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Sample records for solve complex planning

  1. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation

  2. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvili, Sahar [Mälardalen University (Sweden); Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University (Sweden); Biteus, Jonas [Scania CV (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  3. Planning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  4. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  5. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  6. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  7. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  8. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  9. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  10. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  11. Application of GIS Technology for Town Planning Tasks Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyashko, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    For developing territories, one of the most actual town-planning tasks is to find out the suitable sites for building projects. The geographic information system (GIS) allows one to model complex spatial processes and can provide necessary effective tools to solve these tasks. We propose several GIS analysis models which can define suitable settlement allocations and select appropriate parcels for construction objects. We implement our models in the ArcGIS Desktop package and verify by application to the existing objects in Primorsky Region (Primorye Territory). These suitability models use several variations of the analysis method combinations and include various ways to resolve the suitability task using vector data and a raster data set. The suitability models created in this study can be combined, and one model can be integrated into another as its part. Our models can be updated by other suitability models for further detailed planning.

  12. A model for solving the prescribed burn planning problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Ramya; Ozlen, Melih; Reinke, Karin J; Hearne, John W

    2015-01-01

    The increasing frequency of destructive wildfires, with a consequent loss of life and property, has led to fire and land management agencies initiating extensive fuel management programs. This involves long-term planning of fuel reduction activities such as prescribed burning or mechanical clearing. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) model that determines when and where fuel reduction activities should take place. The model takes into account multiple vegetation types in the landscape, their tolerance to frequency of fire events, and keeps track of the age of each vegetation class in each treatment unit. The objective is to minimise fuel load over the planning horizon. The complexity of scheduling fuel reduction activities has led to the introduction of sophisticated mathematical optimisation methods. While these approaches can provide optimum solutions, they can be computationally expensive, particularly for fuel management planning which extends across the landscape and spans long term planning horizons. This raises the question of how much better do exact modelling approaches compare to simpler heuristic approaches in their solutions. To answer this question, the proposed model is run using an exact MIP (using commercial MIP solver) and two heuristic approaches that decompose the problem into multiple single-period sub problems. The Knapsack Problem (KP), which is the first heuristic approach, solves the single period problems, using an exact MIP approach. The second heuristic approach solves the single period sub problem using a greedy heuristic approach. The three methods are compared in term of model tractability, computational time and the objective values. The model was tested using randomised data from 711 treatment units in the Barwon-Otway district of Victoria, Australia. Solutions for the exact MIP could be obtained for up to a 15-year planning only using a standard implementation of CPLEX. Both heuristic approaches can solve

  13. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

  14. Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions...

  15. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  16. Knowledge based method for solving complexity in design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The process of design aircraft systems is becoming more and more complex, due to an increasing amount of requirements. Moreover, the knowledge on how to solve these complex design problems becomes less readily available, because of a decrease in availability of intellectual resources and reduced

  17. Complex systems, evolutionary planning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.; de Roo, G.; Silva, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coping with uncertainty is a defining challenge for spatial planners. Accordingly, most spatial planning theories and methods are aimed at reducing uncertainty. However, the question is what should be done when this seems impossible? This chapter proposes an evolutionary interpretation of spatial

  18. Applying ant colony optimization metaheuristic to solve forest transportation planning problems with side constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco A. Contreras; Woodam Chung; Greg Jones

    2008-01-01

    Forest transportation planning problems (FTPP) have evolved from considering only the financial aspects of timber management to more holistic problems that also consider the environmental impacts of roads. These additional requirements have introduced side constraints, making FTPP larger and more complex. Mixed-integer programming (MIP) has been used to solve FTPP, but...

  19. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  20. Solving Assembly Sequence Planning using Angle Modulated Simulated Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapa, Ainizar; Yusof, Zulkifli Md.; Adam, Asrul; Muhammad, Badaruddin; Ibrahim, Zuwairie

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an implementation of Simulated Kalman Filter (SKF) algorithm for optimizing an Assembly Sequence Planning (ASP) problem. The SKF search strategy contains three simple steps; predict-measure-estimate. The main objective of the ASP is to determine the sequence of component installation to shorten assembly time or save assembly costs. Initially, permutation sequence is generated to represent each agent. Each agent is then subjected to a precedence matrix constraint to produce feasible assembly sequence. Next, the Angle Modulated SKF (AMSKF) is proposed for solving ASP problem. The main idea of the angle modulated approach in solving combinatorial optimization problem is to use a function, g(x), to create a continuous signal. The performance of the proposed AMSKF is compared against previous works in solving ASP by applying BGSA, BPSO, and MSPSO. Using a case study of ASP, the results show that AMSKF outperformed all the algorithms in obtaining the best solution.

  1. Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

  2. Fluid Ability (Gf) and Complex Problem Solving (CPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Kyllonen; Cristina Anguiano Carrasco; Harrison J. Kell

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human pr...

  3. Solving complex and disordered surface structures with electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The past of surface structure determination with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) will be briefly reviewed, setting the stage for a discussion of recent and future developments. The aim of these developments is to solve complex and disordered surface structures. Some efficient solutions to the theoretical and experimental problems will be presented. Since the theoretical problems dominate, the emphasis will be on theoretical approaches to the calculation of the multiple scattering of electrons through complex and disordered surfaces. 49 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  4. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2006-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases

  5. Fluid Ability (Gf and Complex Problem Solving (CPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kyllonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.

  6. Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Solving Aggregate Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated annealing (SA has been an effective means that can address difficulties related to optimisation problems. SA is now a common discipline for research with several productive applications such as production planning. Due to the fact that aggregate production planning (APP is one of the most considerable problems in production planning, in this paper, we present multiobjective linear programming model for APP and optimised by SA. During the course of optimising for the APP problem, it uncovered that the capability of SA was inadequate and its performance was substandard, particularly for a sizable controlled APP problem with many decision variables and plenty of constraints. Since this algorithm works sequentially then the current state will generate only one in next state that will make the search slower and the drawback is that the search may fall in local minimum which represents the best solution in only part of the solution space. In order to enhance its performance and alleviate the deficiencies in the problem solving, a modified SA (MSA is proposed. We attempt to augment the search space by starting with N+1 solutions, instead of one solution. To analyse and investigate the operations of the MSA with the standard SA and harmony search (HS, the real performance of an industrial company and simulation are made for evaluation. The results show that, compared to SA and HS, MSA offers better quality solutions with regard to convergence and accuracy.

  7. Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens F. Beckmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the

  8. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-06

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Operations Research]|[Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1992-12-01

    For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.

  10. Workforce Planning in Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) civilian acquisition workforces. The greater need for workforce planning is expected to arise from an unusually heavy workforce turnover, itself due to a large number of expected retirements among older employees in a workforce...

  11. An Approximation Approach for Solving the Subpath Planning Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Safilian, Masoud; Tashakkori, S. Mehdi; Eghbali, Sepehr; Safilian, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    The subpath planning problem is a branch of the path planning problem, which has widespread applications in automated manufacturing process as well as vehicle and robot navigation. This problem is to find the shortest path or tour subject for travelling a set of given subpaths. The current approaches for dealing with the subpath planning problem are all based on meta-heuristic approaches. It is well-known that meta-heuristic based approaches have several deficiencies. To address them, we prop...

  12. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  13. Analogy as a strategy for supporting complex problem solving under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joel; Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2012-11-01

    Complex problem solving in naturalistic environments is fraught with uncertainty, which has significant impacts on problem-solving behavior. Thus, theories of human problem solving should include accounts of the cognitive strategies people bring to bear to deal with uncertainty during problem solving. In this article, we present evidence that analogy is one such strategy. Using statistical analyses of the temporal dynamics between analogy and expressed uncertainty in the naturalistic problem-solving conversations among scientists on the Mars Rover Mission, we show that spikes in expressed uncertainty reliably predict analogy use (Study 1) and that expressed uncertainty reduces to baseline levels following analogy use (Study 2). In addition, in Study 3, we show with qualitative analyses that this relationship between uncertainty and analogy is not due to miscommunication-related uncertainty but, rather, is primarily concentrated on substantive problem-solving issues. Finally, we discuss a hypothesis about how analogy might serve as an uncertainty reduction strategy in naturalistic complex problem solving.

  14. ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, P. L.

    2007-06-25

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

  15. Mesoscale modeling: solving complex flows in biology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Zachary Grant; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Fluids are involved in practically all physiological activities of living organisms. However, biological and biorelated flows are hard to analyze due to the inherent combination of interdependent effects and processes that occur on a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Recent advances in mesoscale simulations enable researchers to tackle problems that are central for the understanding of such flows. Furthermore, computational modeling effectively facilitates the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Among other methods, dissipative particle dynamics and the lattice Boltzmann method have become increasingly popular during recent years due to their ability to solve a large variety of problems. In this review, we discuss recent applications of these mesoscale methods to several fluid-related problems in medicine, bioengineering, and biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the ...

  17. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Baggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI and complex problem-solving (CPS. OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.

  18. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERACTION IN SOLVING TASKS OF THE PLANNING DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alekseyevich Kucherov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues of human-machine interaction in solving tasks of the planning department under severe resource restrictions using information technology. The negative factors influencing specialists of the planning department in solving their tasks under the given circumstances are shown. Specific features of designing the user interface in this subject area are noted. Directions to increase the efficiency of reaction of the planning department’s specialists to change the current situation by visual and sound notification of various events are marked. Various ways to develop user interface to generate a conflict-free plan under severe resource restrictions are considered. The variants of informative presentation of operational and statistical information to stakeholders are analyzed. These issues are discussed by the example of the planning department which solves the tasks of allocation of control facilities for spacecraft (a subset of satellite range scheduling problem,

  19. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  20. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  1. Radwaste treatment complex. DRAWMACS planned maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the operation of the Planned Maintenance System for the Radwaste Treatment Complex. The Planned Maintenance System forms part of the Decommissioning and Radwaste Management Computer System (DRAWMACS). Further detailed information about the data structure of the system is contained in Database Design for the DRAWMACS Planned Maintenance System (AEA-D and R-0285, 2nd issue, 25th February 1992). Information for other components of DRAWMACS is contained in Basic User Guide for the Radwaste Treatment Plant Computer System (AEA-D and R-0019, July 1990). (author)

  2. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  3. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  4. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  5. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the applied methods in solving the problem.

  6. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tunjo Perić; Željko Mandić

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method) in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained resul...

  7. Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236 ISSN 1574-0617 Grant - others:AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  9. An Interactive Strategy for Solving Multi-Criteria Decision Making of Sustainable Land Revitalization Planning Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Gomar Purba, Ronal

    2018-02-01

    Land revitalization refers to comprehensive renovation of farmland, waterways, roads, forest or villages to improve the quality of plantation, raise the productivity of the plantation area and improve agricultural production conditions and the environment. The objective of sustainable land revitalization planning is to facilitate environmentally, socially, and economically viable land use. Therefore it is reasonable to use participatory approach to fullfil the plan. This paper addresses a multicriteria decision aid to model such planning problem, then we develop an interactive approach for solving the problem.

  10. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  11. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  12. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  14. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  15. Formulae of differentiation for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Dong Hun

    1999-01-01

    Generalizing the work of Shapiro and Loginov, we derive new formulae of differentiation useful for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients. We apply the formulae to the quantum-mechanical problem of noninteracting electrons moving in a correlated random potential in one dimension

  16. Identification of effective visual problem solving strategies in a complex visual domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Students in complex visual domains must acquire visual problem solving strategies that allow them to make fast decisions and come up with good solutions to real-time problems. In this study, 31 air traffic controllers at different levels of expertise (novice, intermediate, expert) were confronted

  17. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  18. Nonlinearly Activated Neural Network for Solving Time-Varying Complex Sylvester Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Yangming

    2013-10-28

    The Sylvester equation is often encountered in mathematics and control theory. For the general time-invariant Sylvester equation problem, which is defined in the domain of complex numbers, the Bartels-Stewart algorithm and its extensions are effective and widely used with an O(n³) time complexity. When applied to solving the time-varying Sylvester equation, the computation burden increases intensively with the decrease of sampling period and cannot satisfy continuous realtime calculation requirements. For the special case of the general Sylvester equation problem defined in the domain of real numbers, gradient-based recurrent neural networks are able to solve the time-varying Sylvester equation in real time, but there always exists an estimation error while a recently proposed recurrent neural network by Zhang et al [this type of neural network is called Zhang neural network (ZNN)] converges to the solution ideally. The advancements in complex-valued neural networks cast light to extend the existing real-valued ZNN for solving the time-varying real-valued Sylvester equation to its counterpart in the domain of complex numbers. In this paper, a complex-valued ZNN for solving the complex-valued Sylvester equation problem is investigated and the global convergence of the neural network is proven with the proposed nonlinear complex-valued activation functions. Moreover, a special type of activation function with a core function, called sign-bi-power function, is proven to enable the ZNN to converge in finite time, which further enhances its advantage in online processing. In this case, the upper bound of the convergence time is also derived analytically. Simulations are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the neural network with different parameters and activation functions. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  20. Cross-national comparisons of complex problem-solving strategies in two microworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güss, C Dominik; Tuason, Ma Teresa; Gerhard, Christiane

    2010-04-01

    Research in the fields of complex problem solving (CPS) and dynamic decision making using microworlds has been mainly conducted in Western industrialized countries. This study analyzes the CPS process by investigating thinking-aloud protocols in five countries. Participants were 511 students from Brazil, Germany, India, the Philippines, and the United States who worked on two microworlds. On the basis of cultural-psychological theories, specific cross-national differences in CPS strategies were hypothesized. Following theories of situatedness of cognition, hypotheses about the specific frequency of problem-solving strategies in the two microworlds were developed. Results of the verbal protocols showed (a) modification of the theoretical CPS model, (b) task dependence of CPS strategies, and (c) cross-national differences in CPS strategies. Participants' CPS processes were particularly influenced by country-specific problem-solving strategies. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Highly efficient parallel direct solver for solving dense complex matrix equations from method of moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the vectorised and cache optimised kernel, a parallel lower upper decomposition with a novel communication avoiding pivoting scheme is developed to solve dense complex matrix equations generated by the method of moments. The fine-grain data rearrangement and assembler instructions are adopted to reduce memory accessing times and improve CPU cache utilisation, which also facilitate vectorisation of the code. Through grouping processes in a binary tree, a parallel pivoting scheme is designed to optimise the communication pattern and thus reduces the solving time of the proposed solver. Two large electromagnetic radiation problems are solved on two supercomputers, respectively, and the numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms those in open source and commercial libraries.

