workload for solving the latter. In conclusion, after intensive training and practice, the neural pathways in an abacus expert have been connected more effectively for performing the number encoding and retrieval that are required in abacus tasks, resulting in exceptional mental computational ability. (orig.)

  15. Age related differences in the strategies used by middle aged adults to solve a block design task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozencwajg, P; Cherfi, M; Ferrandez, A M; Lautrey, J; Lemoine, C; Loarer, E

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, it was proposed to investigate the effects of aging on the strategies used to solve a block design task and to establish whether these strategies may be associated with differential patterns of ability. Two groups of subjects, 30 young adults (aged 20-35 years) and 30 middle-aged adults (aged 45-60 years) were set a computer version of the Kohs task and a battery of tests. An age-related decrease in fluid intelligence (Gf) and visual-spatial ability (Gv) was observed, along with the fact that most of the older subjects used a global strategy rather than a synthetic one. On the other hand, while continuing to use strategies of the analytic type, the older subjects looked more frequently at the model and scored high on crystallized intelligence (Gc). These findings are discussed from two different points of view: the theory of hierarchical stimuli and the hypothesis that metacognitive ability, which is thought to rely on Gc, may increase with age, and thus compensate for the loss of Gf and Gv.

  16. An Exploratory Study into Perceived Task Complexity, Topic Specificity and Usefulness for Integrated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relations between user perceptions of work task complexity, topic specificity, and usefulness of retrieved results. 23 academic researchers submitted detailed descriptions of 65 real-life work tasks in the physics domain, and assessed documents retrieved from an integrated...... collection consisting of full text research articles in PDF, abstracts, and bibliographic records [6]. Bibliographic records were found to be more precise than full text PDFs, regardless of task complexity and topic specificity. PDFs were found to be more useful. Overall, for higher task complexity and topic...

  17. Report on the Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks : CHIIR 2017 Workshop Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.; Bogers, T.; Belkin, N.; Kelly, D.; Yilmaz, E.

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain-specific collections, and both in our professional and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is

  18. The Differential Effects of Task Complexity on Domain-Specific and Peer Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zundert, Marjo J.; Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Konings, Karen D.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the relationship between domain-specific skills and peer assessment skills as a function of task complexity is investigated. We hypothesised that peer assessment skills were superposed on domain-specific skills and will therefore suffer more when higher cognitive load is induced by increased task complexity. In a mixed factorial…

  19. Engineering tools for complex task of reducing energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of energy consumption in buildings while ensuring a good indoor environment is a very challenging and difficult engineering task. For this we need tools which are based on an integral approach of the building, control systems, occupants and outdoor environment. A building energy simulation

  20. Involvement of Spearman's g in conceptualisation versus execution of complex tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ellen L; Bright, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Strong correlations between measures of fluid intelligence (or Spearman's g) and working memory are widely reported in the literature, but there is considerable controversy concerning the nature of underlying mechanisms driving this relationship. In the four experiments presented here we consider the role of response conflict and task complexity in the context of real-time task execution demands (Experiments 1-3) and also address recent evidence that g confers an advantage at the level of task conceptualisation rather than (or in addition to) task execution (Experiment 4). We observed increased sensitivity of measured fluid intelligence to task performance in the presence (vs. the absence) of response conflict, and this relationship remained when task complexity was reduced. Performance-g correlations were also observed in the absence of response conflict, but only in the context of high task complexity. Further, we present evidence that differences in conceptualisation or 'modelling' of task instructions prior to execution had an important mediating effect on observed correlations, but only when the task encompassed a strong element of response inhibition. Our results suggest that individual differences in ability reflect, in large part, variability in the efficiency with which the relational complexity of task constraints are held in mind. It follows that fluid intelligence may support successful task execution through the construction of effective action plans via optimal allocation of limited resources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thrive or overload? The effect of task complexity on novices' simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Woods, Nicole; Regehr, Glenn; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Fidelity is widely viewed as an important element of simulation instructional design based on its purported relationship with transfer of learning. However, higher levels of fidelity may increase task complexity to a point at which novices' cognitive resources become overloaded. In this experiment, we investigate the effects of variations in task complexity on novices' cognitive load and learning during simulation-based procedural skills training. Thirty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to simulation training on a simple or complex lumbar puncture (LP) task. Participants completed four practice trials on this task (skill acquisition). After 10 days of rest, all participants completed one additional trial on their assigned task (retention) and one trial on a 'very complex' simulation designed to be similar to the complex task (transfer). We assessed LP performance and cognitive load on each trial using multiple measures. In both groups, LP performance improved significantly during skill acquisition (p ≤ 0.047, f = 0.29-0.96) and was maintained at retention. The simple task group demonstrated superior performance compared with the complex task group throughout these phases (p ≤ 0.002, d = 1.13-2.31). Cognitive load declined significantly in the simple task group (p Education.

  2. Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular computing towards a novel computing architecture for complex problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2014-01-01

    This textbook introduces a concise approach to the design of molecular algorithms for students or researchers who are interested in dealing with complex problems. Through numerous examples and exercises, you will understand the main difference of molecular circuits and traditional digital circuits to manipulate the same problem and you will also learn how to design a molecular algorithm of solving any a problem from start to finish. The book starts with an introduction to computational aspects of digital computers and molecular computing, data representation of molecular computing, molecular operations of molecular computing and number representation of molecular computing, and provides many molecular algorithm to construct the parity generator and the parity checker of error-detection codes on digital communication, to encode integers of different formats, single precision and double precision of floating-point numbers, to implement addition and subtraction of unsigned integers, to construct logic operations...

  4. RAFCON: A Graphical Tool for Engineering Complex, Robotic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    manipulation , vision, navigation, etc.). All these components need to be coordi- nated both in terms of communication and task flow. ROS [1] is a common...editing, is an important supportive feature of a programming tool for robots. How- ever, this is not an easy feature to achieve, as bigger state... children of a HierarchyState can be considered as a flat state machine on its own with a single entry state. ConcurrencyStates are also ContainerStates

  5. The importance of the secure base effect for domestic dogs - evidence from a manipulative problem-solving task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Horn

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dogs display a secure base effect similar to that found in human children (i.e., using the owner as a secure base for interacting with the environment. In children, this effect influences their daily lives and importantly also their performance in cognitive testing. Here, we investigate the importance of the secure base effect for dogs in a problem-solving task.Using a manipulative task, we tested dogs in three conditions, in which we varied the owner's presence and behavior (Experiment 1: "Absent owner", "Silent owner", "Encouraging owner" and in one additional condition, in which the owner was replaced by an unfamiliar human (Experiment 2: "Replaced owner". We found that the dogs' duration of manipulating the apparatus was longer when their owner was present than absent, irrespective of the owner's behavior. The presence of an unfamiliar human however did not increase their manipulation. Furthermore, the reduced manipulation during the absence of the owner was not correlated with the dog's degree of separation distress scored in a preceding attachment experiment.Our study is the first to provide evidence for an owner-specific secure base effect in dogs that extends from attachment tests to other areas of dogs' lives and also manifests itself in cognitive testing - thereby confirming the remarkable similarity between the secure base effect in dogs and in human children. These results also have important implications for behavioral testing in dogs, because the presence or absence of the owner during a test situation might substantially influence dogs' motivation and therefore the outcome of the test.

  6. Authentic Performance of Complex Problem-Solving Tasks with an EPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Chet; McCabe, Cynthia

    Just-In-Time Learning (JIT Learning) is a semester-long graduate course that teaches corporate trainers and instructional designers how to design performance improvement interventions. This course is part of a Master's program in Instructional Technology at San Francisco State University. The course has been offered three times and has been…

  7. How Students Circumvent Problem-Solving Strategies that Require Greater Cognitive Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the great diversity in problem-solving strategies used by students in solving a chemistry problem and discusses the relationship between these variables and different cognitive variables. Concludes that students try to circumvent certain problem-solving strategies by adapting flexible and stylistic innovations that render the cognitive…

  8. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  9. Fostering Self-Regulation in Training Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeuwen, Ludo W.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Bock, Jeano J. P. R.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2018-01-01

    In complex cognitive domains such as air traffic control, professionals must be able to adapt to and act upon continuing changes in a highly advanced technological work environment. To function optimally in such an environment, the controllers must be able to regulate their learning. Although these regulation skills should be part of their…

  10. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  11. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students’ mathematical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirah Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine students’ mathematical performance on quantitative “synthesis problems” with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students’ mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students’ simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students’ formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students’ different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  12. SOCIAL COMPLEXITY AND LEARNING FORAGING TASKS IN BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ MARISOL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social complexity and models concerning central place foraging were tested with respect to learning predictions using the social honey bee (Apis mellifera and solitary blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria when given foraging problems. Both species were presented the same foraging problems, where 1 only reward molarity varied between flower morphs, and 2 only reward volume varied between flower morphs. Experiments utilized blue vs. white flower patches to standardize rewards in each experimental situation. Although honey bees learned faster than blue orchard bees when given a molarity difference reward problem, there was no significant difference in learning rate when presented a volume difference reward problem. Further, the rate at which blue orchard bees learned the volume difference problem was not significantly different from that with which honey bees learned about reward molarity differences. The results do not support the predictions of the social complexity theory, but do support those of the central place model

  13. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavirad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidanc...

  14. Models for Understanding Student Thinking using Data from Complex Computerized Science Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    LaMar, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013) define performance targets which will require assessment tasks that can integrate discipline knowledge and cross-cutting ideas with the practices of science. Complex computerized tasks will likely play a large role in assessing these standards, but many questions remain about how best to make use of such tasks within a psychometric framework (National Research Council, 2014). This dissertation explores the use of a more extensive...

  15. Persistency and flexibility of complex brain networks underlie dual-task interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Hilgetag, Claus C; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on multitasking suggest that performance decline during concurrent task processing arises from interfering brain modules. Here, we used graph-theoretical network analysis to define functional brain modules and relate the modular organization of complex brain networks to behavioral dual-task costs. Based on resting-state and task fMRI we explored two organizational aspects potentially associated with behavioral interference when human subjects performed a visuospatial and speech task simultaneously: the topological overlap between persistent single-task modules, and the flexibility of single-task modules in adaptation to the dual-task condition. Participants showed a significant decline in visuospatial accuracy in the dual-task compared with single visuospatial task. Global analysis of topological similarity between modules revealed that the overlap between single-task modules significantly correlated with the decline in visuospatial accuracy. Subjects with larger overlap between single-task modules showed higher behavioral interference. Furthermore, lower flexible reconfiguration of single-task modules in adaptation to the dual-task condition significantly correlated with larger decline in visuospatial accuracy. Subjects with lower modular flexibility showed higher behavioral interference. At the regional level, higher overlap between single-task modules and less modular flexibility in the somatomotor cortex positively correlated with the decline in visuospatial accuracy. Additionally, higher modular flexibility in cingulate and frontal control areas and lower flexibility in right-lateralized nodes comprising the middle occipital and superior temporal gyri supported dual-tasking. Our results suggest that persistency and flexibility of brain modules are important determinants of dual-task costs. We conclude that efficient dual-tasking benefits from a specific balance between flexibility and rigidity of functional brain modules. © 2015 Wiley

  16. Task Complexity Modulates Sleep-Related Offline Learning in Sequential Motor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Blischke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of authors have advocated the introduction of gross motor tasks into research on sleep-related motor offline learning. Such tasks are often designed to be more complex than traditional key-pressing tasks. However, until now, little effort has been undertaken to scrutinize the role of task complexity in any systematic way. Therefore, the effect of task complexity on the consolidation of gross motor sequence memory was examined by our group in a series of three experiments. Criterion tasks always required participants to produce unrestrained arm movement sequences by successively fitting a small peg into target holes on a pegboard. The sequences always followed a certain spatial pattern in the horizontal plane. The targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. The tasks differed with respect to sequence length and structural complexity. In each experiment, half of the participants initially learned the task in the morning and were retested 12 h later following a wake retention interval. The other half of the subjects underwent practice in the evening and was retested 12 h later following a night of sleep. The dependent variables were the error rate and total sequence execution time (inverse to the sequence execution speed. Performance generally improved during acquisition. The error rate was always low and remained stable during retention. The sequence execution time significantly decreased again following sleep but not after waking when the sequence length was long and structural complexity was high. However, sleep-related offline improvements were absent when the sequence length was short or when subjects performed a highly regular movement pattern. It is assumed that the occurrence of sleep-related offline performance improvements in sequential motor tasks is associated with a sufficient amount of motor task complexity.

  17. Quantifying the Physiological Stress Response to Simulated Maritime Pilotage Tasks: The Influence of Task Complexity and Pilot Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Luana C; Wolkow, Alexander; Chambers, Timothy P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the stress associated with performing maritime pilotage tasks in a high-fidelity simulator. Eight trainee and 13 maritime pilots completed two simulated pilotage tasks of varying complexity. Salivary cortisol samples were collected pre- and post-simulation for both trials. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Significant changes in salivary cortisol (P = 0.000, η = 0.139), average (P = 0.006, η = 0.087), and peak heart rate (P = 0.013, η = 0.077) from pre- to postsimulation were found. Varying task complexity did partially influence stress response; average (P = 0.016, η = 0.026) and peak heart rate (P = 0.034, η = 0.020) were higher in the experimental condition. Trainees also recorded higher average (P = 0.000, η = 0.054) and peak heart rates (P = 0.027, η = 0.022). Performing simulated pilotage tasks evoked a measurable stress response in both trainee and expert maritime pilots.

  18. Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 615–624. doi: 10.1002/acp.1730.

  19. Interaction between marihuana and altitude on a complex behavioral task in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Marihuana, or its principal active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), impairs performance on complex behavioral tasks in animals and man. Although there exists some evidence that altitude-induced hypoxia potentiates the physiologi...

  20. Complex Span versus Updating Tasks of Working Memory: The Gap Is Not that Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Lovden, Martin; Wilhelm, Oliver; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-01-01

    How to best measure working memory capacity is an issue of ongoing debate. Besides established complex span tasks, which combine short-term memory demands with generally unrelated secondary tasks, there exists a set of paradigms characterized by continuous and simultaneous updating of several items in working memory, such as the n-back, memory…

  1. Optimizing the number of steps in learning tasks for complex skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Background. Carrying out whole tasks is often too difficult for novice learners attempting to acquire complex skills. The common solution is to split up the tasks into a number of smaller steps. The number of steps must be optimised for efficient and effective learning. Aim. The aim of the study is

  2. Memory Indexing: A Novel Method for Tracing Memory Processes in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkewitz, Frank; Jahn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We validate an eye-tracking method applicable for studying memory processes in complex cognitive tasks. The method is tested with a task on probabilistic inferences from memory. It provides valuable data on the time course of processing, thus clarifying previous results on heuristic probabilistic inference. Participants learned cue values of…

  3. Error affect inoculation for a complex decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Carmen; Wood, Robert E

    2009-05-01

    Individuals bring knowledge, implicit theories, and goal orientations to group meetings. Group decisions arise out of the exchange of these orientations. This research explores how a trainee's exploratory and deliberate process (an incremental theory and learning goal orientation) impacts the effectiveness of individual and group decision-making processes. The effectiveness of this training program is compared with another program that included error affect inoculation (EAI). Subjects were 40 Spanish Policemen in a training course. They were distributed in two training conditions for an individual and group decision-making task. In one condition, individuals received the Self-Guided Exploration plus Deliberation Process instructions, which emphasised exploring the options and testing hypotheses. In the other condition, individuals also received instructions based on Error Affect Inoculation (EAI), which emphasised positive affective reactions to errors and mistakes when making decisions. Results show that the quality of decisions increases when the groups share their reasoning. The AIE intervention promotes sharing information, flexible initial viewpoints, and improving the quality of group decisions. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  4. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  5. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahdavirad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidance included an explanation of the necessary structural and lexical patterns employed to express the learners’ views while developing a comparison-and-contrast paragraph in each task. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the participants produced a written product with a greater lexical complexity in their performance of the task in the form-focused strategic planning condition. The findings emphasize the importance of guided strategic planning as a task condition in syllabus design for task-based language teaching and the necessity of incorporating this task feature for accomplishing lexical complexity in decision-making writing tasks.

  6. The manual of strategic economic decision making using Bayesian belief networks to solve complex problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...

  7. Relation between task complexity and variability of procedure progression during an emergency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The relation between task complexity and the variability of procedure progression was investigated. • The two quantitative measures, TACOM and VPP, were applied to this study. • The task complexity was positively related with the operator’s procedural variability. • The VPP measure can be useful for explaining the operator’s behaviors. - Abstract: In this study, the relation between task complexity and variability of procedure progression during an emergency operation was investigated by comparing the two quantitative measures. To this end, the TACOM measure and VPP measure were applied to evaluate the complexity of tasks and variability of procedure progression, respectively. The TACOM scores and VPP scores were obtained for 60 tasks in the OPERA database, and a correlation analysis between two measures and a multiple regression analysis between the sub-measures of the TACOM measure and VPP measure were conducted. The results showed that the TACOM measure is positively associated with the VPP measure, and the abstraction hierarchy complexity mainly affected the variability among the sub-measures of TACOM. From these findings, it was discussed that the task complexity is related to an operator’s procedural variability and VPP measure can be useful for explaining the operator’s behaviors

  8. Measuring working memory in aphasia: Comparing performance on complex span and N-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    No significant correlations were observed between performance on complex span task and N-back tasks.Furthermore, performance on the modified listening span was related to performance on the comprehension subtest of the QASA, while no relationship was found for 2-back and 0-back tasks.Our results mirror studies in healthy controls that demonstrated no relationship between performance on the two tasks(Jaeggi et al., 2010; Kane et al., 2007. Thus although N-back tasks seem similar to traditional complex span measures and may also index abilities related to cognitive processing, the evidence to date does not warrant their direct association with the construct of WM. Implications for future investigation of cognitive deficits in aphasia will be discussed.

  9. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  10. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  11. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: A Model to Guide Development of Student Expertise in Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lauren N.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Herbert, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in problem-solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves developing student conceptualization of the Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge to the problems using practices that model those used by professionals. In this article, we review geoscience education research…

  12. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  13. Heuristics in Managing Complex Clinical Decision Tasks in Experts' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    Clinical decision support is a tool to help experts make optimal and efficient decisions. However, little is known about the high level of abstractions in the thinking process for the experts. The objective of the study is to understand how clinicians manage complexity while dealing with complex clinical decision tasks. After approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB), three clinical experts were interviewed the transcripts from these interviews were analyzed. We found five broad categories of strategies by experts for managing complex clinical decision tasks: decision conflict, mental projection, decision trade-offs, managing uncertainty and generating rule of thumb. Complexity is created by decision conflicts, mental projection, limited options and treatment uncertainty. Experts cope with complexity in a variety of ways, including using efficient and fast decision strategies to simplify complex decision tasks, mentally simulating outcomes and focusing on only the most relevant information. Understanding complex decision making processes can help design allocation based on the complexity of task for clinical decision support design.

  14. Pupillary response to complex interdependent tasks: A cognitive-load theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ritayan; McNeal, Karen S; Bondell, Howard D

    2017-10-01

    Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process. However, pupil diameter did not always reflect the expected cognitive load. This result was studied within a cognitive-load theory model. Higher-performing students showed evidence of germane load and schema creation, indicating use of the interdependent nature of the tasks to inform their problem-solving process. However, lower-performing students did not recognize the interdependent nature of the tasks and solved each problem independently, which was expressed in a markedly different pupillary response pattern. We discuss the import of our findings for instructional design.

  15. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  16. Does complexity matter? Meta-analysis of learner performance in artificial grammar tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia

    2014-01-01

    Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules). However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000) technique of calculating topological entropy (TE), a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners' AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems' complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies.

  17. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D

    2012-01-01

    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  18. Characterization of children's decision making: sensitivity to punishment frequency, not task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Eveline A; Bunge, Silvia A; Latenstein, Heleen; van der Molen, Maurits W

    2005-06-01

    On a gambling task that models real-life decision making, children between ages 7 and 12 perform like patients with bilateral lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), opting for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses (Crone & Van der Molen, 2004). The current study set out to characterize developmental changes in decision making by varying task complexity and punishment frequency. Three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, 13-15 years) performed two versions of a computerized variant of the original Iowa gambling task. Task complexity was manipulated by varying the number of choices participants could make. Punishment frequency was manipulated by varying the frequency of delayed punishment. Results showed a developmental increase in the sensitivity to future consequences, which was present only when the punishment was presented infrequently. These results could not be explained by differential sensitivity to task complexity, hypersensitivity to reward, or failure to switch response set after receiving punishment. There was a general pattern of boys outperforming girls by making more advantageous choices over the course of the task. In conclusion, 7-12-year-old children--like VMPFC patients--appear myopic about the future except when the potential for future punishment is high.