  2. Developing an agent-based model on how different individuals solve complex problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Bozkurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Research that focuses on the emotional, mental, behavioral and cognitive capabilities of individuals has been abundant within disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others. However, when facing complex problems, a new perspective to understand individuals is necessary. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an agent-based model and simulation to gain understanding on the decision-making and problem-solving abilities of individuals. Design/Methodology/approach: The micro-level analysis modeling and simulation paradigm Agent-Based Modeling Through the use of Agent-Based Modeling, insight is gained on how different individuals with different profiles deal with complex problems. Using previous literature from different bodies of knowledge, established theories and certain assumptions as input parameters, a model is built and executed through a computer simulation. Findings: The results indicate that individuals with certain profiles have better capabilities to deal with complex problems. Moderate profiles could solve the entire complex problem, whereas profiles within extreme conditions could not. This indicates that having a strong predisposition is not the ideal way when approaching complex problems, and there should always be a component from the other perspective. The probability that an individual may use these capabilities provided by the opposite predisposition provides to be a useful option. Originality/value: The originality of the present research stems from how individuals are profiled, and the model and simulation that is built to understand how they solve complex problems. The development of the agent-based model adds value to the existing body of knowledge within both social sciences, and modeling and simulation.

  3. Anticipating students' reasoning and planning prompts in structured problem-solving lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Colleen; Widjaja, Wanty; Doig, Brian; Groves, Susie

    2018-02-01

    Structured problem-solving lessons are used to explore mathematical concepts such as pattern and relationships in early algebra, and regularly used in Japanese Lesson Study research lessons. However, enactment of structured problem-solving lessons which involves detailed planning, anticipation of student solutions and orchestration of whole-class discussion of solutions is an ongoing challenge for many teachers. Moreover, primary teachers have limited experience in teaching early algebra or mathematical reasoning actions such as generalising. In this study, the critical factors of enacting the structured problem-solving lessons used in Japanese Lesson Study to elicit and develop primary students' capacity to generalise are explored. Teachers from three primary schools participated in two Japanese Lesson Study teams for this study. The lesson plans and video recordings of teaching and post-lesson discussion of the two research lessons along with students' responses and learning are compared to identify critical factors. The anticipation of students' reasoning together with preparation of supporting and challenging prompts was critical for scaffolding students' capacity to grasp and communicate generality.

  4. Integrating marker passing and problem solving a spreading activation approach to improved choice in planning

    CERN Document Server

    Hendler, James A

    2014-01-01

    A recent area of interest in the Artificial Intelligence community has been the application of massively parallel algorithms to enhance the choice mechanism in traditional AI problems. This volume provides a detailed description of how marker-passing -- a parallel, non-deductive, spreading activation algorithm -- is a powerful approach to refining the choice mechanisms in an AI problem-solving system. The author scrutinizes the design of both the algorithm and the system, and then reviews the current literature and research in planning and marker passing. Also included: a comparison of this

  5. Act first, think later: the presence and absence of inferential planning in problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Thomas C; Macgregor, James N; Chronicle, Edward P; Dewald, Andrew D; Chu, Yun

    2013-10-01

    Planning is fundamental to successful problem solving, yet individuals sometimes fail to plan even one step ahead when it lies within their competence to do so. In this article, we report two experiments in which we explored variants of a ball-weighing puzzle, a problem that has only two steps, yet nonetheless yields performance consistent with a failure to plan. The results fit a computational model in which a solver's attempts are determined by two heuristics: maximization of the apparent progress made toward the problem goal and minimization of the problem space in which attempts are sought. The effectiveness of these heuristics was determined by lookahead, defined operationally as the number of steps evaluated in a planned move. Where move outcomes cannot be visualized but must be inferred, planning is constrained to the point where some individuals apply zero lookahead, which with n-ball problems yields seemingly irrational unequal weighs. Applying general-purpose heuristics with or without lookahead accounts for a range of rational and irrational phenomena found with insight and noninsight problems.

  6. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  7. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  8. Selection and Penalty Strategies for Genetic Algorithms Designed to Solve Spatial Forest Planning Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.P.; Sessions, J.; Hamann, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) have demonstrated success in solving spatial forest planning problems. We present an adaptive GA that incorporates population-level statistics to dynamically update penalty functions, a process analogous to strategic oscillation from the tabu search literature. We also explore performance of various selection strategies. The GA identified feasible solutions within 96%, 98%, and 93% of a non spatial relaxed upper bound calculated for landscapes of 100, 500, and 1000 units, respectively. The problem solved includes forest structure constraints limiting harvest opening sizes and requiring minimally sized patches of mature forest. Results suggest that the dynamic penalty strategy is superior to the more standard static penalty implementation. Results also suggest that tournament selection can be superior to the more standard implementation of proportional selection for smaller problems, but becomes susceptible to premature convergence as problem size increases. It is therefore important to balance selection pressure with appropriate disruption. We conclude that integrating intelligent search strategies into the context of genetic algorithms can yield improvements and should be investigated for future use in spatial planning with ecological goals.

  9. Systemic Planning: Dealing with Complexity by a Wider Approach to Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    2005-01-01

    and methodology that can be helpful for planning under circumstances characterised by complexity and uncertainty. It is argued that compared to conventional, planning – referred to as systematic planning - there is a need for a wider, more systemic approach to planning that is better suited to current real......On the basis of a new book Systemic Planning this paper addresses systems thinking and complexity in a context of planning. Specifically, renewal of planning thinking on this background is set out as so-called systemic planning (SP). The principal concern of SP is to provide principles...

  10. A novel algorithm for solving optimal path planning problems based on parametrization method and fuzzy aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamirian, M.; Kamyad, A.V.; Farahi, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter a new approach for solving optimal path planning problems for a single rigid and free moving object in a two and three dimensional space in the presence of stationary or moving obstacles is presented. In this approach the path planning problems have some incompatible objectives such as the length of path that must be minimized, the distance between the path and obstacles that must be maximized and etc., then a multi-objective dynamic optimization problem (MODOP) is achieved. Considering the imprecise nature of decision maker's (DM) judgment, these multiple objectives are viewed as fuzzy variables. By determining intervals for the values of these fuzzy variables, flexible monotonic decreasing or increasing membership functions are determined as the degrees of satisfaction of these fuzzy variables on their intervals. Then, the optimal path planning policy is searched by maximizing the aggregated fuzzy decision values, resulting in a fuzzy multi-objective dynamic optimization problem (FMODOP). Using a suitable t-norm, the FMODOP is converted into a non-linear dynamic optimization problem (NLDOP). By using parametrization method and some calculations, the NLDOP is converted into the sequence of conventional non-linear programming problems (NLPP). It is proved that the solution of this sequence of the NLPPs tends to a Pareto optimal solution which, among other Pareto optimal solutions, has the best satisfaction of DM for the MODOP. Finally, the above procedure as a novel algorithm integrating parametrization method and fuzzy aggregation to solve the MODOP is proposed. Efficiency of our approach is confirmed by some numerical examples.

  11. Two efficient heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpal, Yuvraj; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-period production system where a set of machines are arranged in parallel. The machines are unreliable and the failure rate of machine depends on the load assigned to the machine. The expected production rate of the system is considered to be a non-monotonic function of its load. Because of the machine failure rate, the total production output depends on the combination of loads assigned to different machines. We consider the integration of load distribution decisions with production planning decision. The product demands are considered to be known in advance. The objective is to minimize the sum of holding costs, backorder costs, production costs, setup costs, capacity change costs and unused capacity costs while satisfying the demand over specified time horizon. The constraint is not to exceed available repair resources required to repair the machine breakdown. The paper develops two heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem. The first heuristic consists of a three-phase approach, while the second one is based on tabu search metaheuristic. The efficiency of the proposed heuristics is tested through the randomly generated problem instances. - Highlights: • The expected performance of the system is a non-monotonic function of its load. • We consider the integration of load distribution and production planning decisions. • The paper proposes three phase and tabu search based heuristics to solve the problem. • Lower bound has been developed for checking the effectiveness of the heuristics. • The efficiency of the heuristic is tested through randomly generated instances.

  12. Knowledge to action for solving complex problems: insights from a review of nine international cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, B L; Robinson, K L; Gamble, J; Finegood, D T; Sheppard, D; Penney, T L; Best, A

    2015-05-01

    Solving complex problems such as preventing chronic diseases introduces unique challenges for the creation and application of knowledge, or knowledge to action (KTA). KTA approaches that apply principles of systems thinking are thought to hold promise, but practical strategies for their application are not well understood. In this paper we report the results of a scan of systems approaches to KTA with a goal to identify how to optimize their implementation and impact. A 5-person advisory group purposefully selected 9 initiatives to achieve diversity on issues addressed and organizational forms. Information on each case was gathered from documents and through telephone interviews with primary contacts within each organization. Following verification of case descriptions, an inductive analysis was conducted within and across cases. The cases revealed 5 guidelines for moving from conceiving KTA systems to implementing them: (1) establish and nurture relationships, (2) co-produce and curate knowledge, (3) create feedback loops, (4) frame as systems interventions rather than projects, and (5) consider variations across time and place. Results from the environmental scan are a modest start to translating systems concepts for KTA into practice. Use of the strategies revealed in the scan may improve KTA for solving complex public health problems. The strategies themselves will benefit from the development of a science that aims to understand adaptation and ongoing learning from policy and practice interventions, strengthens enduring relationships, and fills system gaps in addition to evidence gaps. Systems approaches to KTA will also benefit from robust evaluations.

  13. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  14. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  15. Modeling and solving a large-scale generation expansion planning problem under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Shan; Ryan, Sarah M. [Iowa State University, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Ames (United States); Watson, Jean-Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Discrete Math and Complex Systems Department, Albuquerque (United States); Woodruff, David L. [University of California Davis, Graduate School of Management, Davis (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We formulate a generation expansion planning problem to determine the type and quantity of power plants to be constructed over each year of an extended planning horizon, considering uncertainty regarding future demand and fuel prices. Our model is expressed as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer program, which we use to compute solutions independently minimizing the expected cost and the Conditional Value-at-Risk; i.e., the risk of significantly larger-than-expected operational costs. We introduce stochastic process models to capture demand and fuel price uncertainty, which are in turn used to generate trees that accurately represent the uncertainty space. Using a realistic problem instance based on the Midwest US, we explore two fundamental, unexplored issues that arise when solving any stochastic generation expansion model. First, we introduce and discuss the use of an algorithm for computing confidence intervals on obtained solution costs, to account for the fact that a finite sample of scenarios was used to obtain a particular solution. Second, we analyze the nature of solutions obtained under different parameterizations of this method, to assess whether the recommended solutions themselves are invariant to changes in costs. The issues are critical for decision makers who seek truly robust recommendations for generation expansion planning. (orig.)

  16. MIP-based approaches for complex planning problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den J.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans and timetables can be found everywhere during our daily lives. Examples are the Dutch railway timetable, the schedule for the Dutch soccer league and the roster of nurses in hospitals or home care. Together with the increase in computing power, solution techniques for solving such real-world

  17. Molecular computing towards a novel computing architecture for complex problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2014-01-01

    This textbook introduces a concise approach to the design of molecular algorithms for students or researchers who are interested in dealing with complex problems. Through numerous examples and exercises, you will understand the main difference of molecular circuits and traditional digital circuits to manipulate the same problem and you will also learn how to design a molecular algorithm of solving any a problem from start to finish. The book starts with an introduction to computational aspects of digital computers and molecular computing, data representation of molecular computing, molecular operations of molecular computing and number representation of molecular computing, and provides many molecular algorithm to construct the parity generator and the parity checker of error-detection codes on digital communication, to encode integers of different formats, single precision and double precision of floating-point numbers, to implement addition and subtraction of unsigned integers, to construct logic operations...

  18. An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for Solving the Path Planning Problem of the Omnidirectional Mobile Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved ant colony algorithm for the path planning of the omnidirectional mobile vehicle. The purpose of the improved ant colony algorithm is to design an appropriate route to connect the starting point and ending point of the environment with obstacles. Ant colony algorithm, which is used to solve the path planning problem, is improved according to the characteristics of the omnidirectional mobile vehicle. And in the improved algorithm, the nonuniform distribution of the initial pheromone and the selection strategy with direction play a very positive role in the path search. The coverage and updating strategy of pheromone is introduced to avoid repeated search reducing the effect of the number of ants on the performance of the algorithm. In addition, the pheromone evaporation coefficient is segmented and adjusted, which can effectively balance the convergence speed and search ability. Finally, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the improved ant colony algorithm by strict mathematical derivation, and some numerical simulations are also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  19. Waste analysis plan for T Plant Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Washington Administration Code 173-303-300 requires that a waste analysis plan (WAP) be provided by a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit to confirm their knowledge about a dangerous and/or mixed waste to ensure that the waste is managed properly. The specific objectives of the WAP are as follows: Ensure safe management of waste during treatment and storage; Ensure that waste generated during operational activities is properly designated in accordance with regulatory requirements; Provide chemical and physical analysis of representative samples of the waste stored for characterization and/or verification before the waste is transferred to another TSD unit; Ensure compliance with land disposal restriction (LDR) requirements for treated waste; and Provide basis for work plans that describes waste analysis for development of new treatment technologies

  20. How Students Circumvent Problem-Solving Strategies that Require Greater Cognitive Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the great diversity in problem-solving strategies used by students in solving a chemistry problem and discusses the relationship between these variables and different cognitive variables. Concludes that students try to circumvent certain problem-solving strategies by adapting flexible and stylistic innovations that render the cognitive…

  1. Pancreatic cancer planning: Complex conformal vs modulated therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Katherine L.; Witek, Matthew E.; Chen, Hongyu; Showalter, Timothy N.; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Harrison, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT. All volumes were approved by a single observer in accordance with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Pancreas Contouring Atlas. Plans included tumor/tumor bed and regional lymph nodes to 45 Gy; with tumor/tumor bed boosted to 50.4 Gy, at least 95% of planning target volume (PTV) received the prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for multiple end points, treatment planning, and delivery time were assessed. Complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean kidney dose, mean liver dose, liver (V 30 , V 35 ), stomach (D 10 %), stomach (V 45 ), mean right kidney dose, and right kidney (V 15 ) as compared with the simple 4-field plans that are most commonly reported in the literature. IMRT plans resulted in decreased mean liver dose, liver (V 35 ), and left kidney (V 15 , V 18 , V 20 ). VMAT plans decreased small bowel (D 10 %, D 15 %), small bowel (V 35 , V 45 ), stomach (D 10 %, D 15 %), stomach (V 35 , V 45 ), mean liver dose, liver (V 35 ), left kidney (V 15 , V 18 , V 20 ), and right kidney (V 18 , V 20 ). VMAT plans significantly decreased small bowel (D 10 %, D 15 %), left kidney (V 20 ), and stomach (V 45 ) as compared with IMRT plans. Treatment planning and delivery times were most efficient for simple 4-field box and VMAT. Excluding patient setup and imaging, average treatment delivery was within 10 minutes for simple and complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatments. This article

  2. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  3. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  4. Digital Story-Based Problem Solving Applications: Preservice Primary Teachers' Experiences and Future Integration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Çigdem; Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    This case study investigates how preservice primary school teachers describe their experiences with digital story-based problem solving applications and their plans for the future integration of this technology into their teaching. Totally 113 preservice primary school teachers participated in the study. Data collection tools included a…

  5. The manual of strategic economic decision making using Bayesian belief networks to solve complex problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...