  19. Learning and inference using complex generative models in a spatial localization task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Knill, David C; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has established that, under relatively simple task conditions, human observers integrate uncertain sensory information with learned prior knowledge in an approximately Bayes-optimal manner. However, in many natural tasks, observers must perform this sensory-plus-prior integration when the underlying generative model of the environment consists of multiple causes. Here we ask if the Bayes-optimal integration seen with simple tasks also applies to such natural tasks when the generative model is more complex, or whether observers rely instead on a less efficient set of heuristics that approximate ideal performance. Participants localized a "hidden" target whose position on a touch screen was sampled from a location-contingent bimodal generative model with different variances around each mode. Over repeated exposure to this task, participants learned the a priori locations of the target (i.e., the bimodal generative model), and integrated this learned knowledge with uncertain sensory information on a trial-by-trial basis in a manner consistent with the predictions of Bayes-optimal behavior. In particular, participants rapidly learned the locations of the two modes of the generative model, but the relative variances of the modes were learned much more slowly. Taken together, our results suggest that human performance in a more complex localization task, which requires the integration of sensory information with learned knowledge of a bimodal generative model, is consistent with the predictions of Bayes-optimal behavior, but involves a much longer time-course than in simpler tasks.

  20. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  1. Solving Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with a Chronic Physical Illness or Physical/Sensory Disability: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic illnesses and disabilities may impair the attainment of age-typical developmental tasks, such as forming relationships with peers and gaining autonomy. Based on a systematic search in electronic databases and cross-referencing, 447 quantitative empirical studies were included which compared the attainment of developmental tasks of…

  2. Interaction between the nature of the information and the cognitive requirement of the task in problem solving in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mathieu; Benhassine, Narimane; Costet, Pierre; Segu, Louis; Buhot, Marie-Christine

    2004-11-01

    The Morris water maze and the radial-arm maze are two of the most frequently employed behavioral tasks used to assess spatial memory in rodents. In this study, we describe two new behavioral tasks in a radial-arm water maze enabling to combine the advantages of the Morris water maze and the radial-arm maze. In both tasks, spatial and nonspatial learning was assessed and the only task parameter that varied was the nature of the information available which was either spatial (various distal extra-maze cues) or nonspatial (visual intra-maze patterns). In experiment 1, 129T2/Sv mice were able to learn three successive pairwise discriminations [(1) A+/B-, (2) B+/C-, (3) C+/A-] with the same efficiency in both modalities (i.e. spatial and nonspatial modalities). Probe-trials at the end of each of these discriminations revealed particular features of this transverse-patterning-like procedure. In experiment 2, another group of 129T2/Sv mice was submitted to a delayed matching-to-sample working memory task. Mice were able to learn the task and were then able to show resistance to temporal interference as long as 60 min in the spatial modality but they failed to acquire the task in the nonspatial modality. The fact that the nonspatial information was exactly the same in both experiments highlights the existence of an interaction between the cognitive requirements of the task and the nature of the information.

  3. Manual asymmetry in older adults on a complex coincidence-anticipation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paula Cristina Dos Santos; Silva, João Miguel Carvalho da; Barreiros, João Manuel Pardal; Vasconcelos, Maria Olga Fernandes

    2018-04-20

    Age-related asymmetrical functional decline was tested in a sample of 57 right-handed volunteers between 65 and 85 years of age. Participants performed a complex coincidence-anticipation (CA) task with both preferred and non-preferred hands. Results demonstrated that the proficiency of a complex CA task was similar for the 2 age groups, but different for the 2 hands. The non-preferred hand was more proficient for temporal accuracy but not for response timing, which was similar for both hands. Moreover, the lack of interaction between age and hand both in response timing and response accuracy reveal symmetric performance across ages.

  4. Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236 ISSN 1574-0617 Grant - others:AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  6. Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis E.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…

  7. The Effect of "Massed" Task Repetitions on Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency: Does It Transfer to a New Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad

    2011-01-01

    To date, research results suggest that task repetition positively affects oral task performance. However, researchers have not yet shown the extension of the benefits of repeating the same task to performance of a new task. This article first provides an overview of the currently available research findings on task repetition and then presents the…

  8. Optimizing the number of steps in learning tasks for complex skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolski, Rob J; Kirschner, Paul A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2005-06-01

    Carrying out whole tasks is often too difficult for novice learners attempting to acquire complex skills. The common solution is to split up the tasks into a number of smaller steps. The number of steps must be optimized for efficient and effective learning. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation between the number of steps provided to learners and the quality of their learning of complex skills. It is hypothesized that students receiving an optimized number of steps will learn better than those receiving either the whole task in only one step or those receiving a large number of steps. Participants were 35 sophomore law students studying at Dutch universities, mean age=22.8 years (SD=3.5), 63% were female. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 computer-delivered versions of a multimedia programme on how to prepare and carry out a law plea. The versions differed only in the number of learning steps provided. Videotaped plea-performance results were determined, various related learning measures were acquired and all computer actions were logged and analyzed. Participants exposed to an intermediate (i.e. optimized) number of steps outperformed all others on the compulsory learning task. No differences in performance on a transfer task were found. A high number of steps proved to be less efficient for carrying out the learning task. An intermediate number of steps is the most effective, proving that the number of steps can be optimized for improving learning.

  9. A Dynamic Intelligent Decision Approach to Dependency Modeling of Project Tasks in Complex Engineering System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex engineering system optimization usually involves multiple projects or tasks. On the one hand, dependency modeling among projects or tasks highlights structures in systems and their environments which can help to understand the implications of connectivity on different aspects of system performance and also assist in designing, optimizing, and maintaining complex systems. On the other hand, multiple projects or tasks are either happening at the same time or scheduled into a sequence in order to use common resources. In this paper, we propose a dynamic intelligent decision approach to dependency modeling of project tasks in complex engineering system optimization. The approach takes this decision process as a two-stage decision-making problem. In the first stage, a task clustering approach based on modularization is proposed so as to find out a suitable decomposition scheme for a large-scale project. In the second stage, according to the decomposition result, a discrete artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybees is developed for the resource constrained multiproject scheduling problem. Finally, a certain case from an engineering design of a chemical processing system is utilized to help to understand the proposed approach.

  10. A Novel Method for Assessing Task Complexity in Outpatient Clinical-Performance Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Amspoker, Amber B; Petersen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    Clinical-performance measurement has helped improve the quality of health-care; yet success in attaining high levels of quality across multiple domains simultaneously still varies considerably. Although many sources of variability in care quality have been studied, the difficulty required to complete the clinical work itself has received little attention. We present a task-based methodology for evaluating the difficulty of clinical-performance measures (CPMs) by assessing the complexity of their component requisite tasks. Using Functional Job Analysis (FJA), subject-matter experts (SMEs) generated task lists for 17 CPMs; task lists were rated on ten dimensions of complexity, and then aggregated into difficulty composites. Eleven outpatient work SMEs; 133 VA Medical Centers nationwide. Clinical Performance: 17 outpatient CPMs (2000-2008) at 133 VA Medical Centers nationwide. Measure Difficulty: for each CPM, the number of component requisite tasks and the average rating across ten FJA complexity scales for the set of tasks comprising the measure. Measures varied considerably in the number of component tasks (M = 10.56, SD = 6.25, min = 5, max = 25). Measures of chronic care following acute myocardial infarction exhibited significantly higher measure difficulty ratings compared to diabetes or screening measures, but not to immunization measures ([Formula: see text] = 0.45, -0.04, -0.05, and -0.06 respectively; F (3, 186) = 3.57, p = 0.015). Measure difficulty ratings were not significantly correlated with the number of component tasks (r = -0.30, p = 0.23). Evaluating the difficulty of achieving recommended CPM performance levels requires more than simply counting the tasks involved; using FJA to assess the complexity of CPMs' component tasks presents an alternate means of assessing the difficulty of primary-care CPMs and accounting for performance variation among measures and performers. This in turn could be used in designing

  11. The effect of two complexity factors on the performance of emergency tasks-An experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Jung, Kwangtae

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the use of procedures is very important in securing the safety of process systems, since good procedures effectively guide human operators by providing 'what should be done' and 'how to do it', especially under stressful conditions. At the same time, it has been emphasized that the use of complicated procedures could drastically impair operators' performance. This means that a systematic approach that can properly evaluate the complexity of procedures is indispensable for minimizing the side effects of complicated procedures. For this reason, Park et al. have developed a task complexity measure called TACOM that can be used to quantify the complexity of tasks stipulated in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The TACOM measure consists of five sub-measures that can cover five important factors making the performance of emergency tasks complicated. However, a verification activity for two kinds of complexity factors-the level of abstraction hierarchy (AH) and engineering decision (ED)-seems to be insufficient. In this study, therefore, an experiment is conducted by using a low-fidelity simulator in order to clarify the appropriateness of these complexity factors. As a result, it seems that subjects' performance data are affected by the level of AH as well as ED. Therefore it is anticipate that both the level of AH and ED will play an important role in evaluating the complexity of EOPs

  12. Better decision making in complex, dynamic tasks training with human-facilitated interactive learning environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...

  13. Transfer of skill engendered by complex task training under conditions of variable priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I; Neider, Mark; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika; Lee, HyunKyu; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    We explored the theoretical underpinnings of a commonly used training strategy by examining issues of training and transfer of skill in the context of a complex video game (Space Fortress, Donchin, 1989). Participants trained using one of two training regimens: Full Emphasis Training (FET) or Variable Priority Training (VPT). Transfer of training was assessed with a large battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks ranging from basic laboratory paradigms measuring reasoning, memory, and attention to complex real-world simulations. Consistent with previous studies, VPT accelerated learning and maximized task mastery. However, the hypothesis that VPT would result in broader transfer of training received limited support. Rather, transfer was most evident in tasks that were most similar to the Space Fortress game itself. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations of the VPT approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Performance-Contingent Incentives when Task Complexity is Manipulated through Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Wynder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When, and how, performance-contingent incentives improve performance is an important question fororganisations. Empirical results have been mixed – performance-contingent incentives sometimes increaseperformance, sometimes decrease performance, and sometimes have no effect. Theorists have called forfurther research to identify the effect of various moderating variables, including knowledge and taskcomplexity. This study responds by considering the role of instruction in providing the necessary knowledgeto reduce task complexity. The results suggest that a performance-contingent penalty can be a particularlyeffective means of directing effort for a simple task. For a complex task, performance can be improvedthrough instruction. The type of instruction is important – with rule-based instruction effectively directingeffort – however principle-based instruction is necessary to facilitate problem investigation and problemsolving.

  15. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  16. The effect of a priori probability and complexity on decision making in a supervisory control task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Passenier, P.O.; Houttuin, K.; Schuffel, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we investigated how monitoring and fault management in a ship control task are affected by complexity and a priori probability of disturbances. Partici-pants were required to supervise four independent shipping subsystems and to adjust the subsystems whenever deviations

  17. Core Self-Evaluations as Causes of Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Seeking Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Locke, Edwin A.; Judge, Timothy A.; Adams, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of task complexity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and satisfaction. In Study 1, eighty three undergraduate business students worked on a strategic decision-making simulation. The simulated environment enabled us to verify the temporal sequence of variables, use an objective measure of…

  18. Cognitive Task Complexity Effects on L2 Writing Performance: An Application of Mixed-Methods Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi Tabari, Mahmoud; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a methodological review of previous research on cognitive task complexity, since the term emerged in 1995, and investigates why much research was more quantitative rather than qualitative. Moreover, it sheds light onto the studies which used the mixed-methods approach and determines which version of the mixed-methods designs…

  19. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  20. Time for actions in lucid dreams: Effects of task modality, length, and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eErlacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (Erlacher & Schredl, 2004; LaBerge, 1985, but Erlacher and Schredl (2004 found that performing squats required about 40 % more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted.In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20 and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20 or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps.Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics. However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.

  1. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.

  2. Complex neural codes in rat prelimbic cortex are stable across days on a spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel J. Powell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rodent prelimbic cortex has been shown to play an important role in cognitive processing, and has been implicated in encoding many different parameters relevant to solving decision-making tasks. However, it is not known how the prelimbic cortex represents all these disparate variables, and if they are simultaneously represented when the task requires it. In order to investigate this question, we trained rats to run the Multiple-T Left Right Alternate (MT-LRA task and recorded multi-unit ensembles from their prelimbic regions. Significant populations of cells in the prelimbic cortex represented the strategy controlling reward receipt on a given lap, whether the animal chose to go right or left on a given lap, and whether the animal made a correct decision or an error on a given lap. These populations overlapped in the cells recorded, with several cells demonstrating differential firing to all three variables. The spatial and strategic firing patterns of individual prelimbic cells were highly conserved across several days of running this task, indicating that each cell encoded the same information across days.

  3. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm.

  4. On solving the Schrödinger equation for a complex deictic potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Making use of an ansatz for the eigenfunction, we investigate closed-form solutions of the Schrödinger equation for an even power complex deictic potential and its variant in one dimension. For this purpose, extended complex phase-space approach is utilized and nature of the eigenvalue and the corresponding ...

  5. The complexity of interior point methods for solving discounted turn-based stochastic games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for general 2TBSGs. This implies that a number of interior point methods can be used to solve 2TBSGs. We consider two such algorithms: the unified interior point method of Kojima, Megiddo, Noma, and Yoshise, and the interior point potential reduction algorithm of Kojima, Megiddo, and Ye. The algorithms run...... states and discount factor γ we get κ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) , −δ=Θ(n√1−γ) , and 1/θ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) in the worst case. The lower bounds for κ, − δ, and 1/θ are all obtained using the same family of deterministic games....

  6. Investigating long-range correlation properties in EEG during complex cognitive tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkare, Siddharth; Saha, Goutam; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Previous work shows the presence of scale invariance and long-range correlations in ongoing and spontaneous activity of large scale brain responses (i.e. EEG), and such scaling behavior can also be modulated by simple sensory stimulus. However, little is known whether such alteration but not destruction in scaling properties also occurs during complex cognitive processing and if neuroplasticity plays any role in mediating such changes. In this study, we addressed these issues by investigating scaling properties of multivariate EEG signals obtained from two broad groups - artists and non-artists - while they performed complex tasks of perception and mental imagery of visual art objects. We found that brain regions showing increased correlation properties from rest were similar for both tasks, suggesting that brain networks responsible for visual perception are reactivated for mental imagery. Further, we observed that the two groups could be differentiated by scaling exponents and an artificial neural network based classifier achieved a classification efficiency of over 80%. These results altogether suggest that specific complex cognitive task demands and task-specific expertise can modify the temporal scale-free dynamics of brain responses.

  7. Investigating long-range correlation properties in EEG during complex cognitive tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkare, Siddharth [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Saha, Goutam [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhattacharya, Joydeep [Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, New Cross, London SE14 6NW (United Kingdom); Commission for Scientific Visualization, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna A1220 (Austria)], E-mail: j.bhattacharya@gold.ac.uk

    2009-11-30

    Previous work shows the presence of scale invariance and long-range correlations in ongoing and spontaneous activity of large scale brain responses (i.e. EEG), and such scaling behavior can also be modulated by simple sensory stimulus. However, little is known whether such alteration but not destruction in scaling properties also occurs during complex cognitive processing and if neuroplasticity plays any role in mediating such changes. In this study, we addressed these issues by investigating scaling properties of multivariate EEG signals obtained from two broad groups - artists and non-artists - while they performed complex tasks of perception and mental imagery of visual art objects. We found that brain regions showing increased correlation properties from rest were similar for both tasks, suggesting that brain networks responsible for visual perception are reactivated for mental imagery. Further, we observed that the two groups could be differentiated by scaling exponents and an artificial neural network based classifier achieved a classification efficiency of over 80%. These results altogether suggest that specific complex cognitive task demands and task-specific expertise can modify the temporal scale-free dynamics of brain responses.

  8. Thinking Aloud While Solving a Stock-Flow Task: Surfacing the Correlation Heuristic and Other Reasoning Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Raaijmakers, S.F.J.M.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, it is assumed that individuals, while performing stock-flow tasks, often use a correlation heuristic, a form of pattern matching in which they think that the behavior of the stock resembles the (net) flow. To investigate this assumption and to increase our insight in the actual

  9. The Intersection of Task-Based Interaction, Task Complexity, and Working Memory: L2 Question Development through Recasts in a Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YouJin; Payant, Caroline; Pearson, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which individual differences in cognitive abilities affect the relationship among task complexity, attention to form, and second language development has been addressed only minimally in the cognition hypothesis literature. The present study explores how reasoning demands in tasks and working memory (WM) capacity predict learners'…

  10. Electroencephalogram complexity analysis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during a visual cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moeini, Mahdi; Malmir, Nastaran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics using complexity analysis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with healthy control children when performing a cognitive task. Thirty 7-12-year-old children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for ADHD and 30 healthy control children underwent an EEG evaluation during a cognitive task, and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) values were computed. There were no significant differences between ADHD and control groups on age and gender. The mean LZC of the ADHD children was significantly larger than healthy children over the right anterior and right posterior regions during the cognitive performance. In the ADHD group, complexity of the right hemisphere was higher than that of the left hemisphere, but the complexity of the left hemisphere was higher than that of the right hemisphere in the normal group. Although fronto-striatal dysfunction is considered conclusive evidence for the pathophysiology of ADHD, our arithmetic mental task has provided evidence of structural and functional changes in the posterior regions and probably cerebellum in ADHD.

  11. An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Song; Song Fei; Li Zhizhong; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei; He Xuhong; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2008-01-01

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs

  12. An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song; Song Fei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xuhong [Scanpower Risk Management China Inc., Towercrest International Plaza, No. 3 Maizidian West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 (China); Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs.

  13. SENARIET, A Programme To Solve Transient Flows Of Liquids In Complex Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Munoz, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Perena-Tapiador, A.

    2011-05-01

    SENARIET is a programme to study fluid transients in pipeline systems in order to obtain pressure and velocity distributions along a circuit. When a transient process occurs in periods of the same order of the pressure waves’ travelling time along a circuit (the order of the circuit length divided by the effective propagation speed), the compressibility effects in liquids have to be considered. Taking this effect into account, the appropriate equations of continuity and momentum are solved by the method of characteristics, to obtain pressure and velocity along pipes as a function of time. The simulated results have been compared to theoretical and experimental ones to validate and evaluate the precision of the software. The results help to perform efficient and accurate predictions in order to define the propulsion sub-system. This type of analysis is very important in order to evaluate the water hammer effects in propulsion systems used on spacecrafts and launchers.

  14. An elitist teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for solving complex constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired population based algorithms is a research field which simulates different natural phenomena to solve a wide range of problems. Researchers have proposed several algorithms considering different natural phenomena. Teaching-Learning-based optimization (TLBO is one of the recently proposed population based algorithm which simulates the teaching-learning process of the class room. This algorithm does not require any algorithm-specific control parameters. In this paper, elitism concept is introduced in the TLBO algorithm and its effect on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. The effects of common controlling parameters such as the population size and the number of generations on the performance of the algorithm are also investigated. The proposed algorithm is tested on 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics and the performance of the algorithm is compared with that of other well known optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm can be applied to various optimization problems of the industrial environment.

  15. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their lack of vision, congenitally blind subjects are able to build and manipulate cognitive maps for spatial navigation. It is assumed that they thereby rely more heavily on echolocation, proprioceptive signals and environmental cues such as ambient temperature and audition to compensate...... imaging (fMRI) in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted participants while they navigated through a tactile multiple T-maze. Both groups learned the maze task at a similar pace. In blind participants, tactile maze navigation was associated with increased BOLD responses in the right hippocampus...

  16. Sonification and haptic feedback in addition to visual feedback enhances complex motor task learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to be less effective for learning simple motor tasks than for complex tasks. However, as mostly artificial tasks have been investigated, transfer of results to tasks in sports and rehabilitation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different concurrent feedback was evaluated in trunk-arm rowing. It was then investigated whether multimodal audiovisual and visuohaptic feedback are more effective for learning than visual feedback only. Naïve subjects (N = 24) trained in three groups on a highly realistic virtual reality-based rowing simulator. In the visual feedback group, the subject's oar was superimposed to the target oar, which continuously became more transparent when the deviation between the oars decreased. Moreover, a trace of the subject's trajectory emerged if deviations exceeded a threshold. The audiovisual feedback group trained with oar movement sonification in addition to visual feedback to facilitate learning of the velocity profile. In the visuohaptic group, the oar movement was inhibited by path deviation-dependent braking forces to enhance learning of spatial aspects. All groups significantly decreased the spatial error (tendency in visual group) and velocity error from baseline to the retention tests. Audiovisual feedback fostered learning of the velocity profile significantly more than visuohaptic feedback. The study revealed that well-designed concurrent feedback fosters complex task learning, especially if the advantages of different modalities are exploited. Further studies should analyze the impact of within-feedback design parameters and the transferability of the results to other tasks in sports and rehabilitation.

  17. Analysis of Operators Comments on the PSF Questionnaire of the Task Complexity Experiment 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, B.; Martinez-Arias, R.

    2007-07-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods usually take into account the effect of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF). Therefore, the adequate treatment of PSFs in HRA of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models has a crucial importance. There is an important need for collecting PSF data based on simulator experiments. During the task complexity experiment 2003-2004, carried out in the BWR simulator of Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), there was a data collection on PSF by means of a PSF Questionnaire. Seven crews (composed of shift supervisor, reactor operator and turbine operator) from Swedish Nuclear Power Plants participated in the experiment. The PSF Questionnaire collected data on the factors: procedures, training and experience, indications, controls, team management, team communication, individual work practice, available time for the tasks, number of tasks or information load, masking and seriousness. The main statistical significant results are presented on Performance Shaping Factors data collection and analysis of the task complexity experiment 2003/2004 (HWR-810). The analysis of the comments about PSFs, which were provided by operators on the PSF Questionnaire, is described. It has been summarised the comments provided for each PSF on the scenarios, using a content analysis technique. (Author)

  18. Analysis of Operators Comments on the PSF Questionnaire of the Task Complexity Experiment 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, B.; Martinez-Arias, R.

    2007-01-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods usually take into account the effect of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF). Therefore, the adequate treatment of PSFs in HRA of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models has a crucial importance. There is an important need for collecting PSF data based on simulator experiments. During the task complexity experiment 2003-2004, carried out in the BWR simulator of Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), there was a data collection on PSF by means of a PSF Questionnaire. Seven crews (composed of shift supervisor, reactor operator and turbine operator) from Swedish Nuclear Power Plants participated in the experiment. The PSF Questionnaire collected data on the factors: procedures, training and experience, indications, controls, team management, team communication, individual work practice, available time for the tasks, number of tasks or information load, masking and seriousness. The main statistical significant results are presented on Performance Shaping Factors data collection and analysis of the task complexity experiment 2003/2004 (HWR-810). The analysis of the comments about PSFs, which were provided by operators on the PSF Questionnaire, is described. It has been summarised the comments provided for each PSF on the scenarios, using a content analysis technique. (Author)

  19. An algorithm for solving thermalhydraulic equations in complex geometries: the Astec code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    By applying a finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, the ASTEC computer code allows three-dimensional incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer in complex geometries to be simulated realistically, without making excessive demands on computing resources. The methods used in the code are described, and examples of the application of the code are presented

  20. On solving the Schrödinger equation for a complex deictic potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue exists only if the potential parameters are complex, whereas it reduces to zero for real coupling parameters and the result coincides with those derived from the invariance of Hamiltonian under PT operations. Thus, a non-Hermitian. Hamiltonian possesses real eigenvalue, if it is ...

  1. A parallel FE-FV scheme to solve fluid flow in complex geologic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Matthäi, Stephan; Geiger, Sebastian; Driesner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Field data-based simulations of geologic systems require much computational time because of their mathematical complexity and the often desired large scales in space and time. To conduct accurate simulations in an acceptable time period, methods to reduce runtime are required. A parallelization

  2. Mathematical Modelling to Solve Tasks of Profiled Cross of Robot Systems with a Wheel-Legged Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Diakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main trends for development of promising military equipment is to create transport robot systems (TRS.To conduct a theoretical study of the potential properties of TRS mobility was used a software package for invariant simulation of multibody dynamics system "Euler", which allows us to solve problems regarding the "large displacements", typical for TRS.The modelling results of TRS motion dynamics when overcoming the single-stage and two stages, which are higher than the roller diameter of propeller are obtained.Analysis of modelling results of the TRS motion dynamics to overcome obstacles commensurate with its dimensions allows us to conclude that the use of wheel-legged three-roller propulsion can provide the required level of permeability and, as a result, increasing TRS mobility.

  3. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.

  4. A Joint Positioning and Attitude Solving Method for Shearer and Scraper Conveyor under Complex Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fully mechanized coal-mining face, the positioning and attitude of the shearer and scraper conveyor are inaccurate. To overcome this problem, a joint positioning and attitude solving method that considers the effect of an uneven floor is proposed. In addition, the real-time connection and coupling relationship between the two devices is analyzed. Two types of sensors, namely, the tilt sensor and strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, are used to measure the shearer body pitch angle and the scraper conveyor shape, respectively. To improve the accuracy, two pieces of information are fused using the adaptive information fusion algorithm. It is observed that, using a marking strategy, the shearer body pitch angle can be reversely mapped to the real-time shape of the scraper conveyor. Then, a virtual-reality (VR software that can visually simulate this entire operation process under different conditions is developed. Finally, experiments are conducted on a prototype experimental platform. The positioning error is found to be less than 0.38 times the middle trough length; moreover, no accumulated error is detected. This method can monitor the operation of the shearer and scraper conveyor in a highly dynamic and precise manner and provide strong technical support for safe and efficient operation of a fully mechanized coal-mining face.

  5. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  6. A comparison of iterative methods to solve complex valued linear algebraic systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Neytcheva, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2013), s. 811-841 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : linear systems * complex symmetric * real valued form * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2013 http://www.it.uu.se/research/publications/reports/2013-005/2013-005-nc.pdf

  7. Problem Identification and Task Engagement Using the LIBRE Problem Solving Tool: A Case Study of Three Bilingual Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Norma; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Cheatham, Nicholas; Claeys, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual Latino students engage multiple languages, cultures and environments as they pursue educational and professional goals. For this underrepresented group, pursuing a post-secondary degree is a "lucha" (fight) to negotiate the complex interplay of historical, educational, and cultural variables and achieve academic success.…

  8. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  9. Cognitive function predicts listening effort performance during complex tasks in normally aging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennine Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson III (WCJ-III assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11 who were 41–61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9 who were 63–81 years old (mean = 72.07; SD = 5.11. Participants were administered the WCJ-III Memory for Words, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Matching, and Decision Speed subtests. All participants were tested in each of the following three dual-task experimental conditions, which were varying in complexity: (1 auditory word recognition + visual processing, (2 auditory working memory (word + visual processing, and (3 auditory working memory (sentence + visual processing in noise. Results: A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that task complexity significantly affected the performance measures of auditory accuracy, visual accuracy, and processing speed. Linear regression revealed that the cognitive subtests of the WCJ-III test significantly predicted performance across dependent variable measures. Conclusion: Listening effort is significantly affected by task complexity, regardless of age. Performance on the WCJ-III test may predict listening effort in adults and may assist speech-language pathologist (SLPs to understand challenges faced by participants when subjected to noise.

  10. Using the complex Langevin equation to solve the sign problem of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexty, Denes [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Using the resources of SuperMUC we have been able to calculate the reweighting results and compare them to the CLE for lattice sizes up to Nt=8. This did not allow the exploration of the phase transition line. It's an open question whether increasing the lattice size will allow us to go to smaller temperatures. The cost of larger lattices is of course increasing, especially the reweighting becomes much more expensive at larger volumes, as it's cost is proportional to the spatial volume cubed. An other important open question is the question of the poles: the fermionic drift term has singularities on the complex manifold, which in some cases can lead to the breakdown of the method, but it is unknown what its effect is on QCD, especially at low temperatures.

  11. Relationship between Usefulness Assessments and Perceptions of Work Task Complexity and Search Topic Specificity: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Wang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the relations between the usefulness assessments of retrieved documents and the perceptions of task complexity and search topic specificity. Twenty-three academic researchers submitted 65 real task-based information search topics. These task topics were searched...... in an integrated document collection consisting of full text research articles in PDFs, abstracts, and bibliographic records (the iSearch Test Collection in Physics). The search results were provided to the researchers who, as task performers, made assessments of usefulness using a four-point sale (highly, fairly......, marginally, or not useful). In addition, they also assessed the perceived task complexity (highly, fairly, and routine/low) and the perceived specificity of the search topic (highly, fairly, and generic/low). It is found that highly specific topics associate with all degrees of task complexity, whereas...

  12. The effect of task complexity and task conditions on foreign language development and performance: three empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sercu, L.; de Wachter, L.; Peters, E.; Kuiken, F.; Vedder, I.

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that tasks constitute a valid alternative unit to sequence the language learning process, as opposed to linguistically defined syllabuses. Implementing this claim presupposes that it is possible to access the cognitive and linguistic demands of tasks, so that they can be sequenced

  13. Detecting gait abnormalities after concussion or mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of single-task, dual-task, and complex gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Peter C; Parrington, Lucy; Pitt, Will; Martini, Douglas N; Chesnutt, James C; Chou, Li-Shan; King, Laurie A

    2018-05-01

    While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion. Data sources included MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) accessed on March 14, 2017. Original research articles reporting gait outcomes in people with concussion or mTBI were included. Studies of moderate, severe, or unspecified TBI, and studies without a comparator were excluded. After screening 233 articles, 38 studies were included and assigned to one or more sections based on the protocol and reported outcomes. Twenty-six articles reported single-task simple gait outcomes, 24 reported dual-task simple gait outcomes, 21 reported single-task complex gait outcomes, and 10 reported dual-task complex gait outcomes. Overall, this review provides evidence for two conclusions: 1) gait is abnormal acutely after concussion/mTBI but generally resolves over time; and 2) the inconsistency of findings, small sample sizes, and small number of studies examining homogenous measures at the same time-period post-concussion highlight the need for replication across independent populations and investigators. Future research should concentrate on dual-task and complex gait tasks, as they showed promise for detecting abnormal locomotor function outside of the acute timeframe. Additionally, studies should provide detailed demographic and clinical characteristics to enable more refined comparisons across studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EEG Analysis during complex diagnostic tasks in Nuclear Power Plants - Simulator-based Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    In literature, there are a lot of studies based on EEG signals during cognitive activities of human-beings but most of them dealt with simple cognitive activities such as transforming letters into Morse code, subtraction, reading, semantic memory search, visual search, memorizing a set of words and so on. In this work, EEG signals were analyzed during complex diagnostic tasks in NPP simulator-based environment. Investigated are the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band EEG powers during the diagnostic tasks. The experimental design and procedure are represented in section 2 and the results are shown in section 3. Finally some considerations are discussed and the direction for the further work is proposed in section 4

  15. Stress influences decisions to break a safety rule in a complex simulation task in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Brand, Matthias; Kluge, Annette

    2016-07-01

    The current study examines the effects of acutely induced laboratory stress on a complex decision-making task, the Waste Water Treatment Simulation. Participants are instructed to follow a certain decision rule according to safety guidelines. Violations of this rule are associated with potential high rewards (working faster and earning more money) but also with the risk of a catastrophe (an explosion). Stress was induced with the Trier Social Stress Test while control participants underwent a non-stress condition. In the simulation task, stressed females broke the safety rule more often than unstressed females: χ(2) (1, N=24)=10.36, pbreak the safety rule because stressed female participants focused on the potential high gains while they neglected the risk of potential negative consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EEG Analysis during complex diagnostic tasks in Nuclear Power Plants - Simulator-based Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In literature, there are a lot of studies based on EEG signals during cognitive activities of human-beings but most of them dealt with simple cognitive activities such as transforming letters into Morse code, subtraction, reading, semantic memory search, visual search, memorizing a set of words and so on. In this work, EEG signals were analyzed during complex diagnostic tasks in NPP simulator-based environment. Investigated are the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band EEG powers during the diagnostic tasks. The experimental design and procedure are represented in section 2 and the results are shown in section 3. Finally some considerations are discussed and the direction for the further work is proposed in section 4.

  17. Task Phase Recognition for Highly Mobile Workers in Large Building Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Mathisen, Andreas; Krogh, Søren

    2016-01-01

    requirements on the accuracy of the indoor positioning, and thus come with low deployment and maintenance effort in real-world settings. We evaluated the proposed methods in a large hospital complex, where the highly mobile workers were recruited among the non-clinical workforce. The evaluation is based......-scale indoor work environments, namely from a WiFi infrastructure providing coarse grained indoor positioning, from inertial sensors in the workers’ mobile phones, and from a task management system yielding information about the scheduled tasks’ start and end locations. The methods presented have low...... on manually labelled real-world data collected over 4 days of regular work life of the mobile workforce. The collected data yields 83 tasks in total involving 8 different orderlies from a major university hospital with a building area of 160, 000 m2. The results show that the proposed methods can distinguish...

  18. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment Using Smart Home Monitoring of Complex Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-11-01

    One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the automated assessment of resident well-being. We hypothesize that the functional health of individuals, or ability of individuals to perform activities independently without assistance, can be estimated by tracking their activities using smart home technologies. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for assessing activity quality in smart homes. To validate our approach we quantify activity quality for 179 volunteer participants who performed a complex, interweaved set of activities in our smart home apartment. We observed a statistically significant correlation (r=0.79) between automated assessment of task quality and direct observation scores. Using machine learning techniques to predict the cognitive health of the participants based on task quality is accomplished with an AUC value of 0.64. We believe that this capability is an important step in understanding everyday functional health of individuals in their home environments.

  19. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbens, Jordan R.; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016). In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:28736569

  20. Close contacts at the interface: Experimental-computational synergies for solving complexity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Juan; Zanuy, David; Bertran, Oscar; Alemán, Carlos; Puiggalí, Jordi; Turón, Pau; Revilla-López, Guillem

    2018-02-01

    The study of material science has been long devoted to the disentanglement of bulk structures which mainly entails finding the inner structure of materials. That structure is accountable for a major portion of materials' properties. Yet, as our knowledge of these "backbones" enlarged so did the interest for the materials' boundaries properties which means the properties at the frontier with the surrounding environment that is called interface. The interface is thus to be understood as the sum of the material's surface plus the surrounding environment be it in solid, liquid or gas phase. The study of phenomena at this interface requires both the use of experimental and theoretical techniques and, above all, a wise combination of them in order to shed light over the most intimate details at atomic, molecular and mesostructure levels. Here, we report several cases to be used as proof of concept of the results achieved when studying interface phenomena by combining a myriad of experimental and theoretical tools to overcome the usual limitation regardind atomic detail, size and time scales and systems of complex composition. Real world examples of the combined experimental-theoretical work and new tools, software, is offered to the readers.

  1. Human strategies for solving a time-place learning task: the role of counting and following verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Aguilar, Francisco; Armenta, Benjamín; Carpio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the emergence of time-place learning in humans. In experiment 1, a computer based software was designed in which participants had to choose to enter one of four rooms in an abandoned house search for a zombie every 3-15s. Zombies could be found in only one of these rooms every trial in 3 min periods during the 12 min sessions. After 4 training sessions, participants were exposed to a probe session in which zombies could be found in any room on every trial. Almost all participants behaved as if they were timing the availability intervals: they anticipated the changes in the location of the zombie and they persisted in their performance patterns during the probe session; however, verbal reports revealed that they were counting the number of trials in each period in order to decide when to switch between rooms. In the second experiment, the task was modified in two ways: counting was made harder by using three different intertrial ranges within each session: 2-6s, 2-11s and 2-16s. Second, labels were displaced during the final session to assess whether participants learned to click on a given place or to follow a set of verbal cues. We found that participants did not notice the label changes suggesting that they learned to click on a given place, and that a win/stay-lose/shift strategy was clearly used to decide when to switch rooms in the second experiment. The implications of verbal behavior when assessing time-place learning with humans and the possible differences in this process between humans and animals are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2007-08-01

    A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow

  3. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  4. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Junsu; Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance

  5. Effect of Passive Hyperthermia on Working Memory Resources during Simple and Complex Cognitive Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoua, Nadia; Herrera, Christopher P; Périard, Julien D; El Massioui, Farid; Racinais, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that hyperthermia represents a cognitive load limiting available resources for executing concurrent cognitive tasks. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG: alpha and theta power) was obtained in 10 hyperthermic participants in HOT (50°C, 50% RH) conditions and in a normothermic state in CON (25°C, 50% RH) conditions in counterbalanced order. In each trial, EEG was measured over the frontal lobe prior to task engagement (PRE) in each condition and during simple (One Touch Stockings of Cambridge, OTS-4) and complex (OTS-6) cognitive tasks. Core (39.5 ± 0.5 vs. 36.9 ± 0.2°C) and mean skin (39.06 ± 0.3 vs. 31.6 ± 0.6°C) temperatures were significantly higher in HOT than CON ( p cognitive load. However, this load disappeared during OTS-6 together with an impaired performance, suggesting a potential saturation of the available resources.

  6. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  8. Effects of hand orientation on motor imagery--event related potentials suggest kinesthetic motor imagery to solve the hand laterality judgment task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Okely, Judith; Baas, C Marjolein; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the process of imagining the execution of a specific motor action without actually producing an overt movement. Two forms of MI have been distinguished: visual MI and kinesthetic MI. To distinguish between these forms of MI we employed an event related potential (ERP) study to measure interference effects induced by hand orientation manipulations in a hand laterality judgement task. We hypothesized that this manipulation should only affect kinesthetic MI but not visual MI. The ERPs elicited by rotated hand stimuli contained the classic rotation related negativity (RRN) with respect to palm view stimuli. We observed that laterally rotated stimuli led to a more marked RRN than medially rotated stimuli. This RRN effect was observed when participants had their hands positioned in either a straight (control) or an inward rotated posture, but not when their hands were positioned in an outward rotated posture. Posture effects on the ERP-RRN have not previously been studied. Apparently, a congruent hand posture (hands positioned in an outward rotated fashion) facilitates the judgement of the otherwise more demanding laterally rotated hand stimuli. These ERP findings support a kinesthetic interpretation of MI involved in solving the hand laterality judgement task. The RRN may be used as a non-invasive marker for kinesthetic MI and seems useful in revealing the covert behavior of MI in e.g. rehabilitation programs.

  9. Effect of Error Augmentation on Brain Activation and Motor Learning of a Complex Locomotor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors—error amplification and random force disturbance—and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the experiment with a robotic stepper (MARCOS in a 1.5 T MR scanner. The task consisted in tracking a Lissajous figure presented on a display by coordinating the legs in a gait-like movement pattern. Behavioral results showed that training without perturbations enhanced motor learning in initially less skilled subjects, while error amplification benefited better-skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, hampered transfer of learning. Randomly disturbing forces induced learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because the unexpected forces increased subjects' attention. Functional MRI revealed main effects of training strategy and skill level during training. A main effect of training strategy was seen in brain regions typically associated with motor control and learning, such as, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, intraparietal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Especially, random disturbance and no perturbation lead to stronger brain activation in similar brain regions than error amplification. Skill-level related effects were observed in the IPS, in parts of the superior parietal lobe (SPL, i.e., precuneus, and temporal cortex. These neuroimaging findings

  10. Dynamic Modeling as a Cognitive Regulation Scaffold for Developing Complex Problem-Solving Skills in an Educational Massively Multiplayer Online Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving…

  11. Functional brain imaging of a complex navigation task following one night of total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Gary; Thompson, John H.; Strauss, Monica M.; Marshburn, Thomas H.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the cerebral effects associated with sleep deprivation in a simulation of a complex, real-world, high-risk task. Design and Interventions: A two-week, repeated measures, cross-over experimental protocol, with counterbalanced orders of normal sleep (NS) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). Setting: Each subject underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a dual-joystick, 3D sensorimotor navigation task (simulated orbital docking). Scanning was performed twice per subject, once following a night of normal sleep (NS), and once following a single night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Five runs (eight 24s docking trials each) were performed during each scanning session. Participants: Six healthy, young, right-handed volunteers (2 women; mean age 20) participated. Measurements and Results: Behavioral performance on multiple measures was comparable in the two sleep conditions. Neuroimaging results within sleep conditions revealed similar locations of peak activity for NS and TSD, including left sensorimotor cortex, left precuneus (BA 7), and right visual areas (BA 18/19). However, cerebral activation following TSD was substantially larger and exhibited higher amplitude modulations from baseline. When directly comparing NS and TSD, most regions exhibited TSD>NS activity, including multiple prefrontal cortical areas (BA 8/9,44/45,47), lateral parieto-occipital areas (BA 19/39, 40), superior temporal cortex (BA 22), and bilateral thalamus and amygdala. Only left parietal cortex (BA 7) demonstrated NS>TSD activity. Conclusions: The large network of cerebral differences between the two conditions, even with comparable behavioral performance, suggests the possibility of detecting TSD-induced stress via functional brain imaging techniques on complex tasks before stress-induced failures.