  6. SIMULATION OF CARS ACCUMULATION PROCESSES FOR SOLVING TASKS OF OPERATIONAL PLANNING IN CONDITIONS OF INITIAL INFORMATION UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. A. Tereshchenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article highlights development of the methodological basis for simulation the processes of cars accumulation in solving operational planning problems under conditions of initial information uncertainty for assessing the sustainability of the adopted planning scenario and calculating the associated technological risks. Methodology. The solution of the problem under investigation is based on the use of general scientific approaches, the apparatus of probability theory and the theory of fuzzy sets. To achieve this purpose, the factors influencing the entropy of operational plans are systematized. It is established that when planning the operational work of railway stations, sections and nodes, the most significant factors that cause uncertainty in the initial information are: a external conditions with respect to the railway ground in question, expressed by the uncertainty of the timing of cars arrivals; b external, hard-to-identify goals for the functioning of other participants in the logistics chain (primarily customers, expressed by the uncertainty of the completion time with the freight cars. These factors are suggested to be taken into account in automated planning through statistical analysis – the establishment and study of the remaining time (prediction errors. As a result, analytical dependencies are proposed for rational representation of the probability density functions of the time residual distribution in the form of point, piecewise-defined and continuous analytic models. The developed models of cars accumulation, the application of which depends on the identified states of the predicted incoming car flow to the accumulation system, are presented below. In addition, the last proposed model is a general case of models of accumulation processes with an arbitrary level of reliability of the initial information for any structure of the incoming flow of cars. In conclusion, a technique for estimating the results of

  7. A model and solving algorithm of combination planning for weapon equipment based on Epoch-era analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Focused on the circumstance that the equipment using demand in the short term and the development demand in the long term should be made overall plans and took into consideration in the weapons portfolio planning and the practical problem of the fuzziness in the definition of equipment capacity demand. The expression of demand is assumed to be an interval number or a discrete number. With the analysis method of epoch-era, a long planning cycle is broke into several short planning cycles with different demand value. The multi-stage stochastic programming model is built aimed at maximize long-term planning cycle demand under the constraint of budget, equipment development time and short planning cycle demand. The scenario tree is used to discretize the interval value of the demand, and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the problem. At last, a case is studied to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed mode.

  8. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  9. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  10. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: A Model to Guide Development of Student Expertise in Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lauren N.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Herbert, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in problem-solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves developing student conceptualization of the Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge to the problems using practices that model those used by professionals. In this article, we review geoscience education research…

  11. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  12. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford's 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case

  13. Planning and complexity : Engaging with temporal dynamics, uncertainty and complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, Ulysses; Rauws, Ward S.; de Roo, Gert

    2016-01-01

    The nature of complex systems as a transdisciplinary collection of concepts from physics and economics to sociology and ecology provides an evolving field of inquiry (Laszlo and Krippner, 1998) for urban planning and urban design. As a result, planning theory has assimilated multiple concepts from

  14. Unpacking the Complexity of Planning with Persons with Cognitive Disability and Complex Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Susan; Dew, Angela; Dowse, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Planners will engage with people with cognitive disability and complex support needs in the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme, but the specific skills needed to build sustainable plans with this group are not yet known. Method: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the barriers and facilitators to planning with…

  15. Planning and complexity : Engaging with temporal dynamics, uncertainty and complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, Ulysses; Rauws, Ward S.; de Roo, Gert

    The nature of complex systems as a transdisciplinary collection of concepts from physics and economics to sociology and ecology provides an evolving field of inquiry (Laszlo and Krippner, 1998) for urban planning and urban design. As a result, planning theory has assimilated multiple concepts from

  16. Pancreatic cancer planning: Complex conformal vs modulated therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Katherine L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Witek, Matthew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Chen, Hongyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Bar-Ad, Voichita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harrison, Amy S., E-mail: amy.harrison@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT. All volumes were approved by a single observer in accordance with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Pancreas Contouring Atlas. Plans included tumor/tumor bed and regional lymph nodes to 45 Gy; with tumor/tumor bed boosted to 50.4 Gy, at least 95% of planning target volume (PTV) received the prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for multiple end points, treatment planning, and delivery time were assessed. Complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean kidney dose, mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}), stomach (D{sub 10}%), stomach (V{sub 45}), mean right kidney dose, and right kidney (V{sub 15}) as compared with the simple 4-field plans that are most commonly reported in the literature. IMRT plans resulted in decreased mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 35}), and left kidney (V{sub 15}, V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}). VMAT plans decreased small bowel (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), small bowel (V{sub 35}, V{sub 45}), stomach (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), stomach (V{sub 35}, V{sub 45}), mean liver dose, liver (V{sub 35}), left kidney (V{sub 15}, V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}), and right kidney (V{sub 18}, V{sub 20}). VMAT plans significantly decreased small bowel (D{sub 10}%, D{sub 15}%), left kidney (V{sub 20}), and stomach (V{sub 45}) as compared with IMRT plans. Treatment planning and delivery times were most efficient for simple 4-field box and VMAT. Excluding patient setup and imaging, average

  17. Improvement Plans of Fermilab’s Proton Accelerator Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    The flagship of Fermilab’s long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab’s Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  18. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan

  19. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  20. Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis E.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…

  1. Co-operative planning by utilities and local authorities. A solution to solve climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenzing, C.; Steidle, T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the deregulation of German energy markets 1998 we can observe diverging planning interests and priorities of the local communities on one side and the local energy utilities on the other side. This seriously endangers the consensus in local energy planning achieved in the past which will be crucial in order to identify and implement effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. This paper presents a co-operative planning approach which embeds systems analysis into a well structured communication, mediation and learning process for decision making. This process is supported by the cooperative modeling system MESAP, a software for energy and environmental planning, which integrates different energy models with an energy information system. This allows to combine traditional local energy planning with the more business oriented view of the utilities. The specific design of MESAP allows for a continuous 'sustainable' planning and monitoring similar to business tools for accounting and controlling in companies. (author)

  2. Payload Crew Training Complex (PCTC) utilization and training plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physical facilities that comprise the payload crew training complex (PCTC) are described including the host simulator; experiment simulators; Spacelab aft flight deck, experiment pallet, and experiment rack mockups; the simulation director's console; payload operations control center; classrooms; and supporting soft- and hardware. The parameters of a training philosophy for payload crew training at the PCTC are established. Finally the development of the training plan is addressed including discussions of preassessment, and evaluation options.

  3. On solving the Schrödinger equation for a complex deictic potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Making use of an ansatz for the eigenfunction, we investigate closed-form solutions of the Schrödinger equation for an even power complex deictic potential and its variant in one dimension. For this purpose, extended complex phase-space approach is utilized and nature of the eigenvalue and the corresponding ...

  4. Complex Strategic Choices Applying Systemic Planning for Strategic Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Leleur, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies. Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coher...

  5. The complexity of interior point methods for solving discounted turn-based stochastic games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for general 2TBSGs. This implies that a number of interior point methods can be used to solve 2TBSGs. We consider two such algorithms: the unified interior point method of Kojima, Megiddo, Noma, and Yoshise, and the interior point potential reduction algorithm of Kojima, Megiddo, and Ye. The algorithms run...... states and discount factor γ we get κ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) , −δ=Θ(n√1−γ) , and 1/θ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) in the worst case. The lower bounds for κ, − δ, and 1/θ are all obtained using the same family of deterministic games....

  6. Self-regulatory speech during planning and problem-solving in children with SLI and their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2017-05-01

    Past research with children with specific language impairment (SLI) has shown them to have poorer planning and problem-solving ability, and delayed self-regulatory speech (SRS) relative to their typically developing (TD) peers. However, the studies are few in number and are restricted in terms of the number and age range of participants, which limits our understanding of the nature and extent of any delays. Moreover, no study has examined the performance of a significant subset of children with SLI, those who have hyperactive and inattentive behaviours. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the performance of young children with SLI (aged 4-7 years) with that of their TD peers on a planning and problem-solving task and to examine the use of SRS while performing the task. Within each language group, the performance of children with and without hyperactive and inattentive behaviours was further examined. Children with SLI (n = 91) and TD children (n = 81), with and without hyperactive and inattentive behaviours across the three earliest school years (Kindergarten, Preprimary and Year 1) were video-taped while they completed the Tower of London (TOL), a planning and problem-solving task. Their recorded speech was coded and analysed to look at differences in SRS and its relation to TOL performance across the groups. Children with SLI scored lower on the TOL than TD children. Additionally, children with hyperactive and inattentive behaviours performed worse than those without hyperactive and inattentive behaviours, but only in the SLI group. This suggests that children with SLI with hyperactive and inattentive behaviours experience a double deficit. Children with SLI produced less inaudible muttering than TD children, and showed no reduction in social speech across the first three years of school. Finally, for children with SLI, a higher percentage performed better on the TOL when they used SRS than when they did not. The results point towards a significant delay

  7. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  8. SENARIET, A Programme To Solve Transient Flows Of Liquids In Complex Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Munoz, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Perena-Tapiador, A.

    2011-05-01

    SENARIET is a programme to study fluid transients in pipeline systems in order to obtain pressure and velocity distributions along a circuit. When a transient process occurs in periods of the same order of the pressure waves’ travelling time along a circuit (the order of the circuit length divided by the effective propagation speed), the compressibility effects in liquids have to be considered. Taking this effect into account, the appropriate equations of continuity and momentum are solved by the method of characteristics, to obtain pressure and velocity along pipes as a function of time. The simulated results have been compared to theoretical and experimental ones to validate and evaluate the precision of the software. The results help to perform efficient and accurate predictions in order to define the propulsion sub-system. This type of analysis is very important in order to evaluate the water hammer effects in propulsion systems used on spacecrafts and launchers.

  9. An elitist teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for solving complex constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired population based algorithms is a research field which simulates different natural phenomena to solve a wide range of problems. Researchers have proposed several algorithms considering different natural phenomena. Teaching-Learning-based optimization (TLBO is one of the recently proposed population based algorithm which simulates the teaching-learning process of the class room. This algorithm does not require any algorithm-specific control parameters. In this paper, elitism concept is introduced in the TLBO algorithm and its effect on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. The effects of common controlling parameters such as the population size and the number of generations on the performance of the algorithm are also investigated. The proposed algorithm is tested on 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics and the performance of the algorithm is compared with that of other well known optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm can be applied to various optimization problems of the industrial environment.

  10. Solving the Students’ Problems in Writing Argumentative Essay Through the Provision of Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Setyowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Indonesian students who are learning English often consider writing as not only the most difficult skill to master, but also a demanding activity. To help them cope these problems, the application of planning in the writing process seems to be a solution. This study attempts to find out howdifferent planning formats can improve EFL students’ writing performance in argumentative essays. The subjects of the studywere the fourth semester students taking essay writing class. The research was conducted from May to June 2015, consisting of three cycles in Classroom Action Research design by using different planning types, namely rough drafting and outlining strategy in which each cycle consisted of two meetings.The students’ compositions were measured by using primary trait scoring rubric for argumentative essay. The result of the study shows that the provision of planning is effective to improve the students’ performance in writing argumentative essay. The effectiveness of different types planningdepends on the students’ preference of which to use.