  12. The concentric model of human working memory: A validation study using complex span and updating tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichkovsky B. B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Working memory (WM seems to be central to most forms of high-level cognition. This fact is fueling the growing interest in studying its structure and functional organization. The influential “concentric model” (Oberauer, 2002 suggests that WM contains a processing component and two storage components with different capacity limitations and sensitivity to interference. There is, to date, only limited support for the concentric model in the research literature, and it is limited to a number of specially designed tasks. Objective. In the present paper, we attempted to validate the concentric model by testing its major predictions using complex span and updating tasks in a number of experimental paradigms. Method. The model predictions were tested with the help of review of data obtained primarily in our own experiments in several research domains, including Sternberg’s additive factors method; factor structure of WM; serial position effects in WM; and WM performance in a sample with episodic long-term memory deficits. Results. Predictions generated by the concentric model were shown to hold in all these domains. In addition, several new properties of WM were identified. In particular, we recently found that WM indeed contains a processing component which functions independent of storage components. In turn, the latter were found to form a storage hierarchy which balances fast access to selected items, with the storing of large amounts of potentially relevant information. Processing and storage in WM were found to be dependent on shared cognitive resources which are dynamically allocated between WM components according to actual task requirements. e implications of these findings for the theory of WM are discussed. Conclusion. The concentric model was shown to be valid with respect to standard WM tasks. The concentric model others promising research perspectives for the study of higher- order cognition, including underlying

  13. Effect of Passive Hyperthermia on Working Memory Resources during Simple and Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaoua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that hyperthermia represents a cognitive load limiting available resources for executing concurrent cognitive tasks. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG: alpha and theta power was obtained in 10 hyperthermic participants in HOT (50°C, 50% RH conditions and in a normothermic state in CON (25°C, 50% RH conditions in counterbalanced order. In each trial, EEG was measured over the frontal lobe prior to task engagement (PRE in each condition and during simple (One Touch Stockings of Cambridge, OTS-4 and complex (OTS-6 cognitive tasks. Core (39.5 ± 0.5 vs. 36.9 ± 0.2°C and mean skin (39.06 ± 0.3 vs. 31.6 ± 0.6°C temperatures were significantly higher in HOT than CON (p < 0.005. Theta power significantly increased with task demand (p = 0.017, η2 = 0.36 and was significantly higher in HOT than CON (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.39. The difference between HOT and CON was large (η2 = 0.40 and significant (p = 0.036 PRE, large (η2 = 0.20 but not significant (p = 0.17 during OTS-4, and disappeared during OTS-6 (p = 0.87, η2 = 0.00. Those changes in theta power suggest that hyperthermia may act as an additional cognitive load. However, this load disappeared during OTS-6 together with an impaired performance, suggesting a potential saturation of the available resources.

  14. Probability distribution functions of δ15N and δ18O in groundwater nitrate to probabilistically solve complex mixing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Davis, P.; Syme, J.; Hagerty, S.; Perkins, G.; Larson, T. E.; Longmire, P.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    . Each resulting triangle containing the sample isotopic composition forms a tri-linear diagram that can be solved directly for the mixing fraction from each source. When repeated over each sampled set of source isotopic compositions, this process results in a large number of plausible mixing ratios that are described by a PDF. We tested the method using a pre-defined mixing ratio of a number of sources contributing to a hypothetical groundwater sample. Finally, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of this method compared to other methods available to solve complex mixing problems.

  15. Investigating the Appropriateness of the TACOM Measure: Application to the Complexity of Proceduralized Tasks for High Speed Train Drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Ko, Jong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    According to wide-spread experience in many industries, a procedure is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce the possibility of human related problems. Unfortunately, a systematic framework to evaluate the complexity of procedural tasks seems to be very scant. For this reason, the TACOM measure, which can quantify the complexity of procedural tasks, has been developed. In this study, the appropriateness of the TACOM measure is investigated by comparing TACOM scores regarding the procedural tasks of high speed train drivers with the associated workload scores measured by the NASA-TLX technique. As a result, it is observed that there is a meaningful correlation between the TACOM scores and the associated NASA-TLX scores. Therefore, it is expected that the TACOM measure can properly quantify the complexity of procedural tasks

  16. Investigating the Appropriateness of the TACOM Measure: Application to the Complexity of Proceduralized Tasks for High Speed Train Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Hyun [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    According to wide-spread experience in many industries, a procedure is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce the possibility of human related problems. Unfortunately, a systematic framework to evaluate the complexity of procedural tasks seems to be very scant. For this reason, the TACOM measure, which can quantify the complexity of procedural tasks, has been developed. In this study, the appropriateness of the TACOM measure is investigated by comparing TACOM scores regarding the procedural tasks of high speed train drivers with the associated workload scores measured by the NASA-TLX technique. As a result, it is observed that there is a meaningful correlation between the TACOM scores and the associated NASA-TLX scores. Therefore, it is expected that the TACOM measure can properly quantify the complexity of procedural tasks

  17. The effects of overtime work and task complexity on the performance of nuclear plant operators: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Potash, L.

    1985-01-01

    This document presents a very general methodology for determining the effect of overtime work and task complexity on operator performance in response to simulated out-of-limit nuclear plant conditions. The independent variables consist of three levels of overtime work and three levels of task complexity. Multiple dependent performance measures are proposed for use and discussion. Overtime work is operationally defined in terms of the number of hours worked by nuclear plant operators beyond the traditional 8 hours per shift. Task complexity is operationalized in terms of the number of operator tasks required to remedy a given plant anomalous condition and bring the plant back to a ''within limits'' or ''normal'' steady-state condition. The proposed methodology would employ a 2 factor repeated measures design along with the analysis of variance (linear) model

  18. High-performance execution of psychophysical tasks with complex visual stimuli in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F.; Santhanam, Navaneethan; McClellan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral, psychological, and physiological experiments often require the ability to present sensory stimuli, monitor and record subjects' responses, interface with a wide range of devices, and precisely control the timing of events within a behavioral task. Here, we describe our recent progress developing an accessible and full-featured software system for controlling such studies using the MATLAB environment. Compared with earlier reports on this software, key new features have been implemented to allow the presentation of more complex visual stimuli, increase temporal precision, and enhance user interaction. These features greatly improve the performance of the system and broaden its applicability to a wider range of possible experiments. This report describes these new features and improvements, current limitations, and quantifies the performance of the system in a real-world experimental setting. PMID:23034363

  19. Does the centre of mass remain stable during complex human postural equilibrium tasks in weightlessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Paul; Pozzo, Thierry

    In normal gravity conditions the execution of voluntary movement involves the displacement of body segments as well as the maintenance of a stable reference value for equilibrium control. It has been suggested that centre of mass (CM) projection within the supporting base (BS) is the stabilised reference for voluntary action, and is conserved in weightlessness. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CM is stabilised during whole body reaching movements executed in weightlessness. The reaching task was conducted by two cosmonauts aboard the Russian orbital station MIR, during the Franco-Russian mission ALTAIR, 1993. Movements of reflective markers were recorded using a videocamera, successive images being reconstructed by computer every 40ms. The position of the CM, ankle joint torques and shank and thigh angles were computed for each subject pre- in- and post-flight using a 7-link mathematical model. Results showed that both cosmonauts adopted a backward leaning posture prior to reaching movements. Inflight, the CM was displaced throughout values in the horizontal axis three times those of pre-flight measures. In addition, ankle dorsi flexor torques inflight increased to values double those of pre- and post-flight tests. This study concluded that CM displacements do not remain stable during complex postural equilibrium tasks executed in weightlessness. Furthermore, in the absence of gravity, subjects changed their strategy for producing ankle torque during spaceflight from a forward to a backward leaning posture.

  20. Task complexity, posture, age, sex: which is the main factor influencing manual laterality in captive Cercocebus torquatus torquatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Agathe; Wallez, Catherine; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Behavioural asymmetries reflect brain asymmetry in nonhuman primates (NHP) as in humans. By investigating manual laterality, researchers can study the evolution of brain hemisphere specialisation. Three dominant theories aim to establish an evolutionary scenario. The most recent theory relates different levels of manual laterality to task complexity. Our investigation aimed to evaluate the importance of two extrinsic factors (posture and the need for manual coordination) and two intrinsic factors (age and sex) on the expression of manual laterality by red-capped mangabeys. We observed 19 captive-born mangabeys, in spontaneous situations and under experimental conditions (seven experimental tasks varying in complexity). No directionality was observed in hand preference at the group level whatever the task. But our data revealed an effect of task complexity: more subjects were lateralised than not lateralised for the bipedal task and for the three most complex tasks. Finally, we evidenced an age and a sex effect. We compare our results with data for several other primate species and discuss them in the light of different manual laterality theories.

  1. Effect of task complexity on intelligence and neural efficiency in children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Jiannong; Luo, Yuejia; Liu, Sainan; Yang, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2007-10-08

    The present study investigates the effects of task complexity, intelligence and neural efficiency on children's performance on an Elementary Cognitive Task. Twenty-three children were divided into two groups on the basis of their Raven Progressive Matrix scores and were then asked to complete a choice reaction task with two test conditions. We recorded the electroencephalogram and calculated the peak latencies and amplitudes for anteriorly distributed P225, N380 and late positive component. Our results suggested shorter late positive component latencies in brighter children, possibly reflecting a higher processing speed in these individuals. Increased P225 amplitude and increased N380 amplitudes for brighter children may indicate a more efficient allocation of attention for brighter children. No moderating effect of task complexity on brain-intelligence relationship was found.

  2. A FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLES OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY AND TASK-DEMAND DURING AUDITORY SENTENCE PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Haist, Frank; Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study directly examined an issue that bridges the potential language processing and multi-modal views of the role of Broca’s area: the effects of task-demands in language comprehension studies. We presented syntactically simple and complex sentences for auditory comprehension under three different (differentially complex) task-demand conditions: passive listening, probe verification, and theme judgment. Contrary to many language imaging findings, we found that both simple and complex syntactic structures activated left inferior frontal cortex (L-IFC). Critically, we found activation in these frontal regions increased together with increased task-demands. Specifically, tasks that required greater manipulation and comparison of linguistic material recruited L-IFC more strongly; independent of syntactic structure complexity. We argue that much of the presumed syntactic effects previously found in sentence imaging studies of L-IFC may, among other things, reflect the tasks employed in these studies and that L-IFC is a region underlying mnemonic and other integrative functions, on which much language processing may rely. PMID:16881268

  3. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  4. Referential Choices in a Collaborative Storytelling Task: Discourse Stages and Referential Complexity Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossard, Marion; Achim, Amélie M; Rousier-Vercruyssen, Lucie; Gonzalez, Sylvia; Bureau, Alexandre; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2018-01-01

    During a narrative discourse, accessibility of the referents is rarely fixed once and for all. Rather, each referent varies in accessibility as the discourse unfolds, depending on the presence and prominence of the other referents. This leads the speaker to use various referential expressions to refer to the main protagonists of the story at different moments in the narrative. This study relies on a new, collaborative storytelling in sequence task designed to assess how speakers adjust their referential choices when they refer to different characters at specific discourse stages corresponding to the introduction, maintaining, or shift of the character in focus, in increasingly complex referential contexts. Referential complexity of the stories was manipulated through variations in the number of characters (1 vs. 2) and, for stories in which there were two characters, in their ambiguity in gender (different vs. same gender). Data were coded for the type of reference markers as well as the type of reference content (i.e., the extent of the information provided in the referential expression). Results showed that, beyond the expected effects of discourse stages on reference markers (more indefinite markers at the introduction stage, more pronouns at the maintaining stage, and more definite markers at the shift stage), the number of characters and their ambiguity in gender also modulated speakers' referential choices at specific discourse stages, For the maintaining stage, an effect of the number of characters was observed for the use of pronouns and of definite markers, with more pronouns when there was a single character, sometimes replaced by definite expressions when two characters were present in the story. For the shift stage, an effect of gender ambiguity was specifically noted for the reference content with more specific information provided in the referential expression when there was referential ambiguity. Reference content is an aspect of referential marking

  5. Referential Choices in a Collaborative Storytelling Task: Discourse Stages and Referential Complexity Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fossard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During a narrative discourse, accessibility of the referents is rarely fixed once and for all. Rather, each referent varies in accessibility as the discourse unfolds, depending on the presence and prominence of the other referents. This leads the speaker to use various referential expressions to refer to the main protagonists of the story at different moments in the narrative. This study relies on a new, collaborative storytelling in sequence task designed to assess how speakers adjust their referential choices when they refer to different characters at specific discourse stages corresponding to the introduction, maintaining, or shift of the character in focus, in increasingly complex referential contexts. Referential complexity of the stories was manipulated through variations in the number of characters (1 vs. 2 and, for stories in which there were two characters, in their ambiguity in gender (different vs. same gender. Data were coded for the type of reference markers as well as the type of reference content (i.e., the extent of the information provided in the referential expression. Results showed that, beyond the expected effects of discourse stages on reference markers (more indefinite markers at the introduction stage, more pronouns at the maintaining stage, and more definite markers at the shift stage, the number of characters and their ambiguity in gender also modulated speakers' referential choices at specific discourse stages, For the maintaining stage, an effect of the number of characters was observed for the use of pronouns and of definite markers, with more pronouns when there was a single character, sometimes replaced by definite expressions when two characters were present in the story. For the shift stage, an effect of gender ambiguity was specifically noted for the reference content with more specific information provided in the referential expression when there was referential ambiguity. Reference content is an aspect of

  6. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was

  7. The Effects of Pre-Task Planning and On-line Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in L2 Monologic Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fangyuan; Ellis, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the effects of both pre-task and on-line planning on second language (L2) oral production. Results show that pre-task planning enhances grammatical complexity while on-line planning positively influences accuracy and grammatical complexity. Pre-task planners also produced more fluent and lexically varied language than the on-line…

  8. The impact of diurnal sleep on the consolidation of a complex gross motor adaptation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Birklbauer, Juergen; Schabus, Manuel; Eibenberger, Patrick; Rigler, Sandra; Mueller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal sleep effects on consolidation of a complex, ecological valid gross motor adaptation task were examined using a bicycle with an inverse steering device. We tested 24 male subjects aged between 20 and 29 years using a between-subjects design. Participants were trained to adapt to the inverse steering bicycle during 45 min. Performance was tested before (TEST1) and after (TEST2) training, as well as after a 2 h retention interval (TEST3). During retention, participants either slept or remained awake. To assess gross motor performance, subjects had to ride the inverse steering bicycle 3 × 30 m straight-line and 3 × 30 m through a slalom. Beyond riding time, we sophisticatedly measured performance accuracy (standard deviation of steering angle) in both conditions using a rotatory potentiometer. A significant decrease of accuracy during straight-line riding after nap and wakefulness was shown. Accuracy during slalom riding remained stable after wakefulness but was reduced after sleep. We found that the duration of rapid eye movement sleep as well as sleep spindle activity are negatively related with gross motor performance changes over sleep. Together these findings suggest that the consolidation of adaptation to a new steering device does not benefit from a 2 h midday nap. We speculate that in case of strongly overlearned motor patterns such as normal cycling, diurnal sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep might even help to protect everyday needed skills, and to rapidly forget newly acquired, interfering and irrelevant material. PMID:25256866

  9. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  10. Care for a Patient With Cancer As a Project: Management of Complex Task Interdependence in Cancer Care Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Trosman, Julia R.; Carlos, Ruth C.; Simon, Melissa A.; Madden, Debra L.; Gradishar, William J.; Benson, Al B.; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Weiss, Elisa S.; Gareen, Ilana F.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Khan, Seema A.; Bunce, Mikele M.; Small, Art; Weldon, Christine B.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer care is highly complex and suffers from fragmentation and lack of coordination across provider specialties and clinical domains. As a result, patients often find that they must coordinate care on their own. Coordinated delivery teams may address these challenges and improve quality of cancer care. Task interdependence is a core principle of rigorous teamwork and is essential to addressing the complexity of cancer care, which is highly interdependent across specialties and modalities. W...

  11. Care for a Patient With Cancer As a Project: Management of Complex Task Interdependence in Cancer Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Julia R; Carlos, Ruth C; Simon, Melissa A; Madden, Debra L; Gradishar, William J; Benson, Al B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa S; Gareen, Ilana F; Wagner, Lynne I; Khan, Seema A; Bunce, Mikele M; Small, Art; Weldon, Christine B

    2016-11-01

    Cancer care is highly complex and suffers from fragmentation and lack of coordination across provider specialties and clinical domains. As a result, patients often find that they must coordinate care on their own. Coordinated delivery teams may address these challenges and improve quality of cancer care. Task interdependence is a core principle of rigorous teamwork and is essential to addressing the complexity of cancer care, which is highly interdependent across specialties and modalities. We examined challenges faced by a patient with early-stage breast cancer that resulted from difficulties in understanding and managing task interdependence across clinical domains involved in this patient's care. We used team science supported by the project management discipline to discuss how various task interdependence aspects can be recognized, deliberately designed, and systematically managed to prevent care breakdowns. This case highlights how effective task interdependence management facilitated by project management methods could markedly improve the course of a patient's care. This work informs efforts of cancer centers and practices to redesign cancer care delivery through innovative, practical, and patient-centered approaches to management of task interdependence in cancer care. Future patient-reported outcomes research will help to determine optimal ways to engage patients, including those who are medically underserved, in managing task interdependence in their own care.