  11. Solving the empty space problem in robot path planning by mathematical morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a morphological approach to path planning problems, in particular with respect to the empty­-space problem, that is, the question of finding the allowed states for an object, moving in a space with obstacles. Our approach is based upon a recent generalization of

  12. Pre-Planning Civic Action: An Analysis of Civic Leaders' Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the civic thinking heuristics that civic leaders use when pre-planning action. Across eight think-aloud protocols, findings suggest that three heuristics are employed. "Frame alignment" refers to the process of harmonizing personal beliefs and interests with the particulars of a civic action issue to find personal…

  13. Radiation planning in small complex lesions and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess-Hempen, A.; Wowra, B.; Mack, A.; Kreiner, H.J.; Heck, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Gamma Knife is used as a sterotactic tool for the conformal treatment of very small, complex-shape cranial lesions. The combination of planning software and treatment equipment enables a highly-precise conformal dose distribution and positioning. The purpose of the present study was to experimentally verify the precision actually achievable in case of extremely irregular, small target volumes. For this purpose, a complete treatment procedure was performed using a standard head phantom complemented with a specially developed insert that simulates an L-shaped lesion. The spatial precision of the irradiation was recorded by means of high-resolution film dosimetry using GafChromic TM films. The analysis of the films showed for the film in the center plane an excellent conformity of the 75% isodose line used to circumscribe the lesion. A very good agreement between planning and measurement resulted also for isodose lines residing outside of the target volume. (orig.) [de

  14. Quality plan and configuration management in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Junto, J.; Merchan Teyssiere

    1993-01-01

    Since the Second World War, the philosophy behind the quality systems of industries and service companies has evolved to embrace the whole life cycle of the product, system or service. In this evolution process, quality has become a strategic factor in the survival of entreprises. The first steps in trying to establish quality systems were taken for the armed forces, followed by space, aeronautical and nuclear projects, whose products were more and more complex and sophisticated. These systems were established by means of quality plans or programmes, and their basic objective was to guarantee a high safety level for the user and/or the general population. In later years, the main concern was to reach a determined quality level not only in one phase of the product life, but in the complete life cycle of the final product. Today a new goal is established and pursued: better quality of the product, service or system life cycle at a lower cost. Methods of improving the quality of systems and processes are the subject of numerous initiatives and studies, to better availability and maintainability of complex equipment or installations, with an extended useful life and greater requirements. Experience in the performance of complex projects shows that a higher quality may be obtained through designing a comprehensive quality plan which pays special attention to information management and modifications of the original design. Obtaining a high reliability level for an installation (equipment, systems, etc), increasing its availability and rationalizing its maintenance may be little less than fanciful without a deep knowledge of the installation, of its activities and its current status in day-to-day operation, which shows the importance of truthful information available to operators and corresponding exactly to their needs. In this frame of mind, a quality plan comprising a configuration management system of information and documents constitutes the basic support tool for

  15. SU-F-T-312: Identifying Distinct Radiation Therapy Plan Classes Through Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Plan Complexity Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V; Labby, Z; Culberson, W [University of Wisc Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether body site-specific treatment plans form unique “plan class” clusters in a multi-dimensional analysis of plan complexity metrics such that a single beam quality correction determined for a representative plan could be universally applied within the “plan class”, thereby increasing the dosimetric accuracy of a detector’s response within a subset of similarly modulated nonstandard deliveries. Methods: We collected 95 clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans from four body sites (brain, lung, prostate, and spine). The lung data was further subdivided into SBRT and non-SBRT data for a total of five plan classes. For each control point in each plan, a variety of aperture-based complexity metrics were calculated and stored as unique characteristics of each patient plan. A multiple comparison of means analysis was performed such that every plan class was compared to every other plan class for every complexity metric in order to determine which groups could be considered different from one another. Statistical significance was assessed after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Results: Six out of a possible 10 pairwise plan class comparisons were uniquely distinguished based on at least nine out of 14 of the proposed metrics (Brain/Lung, Brain/SBRT lung, Lung/Prostate, Lung/SBRT Lung, Lung/Spine, Prostate/SBRT Lung). Eight out of 14 of the complexity metrics could distinguish at least six out of the possible 10 pairwise plan class comparisons. Conclusion: Aperture-based complexity metrics could prove to be useful tools to quantitatively describe a distinct class of treatment plans. Certain plan-averaged complexity metrics could be considered unique characteristics of a particular plan. A new approach to generating plan-class specific reference (pcsr) fields could be established through a targeted preservation of select complexity metrics or a clustering algorithm that identifies plans exhibiting similar

  16. An algorithm for solving thermalhydraulic equations in complex geometries: the Astec code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    By applying a finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, the ASTEC computer code allows three-dimensional incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer in complex geometries to be simulated realistically, without making excessive demands on computing resources. The methods used in the code are described, and examples of the application of the code are presented

  17. On solving the Schrödinger equation for a complex deictic potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue exists only if the potential parameters are complex, whereas it reduces to zero for real coupling parameters and the result coincides with those derived from the invariance of Hamiltonian under PT operations. Thus, a non-Hermitian. Hamiltonian possesses real eigenvalue, if it is ...

  18. A parallel FE-FV scheme to solve fluid flow in complex geologic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Matthäi, Stephan; Geiger, Sebastian; Driesner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Field data-based simulations of geologic systems require much computational time because of their mathematical complexity and the often desired large scales in space and time. To conduct accurate simulations in an acceptable time period, methods to reduce runtime are required. A parallelization

  19. A Joint Positioning and Attitude Solving Method for Shearer and Scraper Conveyor under Complex Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fully mechanized coal-mining face, the positioning and attitude of the shearer and scraper conveyor are inaccurate. To overcome this problem, a joint positioning and attitude solving method that considers the effect of an uneven floor is proposed. In addition, the real-time connection and coupling relationship between the two devices is analyzed. Two types of sensors, namely, the tilt sensor and strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, are used to measure the shearer body pitch angle and the scraper conveyor shape, respectively. To improve the accuracy, two pieces of information are fused using the adaptive information fusion algorithm. It is observed that, using a marking strategy, the shearer body pitch angle can be reversely mapped to the real-time shape of the scraper conveyor. Then, a virtual-reality (VR software that can visually simulate this entire operation process under different conditions is developed. Finally, experiments are conducted on a prototype experimental platform. The positioning error is found to be less than 0.38 times the middle trough length; moreover, no accumulated error is detected. This method can monitor the operation of the shearer and scraper conveyor in a highly dynamic and precise manner and provide strong technical support for safe and efficient operation of a fully mechanized coal-mining face.

  20. Effective algorithm for solving complex problems of production control and of material flows control of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentsev, Yu A.; Baranova, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    A universal economical and mathematical model designed for determination of optimal strategies for managing subsystems (components of subsystems) of production and logistics of enterprises is considered. Declared universality allows taking into account on the system level both production components, including limitations on the ways of converting raw materials and components into sold goods, as well as resource and logical restrictions on input and output material flows. The presented model and generated control problems are developed within the framework of the unified approach that allows one to implement logical conditions of any complexity and to define corresponding formal optimization tasks. Conceptual meaning of used criteria and limitations are explained. The belonging of the generated tasks of the mixed programming with the class of NP is shown. An approximate polynomial algorithm for solving the posed optimization tasks for mixed programming of real dimension with high computational complexity is proposed. Results of testing the algorithm on the tasks in a wide range of dimensions are presented.

  1. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  2. A comparison of iterative methods to solve complex valued linear algebraic systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Neytcheva, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2013), s. 811-841 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : linear systems * complex symmetric * real valued form * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2013 http://www.it.uu.se/research/publications/reports/2013-005/2013-005-nc.pdf

  3. Using Metaheuristic Algorithms for Solving a Hub Location Problem: Application in Passive Optical Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fiber-optic due to having greater bandwidth and being more efficient compared with other similar technologies, are counted as one the most important tools for data transfer. In this article, an integrated mathematical model for a three-level fiber-optic distribution network with consideration of simultaneous backbone and local access networks is presented in which the backbone network is a ring and the access networks has a star-star topology. The aim of the model is to determine the location of the central offices and splitters, how connections are made between central offices, and allocation of each demand node to a splitter or central office in a way that the wiring cost of fiber optical and concentrator installation are minimized. Moreover, each user’s desired bandwidth should be provided efficiently. Then, the proposed model is validated by GAMS software in small-sized problems, afterwards the model is solved by two meta-heuristic methods including differential evolution (DE and genetic algorithm (GA in large-scaled problems and the results of two algorithms are compared with respect to computational time and objective function obtained value. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is provided. Keyword: Fiber-optic, telecommunication network, hub-location, passive splitter, three-level network.

  4. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  5. A complex method of equipment replacement planning. An advanced plan for the replacement of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    This complex method of equipment replacement planning is a methodology; it is a means to an end, a process that focuses on equipment most in need of replacement, rather than the end itself. It uses data available from the maintenance management database, and attempts to quantify those subjective items important [figure: see text] in making equipment replacement decisions. Like the simple method of the last issue, it is a starting point--albeit an advanced starting point--which the user can modify to fit their particular organization, but the complex method leaves room for expansion. It is based on sound logic, documented facts, and is fully defensible during the decision-making process and will serve your organization well as provide a structure for your equipment replacement planning decisions.

  6. A complex of optimization problems in planning for the development of mining operations in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, A K; Arnaudov, B K; Brankova, B A; Gyuleva, B I; Zakhariyev, G K

    1977-01-01

    The system for planning for the development of coal mines is a complex of interrelated plan optimization, plan calculation and supporting (accounting-analytical and standards) tasks. An important point in this complex is held by the plan optimization tasks. The questions about the synthesis and the structural peculiarities of the system, the essence and machine realization of the tasks are examined.

  7. Hexographic Method of Complex Town-Planning Terrain Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of a complex town-planning analysis based on the “hexographic” graphic analytic method, makes a comparison with conventional terrain estimate methods and contains the method application examples. It discloses a procedure of the author’s estimate of restrictions and building of a mathematical model which reflects not only conventional town-planning restrictions, but also social and aesthetic aspects of the analyzed territory. The method allows one to quickly get an idea of the territory potential. It is possible to use an unlimited number of estimated factors. The method can be used for the integrated assessment of urban areas. In addition, it is possible to use the methods of preliminary evaluation of the territory commercial attractiveness in the preparation of investment projects. The technique application results in simple informative graphics. Graphical interpretation is straightforward from the experts. A definite advantage is the free perception of the subject results as they are not prepared professionally. Thus, it is possible to build a dialogue between professionals and the public on a new level allowing to take into account the interests of various parties. At the moment, the method is used as a tool for the preparation of integrated urban development projects at the Department of Architecture in Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (National Research University)”, FSAEIHE SUSU (NRU). The methodology is included in a course of lectures as the material on architectural and urban design for architecture students. The same methodology was successfully tested in the preparation of business strategies for the development of some territories in the Chelyabinsk region. This publication is the first in a series of planned activities developing and describing the methodology of hexographical analysis in urban and architectural practice. It is also

  8. Using the complex Langevin equation to solve the sign problem of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexty, Denes [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Using the resources of SuperMUC we have been able to calculate the reweighting results and compare them to the CLE for lattice sizes up to Nt=8. This did not allow the exploration of the phase transition line. It's an open question whether increasing the lattice size will allow us to go to smaller temperatures. The cost of larger lattices is of course increasing, especially the reweighting becomes much more expensive at larger volumes, as it's cost is proportional to the spatial volume cubed. An other important open question is the question of the poles: the fermionic drift term has singularities on the complex manifold, which in some cases can lead to the breakdown of the method, but it is unknown what its effect is on QCD, especially at low temperatures.

  9. Dose domain regularization of MLC leaf patterns for highly complex IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y.; Ruan, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); O’Connor, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The advent of automated beam orientation and fluence optimization enables more complex intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using an increasing number of fields to exploit the expanded solution space. This has created a challenge in converting complex fluences to robust multileaf collimator (MLC) segments for delivery. A novel method to regularize the fluence map and simplify MLC segments is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy, and plan quality. Methods: In this work, we implemented a novel approach to regularize optimized fluences in the dose domain. The treatment planning problem was formulated in an optimization framework to minimize the segmentation-induced dose distribution degradation subject to a total variation regularization to encourage piecewise smoothness in fluence maps. The optimization problem was solved using a first-order primal-dual algorithm known as the Chambolle-Pock algorithm. Plans for 2 GBM, 2 head and neck, and 2 lung patients were created using 20 automatically selected and optimized noncoplanar beams. The fluence was first regularized using Chambolle-Pock and then stratified into equal steps, and the MLC segments were calculated using a previously described level reducing method. Isolated apertures with sizes smaller than preset thresholds of 1–3 bixels, which are square units of an IMRT fluence map from MLC discretization, were removed from the MLC segments. Performance of the dose domain regularized (DDR) fluences was compared to direct stratification and direct MLC segmentation (DMS) of the fluences using level reduction without dose domain fluence regularization. Results: For all six cases, the DDR method increased the average planning target volume dose homogeneity (D95/D5) from 0.814 to 0.878 while maintaining equivalent dose to organs at risk (OARs). Regularized fluences were more robust to MLC sequencing, particularly to the stratification and small aperture removal. The maximum and

  10. Close contacts at the interface: Experimental-computational synergies for solving complexity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Juan; Zanuy, David; Bertran, Oscar; Alemán, Carlos; Puiggalí, Jordi; Turón, Pau; Revilla-López, Guillem

    2018-02-01

    The study of material science has been long devoted to the disentanglement of bulk structures which mainly entails finding the inner structure of materials. That structure is accountable for a major portion of materials' properties. Yet, as our knowledge of these "backbones" enlarged so did the interest for the materials' boundaries properties which means the properties at the frontier with the surrounding environment that is called interface. The interface is thus to be understood as the sum of the material's surface plus the surrounding environment be it in solid, liquid or gas phase. The study of phenomena at this interface requires both the use of experimental and theoretical techniques and, above all, a wise combination of them in order to shed light over the most intimate details at atomic, molecular and mesostructure levels. Here, we report several cases to be used as proof of concept of the results achieved when studying interface phenomena by combining a myriad of experimental and theoretical tools to overcome the usual limitation regardind atomic detail, size and time scales and systems of complex composition. Real world examples of the combined experimental-theoretical work and new tools, software, is offered to the readers.

  11. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  12. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  13. B Plant Complex waste management training plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This training program is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. The training program complies with requirements contained within WAC 173-303-330 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program. The training program is designed to prepare personnel to manage and maintain waste treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, as well as generator units, in a safe, effective, efficient and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to manage and maintain TSD and generator units under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should an emergency occur. The training plan also identifies specific individuals holding key waste management positions at B Plant Complex

  14. Nuclear weapons complex. Weaknesses in DOE's nonnuclear consolidation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James E. Jr.; Fenzel, William F.; Schulze, John R.; Gaffigan, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Nuclear weapons contain a wide variety of nonnuclear components - items that are not made from nuclear materials. These components comprise the majority of parts in nuclear weapons, including the ones needed to guide weapons to their targets, initiate the nuclear explosion, increase the weapons' explosive yield, and ensure the weapons' safety and security. DOE has three facilities, the Kansas City Plant in Missouri, the Mound Plant in Ohio, and the Pinellas Plant in Florida, that are dedicated primarily to nonnuclear activities and have unique manufacturing responsibilities. Some additional nonnuclear manufacturing activities are performed at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, and the Pantex Plant in Texas. Descriptions of each plant and the activities they conduct are contained in appendix I of this report. In 1991, DOE began planning to reconfigure the nuclear weapons complex into one that is smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operate. More specifically, DOE issued a reconfiguration study in January 1991 that set forth a detailed framework for making the complex smaller and more efficient. The study will lead to a complex-wide Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) on how best to reconfigure the complex. This statement is planned to be completed in late 1993. As part of the effort to analyze the reconfiguration, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs directed the Albuquerque Operations Office in April 1991 to develop a nonnuclear consolidation plan to serve as input to the PEIS. There are a number of weaknesses in DOE's NCP. First, because the NCP's scope was limited to examining single-site consolidation alternatives, the decision to select Kansas City as the preferred option was made without analyzing other nonnuclear options. These options included down sizing and modernizing all facilities in place or maximizing consolidation by eliminating all nonnuclear sites and relocating their functions to a

  15. A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2007-08-01

    A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow

  16. Searching for Order Within Chaos: Complexity Theorys Implications to Intelligence Support During Joint Operational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    joint operational planning . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Complexity Theory , Complex Systems Theory , Complex Adaptive Systems, Dynamical Systems, Joint...complexity theory to analyze military problems and increase joint staff understanding of the operational environment during joint operational planning ?” the...13). Complex Systems Theory : “the study of the behavior of [complex adaptive] systems” (Ilachinski 2004, 4). For the purpose of this thesis there is

  17. Planning Model of Physics Learning In Senior High School To Develop Problem Solving Creativity Based On National Standard Of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, A.; Masril, M.; Yurnetti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    One of the causes of low achievement of student’s competence in physics learning in high school is the process which they have not been able to develop student’s creativity in problem solving. This is shown that the teacher’s learning plan is not accordance with the National Eduction Standard. This study aims to produce a reconstruction model of physics learning that fullfil the competency standards, content standards, and assessment standards in accordance with applicable curriculum standards. The development process follows: Needs analysis, product design, product development, implementation, and product evaluation. The research process involves 2 peers judgment, 4 experts judgment and two study groups of high school students in Padang. The data obtained, in the form of qualitative and quantitative data that collected through documentation, observation, questionnaires, and tests. The result of this research up to the product development stage that obtained the physics learning plan model that meets the validity of the content and the validity of the construction in terms of the fulfillment of Basic Competence, Content Standards, Process Standards and Assessment Standards.