  12. The effect of haptic guidance and visual feedback on learning a complex tennis task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; van Raai, Mark; Rauter, Georg; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2013-11-01

    While haptic guidance can improve ongoing performance of a motor task, several studies have found that it ultimately impairs motor learning. However, some recent studies suggest that the haptic demonstration of optimal timing, rather than movement magnitude, enhances learning in subjects trained with haptic guidance. Timing of an action plays a crucial role in the proper accomplishment of many motor skills, such as hitting a moving object (discrete timing task) or learning a velocity profile (time-critical tracking task). The aim of the present study is to evaluate which feedback conditions-visual or haptic guidance-optimize learning of the discrete and continuous elements of a timing task. The experiment consisted in performing a fast tennis forehand stroke in a virtual environment. A tendon-based parallel robot connected to the end of a racket was used to apply haptic guidance during training. In two different experiments, we evaluated which feedback condition was more adequate for learning: (1) a time-dependent discrete task-learning to start a tennis stroke and (2) a tracking task-learning to follow a velocity profile. The effect that the task difficulty and subject's initial skill level have on the selection of the optimal training condition was further evaluated. Results showed that the training condition that maximizes learning of the discrete time-dependent motor task depends on the subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance was especially suitable for less-skilled subjects and in especially difficult discrete tasks, while visual feedback seems to benefit more skilled subjects. Additionally, haptic guidance seemed to promote learning in a time-critical tracking task, while visual feedback tended to deteriorate the performance independently of the task difficulty and subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance outperformed visual feedback, although additional studies are needed to further analyze the effect of other types of feedback visualization on

  13. Effects of training peer tutors in content knowledge versus tutoring skills on giving feedback to help tutees’ complex tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor-tutee pairs of fourth year secondary school students were created

  14. Effects of Training Peer Tutors in Content Knowledge versus Tutoring Skills on Giving Feedback to Help Tutees' Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…

  15. The neural dynamics of stimulus and response conflict processing as a function of response complexity and task demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; McKay, Cameron C.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2016-01-01

    Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and the amount of response conflict (two versus four response choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types, along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic fronto-central incongruency-related negativity ‘Ninc’ was observed for all conditions, which was larger and ~100 ms longer in duration with more response options. Further, the onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets, indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC) was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not specifically related to task type or response-mapping complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the LRP onset at or before the conflict-related Ninc, indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the number of response options. PMID:26827917

  16. Bilateral contributions of the cerebellum to the complex motor tasks on EPI fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Park, Kee Duk

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate activation signals within the cerebellar cortex and to determine the side of the cerebellar cortex eliciting activation signals in response to complex motor tasks, as seen on EPI fMRI. Seven right-handed subjects (M : F=3 : 4; mean age, 30.3 years) underwent repetitive finger apposition with the dominant right hand. Using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, EPI fMR images were obtained. MR parameters used for EPI fMRI were TR/TE/Flip angle : 0.96 msec/64msec/90 deg FOV 22cm, 128 X 128 matrix, 10 slices, 10mm thickness while those for SE T1 weighted localized images were TR/TE : 450/16, FOV 23cm, 256 X 256 matrix. The paradigm was three sets of alternate resting and moving fingers for six cycles, resulting in times of 360 seconds (10 slices X 15 EPI X 6 cycles = 900 images). Image processing involved the use of a 200mHz Dual Pentium PC with homemade software. T-testing (p < 0.005 approx.= p < 0.0005) and time series analysis were performed, and to verify the locations of activated regions, resulting images were analyzed in a color-coded overlay to reference T1-weighted spin echo coronal images. Percentage change in signal intensity (PCSI) was calculated from the processed data. All normal subjects showed significant activation signals in both the contralateral (left) primary motor cortex (PCSI = 3.12% 0.96) and ipsilateral (right) cerebellar cortex (PCSI = 3.09% ±1.14). Signal activation was detected in the contralateral supplemental motor area (2.91% ±0.82), and motor activation in the anterior upper half of the contralateral cerebellum (PCSI 2.50% ±0.69). The difference in activation signals between both sides of the cerebellar cortex was not statistically significant. All data were matched with time-series analysis. Bilateral cerebellar activation is associated with unilateral complex finger movements, as seen on fMRI. This result may support the recent neurological observation that the cerebellum may exert bilateral effects on motor performance

  17. TASK-2: a K2P K+ channel with complex regulation and diverse physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo Cid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available TASK-2 (K2P5.1 is a two-pore domain K+ channel belonging to the TALK subgroup of the K2P family of proteins. TASK-2 has been shown to be activated by extra- and intracellular alkalinisation. Extra- and intracellular pH-sensors reside at arginine 224 and lysine 245 and might affect separate selectivity filter and inner gates respectively. TASK-2 is modulated by changes in cell volume and a regulation by direct G-protein interaction has also been proposed. Activation by extracellular alkalinisation has been associated with a role of TASK-2 in kidney proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption, whilst intracellular pH-sensitivity might be the mechanism for its participation in central chemosensitive neurons. In addition to these functions TASK-2 has been proposed to play a part in apoptotic volume decrease in kidney cells and in volume regulation of glial cells and T-lymphocytes. TASK-2 is present in chondrocytes of hyaline cartilage, where it is proposed to play a central role in stabilizing the membrane potential. Additional sites of expression are dorsal root ganglion neurons, endocrine and exocrine pancreas and intestinal smooth muscle cells. TASK-2 has been associated with the regulation of proliferation of breast cancer cells and could become target for breast cancer therapeutics. Further work in native tissues and cells together with genetic modification will no doubt reveal the details of TASK-2 functions that we are only starting to suspect.

  18. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of Cognitive Complexity of Tasks for the Topic Hydrogen Exponent in the Solutions of Acids and Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Horvat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of cognitive complexity of tasks for the topic hydrogen exponent in the solutions of acids and bases and its validation. The created procedure included an assessment of the difficulty of concepts and an assessment of their interactivity. There were 48 freshmen students enrolled in the study program Basic academic studies in chemistry. As a research instrument for assessing performance, test of knowledge was specifically constructed for this research. Each task in the test was followed by a seven-point Likert scale for the evaluation of invested mental effort. The evaluation of cognitive complexity was confirmed by a series of linear regression analysis where high values of correlation coefficients are obtained among the examined variables: student’s performance and invested mental effort (dependent variables and cognitive complexity (independent variable.

  20. The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill acquisition by means of computer-simulated problem solving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram,

  1. The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill aquisition by means of computer simulated problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Kester, L.; Kirschner, P.A.; Merriënboer, J.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram, while information in the integrated format condition was integrated in the circuit diagram. It was hypothesized that learners in the integrated format would achieve better test results than the learne...

  2. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on multiscale complexity of dual-task postural control in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Diange; Zhou, Junhong; Chen, Hu; Manor, Brad; Lin, Jianhao; Zhang, Jue

    2015-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the prefrontal cortex reduces the size and speed of standing postural sway in younger adults, particularly when performing a cognitive dual task. Here, we hypothesized that tDCS would alter the complex dynamics of postural sway as quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). Twenty healthy older adults completed two study visits. Center-of-pressure (COP) fluctuations were recorded during single-task (i.e., quiet standing) and dual-task (i.e., standing while performing serial subtractions) conditions, both before and after a 20-min session of real or sham tDCS. MSE was used to estimate COP complexity within each condition. The percentage change in complexity from single- to dual-task conditions (i.e., dual-task cost) was also calculated. Before tDCS, COP complexity was lower (p = 0.04) in the dual-task condition as compared to the single-task condition. Neither real nor sham tDCS altered complexity in the single-task condition. As compared to sham tDCS, real tDCS increased complexity in the dual-task condition (p = 0.02) and induced a trend toward improved serial subtraction performance (p = 0.09). Moreover, those subjects with lower dual-task COP complexity at baseline exhibited greater percentage increases in complexity following real tDCS (R = -0.39, p = 0.05). Real tDCS also reduced the dual-task cost to complexity (p = 0.02), while sham stimulation had no effect. A single session of tDCS targeting the prefrontal cortex increased standing postural sway complexity with concurrent non-postural cognitive task. This form of noninvasive brain stimulation may be a safe strategy to acutely improve postural control by enhancing the system's capacity to adapt to stressors.

  3. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Martin Süß

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly

  4. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André

    2018-01-01

    The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the

  5. The cognitive complexity of concurrent cognitive-motor tasks reveals age-related deficits in motor performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Reiche, Mikkel Staall; Vinescu, Cristina Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence......, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking...... tasks when compared to younger adults. Both upper limb and walking tasks involved simple and complex cognitive demands through decision-making. For both tasks, decision-making was assessed by including a distracting factor to the execution. The results showed that older adults were substantially slower...

  6. Solving a meiotic LEGO puzzle: transverse filaments and the assembly of the synaptonemal complex in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R Scott

    2011-10-01

    The structure of the meiosis-specific synaptonemal complex, which is perhaps the central visible characteristic of meiotic prophase, has been a matter of intense interest for decades. Although a general picture of the interactions between the transverse filament proteins that create this structure has emerged from studies in a variety of organisms, a recent analysis of synaptonemal complex structure in Caenorhabditis elegans by Schild-Prüfert et al. (2011) has provided the clearest picture of the structure of the architecture of a synaptonemal complex to date. Although the transverse filaments of the worm synaptonemal complex are assembled differently then those observed in yeast, mammalian, and Drosophila synaptonemal complexes, a comparison of the four assemblies shows that achieving the overall basic structure of the synaptonemal complex is far more crucial than conserving the structures of the individual transverse filaments.

  7. Three propositions on why characteristics of performance management systems converge across policy areas with different levels of task complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    of task complexity amidst a lack of formal and overarching, government-wide policies. We advance our propositions from a case study comparing the characteristics of performance management systems across social services (eldercare) and technical services (park services) in Denmark. Contrary to expectations......This article investigates the differences and similarities between performance management systems across public services. We offer three propositions as to why the characteristics of performance management systems may still converge across policy areas in the public sector with different levels...... for divergence due to differences in task complexity, the characteristics of performance management systems in the two policy areas are observed to converge. On the basis of a case study, we propose that convergence has occurred due to 1) similarities in policy-specific reforms, 2) institutional pressures, and 3...

  8. Effects of training on short- and long-term skill retention in a complex multiple-task environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Hockey, G R; Wastell, D G

    2000-12-01

    The paper reports the results of an experiment on the performance and retention of a complex task. This was a computer-based simulation of the essential elements of a spacecraft's life support system. It allowed the authors to take a range of measures, including primary and secondary task performance, system intervention and information sampling strategies, mental model structure, and subjective operator state. The study compared the effectiveness of two methods of training, based on low level (procedure-based) and high level (system-based) understanding. Twenty-five participants were trained extensively on the task, then given a 1-h testing session. A second testing session was carried out 8 months after the first (with no intervening practice) with 17 of the original participants. While training had little effect on control performance, there were considerable effects on system management strategies, as well as in structure of operator's mental model. In the second testing session, the anticipated general performance decrement did not occur, though for complex faults there was an increase in selectivity towards the primary control task. The relevance of the findings for training and skill retention in real work environments is discussed in the context of a model of compensatory control.

  9. Action observation versus motor imagery in learning a complex motor task: a short review of literature and a kinematics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, R; Tettamanti, A; Gough, P M; Riboldi, E; Marinoni, L; Buccino, G

    2013-04-12

    Both motor imagery and action observation have been shown to play a role in learning or re-learning complex motor tasks. According to a well accepted view they share a common neurophysiological basis in the mirror neuron system. Neurons within this system discharge when individuals perform a specific action and when they look at another individual performing the same or a motorically related action. In the present paper, after a short review of literature on the role of action observation and motor imagery in motor learning, we report the results of a kinematics study where we directly compared motor imagery and action observation in learning a novel complex motor task. This involved movement of the right hand and foot in the same angular direction (in-phase movement), while at the same time moving the left hand and foot in an opposite angular direction (anti-phase movement), all at a frequency of 1Hz. Motor learning was assessed through kinematics recording of wrists and ankles. The results showed that action observation is better than motor imagery as a strategy for learning a novel complex motor task, at least in the fast early phase of motor learning. We forward that these results may have important implications in educational activities, sport training and neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of children's decision making: Sensitivity to punishment frequency, not task complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, E.A.; Bunge, S.A.; Latenstein, H.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    On a gambling task that models real-life decision making, children between ages 7 and 12 perform like patients with bilateral lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), opting for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses (Crone & Van der Molen, 2004). The

  11. Using information systems while performing complex tasks: An example from architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Erica; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, information systems, such as hypertexts, allow a variety of ways in which to structure information. Information systems are also used for an increasing number of purposes. In our study we examined two different purposes for using information systems in the context of a real task:

  12. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  13. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Hui; Mo, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.

  14. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hui Li

    Full Text Available The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.

  15. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  16. Assessing Neurophysiologic Markers for Training and Simulation to Develop Expertise in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    the nature of that uncertainty , he could have simply pointed out to the student that heading information could be used to distinguish the two draws...al. (1997) and Wickens, Bellenkes, et al. (1995) measured pilots scan during a 7-segment instrument flight rules ( IFR ) event conducted in a PC-based...interactive real time training system. Additionally the PC-based IFR task is a comparatively closed domain. During instrument flight, the interaction

  17. The Effects of Pre-Task, On-Line, and Both Pre-Task and On-Line Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy--The Case of Iranian EFL Learners' Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Faramarz; Barati, Hossein; Ketabi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of planning on language production have revealed that planning does have a positive effect on language performance in terms of fluency, complexity, and accuracy. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of pre-task, on-line, and both pre-task and on-line planning on fluency, accuracy, and…

  18. Some Comments on the Use of de Moivre's Theorem to Solve Quadratic Equations with Real or Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a simple application of de Moivre's theorem may be used to not only find the roots of a quadratic equation with real or generally complex coefficients but also to pinpoint their location in the Argand plane. This approach is much simpler than the comprehensive analysis presented by Bardell (2012, 2014), but it does not…

  19. A comparison of Data Driven models of solving the task of gender identification of author in Russian language texts for cases without and with the gender deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboev, A.; Moloshnikov, I.; Gudovskikh, D.; Rybka, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we compare several data-driven approaches to the task of author’s gender identification for texts with or without gender imitation. The data corpus has been specially gathered with crowdsourcing for this task. The best models are convolutional neural network with input of morphological data (fl-measure: 88%±3) for texts without imitation, and gradient boosting model with vector of character n-grams frequencies as input data (f1-measure: 64% ± 3) for texts with gender imitation. The method to filter the crowdsourced corpus using limited reference sample of texts to increase the accuracy of result is discussed.

  20. Ultrasonic simulation - Imagine3D and SimScan: Tools to solve the inverse problem for complex turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, H.D.; Ciorau, P.; Owen, D.; Hazelton, T.; Dunning, G.

    2000-01-01

    Two ultrasonic simulation packages: Imagine 3D and SIMSCAN have specifically been developed to solve the inverse problem for blade root and rotor steeple of low-pressure turbine. The software was integrated with the 3D drawing of the inspected parts, and with the dimensions of linear phased-array probes. SIMSCAN simulates the inspection scenario in both optional conditions: defect location and probe movement/refracted angle range. The results are displayed into Imagine 3-D, with a variety of options: rendering, display 1:1, grid, generated UT beam. The results are very useful for procedure developer, training and to optimize the phased-array probe inspection sequence. A spreadsheet is generated to correlate the defect coordinates with UT data (probe position, skew and refracted angle, UT path, and probe movement). The simulation models were validated during experimental work with phased-array systems. The accuracy in probe position is ±1 mm, and the refracted/skew angle is within ±0.5 deg. . Representative examples of phased array focal laws/probe movement for a specific defect location, are also included

  1. A neuroergonomic quasi-experiment: Predictors of situation awareness and display usability while performing complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is the ability and capacity to perceive information and act on it acceptably. Head Up Display (HUD) versus Head Down Display (HDD) manipulation induced variation in task difficulty. HUD and HDD cockpit displays or display designs promoted or impaired SA. The quantitative research presented in this paper examines basic neurocognitive factors in order to identify their specific contributions to the formation of SA, while studying display usability and the effects on SA. Visual attentiveness (Va), perceptiveness (Vp), and spatial working memory (Vswm) were assessed as predictors of SA under varying task difficulty. The study participants were 19 tactical airlift pilots, selected from the Ohio Air National Guard. Neurocognitive tests were administered to the participants prior to flight. In-flight SA was objectively and subjectively assessed for 24 flights. At the completion of this field experiment, the data were analyzed and the tests were statistically significant for the three predictor visual abilities Vp, Va, and Vswm as task difficulty was varied, F(3,11) = 8.125, p = .008. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual abilities together predicted a majority of the variance in SA, R2 = 0.753, p = .008. As validated and verified by ECG and EEG data, the HUD yielded a full ability and capacity to anticipate and accommodate trends were as the HDD yielded a saturated ability to anticipate and accommodate trends. Post-hoc tests revealed a Cohen's f2 = 3.05 yielding statistical power to be 0.98. This work results in a significant contribution to the field by providing an improved understanding of SA and path to safer travel for society worldwide. PA 88ABW-2015-1282.

  2. Inter- and Intra-Individual Variability in the Process of Change in the Use of Analogical Strategies to Solve Geometric Tasks in Children: A Microgenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunteler, Erika; Pronk, Christine M. E.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on unprompted changes in children's analogical reasoning on geometric tasks and the additional effect of a short training procedure. Participants were 36 grade 1 level children (M = 6;8 years) divided over a not-trained and a trained condition. The study was a 5-sessions migrogenetic procedure, with a follow-up test session…

  3. Sex differences in young children's use of tools in a problem-solving task : The role of object-oriented play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredlein, Jeffrey M; Bjorklund, David F

    2005-06-01

    Three-year-old children were observed in two free-play sessions and participated in a toy-retrieval task, in which only one of six tools could be used to retrieve an out-of-reach toy. Boys engaged in more object-oriented play than girls and were more likely to use tools to retrieve the toy during the baseline tool-use task. All children who did not retrieve the toy during the baseline trials did so after being given a hint, and performance on a transfer-of-training tool-use task approached ceiling levels. This suggests that the sex difference in tool use observed during the baseline phase does not reflect a difference in competency, but rather a sex difference in motivation to interact with objects. Amount of time boys, but not girls, spent in object-oriented play during the free-play sessions predicted performance on the tool-use task. The findings are interpreted in terms of evolutionary theory, consistent with the idea that boys' and girls' play styles evolved to prepare them for adult life in traditional environments.

  4. Chess players' eye movements reveal rapid recognition of complex visual patterns: Evidence from a chess-related visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2017-03-01

    To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i.e., the "Yes" board), and for the remaining "lure" boards, the knight's path was blocked on either the first move (the "Easy No" board) or the second move (i.e., "the Difficult No" board). As evidence that chess experts can rapidly differentiate complex chess-related visual patterns, the experts (but not the novices) showed longer first-fixation durations on the "Yes" board relative to the "Difficult No" board. Moreover, as hypothesized, the task strongly differentiated chess skill: Reaction times were more than four times faster for the experts relative to novices, and reaction times were correlated with within-group measures of expertise (i.e., official chess ratings, number of hours of practice). These results indicate that a key component of chess expertise is the ability to rapidly recognize complex visual patterns.

  5. Engineering and Computing Portal to Solve Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudov, A. M.; Zavozkin, S. Y.; Sotnikov, I. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes architecture and services of the Engineering and Computing Portal, which is considered to be a complex solution that provides access to high-performance computing resources, enables to carry out computational experiments, teach parallel technologies and solve computing tasks, including technogenic safety ones.

  6. Positron computed tomography studies of cerebral metabolic responses to complex motor tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Human motor system organization was explored in 8 right-handed male subjects using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron computed tomography to measure cerebral glucose metabolism. Five subjects had triple studies (eyes closed) including: control (hold pen in right hand without moving), normal size writing (subject repeatedly writes name) and large (10-15 X normal) name writing. In these studies normal and large size writing had a similar distribution of metabolic responses when compared to control studies. Activations (percent change from control) were in the range of 12-20% and occurred in the striatum bilaterally > contralateral Rolandic cortex > contralateral thalamus. No significant activations were observed in the ipsilateral thalamus, Rolandic cortex or cerebellum (supplementary motor cortex was not examined). The magnitude of the metabolic response in the striatum was greater with the large versus normal sized writing. This differential response may be due to an increased number and topographic distribution of neurons responding with the same average activity between tasks or an increase in the functional activity of the same neuronal population between the two tasks (present spatial resolution inadequate to differentiate). When subjects (N=3) performed novel sequential finger movements, the maximal metabolic response was in the contralateral Rolandic cortex > striatum. Such studies provide a means of exploring human motor system organization, motor learning and provide a basis for examining patients with motor system disorders

  7. Self-Regulation in the Midst of Complexity: A Case Study of High School Physics Students Engaged in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeffrey David

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore the experiences of high school physics students who were solving complex, ill-structured problems, in an effort to better understand how self-regulatory behavior mediated the project experience. Consistent with Voss, Green, Post, and Penner's (1983) conception of an ill-structured problem in the natural sciences, the 'problems' consisted of scientific research projects that students completed under the supervision of a faculty mentor. Zimmerman and Campillo's (2003) self-regulatory framework of problem solving provided a holistic guide to data collection and analysis of this multi-case study, with five individual student cases. The study's results are explored in two manuscripts, each targeting a different audience. The first manuscript, intended for the Science Education Research community, presents a thick, rich description of the students' project experiences, consistent with a qualitative, case study analysis. Findings suggest that intrinsic interest was an important self-regulatory factor that helped motivate students throughout their project work, and that the self-regulatory cycle of forethought, performance monitoring, and self-reflection was an important component of the problem-solving process. Findings also support the application of Zimmerman and Campillo's framework to complex, ill-structured problems, particularly the cyclical nature of the framework. Finally, this study suggests that scientific research projects, with the appropriate support, can be a mechanism for improving students' selfregulatory behavior. The second manuscript, intended for Physics practitioners, combines the findings of the first manuscript with the perspectives of the primary, on-site research mentor, who has over a decade's worth of experience mentoring students doing physics research. His experience suggests that a successful research experience requires certain characteristics, including: a slow, 'on-ramp' to the research

  8. Development of the complex of nuclear-physical methods of analysis for geology and technology tasks in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, V.; Silachyov, I.; Poznyak, V.; Gorlachev, I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the development of nuclear-physical methods of analysis and their applications in Kazakhstan for geological tasks and technology. The basic methods of this complex include instrumental neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescent analysis and instrumental γ-spectrometry. The following aspects are discussed: applications of developed and adopted analytical techniques for assessment and calculations of rare-earth metal reserves at various deposits in Kazakhstan, for technology development of mining and extraction from uranium-phosphorous ore and wastes, for radioactive coal gasification technology, for studies of rare metal contents in chromite, bauxites, black shales and their processing products. (author)

  9. Working Memory Subsystems and Task Complexity in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S.; Hooper, S.; Skinner, M.; Hatton, D.; Schaaf, J.; Ornstein, P.; Bailey, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity.…

  10. Classification of Error Related Brain Activity in an Auditory Identification Task with Conditions of Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, I.; Gkiatis, K.; Bromis, K.; Asvestas, P. A.; Karanasiou, I. S.; Ventouras, E. M.; Matsopoulos, G. K.