  18. SU-E-T-353: Decoding the Beam Complexity in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, W; Cho, S; Zhang, X; Hoffman, K; Kudchadker, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Modern IMRT relies on computers to generate treatment plans of varied complexity. A highly complex treatment plan may use a large number of small and irregular beam apertures in order to achieve high dose conformity. However, excessive beam complexity can increase dosimetric uncertainty, prolong treatment time, and increase susceptibility to target or organ motion. In this study we sought to develop metrics to assess the complexity of IMRT beams and plans. Methods: Based the information of leaf positions and MU for each beam segment, we calculated the following beam complexity metrics: aperture area, shape irregularity, and beam modulation. Then these beam complexity metrics were averaged to obtain the corresponding plan complexity metrics, using the beam MUs as weighting factors. We evaluated and compared the beam and plan complexity scores for 65 IMRT plans from 3 sites (prostate, head and neck, and spine). We also studied how the plan complexity scores were affected by adjusting inverse planning parameters. Results: For prostate IMRT, the lateral beams had large MUs and smaller shape irregularity, while the anterior or posterior beams had larger modulation values. On average, the prostate IMRT plans had the smallest shape irregularity and beam modulation; the HN IMRT plans had the largest aperture area, shape irregularity, and beam modulation; and the spine stereotactic IMRT plans often had small aperture area, which may be associated with relatively large discrepancies between calculated and measures doses. The plan complexity increased as the number of optimization iterations and the number of beam segments increased and as the minimum segment area decreased. Conclusion: Complexity of IMRT beams and plans were quantified in terms of aperture area, shape irregularity and beam modulation. The complexity metrics varied among IMRT plans for different disease sites and were affected when the planning parameters were adjusted

  19. Dynamic Modeling as a Cognitive Regulation Scaffold for Developing Complex Problem-Solving Skills in an Educational Massively Multiplayer Online Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving…

  20. Probability distribution functions of δ15N and δ18O in groundwater nitrate to probabilistically solve complex mixing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Davis, P.; Syme, J.; Hagerty, S.; Perkins, G.; Larson, T. E.; Longmire, P.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    . Each resulting triangle containing the sample isotopic composition forms a tri-linear diagram that can be solved directly for the mixing fraction from each source. When repeated over each sampled set of source isotopic compositions, this process results in a large number of plausible mixing ratios that are described by a PDF. We tested the method using a pre-defined mixing ratio of a number of sources contributing to a hypothetical groundwater sample. Finally, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of this method compared to other methods available to solve complex mixing problems.

  1. Planning using dynamic epistemic logic: Correspondence and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Holm

    2013-01-01

    A growing community investigates planning using dynamic epistemic logic. Another framework based on similar ideas is knowledge-based programs as plans. Here we show how actions correspond in the two frameworks. We finally discuss fragments of DEL planning obtained by the restriction of event models...

  2. The Investigation of the Effects of Physical Education Lessons Planned in Accordance with Cooperative Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorucu, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…

  3. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavirad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidanc...

  4. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  5. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  6. Lazy Toggle PRM: A single-query approach to motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Shi, Kensen; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) are quite suc-cessful in solving complex and high-dimensional motion plan-ning problems. While particularly suited for multiple-query scenarios and expansive spaces, they lack efficiency in both solving single

  7. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project's Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP

  8. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  9. Integration and test plans for complex manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The integration and test phases that are part of the development and manufacturing of complex manufacturing systems are costly and time consuming. As time-to-market is becoming increasingly important, it is crucial to keep these phases as short as possible, whilemaintaining system quality. This is

  10. Automated Planning Enables Complex Protocols on Liquid-Handling Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ellis; Rudolf, Fabian; Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2018-03-16

    Robotic automation in synthetic biology is especially relevant for liquid handling to facilitate complex experiments. However, research tasks that are not highly standardized are still rarely automated in practice. Two main reasons for this are the substantial investments required to translate molecular biological protocols into robot programs, and the fact that the resulting programs are often too specific to be easily reused and shared. Recent developments of standardized protocols and dedicated programming languages for liquid-handling operations addressed some aspects of ease-of-use and portability of protocols. However, either they focus on simplicity, at the expense of enabling complex protocols, or they entail detailed programming, with corresponding skills and efforts required from the users. To reconcile these trade-offs, we developed Roboliq, a software system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) methods to integrate (i) generic formal, yet intuitive, protocol descriptions, (ii) complete, but usually hidden, programming capabilities, and (iii) user-system interactions to automatically generate executable, optimized robot programs. Roboliq also enables high-level specifications of complex tasks with conditional execution. To demonstrate the system's benefits for experiments that are difficult to perform manually because of their complexity, duration, or time-critical nature, we present three proof-of-principle applications for the reproducible, quantitative characterization of GFP variants.

  11. Effect of Radiotherapy Planning Complexity on Survival of Elderly Patients With Unresected Localized Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang H.; Bonomi, Marcelo; Cesaretti, Jamie; Neugut, Alfred I.; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether complex radiotherapy (RT) planning was associated with improved outcomes in a cohort of elderly patients with unresected Stage I-II non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 1998 patients aged >65 years with histologically confirmed, unresected stage I-II NSCLC. Patients were classified into an intermediate or complex RT planning group using Medicare physician codes. To address potential selection bias, we used propensity score modeling. Survival of patients who received intermediate and complex simulation was compared using Cox regression models adjusting for propensity scores and in a stratified and matched analysis according to propensity scores. Results: Overall, 25% of patients received complex RT planning. Complex RT planning was associated with better overall (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.95) and lung cancer-specific (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93) survival after controlling for propensity scores. Similarly, stratified and matched analyses showed better overall and lung cancer-specific survival of patients treated with complex RT planning. Conclusions: The use of complex RT planning is associated with improved survival among elderly patients with unresected Stage I-II NSCLC. These findings should be validated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  12. The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill acquisition by means of computer-simulated problem solving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram,

  13. B Plant Complex generator dangerous waste storage areas inspection plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the inspection plan for the <90 day dangerous/mixed waste storage areas and satellite accumulation areas at B Plant Complex. This inspection plan is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. In particular, the requirements of WAC 173-303 ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' are met by this inspection plan. This inspection plan is designed to provide B Plant Complex with the records and documentation showing that the waste storage and handling program is in compliance with applicable regulations. The plan also includes the requirements for becoming a qualified inspector of waste storage areas and the responsibilities of various individuals and groups at B Plant Complex

  14. COMPOEX Technology to Assist Leaders in Planning and Executing Campaigns in Complex Operational Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Alexander; Corpac, Peter S

    2007-01-01

    ... in a complex operational environment. Leaders must understand the operational environment, develop campaign plans that include multiple lines of effort such as security, governance, political-economic development, rule of law and employ...

  15. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  16. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  17. The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill aquisition by means of computer simulated problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Kester, L.; Kirschner, P.A.; Merriënboer, J.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two information presentation formats on learning to solve problems in electrical circuits. In one condition, the split-source format, information relating to procedural aspects of the functioning of an electrical circuit was not integrated in a circuit diagram, while information in the integrated format condition was integrated in the circuit diagram. It was hypothesized that learners in the integrated format would achieve better test results than the learne...

  18. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Martin Süß

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly

  19. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André

    2018-01-01

    The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the

  20. Solving a meiotic LEGO puzzle: transverse filaments and the assembly of the synaptonemal complex in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R Scott

    2011-10-01

    The structure of the meiosis-specific synaptonemal complex, which is perhaps the central visible characteristic of meiotic prophase, has been a matter of intense interest for decades. Although a general picture of the interactions between the transverse filament proteins that create this structure has emerged from studies in a variety of organisms, a recent analysis of synaptonemal complex structure in Caenorhabditis elegans by Schild-Prüfert et al. (2011) has provided the clearest picture of the structure of the architecture of a synaptonemal complex to date. Although the transverse filaments of the worm synaptonemal complex are assembled differently then those observed in yeast, mammalian, and Drosophila synaptonemal complexes, a comparison of the four assemblies shows that achieving the overall basic structure of the synaptonemal complex is far more crucial than conserving the structures of the individual transverse filaments.

  1. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  2. Technology for planning and scheduling under complex constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguire, Karen M.; Pedro Gomes, Carla O.

    1997-02-01

    Within the context of law enforcement, several problems fall into the category of planning and scheduling under constraints. Examples include resource and personnel scheduling, and court scheduling. In the case of court scheduling, a schedule must be generated considering available resources, e.g., court rooms and personnel. Additionally, there are constraints on individual court cases, e.g., temporal and spatial, and between different cases, e.g., precedence. Finally, there are overall objectives that the schedule should satisfy such as timely processing of cases and optimal use of court facilities. Manually generating a schedule that satisfies all of the constraints is a very time consuming task. As the number of court cases and constraints increases, this becomes increasingly harder to handle without the assistance of automatic scheduling techniques. This paper describes artificial intelligence (AI) technology that has been used to develop several high performance scheduling applications including a military transportation scheduler, a military in-theater airlift scheduler, and a nuclear power plant outage scheduler. We discuss possible law enforcement applications where we feel the same technology could provide long-term benefits to law enforcement agencies and their operations personnel.

  3. A Simulation for Managing Complexity in Sales and Operations Planning Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Scott; Dreyfus, David

    2017-01-01

    Within the classroom it is often difficult to convey the complexities and intricacies that go into making sales and operations planning decisions. This article describes an in-class simulation that allows students to gain hands-on experience with the complexities in making forecasting, inventory, and supplier selection decisions as part of the…

  4. The Effects of Pre-Task Planning and On-line Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in L2 Monologic Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fangyuan; Ellis, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the effects of both pre-task and on-line planning on second language (L2) oral production. Results show that pre-task planning enhances grammatical complexity while on-line planning positively influences accuracy and grammatical complexity. Pre-task planners also produced more fluent and lexically varied language than the on-line…

  5. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  6. Advances and Future Directions for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research: Recommendations From the 2015 Strategic Planning Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Henske, Elizabeth P; Manning, Brendan D; Ess, Kevin C; Bissler, John J; Klann, Eric; Kwiatkowski, David J; Roberds, Steven L; Silva, Alcino J; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Young, Lisa R; Zervas, Mark; Mamounas, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    On March 10 to March 12, 2015, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to assess progress and new opportunities for research in tuberous sclerosis complex with the goal of updating the 2003 Research Plan for Tuberous Sclerosis (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/plans/tscler_research_plan.htm). In addition to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, participants in the strategic planning effort and workshop included representatives from six other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program, and a broad cross-section of basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex along with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Here we summarize the outcomes from the extensive premeeting deliberations and final workshop recommendations, including (1) progress in the field since publication of the initial 2003 research plan for tuberous sclerosis complex, (2) the key gaps, needs, and challenges that hinder progress in tuberous sclerosis complex research, and (3) a new set of research priorities along with specific recommendations for addressing the major challenges in each priority area. The new research plan is organized around both short-term and long-term goals with the expectation that progress toward specific objectives can be achieved within a five to ten year time frame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative surgical planning and simulation of complex cranial base tumors in virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zhi-qiang; LI Liang; MO Da-peng; ZHANG Jia-yong; ZHANG Yang; BAO Sheng-de

    2008-01-01

    @@ The extremely complex anatomic relationships among bone,tumor,blood vessels and cranial nerves remains a big challenge for cranial base tumor surgery.Therefore.a good understanding of the patient specific anatomy and a preoperative planning are helpful and crocial for the neurosurgeons.Three dimensional (3-D) visualization of various imaging techniques have been widely explored to enhance the comprehension of volumetric data for surgical planning.1 We used the Destroscope Virtual Reality (VR) System (Singapore,Volume Interaction Pte Ltd,software:RadioDexterTM 1.0) to optimize preoperative plan in the complex cranial base tumors.This system uses patient-specific,coregistered,fused radiology data sets that may be viewed stereoscopically and can be manipulated in a virtual reality environment.This article describes our experience with the Destroscope VR system in preoperative surgical planning and simulation for 5 patients with complex cranial base tumors and evaluates the clinical usefulness of this system.

  8. Study of the layout plan in the tokamak complex building for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Yagenji, Akira; Sekiya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hideo; Tamura, Kousaku; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ogino, Shunji; Nagamatsu, Nobuhide; Motohashi, Keiichi; Uehara, Masaharu; Kataoka, Takahiro; Ohashi, Hironori

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes study of the layout plan in the ITER Tokamak complex building as an invite to set up its plant in Japan. To draw up this arrangement plan, final design report (FDR), which was designed for main components and determined for the non-site specific design, was reconstructed systematically for the Japanese site. A supplementary design was performed for the insufficiency parts of FDR. An additional study was also performed for the adaptation of a regulatory framework including technical safety requirements in Japan. We proposed the tokamak complex building with seismic isolation to combine with the hot cell building. Through the studies, a layout plan has been constructed including maintenance plan for personnel access and component route with in the building from assembly to operation period. This layout plan would be used as a basis in the construction period, although final decision will be done by ITER organization. (author)

  9. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

  10. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

  11. Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN receive a medical care plan, outlining the child’s major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs of children with medical complexity (CMC. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15 and parents (n = 15 of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. Results A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Conclusions Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how

  12. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  13. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  14. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Preliminary Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, Adam [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nesbitt, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Salio, Paola [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zipser, Edward [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); van den Heever, Susan [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); McFarquhar, Greg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kreidenweis, Sonia [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); DeMott, Paul [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Houze, Jr., Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, Kristen [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Romps, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gochis, David [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Avila, Eldo [National Univ. of Cordoba (Argentina); Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    General circulation models and downscaled regional models exhibit persistent biases in deep convective initiation location and timing, cloud top height, stratiform area and precipitation fraction, and anvil coverage. Despite important impacts on the distribution of atmospheric heating, moistening, and momentum, nearly all climate models fail to represent convective organization, while system evolution is not represented at all. Improving representation of convective systems in models requires characterization of their predictability as a function of environmental conditions, and this characterization depends on observing many cases of convective initiation, non-initiation, organization, and non-organization. The Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) experiment in the Sierras de Córdoba mountain range of north-central Argentina is designed to improve understanding of cloud life cycle and organization in relation to environmental conditions so that cumulus, microphysics, and aerosol parameterizations in multi-scale models can be improved. The Sierras de Córdoba range has a high frequency of orographic boundary-layer clouds, many reaching congestus depths, many initiating into deep convection, and some organizing into mesoscale systems uniquely observable from a single fixed site. Some systems even grow upscale to become among the deepest, largest, and longest-lived in the world. These systems likely contribute to an observed regional trend of increasing extreme rainfall, and poor prediction of them likely contributes to a warm, dry bias in climate models downstream of the Sierras de Córdoba range in a key agricultural region. Many environmental factors influence the convective lifecycle in this region including orographic, low-level jet, and frontal circulations, surface fluxes, synoptic vertical motions influenced by the Andes, cloud detrainment, and aerosol properties. Local and long-range transport of smoke resulting from biomass burning as

  15. On numerically solving the complex eikonal equation using real ray-tracing methods: A comparison with the exact analytical solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2012), T109-T116 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : anisotropic viscoelastic media * finite-difference calculation * travel - time calculation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2012

  16. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahdavirad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidance included an explanation of the necessary structural and lexical patterns employed to express the learners’ views while developing a comparison-and-contrast paragraph in each task. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the participants produced a written product with a greater lexical complexity in their performance of the task in the form-focused strategic planning condition. The findings emphasize the importance of guided strategic planning as a task condition in syllabus design for task-based language teaching and the necessity of incorporating this task feature for accomplishing lexical complexity in decision-making writing tasks.

  17. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students’ mathematical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirah Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine students’ mathematical performance on quantitative “synthesis problems” with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students’ mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students’ simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students’ formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students’ different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  18. Study on planning and design of ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhoulin; Jiang, Nan; He, Yunxiao; Long, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In order to deal with the increasingly serious aging problem in China, a new model about serving the aged better needs to be explored. This paper puts forward the concept of ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly, a novel pattern that combining the rural retirement place with pastoral complex which is proposed recently. A concrete example of Deteng complex in Mianyang is given to explore the construction condition and planning approach. Three important aspects including pastoral, ecology, serving the aged are the core elements to develop ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly.

  19. Some Comments on the Use of de Moivre's Theorem to Solve Quadratic Equations with Real or Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a simple application of de Moivre's theorem may be used to not only find the roots of a quadratic equation with real or generally complex coefficients but also to pinpoint their location in the Argand plane. This approach is much simpler than the comprehensive analysis presented by Bardell (2012, 2014), but it does not…

  20. A New Methodology for Solving Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Load-Carrying Capacity of a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a direct method for obtaining the best found trajectory planning and maximum dynamic load-carrying capacity (DLCC is presented for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF hybrid robot manipulator. A nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem is formulated with four objective functions, namely, travel time, total energy involved in the motion, joint jerks, and joint acceleration. The vector of decision variables is defined by the sequence of the time-interval lengths associated with each two consecutive via-points on the desired trajectory of the 5-DOF robot generalized coordinates. Then this vector of decision variables is computed in order to minimize the cost function (which is the weighted sum of these four objective functions subject to constraints on joint positions, velocities, acceleration, jerks, forces/torques, and payload mass. Two separate approaches are proposed to deal with the trajectory planning problem and the maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF robot manipulator using an evolutionary optimization technique. The adopted evolutionary algorithm is the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. A numerical application is performed for obtaining best found solutions of trajectory planning and maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF hybrid robot manipulator.

  1. Ultrasonic simulation - Imagine3D and SimScan: Tools to solve the inverse problem for complex turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, H.D.; Ciorau, P.; Owen, D.; Hazelton, T.; Dunning, G.

    2000-01-01

    Two ultrasonic simulation packages: Imagine 3D and SIMSCAN have specifically been developed to solve the inverse problem for blade root and rotor steeple of low-pressure turbine. The software was integrated with the 3D drawing of the inspected parts, and with the dimensions of linear phased-array probes. SIMSCAN simulates the inspection scenario in both optional conditions: defect location and probe movement/refracted angle range. The results are displayed into Imagine 3-D, with a variety of options: rendering, display 1:1, grid, generated UT beam. The results are very useful for procedure developer, training and to optimize the phased-array probe inspection sequence. A spreadsheet is generated to correlate the defect coordinates with UT data (probe position, skew and refracted angle, UT path, and probe movement). The simulation models were validated during experimental work with phased-array systems. The accuracy in probe position is ±1 mm, and the refracted/skew angle is within ±0.5 deg. . Representative examples of phased array focal laws/probe movement for a specific defect location, are also included

  2. Revitalisation as a Method of Planning Sustainable Development of Old Town Complexes in Historic Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Old towns in spatial structures of historic towns are the areas which - same as centuries before - serve as the town centres. This is almost invariably true about small towns especially, as the inner town district is more frequently the site where a town was originally located and is often the manifestation of its historic identity. However, functional and spatial problems of many small historic towns arise from the above trend, mostly because of the frequently high density of buildings in the oldest part of a town. The intricate nature of elements creating the structure of a town’s historic centre often calls for certain steps to be taken, which will ensure better exposure of an old town complex against the backdrop of the town’s other areas. Numerous problems need to be solved, not only spatial but also economic and social ones. A town is a living organism, inhabited by people. The key to tackling these issues successfully lies in the creation of such revitalisation programmes that will improve the quality of space and help achieve the sustainable development of inner-town areas in historic towns. The historic centres in the medieval towns of Warmia, a region rich in history and situated in north-eastern Poland, can serve as an example and has been investigated in the following study. All the towns in Warmia located in the Middle Ages, except the capital of the region Olsztyn, can be classified as small urban developments. This group of eleven towns is dominated by the ones whose territorial coverage has not changed considerably since the location and the population ranges from a few thousand to less than twenty thousand. To this day, the historic quarters of these towns have remained the central ones in each town, and their urban structures to a various extent reveal the features characteristic for the period when they were created. The differences are due to the war damage the towns suffered at the end of World War Two and because of the different ways in

  3. Self-Regulation in the Midst of Complexity: A Case Study of High School Physics Students Engaged in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeffrey David

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore the experiences of high school physics students who were solving complex, ill-structured problems, in an effort to better understand how self-regulatory behavior mediated the project experience. Consistent with Voss, Green, Post, and Penner's (1983) conception of an ill-structured problem in the natural sciences, the 'problems' consisted of scientific research projects that students completed under the supervision of a faculty mentor. Zimmerman and Campillo's (2003) self-regulatory framework of problem solving provided a holistic guide to data collection and analysis of this multi-case study, with five individual student cases. The study's results are explored in two manuscripts, each targeting a different audience. The first manuscript, intended for the Science Education Research community, presents a thick, rich description of the students' project experiences, consistent with a qualitative, case study analysis. Findings suggest that intrinsic interest was an important self-regulatory factor that helped motivate students throughout their project work, and that the self-regulatory cycle of forethought, performance monitoring, and self-reflection was an important component of the problem-solving process. Findings also support the application of Zimmerman and Campillo's framework to complex, ill-structured problems, particularly the cyclical nature of the framework. Finally, this study suggests that scientific research projects, with the appropriate support, can be a mechanism for improving students' selfregulatory behavior. The second manuscript, intended for Physics practitioners, combines the findings of the first manuscript with the perspectives of the primary, on-site research mentor, who has over a decade's worth of experience mentoring students doing physics research. His experience suggests that a successful research experience requires certain characteristics, including: a slow, 'on-ramp' to the research

  4. Proposing Innovative Genetic Algorithms Model to Solve the Problem of the Professors' Educational Planning Considering Students' Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Asgari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Timing of curriculum planning for students and faculty could be done using diverse methods. The present research concerns with curriculum planning for professors considering the students' opinions. In doing so, the courses and the timing are determined based on the professors' common timetable, the professors' intensive courses timing and the class limitations. To achieve this goal, the genetic algorithm methodology was used in two steps. In the first stage, single-point cutting operator was used and in the second stage of the algorithm, a new intelligent operator called cyclic reverse list (RIL was used provided that gold, silver and bronze time types were used for different courses. The advantages of this algorithm are using a new appropriate function (hot rolled, as well as new criteria and a new operator (RIL. Unlike conventional methods, in this method the appropriateness is considered in proportion with the whole population and we try to remove the impossible solutions. The optimal solution is chosen from among a multitude of provided responses. Therefore, it was found that we can reach the optimal solutions with regard to a better appropriateness.

  5. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  6. Solving structure in the CP29 light harvesting complex with polarization-phased 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    The CP29 light harvesting complex from green plants is a pigment-protein complex believed to collect, conduct, and quench electronic excitation energy in photosynthesis. We have spectroscopically determined the relative angle between electronic transition dipole moments of its chlorophyll excitation energy transfer pairs in their local protein environments without relying on simulations or an X-ray crystal structure. To do so, we measure a basis set of polarized 2D electronic spectra and isolate their absorptive components on account of the tensor relation between the light polarization sequences used to obtain them. This broadly applicable advance further enhances the acuity of polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy and provides a general means to initiate or feed back on the structural modeling of electronically-coupled chromophores in condensed phase systems, tightening the inferred relations between the spatial and electronic landscapes of ultrafast energy flow. We also discuss the pigment composition of CP29 in the context of light harvesting, energy channeling, and photoprotection within photosystem II. PMID:21321222

  7. Condition-based maintenance for complex systems : Coordinating maintenance and logistics planning for the process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Keizer, Minou Catharina Anselma

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance planning in the process industries is extremely complex for various reasons. Plants often run nonstop, allowing little time for performing preventive maintenance. Failures should be prevented, however, as they can lead to system downtime and high losses of revenue. Corrective maintenance

  8. Value of spatial planning for large mining and energy complexes. [Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matko, Z; Spasic, N

    1982-01-01

    In the example of the Kosovo complex (Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslovia) an examination is made of the value of developing a spatial plan for the territory of large mining-energy complexes. The goals and expected results of spatial planning are discussed. The open method of working lignite, fuel shale and other fossil energy raw material fields at the modern level of development of technology, in addition to large-volume physical interferences in space, causes considerable structural changes of functional-economic, socioeconomic and psychological-sociological nature in the direct zone of influence of the mining-energy complex. Improvement in technology of working a lignite field does not guarantee in the near future any solutions in developing the mining-energy complexes, and therefore it is necessary to count on considerable volume of degradation of space which is governed by the existing technology. Under these conditions detailed planning and regulation of space is especially important, if one views them as a component part of long term policy for development of the mining energy complex and the zones of its influence.

  9. Impact of MLC leaf position errors on simple and complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Ludlum, E; Xia, P

    2008-01-01

    The dosimetric impact of random and systematic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors is relatively unknown for head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients. In this report we studied 17 head and neck IMRT patients, including 12 treated with simple plans ( 100 segments). Random errors (-2 to +2 mm) and systematic errors (±0.5 mm and ±1 mm) in MLC leaf positions were introduced into the clinical plans and the resultant dose distributions were analyzed based on defined endpoint doses. The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2 mm for both simple and complex plans. However, for systematic MLC leaf position errors, we found significant dosimetric differences between the simple and complex IMRT plans. For 1 mm systematic error, the average changes in D 95% were 4% in simple plans versus 8% in complex plans. The average changes in D 0.1cc of the spinal cord and brain stem were 4% in simple plans versus 12% in complex plans. The average changes in parotid glands were 9% in simple plans versus 13% for the complex plans. Overall, simple IMRT plans are less sensitive to leaf position errors than complex IMRT plans

  10. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  11. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct

  12. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary [Division of Radiation Therapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  13. The art and science of participative problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  14. SU-F-P-64: The Impact of Plan Complexity Parameters On the Plan Quality and Deliverability of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Xie, C [The 1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of complexity indices on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and to determine the most significant parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Methods: A multi-dimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to study the correlations between VMAT parameters of complexity, quality and deliverability, as well as their contribution weights with 32 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients and 31 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. Results: The MU per arc (MU/Arc) and MU per control point (MU/CP) of NPC were 337.8±25.2 and 3.7±0.3, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of prostate cancer patients (MU/Arc : 506.9±95.4, MU/CP : 5.6±1.1). The plan complexity indices indicated that two-arc VMAT plans were more complex than one-arc VMAT plans. Plan quality comparison confirmed that one-arc VMAT plans had a high quality than two-arc VMAT plans. CCA results implied that plan complexity parameters were highly correlated with plan quality with the first two canonical correlations of 0.96, 0.88 (both p<0.001) and significantly correlated with deliverability with the first canonical correlation of 0.79 (p<0.001), plan quality and deliverability was also correlated with the first canonical correlation of 0.71 (p=0.02). Complexity parameters of MU/CP, segment area (SA) per CP, percent of MU/CP less 3 and planning target volume (PTV) were weighted heavily in correlation with plan quality and deliveability . Similar results obtained from individual NPC and prostate CCA analysis. Conclusion: Relationship between complexity, quality, and deliverability parameters were investigated with CCA. MU, SA related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effect on the plan quality and deliverability. The presented correlation among different quantified parameters could be used to improve the plan quality and the efficiency

  15. A complex systems approach to planning, optimization and decision making for energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jessica; Kempener, Ruud; Cohen, Brett; Petrie, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a new approach to planning and optimization of energy networks, using a mix of global optimization and agent-based modeling tools. This approach takes account of techno-economic, environmental and social criteria, and engages explicitly with inherent network complexity in terms of the autonomous decision-making capability of individual agents within the network, who may choose not to act as economic rationalists. This is an important consideration from the standpoint of meeting sustainable development goals. The approach attempts to set targets for energy planning, by determining preferred network development pathways through multi-objective optimization. The viability of such plans is then explored through agent-based models. The combined approach is demonstrated for a case study of regional electricity generation in South Africa, with biomass as feedstock

  16. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    OpenAIRE

    He, Longfei; Xu, Zhaoguang; Niu, Zhanwen

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optim...