    2017-11-01

    The detection of an error is the cognitive evaluation of an action outcome that is considered undesired or mismatches an expected response. Brain activity during monitoring of correct and incorrect responses elicits Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealing complex cerebral responses to deviant sensory stimuli. Development of accurate error detection systems is of great importance both concerning practical applications and in investigating the complex neural mechanisms of decision making. In this study, data are used from an audio identification experiment that was implemented with two levels of complexity in order to investigate neurophysiological error processing mechanisms in actors and observers. To examine and analyse the variations of the processing of erroneous sensory information for each level of complexity we employ Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers with various learning methods and kernels using characteristic ERP time-windowed features. For dimensionality reduction and to remove redundant features we implement a feature selection framework based on Sequential Forward Selection (SFS). The proposed method provided high accuracy in identifying correct and incorrect responses both for actors and for observers with mean accuracy of 93% and 91% respectively. Additionally, computational time was reduced and the effects of the nesting problem usually occurring in SFS of large feature sets were alleviated.

  11. Applying the PDCA Cycle to the Complex Task of Teaching and Assessing Public Relations Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John E.; Allen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Teaching skills, knowledge and abilities appropriate for career-ready graduates and assessing learning are complex issues. Developing a valid and reliable approach is often by trial and error. Instead, the authors employed Deming's PDCA Cycle of continuous improvement as a systematic procedure to incrementally move closer to their goal. This paper…

  12. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pain...... training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning....

  13. Complexity of Geometric Inductive Reasoning Tasks: Contribution to the Understanding of Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Created two geometric inductive reasoning matrix tests by manipulating four sources of complexity orthogonally. Results for 313 undergraduates show that fluid intelligence is most strongly associated with the part of the central executive component of working memory that is related to controlled attention processing and selective encoding. (SLD)

  14. Localizing components of a complex task : sentence processing and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Broere, C.A.J.; Paans, A.MJ; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.; Zwarts, Frans

    1998-01-01

    THREE areas of the left hemisphere play different roles in sentence comprehension. An area of posterior middle and superior temporal gyrus shows activation correlated with the structural complexity of a sentence, suggesting that this area supports processing of sentence structure. The lateral

  15. The Role of Awareness for Complex Planning Task Performance: A Microgaming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosch, Heide; Groen, Daan; Kurapati, Shalini; Klemke, Roland; Verbraeck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of microgames to support situated learning in order to foster situational awareness (SA) of planners in seaport container terminals. In today's complex working environments, it is often difficult to develop the required level of understanding of a given situation, described as situational awareness. A container…

  16. MOOC design analysis - Constructive alignment, interactions, task complexity, formative assessment & feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasch, Julia; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kalz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) hold the potential of providing education at large scale. However, the challenge lies in the scalability of their educational design. It is unclear whether and to what extent MOOCs to provide active and complex learning activities, support and feedback to large

  17. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  18. Does strategy instruction on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task lead to transferred performance improvement on the Modified Taylor Complex Figure task? A randomized controlled trial in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Christine; Keulers, Esther; Martens, Rosa; van Heugten, Caroline; Hurks, Petra

    2018-04-05

    Providing children with organizational strategy instruction on the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) has previously been found to improve organizational and accuracy performance on this task. It is unknown whether strategy instruction on the ROCF would also transfer to performance improvement on copying and the recall of another complex figure. Participants were 98 typically developing children (aged 9.5-12.6 years, M = 10.6). Children completed the ROCF (copy and recall) as a pretest. Approximately a month later, they were randomized to complete the ROCF with strategy instruction in the form of a stepwise administration of the ROCF or again in the standard format. All children then copied and recalled the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF). All productions were assessed in terms of organization, accuracy and completion time. Organization scores for the MTCF did not differ for the two groups for the copy production, but did differ for the recall production, indicating transfer. Accuracy and completion times did not differ between groups. Performance on all measures, except copy accuracy, improved between pretest ROCF and posttest MTCF production for both groups, suggesting practice effects. Findings indicate that transfer of strategy instruction from one complex figure to another is only present for organization of recalled information. The increase in RCF-OSS scores did not lead to a higher accuracy or a faster copy or recall.

  19. The Effect of Visual Representation Style in Problem-Solving : A Perspective from Cognitive Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a

  20. Increased Complexities in Visual Search Behavior in Skilled Players for a Self-Paced Aiming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi S. Chia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns, the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks. Accordingly, this study examined skill-related differences in visual behavior during the badminton singles serve. Skilled (n = 12 and less skilled (n = 12 participants performed 30 serves to a live opponent, while real-time eye movements were captured using a mobile gaze registration system. Frame-by-frame analyses of 662 serves were made and the skilled players took a longer preparatory time before serving. Visual behavior of the skilled players was characterized by significantly greater number of fixations on more areas of interest per trial than the less skilled. In addition, the skilled players spent a significantly longer time fixating on the court and net, whereas the less skilled players found the shuttle to be more informative. Quiet eye (QE duration (indicative of superior sports performance however, did not differ significantly between groups which has implications on the perceived importance of QE in the badminton serve. Moreover, while visual behavior differed by skill level, considerable individual differences were also observed especially within the skilled players. This augments the need for not just group-level analyses, but individualized analysis for a more accurate representation of visual behavior. Findings from this study thus provide an insight to the possible visual search strategies as players serve in net-barrier games. Moreover, this study highlighted an important aspect of

  1. Solving structure in the CP29 light harvesting complex with polarization-phased 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    The CP29 light harvesting complex from green plants is a pigment-protein complex believed to collect, conduct, and quench electronic excitation energy in photosynthesis. We have spectroscopically determined the relative angle between electronic transition dipole moments of its chlorophyll excitation energy transfer pairs in their local protein environments without relying on simulations or an X-ray crystal structure. To do so, we measure a basis set of polarized 2D electronic spectra and isolate their absorptive components on account of the tensor relation between the light polarization sequences used to obtain them. This broadly applicable advance further enhances the acuity of polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy and provides a general means to initiate or feed back on the structural modeling of electronically-coupled chromophores in condensed phase systems, tightening the inferred relations between the spatial and electronic landscapes of ultrafast energy flow. We also discuss the pigment composition of CP29 in the context of light harvesting, energy channeling, and photoprotection within photosystem II. PMID:21321222

  2. The appropriateness of TACOM for a task complexity measure for emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants - A comparison with OPAS scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that complicated procedures frequently cause human performance related problems that can result in a serious consequence. Unfortunately a systematic framework to evaluate the complexity of procedures is very rare. For this reason Park et al. suggested a measure called TACOM (Task Complexity) which is able to quantify the complexity of tasks stipulated in procedures. In addition, it was observed that there is a significant correlation between averaged task performance time data and estimated TACOM scores. In this study, for an additional verification activity, TACOM scores are compared with operators' performance data that are measured by Operator Performance Assessment System (OPAS). As a result, it is believed that TACOM scores seem to be meaningfully correlated with OPAS scores. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that the result of this study can be regarded as a supplementary evidence for supporting the fact that TACOM measure is applicable for quantifying the complexity of tasks to be done by operators

  3. The Effects of Simultaneous Use of Careful Online Planning and Task Repetition on Accuracy, Complexity, and Fluency in EFL Learners' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effects of four planning and task repetition conditions (i.e. careful online…

  4. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Summary of Issues and Preliminary Recommendations from IEA Wind Task 32 Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2017-06-21

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. In Phase 1 of the task, a working group looked at the state of the art of wind lidar in complex flow conditions. This presentation is a short summary of that work, given at the start of Phase 2.

  5. An Attentional Resources-effectiveness Measure in Complex Diagnostic Tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The main role of the human operators in main control rooms (MCRs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is generally to supervise and operate the system. The operator's tasks in NPPs are performed through a series of cognitive activities: monitoring the environment, detecting data or information, understanding and assessing the situation, diagnosing the symptoms, decision-making, planning responses, and implementing the responses. In NPPs, there are a lot of information sources that should be monitored but the operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Because it is impossible to monitor all information sources, the operators continuously decide where to allocate their attentional resources. This kind of cognitive skill is called selective attention. In order for operators to effectively monitor, detect, and thus understand the state of a system, the operator should allocate their attentional resources to valuable information sources. Hence, the effectiveness of selective attention is expected to be able to reflect the effectiveness of monitoring, detection, and eventually understanding. In this study, an attentional resources effectiveness measure is proposed which based on cost benefit (or resource-effectiveness) principle

  6. An Attentional Resources-effectiveness Measure in Complex Diagnostic Tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The main role of the human operators in main control rooms (MCRs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is generally to supervise and operate the system. The operator's tasks in NPPs are performed through a series of cognitive activities: monitoring the environment, detecting data or information, understanding and assessing the situation, diagnosing the symptoms, decision-making, planning responses, and implementing the responses. In NPPs, there are a lot of information sources that should be monitored but the operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Because it is impossible to monitor all information sources, the operators continuously decide where to allocate their attentional resources. This kind of cognitive skill is called selective attention. In order for operators to effectively monitor, detect, and thus understand the state of a system, the operator should allocate their attentional resources to valuable information sources. Hence, the effectiveness of selective attention is expected to be able to reflect the effectiveness of monitoring, detection, and eventually understanding. In this study, an attentional resources effectiveness measure is proposed which based on cost benefit (or resource-effectiveness) principle.

  7. The development of a quantitative measure for the complexity of emergency tasks stipulated in emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies have continuously pointed out that human performance is a decisive factor affecting the safety of complicated process systems. Subsequently, as the result of extensive efforts, it has been revealed that the provision of procedures is one of the most effective countermeasures, especially if human operators have to carry out their tasks under a very stressful environment. That is, since good procedures are helpful to not only enhance the performance of human operators but also the reduction of the possibility of a human error through stipulating detailed tasks to be done by human operators. Ironically, it has been emphasized that the performance of human operators could be impaired due to complicated procedures, because procedures directly govern the physical as well as cognitive behavior of human operators by institutionalizing detailed actions. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to develop a systematic framework that properly evaluate the complexity of tasks described in procedures. For this reason, a measure called TACOM (Task Complexity) that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs has been developed. In this report, a technical background as well as practical steps to quantify the complexity of tasks were presented with a series of studies that were conducted to ensure the validity of the TACOM measure. As a result of validation studies, since it is shown that the TACOM measure seem to properly quantify the complexity of emergency tasks, it is desirable that the TACOM measure plays an important role in improving the performance of human operators

  8. The development of a quantitative measure for the complexity of emergency tasks stipulated in emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-11-15

    Previous studies have continuously pointed out that human performance is a decisive factor affecting the safety of complicated process systems. Subsequently, as the result of extensive efforts, it has been revealed that the provision of procedures is one of the most effective countermeasures, especially if human operators have to carry out their tasks under a very stressful environment. That is, since good procedures are helpful to not only enhance the performance of human operators but also the reduction of the possibility of a human error through stipulating detailed tasks to be done by human operators. Ironically, it has been emphasized that the performance of human operators could be impaired due to complicated procedures, because procedures directly govern the physical as well as cognitive behavior of human operators by institutionalizing detailed actions. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to develop a systematic framework that properly evaluate the complexity of tasks described in procedures. For this reason, a measure called TACOM (Task Complexity) that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs has been developed. In this report, a technical background as well as practical steps to quantify the complexity of tasks were presented with a series of studies that were conducted to ensure the validity of the TACOM measure. As a result of validation studies, since it is shown that the TACOM measure seem to properly quantify the complexity of emergency tasks, it is desirable that the TACOM measure plays an important role in improving the performance of human operators.

  9. FMRI of past tense processing: the effects of phonological complexity and task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik; Conant, Lisa L; Waldron, Eric; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2006-02-01

    The generation of regular and irregular past tense verbs has been an important issue in cognitive science and has been used to advance different models of the organization of language in the brain. The dual-system view holds that the regular past tense forms are generated by a rule while irregular forms are retrieved from memory. The single-system view, on the other hand, holds that both forms are generated by a single integrated system and differ only in their reliance on factors such as phonology and semantics. We conducted an event-related fMRI study to examine the activation patterns associated with the generation and reading of regular and irregular past tense forms, in addition to the reading of their stems. Regular and irregular past tense generation activated similar brain regions compared to the reading of their respective stems. The areas activated more for irregular generation compared to regular generation included inferior frontal, precentral, and parietal regions bilaterally. This activation can be interpreted as reflecting the greater attentional and response selection demands of irregular generation. Compared to irregular generation, regular generation activated a small region in the left superior temporal gyrus when the regular and irregular past tense forms were mismatched on phonological complexity. No areas were more activated for regulars than irregulars when the past tense forms were matched on this variable. This suggests that the activation specific to regulars was related to the higher phonological complexity of their past tense forms rather than to their generation. A contrast of the reading of regular and irregular past tense forms was consistent with this hypothesis. These results support a single-system account of past tense generation.

  10. Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Zöllner, Marius; Bischoff, Rainer; Burgard, Wolfram; Haschke, Robert; Hägele, Martin; Lawitzky, Gisbert; Nebel, Bernhard; Plöger, Paul; Reiser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    People have dreamed of machines, which would free them from unpleasant, dull, dirty and dangerous tasks and work for them as servants, for centuries if not millennia. Service robots seem to finally let these dreams come true. But where are all these robots that eventually serve us all day long, day for day? A few service robots have entered the market: domestic and professional cleaning robots, lawnmowers, milking robots, or entertainment robots. Some of these robots look more like toys or gadgets rather than real robots. But where is the rest? This is a question, which is asked not only by customers, but also by service providers, care organizations, politicians, and funding agencies. The answer is not very satisfying. Today’s service robots have their problems operating in everyday environments. This is by far more challenging than operating an industrial robot behind a fence. There is a comprehensive list of technical and scientific problems, which still need to be solved. To advance the state of the art...

  11. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  12. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  13. Retention of laparoscopic psychomotor skills after a structured training program depends on the quality of the training and on the complexity of the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Campo, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up RCT was conducted to evaluate laparoscopic psychomotor skills retention after finishing a structured training program. In a first study, 80 gynecologists were randomly allocated to four groups to follow different training programs for hand-eye coordination (task 1) with the dominant hand (task 1-a) and the non-dominant hand (task 1-b) and laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (task 2) in the Laparoscopic Skills Testing and Training (LASTT) model. First, baseline skills were tested (T1). Then, participants trained task 1 (G1: 1-a and 1-b, G2: 1-a only, G3 and G4: none) and then task 2 (all groups but G4). After training all groups were tested again to evaluate skills acquisition (T2). For this study, 2 years after a resting period, 73 participants were recruited and tested again to evaluate skills retention (T3). All groups had comparable skills at T1 for all tasks. At T2, G1, G2, and G3 improved their skills, but the level of improvement was different (G1 = G2 > G3 > G4 for task 1; G1 = G2 = G3 > G4 for task 2). At T3, all groups retained their task 1 skills at the same level than at T2. For task 2, however, a skill decay was already noticed for G2 and G3, being G1 the only group that retained their skills at the post-training level. Training improves laparoscopic skills, which can be retained over time depending on the comprehensiveness of the training program and on the complexity of the task. For high complexity tasks, full training is advisable for both skills acquisition and retention.

  14. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...

  15. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  16. Disparity in Frontal Lobe Connectivity on a Complex Bimanual Motor Task Aids in Classification of Operator Skill Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Leff, Daniel Richard; Shetty, Kunal; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Objective metrics of technical performance (e.g., dexterity, time, and path length) are insufficient to fully characterize operator skill level, which may be encoded deep within neural function. Unlike reports that capture plasticity across days or weeks, this articles studies long-term plasticity in functional connectivity that occurs over years of professional task practice. Optical neuroimaging data are acquired from professional surgeons of varying experience on a complex bimanual coordination task with the aim of investigating learning-related disparity in frontal lobe functional connectivity that arises as a consequence of motor skill level. The results suggest that prefrontal and premotor seed connectivity is more critical during naïve versus expert performance. Given learning-related differences in connectivity, a least-squares support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel is employed to evaluate skill level using connectivity data. The results demonstrate discrimination of operator skill level with accuracy ≥0.82 and Multiclass Matthew's Correlation Coefficient ≥0.70. Furthermore, these indices are improved when local (i.e., within-region) rather than inter-regional (i.e., between-region) frontal connectivity is considered (p = 0.002). The results suggest that it is possible to classify operator skill level with good accuracy from functional connectivity data, upon which objective assessment and neurofeedback may be used to improve operator performance during technical skill training.

  17. Education for complex problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....

  18. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFedor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.

  19. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  20. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  1. Complex Situational Tasks in Assessment of Educational Outcomes in “Psychological Assessment of Students” Module of the Master’s Programme in School Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruschenko T.Y.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the content of midterm performance evaluation of graduate students within the “Psychological Assessment” module of the master’s programme in School Psychology and focuses on the logic of the module’s design in relation to the professional standard in Educational Psychology. Complex situational tasks are considered in the modular program as the main means of assessing educational outcomes. The content of these tasks is determined by a range of diagnostic situations and closely corresponds with the real-life practice of educational psychologists. Setting complex situational tasks is related to a number of components of the educational psychologist’s professional activity in the field of psychological assessment, such as: planning the sequence of professional actions; ensuring the methodological background for assessment; taking into account deontological aspects of communication with assessed individuals; carrying out professional actions; reflecting on the process and outcomes of assessment. The paper analyses the place and role of graduate students’ self-assessment in finding solutions to complex situational tasks and offers a description of one such task that can be used in midterm performance evaluation of graduate students.

  2. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of…

  3. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  4. Understanding the Effects of Team Cognition Associated with Complex Engineering Tasks: Dynamics of Shared Mental Models, Task-SMM, and Team-SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miyoung; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how shared mental models (SMMs) change over time in teams of students in a manufacturing engineering course. A complex ill-structured project was given to each team. The objective of the team project was to analyze, test, and propose ways to improve their given manufactured product. Shared mental models were measured in…

  5. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  6. Effects of Multimedia Task-Based Teaching and Learning Approach on EFL Learners' Accuracy, Fluency and Complexity of Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava Harji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz

    2017-01-01

    Albeit Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has been extensively researched, there appears to be limited studies that focus on the effects of multimedia technology (MT) enhanced TBLT approach on EFL development. A study was conducted to examine the effects of a MT imbued TBLT, i.e. Multimedia Task-Based Teaching and Learning (MMTBLT) approach on…

  7. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  8. Optimization of muscle activity for task-level goals predicts complex changes in limb forces across biomechanical contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucas McKay

    Full Text Available Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n = 3 across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (≈2× compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task

  9. Experimental procedure execution in the software complex for the accumulation, control and supervising systems at the NSHR and SKAT spectrometers (the Join Task)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Heinitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    To eliminate routine work to control the spectrometer, a measurement procedure called an experiment program is created as a text file. This article is devoted to the basic ideas, the principle and the communication protocol of an interpreter task and its managed clients, as well as the implementation notes and user interface. Our approach is characterized by the following main features: comfortable spectrometer control; ease of making changes in the experimental procedure; versatility of the interpretation task both for managed clients and for the spectrometer itself; ease of extending the complex to handle new experimental equipment. (author)

  10. Working memory activation of neural networks in the elderly as a function of information processing phase and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charroud, Céline; Steffener, Jason; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jérémy; Bonafe, Alain; Abdennour, Meriem; Portet, Florence; Molino, François; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Akbaraly, Tasnime N

    2015-11-01

    Changes in working memory are sensitive indicators of both normal and pathological brain aging and associated disability. The present study aims to further understanding of working memory in normal aging using a large cohort of healthy elderly in order to examine three separate phases of information processing in relation to changes in task load activation. Using covariance analysis, increasing and decreasing neural activation was observed on fMRI in response to a delayed item recognition task in 337 cognitively healthy elderly persons as part of the CRESCENDO (Cognitive REServe and Clinical ENDOphenotypes) study. During three phases of the task (stimulation, retention, probe), increased activation was observed with increasing task load in bilateral regions of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, insula and in deep gray matter nuclei, suggesting an involvement of central executive and salience networks. Decreased activation associated with increasing task load was observed during the stimulation phase, in bilateral temporal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex. This spatial distribution of decreased activation is suggestive of the default mode network. These findings support the hypothesis of an increased activation in salience and central executive networks and a decreased activation in default mode network concomitant to increasing task load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Neuroergonomic Quasi-Experiment: Predictors of Situation Awareness and Display Usability with USAF Pilots while Performing Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    contact (airplane’s wheels time of impact with the runway). The human brain uses internal trigonometry and calculus to solve the Time of arrival...the reason for the report. b. Your entitlements to medical and dental care and/or compensation in the event of injury are governed by federal laws

  12. Solving Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Xia, Ashley; Read, Elizabeth L; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hafler, David A; Sontag, Eduardo; Wang, Jin; Tsang, John S; Day, Judy D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Matthew C; Hammond, Ross; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2017-02-01

    Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology. Here, we present the perspectives that emerged from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) workshop 'Complex Systems Science, Modeling and Immunity' and subsequent discussions regarding the potential synergy of high-throughput data acquisition, data-driven modeling, and mechanistic modeling to define new mechanisms of immunological disease and to accelerate the translation of these insights into therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Information Interaction Criteria Among Students in Process of Task-Based Information Searching (Role of Objective Complexity and Type of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Saeedizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  human-information interactions must be considered in order to be able to interactively design Information Retrieval Systems (IRS. In this regard, study of users’ interactions must be based on their socio-cultural context (specifically work tasks. Accordingly, this paper aims to explore the use of information-interaction criteria among students in the information searching process according to different kinds of their work tasks.  Methodology: This research is applied qualitative method using exploratory study. The research population consisted of MSc students of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad enrolled in 2012-13  academic year. In 3 stages of sampling (random stratified, quota, and voluntary sampling, 30 cases were selected. Each of these cases searched 6 different types of simulated work tasks. Interaction criteria were extracted ? Content analysis of aloud thinking reports. Validity of tools was verified through Faculties of KIS at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. Also,0.78  Kripendorff’s alpha ratio based on an agreement between the inter – coder indicates the Dependability  of content analysis. Findings: The findings show that in addition to ‘topic’ criteria, other interaction criteria impact on information- interaction of users, such as: ‘search results ranking’, ‘domain knowledge of user’, ‘layout’, ‘type of information resource’ and etc. based on the level of objective complexity and product of  work tasks, information-interaction criteria change. Conclusion: the users pay attention to different information-interaction criteria in process of information searching, considering to variety of work tasks (level of objective complexity and product. So, it is necessary to pay attention to work task characteristics in order to design interactive and personalized IR systems.