  17. Education for complex problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....

  18. Low-level waste characterization plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Characterization Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex describes the organization and methodology for characterization of all waste streams that are transferred from the WSCF Laboratory Complex to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. Waste generated at the WSCF complex typically originates from analytical or radiological procedures. Process knowledge is derived from these operations and should be considered an accurate description of WSCF generated waste. Sample contribution is accounted for in the laboratory waste designation process and unused or excess samples are returned to the originator for disposal. The report describes procedures and processes common to all waste streams; individual waste streams; and radionuclide characterization methodology

  19. MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sylvia; Kanning, Martina; Lauer, Romy; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.

  20. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  1. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  2. Influence of planning time and treatment complexity on radiation therapy errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Zeng, Jing; Carlson, Joshua; Spady, Phil; Jordan, Loucille; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning is a complex process with potential for error. We hypothesized that shorter time from simulation to treatment would result in rushed work and higher incidence of errors. We examined treatment planning factors predictive for near-miss events. Treatments delivered from March 2012 through October 2014 were analyzed. Near-miss events were prospectively recorded and coded for severity on a 0 to 4 scale; only grade 3-4 (potentially severe/critical) events were studied in this report. For 4 treatment types (3-dimensional conformal, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], neutron), logistic regression was performed to test influence of treatment planning time and clinical variables on near-miss events. There were 2257 treatment courses during the study period, with 322 grade 3-4 near-miss events. SBRT treatments had more frequent events than the other 3 treatment types (18% vs 11%, P = .04). For the 3-dimensional conformal group (1354 treatments), univariate analysis showed several factors predictive of near-miss events: longer time from simulation to first treatment (P = .01), treatment of primary site versus metastasis (P < .001), longer treatment course (P < .001), and pediatric versus adult patient (P = .002). However, on multivariate regression only pediatric versus adult patient remained predictive of events (P = 0.02). For the intensity modulated radiation therapy, SBRT, and neutron groups, time between simulation and first treatment was not found to be predictive of near-miss events on univariate or multivariate regression. When controlling for treatment technique and other clinical factors, there was no relationship between time spent in radiation treatment planning and near-miss events. SBRT and pediatric treatments were more error-prone, indicating that clinical and technical complexity of treatments should be taken into account when targeting safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 American

  3. An approach to contouring the dorsal vagal complex for radiotherapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Steen, Lillie; Amdur, Robert J., E-mail: amdurr@shands.ufl.edu

    2016-04-01

    Multiple studies suggest that radiation dose to the area of the brainstem called the “dorsal vagal complex (DVC)” influences the frequency of nausea and vomiting during radiotherapy. The purpose of this didactic article is to describe the step-by-step process that we use to contour the general area of the DVC on axial computed tomography (CT) images as would be done for radiotherapy planning. The contouring procedure that we describe for contouring the area of the DVC is useful to medical dosimetrists and radiation oncologists.

  4. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Xia, P

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans can be produced with a series of rectangular segments formed by conventional jaws. This study investigates whether complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer can be delivered with the conventional jaws efficiently. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients, previously treated with multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-IMRT plans, were re-planned using conventional jaw delivery options. All IMRT plans were subject to the plan acceptance criteria of the RTOG-0225 protocol. For a selected patient, the maximum number of segments varied from five to nine per beam, and was tested for both jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT) plans and MLC-IMRT plans. Subsequently, JO-IMRT plans and MLC-IMRT on the same treatment planning system were attempted for all patients with identical beams. The dose distribution, dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), the uniformity index and delivery efficiency were compared between the MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans. All JO-IMRT plans met the RTOG-0225 criteria for tumor coverage and sensitive structures sparing. The corresponding MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans show comparable conformality and uniformity, with average COINs of the planning gross tumor volume(pGTV) 37.7% ± 18.7% versus 37.9% ± 18.1%, and the average uniformity index 82.8% ± 2.5% versus 83.6% ± 3.1%, respectively. The average monitor unit for JO-IMRT plans was about twice that of MLC-IMRT plans. In conclusion, conventional jaws can be used solely to deliver complex IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer yet still within a practical delivery time.

  5. The impact of leaf width and plan complexity on DMLC tracking of prostate intensity modulated arc therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias; Falk, Marianne; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is commonly used to treat prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of leaf width and plan complexity on dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking for prostate motion management during IMAT treatments.Methods: Prostate...... IMAT plans were delivered with either a high-definition MLC (HDMLC) or a Millennium MLC (M-MLC) (0.25 and 0.50 cm central leaf width, respectively), with and without DMLC tracking, to a dosimetric phantom that reproduced four prostate motion traces. The plan complexity was varied by applying leaf....... The corresponding pass rates without tracking were 87.6% (range 76.2%-94.7%) and 91.1% (range 81.4%-97.6%), respectively. Decreased plan complexity improved the pass rate when static target measurements were used as reference, but not with the planned dose as reference. The main cause of tracking errors was leaf...

  6. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  7. IMPROVING THE STRATEGIC PLANNING OF THE DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX CORPORATIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop proposals to improve the strategic planning of Russian corporations of the defense-industrial complex. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the methodology for the adaptation of the strategic management of the military-industrial enterprises with substantial scientifi c and technical potential, should take into account a number of features, such as the identifi cation of the features of competition in the future; understanding of the prospects and development opportunities in the medium and long term; assessment of resource potential; impact assessment and risk in the implementation of promising strategies. In the more precise understanding of the strategy as a pattern of behavior aimed at achieving these goals, a set of rules for search and opportunities; strategic plan is seen as a series of specifi c steps and actions that are integrated in space and time, which lead to the transformation of the current position to the desired. We consider the practice of corporate transformation strategies of the world defense industry using a system method. To improve the strategic planning of Russian defense industry corporations it is recommended to apply the strategy of adapting the defense industry companies and their diversifi cation with the civilian sectors. The key vectors of the development strategy of the defense-industrial complex of Russian corporations are defi ned: providing an acceptable investment climate in the sphere of military-technical cooperation; neutralization of threats by the activities of DIC TNCs; creation of their own TNK defense industry and others.

  8. Planning for closure and deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Poland, H.F.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    In January 1994, DOE terminated the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program. Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a detailed plan to put Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a safe condition, including removal of irradiated fueled subassemblies from the plant, transfer of subassemblies, and removal and stabilization of primary and secondary sodium liquid heat transfer metal. The goal of deactivation is to stabilize the EBR-II complex until decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) is implemented, thereby minimizing maintenance and surveillance. Deactivation of a sodium cooled reactor presents unique concerns. Residual sodium in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude concerns with explosive sodium-air reactions. Also, residual sodium on components will effectively solder these items in place, making removal unfeasible. Several special cases reside in the primary system, including primary cold traps, a cesium trap, a cover gas condenser, and systems containing sodium-potassium alloy. The sodium or sodium-potassium alloy in these components must be reacted in place or the components removed. The Sodium Components Maintenance Shop at ANL-W provides the capability for washing primary components, removing residual quantities of sodium while providing some decontamination capacity. Considerations need to be given to component removal necessary for providing access to primary tank internals for D ampersand D activities, removal of hazardous materials, and removal of stored energy sources. ANL-W's plan for the deactivation of EBR-II addresses these issues, providing for an industrially and radiologically safe complex, requiring minimal surveillance during the interim period between deactivation and D ampersand D. Throughout the deactivation and closure of the EBR-II complex, federal environmental concerns will be addressed, including obtaining the proper permits for facility condition and waste processing

  9. Solving optimization problems using hybrid architecture: a strategy for planning the electric power generation; Solucao de problemas de otimizacao utilizando arquitetura hibrida: uma estrategia para o planejamento da geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.T. [Lechare Informatica Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Electrical power could be considered as one of the economy propulsion vector of a country, assuming extremely important and strategic role because it makes direct influence to the production capacity. The expansion of electrical energy production could not only be done in a short time because constructions in this area take many years and could require more then a decade depending on the magnitude of them. The national power generation group is constituted mainly by hydro power plants complemented by thermal power plants which use several kinds of fuel which generation cost is high, if compared to hydro power generation, and should be minimized. It is a complex planning issue to supply the future power demand which basically depends on the analysis of two compoundable scenarios: the first one refers to the forecast of future economy growing and in this case, unless unpredictable issues occur such as the recent high economy growing experimented by China, the future demand does not show any surprise and is easy to predict; the second one, has inside the uncertainty because the hydro plants productions depends on the water quantity of rivers which depends on the past and current rainfall regimen. The quantity of rainfall is a stochastic data and follows the rules of probability and this drives to the study of cases and its deployments which are numerous causing difficulties to forecast the future. The planning of the electrical area has to examine the future demand and provide the necessary power generation equipment assuming a certain risk. To have it done, simulation models are used to predict the future, combining the two scenarios cited before, and viewing the results promoted by decision took in a step before. The difficult of this task is caused by the big amount of future alternatives provided by the combinatorial phenomena which require, to process the model, a computer with high processing capacity and specialized and specific methods that can resolve this

  10. Simulation of complex data structures for planning of studies with focus on biomarker comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Andreas; Zöller, Daniela; Nickels, Stefan; Beutel, Manfred E; Blettner, Maria; Wild, Philipp S; Binder, Harald

    2017-06-13

    There are a growing number of observational studies that do not only focus on single biomarkers for predicting an outcome event, but address questions in a multivariable setting. For example, when quantifying the added value of new biomarkers in addition to established risk factors, the aim might be to rank several new markers with respect to their prediction performance. This makes it important to consider the marker correlation structure for planning such a study. Because of the complexity, a simulation approach may be required to adequately assess sample size or other aspects, such as the choice of a performance measure. In a simulation study based on real data, we investigated how to generate covariates with realistic distributions and what generating model should be used for the outcome, aiming to determine the least amount of information and complexity needed to obtain realistic results. As a basis for the simulation a large epidemiological cohort study, the Gutenberg Health Study was used. The added value of markers was quantified and ranked in subsampling data sets of this population data, and simulation approaches were judged by the quality of the ranking. One of the evaluated approaches, the random forest, requires original data at the individual level. Therefore, also the effect of the size of a pilot study for random forest based simulation was investigated. We found that simple logistic regression models failed to adequately generate realistic data, even with extensions such as interaction terms or non-linear effects. The random forest approach was seen to be more appropriate for simulation of complex data structures. Pilot studies starting at about 250 observations were seen to provide a reasonable level of information for this approach. We advise to avoid oversimplified regression models for simulation, in particular when focusing on multivariable research questions. More generally, a simulation should be based on real data for adequately reflecting

  11. Simulation of complex data structures for planning of studies with focus on biomarker comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schulz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a growing number of observational studies that do not only focus on single biomarkers for predicting an outcome event, but address questions in a multivariable setting. For example, when quantifying the added value of new biomarkers in addition to established risk factors, the aim might be to rank several new markers with respect to their prediction performance. This makes it important to consider the marker correlation structure for planning such a study. Because of the complexity, a simulation approach may be required to adequately assess sample size or other aspects, such as the choice of a performance measure. Methods In a simulation study based on real data, we investigated how to generate covariates with realistic distributions and what generating model should be used for the outcome, aiming to determine the least amount of information and complexity needed to obtain realistic results. As a basis for the simulation a large epidemiological cohort study, the Gutenberg Health Study was used. The added value of markers was quantified and ranked in subsampling data sets of this population data, and simulation approaches were judged by the quality of the ranking. One of the evaluated approaches, the random forest, requires original data at the individual level. Therefore, also the effect of the size of a pilot study for random forest based simulation was investigated. Results We found that simple logistic regression models failed to adequately generate realistic data, even with extensions such as interaction terms or non-linear effects. The random forest approach was seen to be more appropriate for simulation of complex data structures. Pilot studies starting at about 250 observations were seen to provide a reasonable level of information for this approach. Conclusions We advise to avoid oversimplified regression models for simulation, in particular when focusing on multivariable research questions. More generally

  12. Three-dimensional Cross-Platform Planning for Complex Spinal Procedures: A New Method Adaptive to Different Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterhon, Michael; Gutenberg, Angelika; Kantelhardt, Sven R; Conrad, Jens; Nimer Amr, Amr; Gawehn, Joachim; Giese, Alf

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study. To develop a method based on the DICOM standard which transfers complex 3-dimensional (3D) trajectories and objects from external planning software to any navigation system for planning and intraoperative guidance of complex spinal procedures. There have been many reports about navigation systems with embedded planning solutions but only few on how to transfer planning data generated in external software. Patients computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance volume data sets of the affected spinal segments were imported to Amira software, reconstructed to 3D images and fused with magnetic resonance data for soft-tissue visualization, resulting in a virtual patient model. Objects needed for surgical plans or surgical procedures such as trajectories, implants or surgical instruments were either digitally constructed or computerized tomography scanned and virtually positioned within the 3D model as required. As crucial step of this method these objects were fused with the patient's original diagnostic image data, resulting in a single DICOM sequence, containing all preplanned information necessary for the operation. By this step it was possible to import complex surgical plans into any navigation system. We applied this method not only to intraoperatively adjustable implants and objects under experimental settings, but also planned and successfully performed surgical procedures, such as the percutaneous lateral approach to the lumbar spine following preplanned trajectories and a thoracic tumor resection including intervertebral body replacement using an optical navigation system. To demonstrate the versatility and compatibility of the method with an entirely different navigation system, virtually preplanned lumbar transpedicular screw placement was performed with a robotic guidance system. The presented method not only allows virtual planning of complex surgical procedures, but to export objects and surgical plans to any navigation or

  13. Unusual planned complex suicide committed with a muzzle-loading pistol in combination with subsequent hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruschka, Benjamin; Morgenthal, Sylvia; Dreβler, Jan; Bayer, Ronny

    2016-11-01

    In Germany, suicides by firearms are not very common in contrast to deaths by hanging and intoxications. The use of historical muzzle-loading firearms in the context of suicides is a rarity. Contact shots from muzzle loaders cause an unusual wound morphology with extensive soot soiling. We report the case of a 59-year-old man, who committed a planned complex suicide by shooting into his mouth with a replica percussion gun in combination with hanging. The gunshot injury showed strong explosive effects in the oral cavity with fractures of the facial bones and the skull associated with cerebral evisceration (so-called Krönlein shot). Due to the special constellation of the case with hanging immediately after the shot, external bleeding from the head injuries was only moderate. Therefore, the head injuries could be assessed and partially reconstructed already at the scene.