  14. Biobehavioral Insights into Adaptive Behavior in Complex and Dynamic Operational Settings: Lessons learned from the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Haufler

    2018-02-01

    pattern of task-related change in cortisol or sAA. We conclude that individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity and regulation in response to an ecologically valid, military-relevant task are associated with performance-related adaptive behavior in this standardized operational setting. The implications for modern day warfare, where advancing our understanding of the nature of individual differences in adaptive problem solving is critical to mission success, fitness for duty, and other occupational health-related outcomes, are discussed.

  15. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  16. Anticipating a Post-Task Activity: The Effects on Accuracy, Complexity, and Fluency of Second Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Pauline; Skehan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of focus on form has been influential in second language (L2) acquisition and pedagogy. One example of the implementation of focus on form is a post-task activity (e.g., anticipation of a public performance) that can selectively orient learners toward increased levels of accuracy. The present research proposes a new operationalization…

  17. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Evaluate Complex Scientific Tasks Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tina

    This dissertation includes three studies that analyze a new set of assessment tasks developed by the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science (LPS) Project. These assessment tasks were designed to measure science content knowledge on the structure of matter domain and scientific argumentation, while following the goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The three studies focus on the evidence available for the success of this design and its implementation, generally labelled as "validity" evidence. I use explanatory item response models (EIRMs) as the overarching framework to investigate these assessment tasks. These models can be useful when gathering validity evidence for assessments as they can help explain student learning and group differences. In the first study, I explore the dimensionality of the LPS assessment by comparing the fit of unidimensional, between-item multidimensional, and Rasch testlet models to see which is most appropriate for this data. By applying multidimensional item response models, multiple relationships can be investigated, and in turn, allow for a more substantive look into the assessment tasks. The second study focuses on person predictors through latent regression and differential item functioning (DIF) models. Latent regression models show the influence of certain person characteristics on item responses, while DIF models test whether one group is differentially affected by specific assessment items, after conditioning on latent ability. Finally, the last study applies the linear logistic test model (LLTM) to investigate whether item features can help explain differences in item difficulties.

  18. Specification and resolution of complex manipulation tasks. Application to remote robots tele-programming; Specification et resolution de taches de manipulation complexes. Application a la teleprogrammation de robots distants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccin, O

    1995-11-15

    The work presented in this thesis comes within the scope of remote manipulation with restricted communication properties between the operator and the remote site. This context renders traditional tele-operation infeasible. To enhance the autonomy of the remote manipulator, it is necessary to reason on a model of the robot and its workspace. However, discrepancies between the real world and its representation require calibration capabilities to identify both position and size of objects interacting with the robot. Moreover, the non-repetitiveness and complexity of the tasks demand that the specification system remains easy to re-program and capable of treating a wide range of problems. The proposed constraint-based approach permits the specification of complex manipulation tasks in which tasks' objectives are expressed in terms of mobilities and contact relationships to achieve or maintain between parts. The resulting constraint relationships are then treated by a numerical solver based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. An enhanced robustness has been achieved through a dynamic management of equations' conditioning. This enables the system to choose automatically for the most appropriate resolution scenario. The first main class of applications is complex motion generation for any kind of robotic mechanisms possibly including redundancy. Constraints setting can also be exploited to realize local obstacle avoidance. The proposed approach makes it possible to deal with calibration tasks within the same framework. This constitutes an essential feature in the context of remote manipulation where models are un-precisely known. Lastly, a weld line inspection experiment performed on a real manipulator allows us to put forward a strategy for robotic task performance at a remote location. (author)

  19. Specification and resolution of complex manipulation tasks. Application to remote robots tele-programming; Specification et resolution de taches de manipulation complexes. Application a la teleprogrammation de robots distants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccin, O

    1995-11-15

    The work presented in this thesis comes within the scope of remote manipulation with restricted communication properties between the operator and the remote site. This context renders traditional tele-operation infeasible. To enhance the autonomy of the remote manipulator, it is necessary to reason on a model of the robot and its workspace. However, discrepancies between the real world and its representation require calibration capabilities to identify both position and size of objects interacting with the robot. Moreover, the non-repetitiveness and complexity of the tasks demand that the specification system remains easy to re-program and capable of treating a wide range of problems. The proposed constraint-based approach permits the specification of complex manipulation tasks in which tasks' objectives are expressed in terms of mobilities and contact relationships to achieve or maintain between parts. The resulting constraint relationships are then treated by a numerical solver based on a Newton-Raphson scheme. An enhanced robustness has been achieved through a dynamic management of equations' conditioning. This enables the system to choose automatically for the most appropriate resolution scenario. The first main class of applications is complex motion generation for any kind of robotic mechanisms possibly including redundancy. Constraints setting can also be exploited to realize local obstacle avoidance. The proposed approach makes it possible to deal with calibration tasks within the same framework. This constitutes an essential feature in the context of remote manipulation where models are un-precisely known. Lastly, a weld line inspection experiment performed on a real manipulator allows us to put forward a strategy for robotic task performance at a remote location. (author)

  20. The use of questions as problem-solving strategies during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Mills, Candice M; Souza, André L; Plummer, Leigh E; Yasskin, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the strategic use of questions to solve problems across early childhood. Participants (N=54, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds) engaged in two tasks: a novel problem-solving question task that required asking questions to an informant to determine which card in an array was located in a box and a cognitive flexibility task that required classifying stimuli by multiple dimensions. The results from the question task indicated that there were age differences in the types of questions asked, with 6-year-olds asking more constraint-seeking questions than 4- and 5-year-olds. The number of constraint-seeking questions asked was the only significant predictor of accuracy. Performance on the cognitive flexibility task correlated with both constraint-seeking strategy use and accuracy in the question task. In sum, our results provide evidence that the capacity to use questions to generate relevant information develops before the capacity to apply this information successfully and consistently to solve complex problems. We propose that the process of using questions as strategic tools is an ideal context for examining how children come to gain active and intentional control over problem solving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective Team Support: From Task and Cognitive Modeling to Software Agents for Time-Critical Complex Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie E.; Sycara, Katia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in completing a system for empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support a team's tasks, and in running experiments for the collection of baseline data.

  2. Selecting Measures to Evaluate Complex Sociotechnical Systems: An Empirical Comparison of a Task-based and Constraint-based Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    personnel selection, work methods, labour standards and an individual’s motivation to perform work. His work became less relevant as tasks became more...people were employed to do and was able to show that non-physical factors such as job satisfaction and the psychological states of workers contributed...all threats, flight conditions, consequences of their actions (for example, damaging the aircraft during a “hard” landing) and expressed satisfaction

  3. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chris Bothma

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention. Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales. Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed. Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.

  4. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  5. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chris Bothma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work-based identity, used as a reference to the self, is the answer to the question ’Who am I at work?’ Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes. Engagement, presented in different conceptualisations, is viewed by practitioners and academic researchers as an important antecedent of employee behaviour.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention.Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales.Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed.Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.

  6. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

  7. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  8. Object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder is differentially influenced by motoric task complexity, but not social contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Lacey; Hudry, Kristelle; Grant, Megan; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple ® iPad ® by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof. Children with autism spectrum disorder imitated the high motor demand task more poorly than the low motor demand task, while imitation performance for typically developing children was equivalent across the low and high motor demand conditions. Furthermore, imitative performance in the autism spectrum disorder group was unrelated to social reciprocity, though positively associated with fine motor coordination. These results suggest that difficulties in object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder are the result of motor execution difficulties, not reduced social motivation.

  9. Research on air and missile defense task allocation based on extended contract net protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.

  10. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  11. Basic skills in a complex task: A graphical model relating memory and lexical retrieval to simultaneous interpreting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Gtoor, A.M.B.; Waldorp, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a complex skill, where language comprehension and production take place at the same time in two different languages. In this study we identified some of the basic cognitive skills involved in SI, focusing on the roles of memory and lexical retrieval. We administered

  12. Resting and Task-Modulated High-Frequency Brain Rhythms Measured by Scalp Encephalography in Infants with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide…

  13. Motor learning in a complex balance task and associated neuroplasticity: a comparison between endurance athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Oliver; Carius, Daniel; Kenville, Rouven; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Studies suggested that motor expertise is associated with functional and structural brain alterations, which positively affect sensorimotor performance and learning capabilities. The purpose of the present study was to unravel differences in motor skill learning and associated functional neuroplasticity between endurance athletes (EA) and nonathletes (NA). For this purpose, participants had to perform a multimodal balance task (MBT) training on 2 sessions, which were separated by 1 wk. Before and after MBT training, a static balance task (SBT) had to be performed. MBT-induced functional neuroplasticity and neuromuscular alterations were assessed by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electromyography (EMG) during SBT performance. We hypothesized that EA would showed superior initial SBT performance and stronger MBT-induced improvements in SBT learning rates compared with NA. On a cortical level, we hypothesized that MBT training would lead to differential learning-dependent functional changes in motor-related brain regions [such as primary motor cortex (M1)] during SBT performance. In fact, EA showed superior initial SBT performance, whereas learning rates did not differ between groups. On a cortical level, fNIRS recordings (time × group interaction) revealed a stronger MBT-induced decrease in left M1 and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) for deoxygenated hemoglobin in EA. Even more interesting, learning rates were correlated with fNIRS changes in right M1/IPL. On the basis of these findings, we provide novel evidence for superior MBT training-induced functional neuroplasticity in highly trained athletes. Future studies should investigate these effects in different sports disciplines to strengthen previous work on experience-dependent neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Motor expertise is associated with functional/structural brain plasticity. How such neuroplastic reorganization translates into altered motor learning processes remains elusive. We

  14. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.H.J. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States) and Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yhc@umd.edu; Mosleh, A. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs.

  15. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.H.J.; Mosleh, A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs

  16. Temperament and problem solving in a population of adolescent guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Seyfarth, Robert M; Serpell, James A; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2017-09-01

    It is often assumed that measures of temperament within individuals are more correlated to one another than to measures of problem solving. However, the exact relationship between temperament and problem-solving tasks remains unclear because large-scale studies have typically focused on each independently. To explore this relationship, we tested 119 prospective adolescent guide dogs on a battery of 11 temperament and problem-solving tasks. We then summarized the data using both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory principal components analysis. Results of confirmatory analysis revealed that a priori separation of tests as measuring either temperament or problem solving led to weak results, poor model fit, some construct validity, and no predictive validity. In contrast, results of exploratory analysis were best summarized by principal components that mixed temperament and problem-solving traits. These components had both construct and predictive validity (i.e., association with success in the guide dog training program). We conclude that there is complex interplay between tasks of "temperament" and "problem solving" and that the study of both together will be more informative than approaches that consider either in isolation.

  17. Mentalization of complex emotions in borderline personality disorder: The impact of parenting and exposure to trauma on the performance in a novel cartoon-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Walden, Sarah; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a range of interpersonal difficulties, which are, in part, related to adverse experiences during childhood. Unresponsive parenting and traumatization may cause functional impairment of mentalization, i.e. the ability to reflect upon own and others' mental states. However, the relationship of poor parenting, trauma and mentalization in BPD has not exhaustively been studied. Thirty patients diagnosed with BPD and 30 matched control subjects were asked to sequence a novel cartoon-based mentalization task involving complex emotions such as jealousy, shame, guilt etc. In addition, they were required to reason about cognitive and affective mental states of the cartoon characters. The quality of parental care was assessed using a self-report measure for recalled parental rearing style, and childhood trauma was measured in retrospect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients with BPD performed more poorly in all aspects of the cartoon task. Mentalizing skills, particularly relating to affective mental states, were uniquely associated with the quality of recalled parental care and childhood trauma. Together, the quality of parental care and the experience of childhood trauma negatively impact on mentalization in BPD, even in an experimental "offline" task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aiding the search: Examining individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Derek M; Brewer, Gene A

    2018-07-01

    Understanding and resolving complex problems is of vital importance in daily life. Problems can be defined by the limitations they place on the problem solver. Multiply-constrained problems are traditionally examined with the compound remote associates task (CRAT). Performance on the CRAT is partially dependent on an individual's working memory capacity (WMC). These findings suggest that executive processes are critical for problem solving and that there are reliable individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving abilities. The goals of the current study are to replicate and further elucidate the relation between WMC and CRAT performance. To achieve these goals, we manipulated preexposure to CRAT solutions and measured WMC with complex-span tasks. In Experiment 1, we report evidence that preexposure to CRAT solutions improved problem solving accuracy, WMC was correlated with problem solving accuracy, and that WMC did not moderate the effect of preexposure on problem solving accuracy. In Experiment 2, we preexposed participants to correct and incorrect solutions. We replicated Experiment 1 and found that WMC moderates the effect of exposure to CRAT solutions such that high WMC participants benefit more from preexposure to correct solutions than low WMC (although low WMC participants have preexposure benefits as well). Broadly, these results are consistent with theories of working memory and problem solving that suggest a mediating role of attention control processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Geometric and Algebraic Approaches in the Concept of Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaoura, A.; Elia, I.; Gagatsis, A.; Giatilis, G.-P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores pupils' performance and processes in tasks involving equations and inequalities of complex numbers requiring conversions from a geometric representation to an algebraic representation and conversions in the reverse direction, and also in complex numbers problem solving. Data were collected from 95 pupils of the final grade from…

  20. Excitability of the motor cortex ipsilateral to the moving body side depends on spatio-temporal task complexity and hemispheric specialization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van den Berg

    Full Text Available Unilateral movements are mainly controlled by the contralateral hemisphere, even though the primary motor cortex ipsilateral (M1(ipsi to the moving body side can undergo task-related changes of activity as well. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to investigate whether representations of the wrist flexor (FCR and extensor (ECR in M1(ipsi would be modulated when unilateral rhythmical wrist movements were executed in isolation or in the context of a simple or difficult hand-foot coordination pattern, and whether this modulation would differ for the left versus right hemisphere. We found that M1(ipsi facilitation of the resting ECR and FCR mirrored the activation of the moving wrist such that facilitation was higher when the homologous muscle was activated during the cyclical movement. We showed that this ipsilateral facilitation increased significantly when the wrist movements were performed in the context of demanding hand-foot coordination tasks whereas foot movements alone influenced the hand representation of M1(ipsi only slightly. Our data revealed a clear hemispheric asymmetry such that MEP responses were significantly larger when elicited in the left M1(ipsi than in the right. In experiment 2, we tested whether the modulations of M1(ipsi facilitation, caused by performing different coordination tasks with the left versus right body sides, could be explained by changes in short intracortical inhibition (SICI. We found that SICI was increasingly reduced for a complex coordination pattern as compared to rest, but only in the right M1(ipsi. We argue that our results might reflect the stronger involvement of the left versus right hemisphere in performing demanding motor tasks.

  1. Disturbed holistic processing in autism spectrum disorders verified by two cognitive tasks requiring perception of complex visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahachi, Takayuki; Yamashita, Ko; Iwase, Masao; Ishigami, Wataru; Tanaka, Chitaru; Toyonaga, Koji; Maeda, Shizuyo; Hirotsune, Hideto; Tei, Yosyo; Yokoi, Koichi; Okajima, Shoji; Shimizu, Akira; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2008-06-30

    Central coherence is a key concept in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It refers to the process in which diverse information is integrated and higher meaning is constructed in context. A malfunction in this process could result in abnormal attention to partial information in preference to the whole. To verify this hypothesis, we studied the performance of two visual tasks by 10 patients with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and by 26 (experiment 1) or 25 (experiment 2) normal subjects. In experiment 1, the subjects memorized pictures, some pictures with a change related to the main theme (D1) and others with a change not related to the main theme (D2); then the same pictures were randomly presented to the subjects who were asked to find the change. In experiment 2, the subjects were presented pictures of a normal (N) or a Thatcherized (T) face arranged side by side inversely (I) or uprightly (U) and to judge them as the same or different. In experiment 1, ASD subjects exhibited significantly lower rates of correct responses in D1 but not in D2. In experiment 2, ASD subjects exhibited significantly longer response times in NT-U but not in TN-I. These results showed a deficit in holistic processing, which is consistent with weak central coherence in ASD.

  2. Language complexity modulates 8- and 10-year-olds' success at using their theory of mind abilities in a communication task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Jessica; Ali, Muna; Frisson, Steven; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-09-01

    Basic competence in theory of mind is acquired during early childhood. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that the ability to take others' perspectives in communication improves continuously from middle childhood to the late teenage years. This indicates that theory of mind performance undergoes protracted developmental changes after the acquisition of basic competence. Currently, little is known about the factors that constrain children's performance or that contribute to age-related improvement. A sample of 39 8-year-olds and 56 10-year-olds were tested on a communication task in which a speaker's limited perspective needed to be taken into account and the complexity of the speaker's utterance varied. Our findings showed that 10-year-olds were generally less egocentric than 8-year-olds. Children of both ages committed more egocentric errors when a speaker uttered complex sentences compared with simple sentences. Both 8- and 10-year-olds were affected by the demand to integrate complex sentences with the speaker's limited perspective and to a similar degree. These results suggest that long after children's development of simple visual perspective-taking, their use of this ability to assist communication is substantially constrained by the complexity of the language involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multisensors Cooperative Detection Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on Hybrid Task Decomposition and MBPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multisensor scheduling algorithm based on the hybrid task decomposition and modified binary particle swarm optimization (MBPSO is proposed. Firstly, aiming at the complex relationship between sensor resources and tasks, a hybrid task decomposition method is presented, and the resource scheduling problem is decomposed into subtasks; then the sensor resource scheduling problem is changed into the match problem of sensors and subtasks. Secondly, the resource match optimization model based on the sensor resources and tasks is established, which considers several factors, such as the target priority, detecting benefit, handover times, and resource load. Finally, MBPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the match optimization model effectively, which is based on the improved updating means of particle’s velocity and position through the doubt factor and modified Sigmoid function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of convergence velocity, searching capability, solution accuracy, and efficiency.

  4. Controlling Uncertainty: A Review of Human Behavior in Complex Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Complex dynamic control (CDC) tasks are a type of problem-solving environment used for examining many cognitive activities (e.g., attention, control, decision making, hypothesis testing, implicit learning, memory, monitoring, planning, and problem solving). Because of their popularity, there have been many findings from diverse domains of research…

  5. A quasi steady state method for solving transient Darcy flow in complex 3D fractured networks accounting for matrix to fracture flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nœtinger, B.

    2015-02-01

    Modeling natural Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) receives more and more attention in applied geosciences, from oil and gas industry, to geothermal recovery and aquifer management. The fractures may be either natural, or artificial in case of well stimulation. Accounting for the flow inside the fracture network, and accounting for the transfers between the matrix and the fractures, with the same level of accuracy is an important issue for calibrating the well architecture and for setting up optimal resources recovery strategies. Recently, we proposed an original method allowing to model transient pressure diffusion in the fracture network only [1]. The matrix was assumed to be impervious. A systematic approximation scheme was built, allowing to model the initial DFN by a set of N unknowns located at each identified intersection between fractures. The higher N, the higher the accuracy of the model. The main assumption was using a quasi steady state hypothesis, that states that the characteristic diffusion time over one single fracture is negligible compared with the characteristic time of the macroscopic problem, e.g. change of boundary conditions. In that context, the lowest order approximation N = 1 has the form of solving a transient problem in a resistor/capacitor network, a so-called pipe network. Its topology is the same as the network of geometrical intersections between fractures. In this paper, we generalize this approach in order to account for fluxes from matrix to fractures. The quasi steady state hypothesis at the fracture level is still kept. Then, we show that in the case of well separated time scales between matrix and fractures, the preceding model needs only to be slightly modified in order to incorporate these fluxes. The additional knowledge of the so-called matrix to fracture transfer function allows to modify the mass matrix that becomes a time convolution operator. This is reminiscent of existing space averaged transient dual porosity models.

  6. Can the integration of multiple biomarkers and sediment geochemistry aid solving the complexity of sediment risk assessment? A case study with a benthic fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro M.; Caeiro, Sandra; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T. Àngel; Costa, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Surveying toxicity of complex geochemical media as aquatic sediments often yields results that are either difficult to interpret or even contradictory to acknowledged theory. Multi-level biomarkers were investigated in a benthic fish exposed to estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays, to evaluate their employment either in ecological risk assessment or in more mechanistic approaches to assess sediment-bound toxicity. Biomarkers reflecting lesions (such as genotoxicity or histopathology), regardless of their low or absent specificity to contaminants, are efficient in segregating exposure to contaminated from uncontaminated sediments even when classical biomarkers like CYP1A and metallothionein induction are inconclusive. Conversely, proteomics and gene transcription analyses provided information on the mechanics of toxicity and aided explaining response variation as a function of metabolic imbalance and impairment of defences against insult. In situ bioassays, although less expedite and more affected by confounding factors, produced data better correlated to overall sediment contamination. Highlights: ► Sediment-bound contaminant mixtures can yield unexpected biomarker responses in fish. ► Biomarkers reflecting lesions are sturdier predictors of pollution by mixed xenobiotics. ► Proteomics and gene transcription analyses disclosed the existence of complex patterns of response to toxicity. ► Laboratory bioassays are less impacted by noise variables but tend to lose ecological relevance. - Evaluation of multi-level biomarker responses in fish for ecological risk assessment

  7. How does the Augmented Reality Manual enhance cognitive activity while doing complex maintenance tasks?: Augmented Tutorial Overlaid Manual (ATOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Technology and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    It has been more than a decade since the concept of Augmented Reality (AR) was introduced. Many related technologies, such as tracking and display, to animate this concept have improved to certain levels. AR is well suited for interaction with the cognitive vision system. In contrast to the virtual reality, AR applications enrich the perceived reality with additional visual information which ranges from text annotation and object highlighting to complex 3D objects. AR has been tested its potentiality in various forms of applications. For example, visitors wear Head Mount Display (HMD) to see virtual guides explaining artifacts in a museum or soldiers are informed geographical features about unfamiliar operation sites. Recently, researchers tried to use AR as a means of teaching or training apparatus; however, there are still some technical obstacles to put this fascinating technology into practice. In this study, we will use Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) to design a manual of pump maintenance and convert it to AR technology to propose a proto type of an on-line AR maintenance manual to prove its possibility as an interactive learning tool.

  8. How does the Augmented Reality Manual enhance cognitive activity while doing complex maintenance tasks?: Augmented Tutorial Overlaid Manual (ATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    It has been more than a decade since the concept of Augmented Reality (AR) was introduced. Many related technologies, such as tracking and display, to animate this concept have improved to certain levels. AR is well suited for interaction with the cognitive vision system. In contrast to the virtual reality, AR applications enrich the perceived reality with additional visual information which ranges from text annotation and object highlighting to complex 3D objects. AR has been tested its potentiality in various forms of applications. For example, visitors wear Head Mount Display (HMD) to see virtual guides explaining artifacts in a museum or soldiers are informed geographical features about unfamiliar operation sites. Recently, researchers tried to use AR as a means of teaching or training apparatus; however, there are still some technical obstacles to put this fascinating technology into practice. In this study, we will use Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) to design a manual of pump maintenance and convert it to AR technology to propose a proto type of an on-line AR maintenance manual to prove its possibility as an interactive learning tool

  9. The Effects of Aging and Dual Tasking on Human Gait Complexity During Treadmill Walking: A Comparative Study Using Quantized Dynamical Entropy and Sample Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Samira; Wu, Christine; Sepehri, Nariman; Kantikar, Anuprita; Nankar, Mayur; Szturm, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) has recently been proposed as a new measure to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems with the purpose of offering a better computational efficiency. This paper further investigates the viability of this method using five different human gait signals. These signals are recorded while normal walking and while performing secondary tasks among two age groups (young and older age groups). The results are compared with the outcomes of previously established sample entropy (SampEn) measure for the same signals. We also study how analyzing segmented and spatially and temporally normalized signal differs from analyzing whole data. Our findings show that human gait signals become more complex as people age and while they are cognitively loaded. Center of pressure (COP) displacement in mediolateral direction is the best signal for showing the gait changes. Moreover, the results suggest that by segmenting data, more information about intrastride dynamical features are obtained. Most importantly, QDE is shown to be a reliable measure for human gait complexity analysis.

  10. A Cognition Analysis of QUASAR's Mathematics Performance Assessment Tasks and Their Sensitivity to Measuring Changes in Middle School Students' Thinking and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa, And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students' mathematical understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and communication. Analyses of student responses indicated that the tasks appear to measure the complex thinking and reasoning processes that they were designed to assess. Concludes that the QUASAR assessment tasks can capture changes in…

  11. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners' auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding.

  12. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners’ auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding. PMID:26441769

  13. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions

  14. Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A.H.; Hunt, G.R.; Medina, F.S.; Gray, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which animals other than humans can reason about physical problems is contentious. The benchmark test for this ability has been the trap-tube task. We presented New Caledonian crows with a series of two-trap versions of this problem. Three out of six crows solved the initial trap-tube. These crows continued to avoid the trap when the arbitrary features that had previously been associated with successful performances were removed. However, they did not avoid the trap when a hole and a functional trap were in the tube. In contrast to a recent primate study, the three crows then solved a causally equivalent but visually distinct problem—the trap-table task. The performance of the three crows across the four transfers made explanations based on chance, associative learning, visual and tactile generalization, and previous dispositions unlikely. Our findings suggest that New Caledonian crows can solve complex physical problems by reasoning both causally and analogically about causal relations. Causal and analogical reasoning may form the basis of the New Caledonian crow's exceptional tool skills. PMID:18796393

  15. Tasks for the future process and works management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinn, T.

    1994-01-01

    The actions which have been taken according to the company's targets formulated so far, have lead to complex large scale technical plants. The process and works management becomes more and more difficult due to increasing costs and the strict margins, which have been set by the environmental technology. A complex/An integrated approach at the development of process and works control systems can help considerably to solve these problems due to the dependency on information and partly similar tasks. Before the integrated/complex approach is made the structure and nature of the tasks of all company levels must be analysed and put into concrete terms. The resulting demand of data processing must be adjusted within the frame of a data processing development plan and be realised step by step. In this work the structures, the future tasks and the information demand of process and works management are described. (orig.) [de

  16. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  17. An experimental-differential investigation of cognitive complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive complexity as defined by differential and experimental traditions was explored to investigate the theoretical advantage and utility of relational complexity (RC theory as a common framework for studying fluid cognitive functions. RC theory provides a domain general account of processing demand as a function of task complexity. In total, 142 participants completed two tasks in which RC was manipulated, and two tasks entailing manipulations of complexity derived from the differential psychology literature. A series of analyses indicated that, as expected, task manipulations influenced item difficulty. However, comparable changes in a psychometric index of complexity were not consistently observed. Active maintenance of information across multiple steps of the problem solving process, which entails strategic coordination of storage and processing that cannot be modelled under the RC framework was found to be an important component of cognitive complexity.

  18. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  19. Complexant stability investigation. Task 2. Organic complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.C.

    1985-06-01

    The safety of high-level defense waste operations has always been given highest priority at the Hanford site. This document is part of the continued effort to appraise and reevaluate the safety of the waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Reservation. Hanford high-level defense waste consists mainly of moist, inorganic salts, NaNO 3 , NaAl(OH) 4 , Na 2 CO 3 , and other sodium salts. However, in addition to these salts, quantities of organic compounds constitute a significant portion of the waste. The potential reaction of the organic compounds with inorganic salts to form explosive substances is examined and found to be nonexistent or negligible. The concept that the waste mixture might react exothermically is found to be untenable under the present storage conditions. The phenomenon of slurry growth in double-shell waste storage tanks is expected to cause no increase in exothermic reaction potential within the waste. The results of this study indicate that the presence of organic material in the high-level defense waste does not constitute undue hazard under the present storage conditions

  20. Complexant stability investigation. Task 2. Organic complexants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.C.

    1985-06-01

    The safety of high-level defense waste operations has always been given highest priority at the Hanford site. This document is part of the continued effort to appraise and reevaluate the safety of the waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Reservation. Hanford high-level defense waste consists mainly of moist, inorganic salts, NaNO/sub 3/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and other sodium salts. However, in addition to these salts, quantities of organic compounds constitute a significant portion of the waste. The potential reaction of the organic compounds with inorganic salts to form explosive substances is examined and found to be nonexistent or negligible. The concept that the waste mixture might react exothermically is found to be untenable under the present storage conditions. The phenomenon of slurry growth in double-shell waste storage tanks is expected to cause no increase in exothermic reaction potential within the waste. The results of this study indicate that the presence of organic material in the high-level defense waste does not constitute undue hazard under the present storage conditions.

  1. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  2. The Effect of Visual Representation Style in Problem-Solving: A Perspective from Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving. PMID:24260415

  3. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Nyamsuren

    Full Text Available Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  4. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject’s level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141

  5. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsin A Müller

    Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  6. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  7. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  8. The effect of four user interface concepts on visual scan pattern similarity and information foraging in a complex decision making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Sandra D; Baber, Chris

    2018-07-01

    User interface (UI) design can affect the quality of decision making, where decisions based on digitally presented content are commonly informed by visually sampling information through eye movements. Analysis of the resulting scan patterns - the order in which people visually attend to different regions of interest (ROIs) - gives an insight into information foraging strategies. In this study, we quantified scan pattern characteristics for participants engaging with conceptually different user interface designs. Four interfaces were modified along two dimensions relating to effort in accessing information: data presentation (either alpha-numerical data or colour blocks), and information access time (all information sources readily available or sequential revealing of information required). The aim of the study was to investigate whether a) people develop repeatable scan patterns and b) different UI concepts affect information foraging and task performance. Thirty-two participants (eight for each UI concept) were given the task to correctly classify 100 credit card transactions as normal or fraudulent based on nine transaction attributes. Attributes varied in their usefulness of predicting the correct outcome. Conventional and more recent (network analysis- and bioinformatics-based) eye tracking metrics were used to quantify visual search. Empirical findings were evaluated in context of random data and possible accuracy for theoretical decision making strategies. Results showed short repeating sequence fragments within longer scan patterns across participants and conditions, comprising a systematic and a random search component. The UI design concept showing alpha-numerical data in full view resulted in most complete data foraging, while the design concept showing colour blocks in full view resulted in the fastest task completion time. Decision accuracy was not significantly affected by UI design. Theoretical calculations showed that the difference in achievable

  9. Performance impact of mutation operators of a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm for multi-robot task allocation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems.

  10. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  11. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  12. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Complex Verbal Associative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    The remote associates test (RAT) is a complex verbal task with associations to both creative thought and general intelligence. RAT problems require not only lateral associations and the internal production of many words but a convergent focus on a single answer. Complex problem-solving of this sort may thus require both substantial verbal…

  13. Simulating the Cost of Cooperation: A Recipe for Collaborative Problem-Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guazzini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as group size, the difficulty of the tasks, the tendency to cooperate, and the presence of selfish individuals (free riders. Given the complex relations among those variables, numerical simulations could be the ideal tool to explore such relationships. We take into account the cost of cooperation in collaborative problem solving by employing several simulated scenarios. The role of two parameters was explored: the capacity, the group’s capability to solve increasingly challenging tasks coupled with the collective knowledge of a group, and the payoff, an individual’s own benefit in terms of new knowledge acquired. The final cooperation rate is only affected by the cost of cooperation in the case of simple tasks and small communities. In contrast, the fitness of the community, the difficulty of the task, and the groups sizes interact in a non-trivial way, hence shedding some light on how to improve crowdsourcing when the cost of cooperation is high.

  14. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vo, Loan T. K.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer). While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To ...

  15. Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.

    1973-01-01

    Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…

  16. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  17. Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called

  18. The mathematical statement for the solving of the problem of N-version software system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Kovalev, D. I.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Voroshilova, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The N-version programming, as a methodology of the fault-tolerant software systems design, allows successful solving of the mentioned tasks. The use of N-version programming approach turns out to be effective, since the system is constructed out of several parallel executed versions of some software module. Those versions are written to meet the same specification but by different programmers. The problem of developing an optimal structure of N-version software system presents a kind of very complex optimization problem. This causes the use of deterministic optimization methods inappropriate for solving the stated problem. In this view, exploiting heuristic strategies looks more rational. In the field of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory, the so called method of varied probabilities (MVP) has been developed to solve problems with a large dimensionality.

  19. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  20. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  1. Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.

  2. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  3. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  4. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  5. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  6. Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

    2009-11-01

    Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts.

  7. A meta-heuristic method for solving scheduling problem: crow search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Antono; Santosa, Budi; Siswanto, Nurhadi

    2018-04-01

    Scheduling is one of the most important processes in an industry both in manufacturingand services. The scheduling process is the process of selecting resources to perform an operation on tasks. Resources can be machines, peoples, tasks, jobs or operations.. The selection of optimum sequence of jobs from a permutation is an essential issue in every research in scheduling problem. Optimum sequence becomes optimum solution to resolve scheduling problem. Scheduling problem becomes NP-hard problem since the number of job in the sequence is more than normal number can be processed by exact algorithm. In order to obtain optimum results, it needs a method with capability to solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable time. Meta-heuristic is a method usually used to solve scheduling problem. The recently published method called Crow Search Algorithm (CSA) is adopted in this research to solve scheduling problem. CSA is an evolutionary meta-heuristic method which is based on the behavior in flocks of crow. The calculation result of CSA for solving scheduling problem is compared with other algorithms. From the comparison, it is found that CSA has better performance in term of optimum solution and time calculation than other algorithms.

  8. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eNikolaidis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer. While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-hour sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre and post functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe, individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive

  9. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vo, Loan T K; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer). While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-h sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre- and post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe (SPL), individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive training research.

  10. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  11. SOLVING ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS WITH THE SWARM INTELLIGENCE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panteleev Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in problem solving process for aerospace and aerostructures designing is calculating their main charac- teristics optimization. The results of the four constrained optimization problems related to the design of various technical systems: such as determining the best parameters of welded beams, pressure vessel, gear, spring are presented. The purpose of each task is to minimize the cost and weight of the construction. The object functions in optimization practical problem are nonlinear functions with a lot of variables and a complex layer surface indentations. That is why using classical approach for extremum seeking is not efficient. Here comes the necessity of using such methods of optimization that allow to find a near optimal solution in acceptable amount of time with the minimum waste of computer power. Such methods include the methods of Swarm Intelligence: spiral dy- namics algorithm, stochastic diffusion search, hybrid seeker optimization algorithm. The Swarm Intelligence methods are designed in such a way that a swarm consisting of agents carries out the search for extremum. In search for the point of extremum, the parti- cles exchange information and consider their experience as well as the experience of population leader and the neighbors in some area. To solve the listed problems there has been designed a program complex, which efficiency is illustrated by the solutions of four applied problems. Each of the considered applied optimization problems is solved with all the three chosen methods. The ob- tained numerical results can be compared with the ones found in a swarm with a particle method. The author gives recommenda- tions on how to choose methods parameters and penalty function value, which consider inequality constraints.

  12. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  13. Youth and nuclear industry in Russia: Tasks and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippoff, S.; Soldatov, A.; Kovalevskiy, A.; Porokhina, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper activities of the Youth Department of Russian Nuclear Society (YDRNS) department at Moscow State Engineering-Physical Institute (MEPhI) are reviewed. The purposes of growing organization were pointed at the international conference P olar Lights'99 . First of all, the revealing and all-level support of active youth, including speciality discussion among pupils. Secondly, propagating the concepts of modern power engineering and creating the positive image of nuclear field among public. And, thirdly, the development of international relationships. May 1999 started with foundation of the YDRNS department at MEPhI and the following scientific trends were announced: Arrangement and conducting of scientific conferences and seminars on the current problems in nuclear field; Assistance in publication of scientific works and articles in scientific editions; Arrangement of the period of trainee and acquaintance of youth with energy enterprises; Reflecting the YDRNS and talented youth activities in mass media; Cooperation with YDRNS departments in other regions of Russia and similar foreign organizations; Creation of data base of participants and their participation in YDRNS activities. This thesis formed the basis of YDRNS of MEPhI activities for year 1999. (authors)

  14. A United Framework for Solving Multiagent Task Assignment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in...Member Date Date Accepted: 170-e<.. 01 DateM.V.THOMAS Dean, Graduate School of E,ngineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology AFIT...actions in two different problem groups: using shame [37] for autonomous robots navigating a minefield, and a waiter - refiller service environment [94

  15. A United Framework for Solving Multiagent Task Assignment Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cousin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... The CMTS descriptor represents a wide range of classical and modern problems, such as job shop scheduling, the traveling salesman problem, vehicle routing, and cooperative multi-object tracking...

  16. Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.

  17. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  18. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  19. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  20. Solving Linear Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

  1. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  2. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  3. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  4. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  5. Neural bases for basic processes in heuristic problem solving: Take solving Sudoku puzzles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning

    2012-12-01

    Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  7. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  8. Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebkin V.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.

  9. The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim

    2018-01-01

    While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.

  10. Young Investigator Program (8.5): Preventing Complex Failures of Human Interactive Systems with Erroneous Behavior Generation and Robust Human Task Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Conmittee on Energy and Commerce , House of Representatives. Technical Report GAO/OSI-93-4, 1993...Bolton & E . J. Bass. Formally verifying human-automation interaction as part of a system model: Limitations and tradeoffs. Innovations in Systems and...Software Engineering: A NASA Journal, 6(3):219–231, 2010. [5] M. L. Bolton & E . J. Bass. Using task analytic models to visualize model checker

  11. Peculiarities of solving the problems of modern logistics in high-rise construction and industrial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Anatoliy E.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Chirkova, Tamara V.

    2018-03-01

    Basing on the analysis of the enterprise (construction organization) structure and infrastructure of the entire logistics system in which this enterprise (construction organization) operates, this article proposes an approach to solve the problems of structural optimization and a set of calculation tasks, based on customer orders as well as on the required levels of insurance stocks, transit stocks and other types of stocks in the distribution network, modes of operation of the in-company transport and storage complex and a number of other factors.

  12. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  13. Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE

  14. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  15. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  16. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  17. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  18. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  19. Outcomes-Based Authentic Learning, Portfolio Assessment, and a Systems Approach to "Complex Problem-Solving": Related Pillars for Enhancing the Innovative Role of PBL in Future Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve "active learning" approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and…

  20. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

    2014-11-01

    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.