  14. Toxicological findings in two planned complex suicide cases: ingestion of petroleum distillates and subsequent hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two fatal cases of planned complex suicide by two male individuals, 86 and 51 years old, involving ingestion of petroleum distillates and hanging. Remarkable internal findings during autopsy of both cases included the intense odor of petroleum distillates that alerted authorities to the suspicion of ingestion. The initial toxicological screening and quantitation of these compounds were performed by gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection, and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in total ion chromatogram mode after liquid-liquid extraction of biological samples following a previously published analytical method. In Case 1, diesel fuel No. 2 concentrations were distillates when there is a suspicion of ingestion of these products due to the odor observed at the scene of death and/or during autopsy. The results of these toxicological investigations can help to determine the manner of death and the medicolegal interpretation.

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS

  16. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  17. Revealing the Structural Complexity of Component Interactions of Topic-Specific PCK when Planning to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Teaching pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) at a topic-specific level requires clarity on the content-specific nature of the components employed, as well as the specific features that bring about the desirable depth in teacher explanations. Such understanding is often hazy; yet, it influences the nature of teacher tasks and learning opportunities afforded to pre-service teachers in a teaching program. The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly, to illuminate the emerging complexity when content-specific components of PCK interact when planning to teach a chemistry topic; and secondly, to identify the kinds of teacher tasks that promote the emergence of such complexity. Data collected were content representations (CoRes) in chemical equilibrium accompanied by expanded lesson outlines from 15 pre-service teachers in their final year of study towards a first degree in teaching (B Ed). The analysis involved extraction of episodes that exhibited component interaction by using a qualitative in-depth analysis method. The results revealed the structure in which the components of PCK in a topic interact among each other to be linear, interwoven, or a combination of the two. The interwoven interactions contained multiple components that connected explanations on different aspects of a concept, all working in a complementary manner. The most sophisticated component interactions emerged from teacher tasks on descriptions of a lesson sequence and a summary of a lesson. Recommendations in this study highlight core practices for making pedagogical transformation of topic content knowledge more accessible.

  18. Management of Logistics Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnar Aas; Stein W. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Logistics problems are gradually becoming more complex and a better understanding of logistics management as a subject is a key to deal with the new challenges. A core element of logistics management is logistics planning, which substitutes for low customer service levels, high waste, and the use of buffers and slacks in the execution of logistic activities. Furthermore, the availability of information and problem-solving capabilities are established as the core parts of logistics planning. B...

  19. Solving Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Xia, Ashley; Read, Elizabeth L; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hafler, David A; Sontag, Eduardo; Wang, Jin; Tsang, John S; Day, Judy D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Matthew C; Hammond, Ross; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2017-02-01

    Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology. Here, we present the perspectives that emerged from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) workshop 'Complex Systems Science, Modeling and Immunity' and subsequent discussions regarding the potential synergy of high-throughput data acquisition, data-driven modeling, and mechanistic modeling to define new mechanisms of immunological disease and to accelerate the translation of these insights into therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidimensional correlation among plan complexity, quality and deliverability parameters for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanxiao; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Han, Ce; Zheng, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yongqiang; Gong, Changfei; Xie, Congying; Jin, Xiance

    2018-03-01

    A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. The average MU and MU per control point (MU/CP) for two-arc VMAT plans were 702.6 ± 55.7 and 3.9 ± 0.3 versus 504.6 ± 99.2 and 5.6 ± 1.1 for one-arc VMAT plans, respectively. The individual volume-based 3D gamma passing rates of clinical target volume (γCTV) and planning target volume (γPTV) for NPC and prostate cancer patients were 85.7% ± 9.0% vs 92.6% ± 7.8%, and 88.0% ± 7.6% vs 91.2% ± 7.7%, respectively. Plan complexity parameters of NPC patients were correlated with plan quality (P = 0.047) and individual volume-based 3D gamma indices γ(IV) (P = 0.01), in which, MU/CP and segment area (SA) per control point (SA/CP) were weighted highly in correlation with γ(IV) , and SA/CP, percentage of CPs with SA plan quality with coefficients of 0.98, 0.68 and -0.99, respectively. Further verification with one-arc VMAT plans demonstrated similar results. In conclusion, MU, SA-related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effects on the plan quality and deliverability.

  1. Complex Osteotomies of Tibial Plateau Malunions Using Computer-Assisted Planning and Patient-Specific Surgical Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnstahl, Philipp; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Schweizer, Andreas; Fucentese, Sandro F; Koch, Peter P

    2015-08-01

    The accurate reduction of tibial plateau malunions can be challenging without guidance. In this work, we report on a novel technique that combines 3-dimensional computer-assisted planning with patient-specific surgical guides for improving reliability and accuracy of complex intraarticular corrective osteotomies. Preoperative planning based on 3-dimensional bone models was performed to simulate fragment mobilization and reduction in 3 cases. Surgical implementation of the preoperative plan using patient-specific cutting and reduction guides was evaluated; benefits and limitations of the approach were identified and discussed. The preliminary results are encouraging and show that complex, intraarticular corrective osteotomies can be accurately performed with this technique. For selective patients with complex malunions around the tibia plateau, this method might be an attractive option, with the potential to facilitate achieving the most accurate correction possible.

  2. Environmental management plan of the mining and industrial uranium complex in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuereido, N.; Hilton, M.; Wiikman, L.; Oliveira, M.; Taddei, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Mining and Industrial Complex of the Pocos de Caldas Plateau (CIPC) is located at Caldas, county in the southwest of Minas Gerais state. It is a plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. -INB, the only installation in Brazil for the production of uranium concentrate (yellow-cake) as ammonium diuranate (Adu). The Environmental protection and control program in practice assures the environmental management plan, in operation, maintaining the Complex within technology standards required by updated environmental concepts. The mine is an open pit operation with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an actual average depth of 120 m. Some 44 x 10 6 m 3 of the overburden material were used in embankments structures to civil engineering works in the implantation of several installations in CIPC, and the other portion of the removed material was deposited in two pre-selected areas having both an upper area of about 2,0 x 10 6 m 2 . The annual average volume of waters transported to chemical treatment is about 9,0 x 10 5 m 3 . The mill, in its full operation, processes 2500 t of ore per day and the solid and liquid tailings are directed to a waste pond system where are contained approximately 2,0 x 10 6 m 3 (2,2 x 10 6 t) of solid wastes with an estimation of further 70 x 10 5 m 3 to be disposed. The upper surface of tailings pond is about 2,0 x 10 5 m 2 . Nowadays, the environmental protection and control program aims to the development of potential pollutant areas stabilization reintegrating them into their original features or adjusting them to other forms of laudable restoration. (authors). 1 fig

  3. Utility of 3D printed temporal bones in pre-surgical planning for complex BoneBridge cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Payal; Cheng, Kai; Flanagan, Sean; Greenberg, Simon

    2017-08-01

    With the advent of single-sided hearing loss increasingly being treated with cochlear implantation, bone conduction implants are reserved for cases of conductive and mixed hearing loss with greater complexity. The BoneBridge (BB, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) is an active fully implantable device with no attenuation of sound energy through soft tissue. However, the floating mass transducer (FMT) part of the device is very bulky, which limits insertion in complicated ears. In this study, 3D printed temporal bones of patients were used to study its utility in preoperative planning on complicated cases. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 16 ears were used to 3D print their temporal bones. Three otologists graded the use of routine preoperative planning provided by MED-EL and that of operating on the 3D printed bone of the patient. Data were collated to assess the advantage and disadvantage of the technology. There was a statistically significant benefit in using 3D printed temporal bones to plan surgery for difficult cases of BoneBridge surgery compared to the current standard. Surgeons preferred to have the printed bones in theatre to plan their drill sites and make the transition of the planning to the patient's operation more precise. 3D printing is an innovative use of technology in the use of preoperative planning for complex ear surgery. Surgical planning can be done on the patient's own anatomy which may help to decrease operating time, reduce cost, increase surgical precision and thus reduce complications.

  4. Developing integrated parametric planning models for budgeting and managing complex projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnyre, Vance A.; Black, Ken U.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of integrated parametric models for the budgeting and management of complex projects is investigated. Methods for building a very flexible, interactive prototype for a project planning system, and software resources available for this purpose, are discussed and evaluated. The prototype is required to be sensitive to changing objectives, changing target dates, changing costs relationships, and changing budget constraints. To achieve the integration of costs and project and task durations, parametric cost functions are defined by a process of trapezoidal segmentation, where the total cost for the project is the sum of the various project cost segments, and each project cost segment is the integral of a linearly segmented cost loading function over a specific interval. The cost can thus be expressed algebraically. The prototype was designed using Lotus-123 as the primary software tool. This prototype implements a methodology for interactive project scheduling that provides a model of a system that meets most of the goals for the first phase of the study and some of the goals for the second phase.

  5. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optimization algorithm to obtain joint optimal production quantities combination for maximizing overall profit under regulatory policies, respectively. Furthermore, numerical studies by featuring exponentially distributed demand compare systemwide performances in various scenarios. We build the “carbon emission elasticity of profit (CEEP” index as a metric to evaluate the impact of regulatory policies on both chainwide emissions and profit. Our results manifest that by facilitating the mandatory emission cap in proper installation within the network one can balance well effective emission reduction and associated acceptable profit loss. The outcome that CEEP index when implementing Carbon emission tax is elastic implies that the scale of profit loss is greater than that of emission reduction, which shows that this policy is less effective than mandatory cap from industry standpoint at least.

  6. Institutional interventions in complex urban systems: Coping with boundary issues in urban planning projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verweij (Stefan); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); H. Geerlings (Harry)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Urban planning projects are planned and organized through arrangements between actors. These arrangements are institutional interventions: they intervene in the institutional landscape as existing organizational boundaries are (temporarily) redrawn. Such boundary

  7. Solve the Dilemma of Over-Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Gerhard

    Complexity science can help to understand the functioning and the interaction of the components of a city. In 1965, Christopher Alexander gave in his book A city is not a tree a description of the complex nature of urban organization. At this time, neither high-speed computers nor urban big data existed. Today, Luis Bettencourt et al. use complexity science to analyze data for countries, regions, or cities. The results can be used globally in other cities. Objectives of complexity science with regard to future cities are the observation and identification of tendencies and regularities in behavioral patterns, and to find correlations between them and spatial configurations. Complex urban systems cannot be understood in total yet. But research focuses on describing the system by finding some simple, preferably general and emerging patterns and rules that can be used for urban planning. It is important that the influencing factors are not just geo-spatial patterns but also consider variables which are important for the design quality. Complexity science is a way to solve the dilemma of oversimplification of insights from existing cities and their applications to new cities. An example: The effects of streets, public places and city structures on citizens and their behavior depend on how they are perceived. To describe this perception, it is not sufficient to consider only particular characteristics of the urban environment. Different aspects play a role and influence each other. Complexity science could take this fact into consideration and handle the non-linearity of the system...

  8. Beyond the current Dutch spatial planning system: Towards a beneficial spatial system that accommodates today’s complex societal needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Lodder (Marleen); J. Rotmans (Jan); M. Braungart (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will analyse the developments in the spatial planning system in the Netherlands, as of the industrial revolution, as it has led to good practices of international recognition, but now seems to be under pressure because of the increasing complexity and multiple crises induced

  9. Plans of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex and provision of military program by special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenovskaya, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to plans and implementation of the program of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex, related with conducted reduction of nuclear arsenal after concluding the Strategic Nuclear Armament Reduction Treaty. Particular attention is paid to problems of satisfying short-term and long-term requirements in special nuclear materials and in tritium in particular

  10. Quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning optimization: using a simple optimization to verify a complex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deufel, Christopher L; Furutani, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    As dose optimization for high dose rate brachytherapy becomes more complex, it becomes increasingly important to have a means of verifying that optimization results are reasonable. A method is presented for using a simple optimization as quality assurance for the more complex optimization algorithms typically found in commercial brachytherapy treatment planning systems. Quality assurance tests may be performed during commissioning, at regular intervals, and/or on a patient specific basis. A simple optimization method is provided that optimizes conformal target coverage using an exact, variance-based, algebraic approach. Metrics such as dose volume histogram, conformality index, and total reference air kerma agree closely between simple and complex optimizations for breast, cervix, prostate, and planar applicators. The simple optimization is shown to be a sensitive measure for identifying failures in a commercial treatment planning system that are possibly due to operator error or weaknesses in planning system optimization algorithms. Results from the simple optimization are surprisingly similar to the results from a more complex, commercial optimization for several clinical applications. This suggests that there are only modest gains to be made from making brachytherapy optimization more complex. The improvements expected from sophisticated linear optimizations, such as PARETO methods, will largely be in making systems more user friendly and efficient, rather than in finding dramatically better source strength distributions. (paper)

  11. Complex geohazard susceptibility zoning for effective landuse planning and catastroph prevention in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hradecky, P.; Baron, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Czech Geological Survey conducted projects of geological mapping and complex geohazard susceptibility zoning in Nicaragua in the years 1997-2009. For selected areas in vicinity of major cities and towns basic geological maps at a scalle 1:50,000, maps of geomorphic features (Geomorphic Inventory Maps), Morphostructural Maps of estimated fault zones, and derived Geohazard Susceptibility maps were done. These maps were prepared during field campaigns by direct field mapping, analysis of remote-sensing data, communicating the local authorities, interwieving the local inhabitants and with very close cooperation with the local partner of the projects - the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). The resulting maps and explanatory reports presented the dangerous natural processes that occurred in each respective area in the past and proposed preventive measures in detail. Zones evaluated as highly susceptible, e.g., to (i) mass movements, (ii) large inundations, (iii) torrential flooding, (iv) seismogenic liquefaction, etc., were presented in bold colours on the maps. Such maps and reports were presented to local authorities and inhabitants of respective cities during public breefings at the end of each mapping campaign. In such a way, areas of Pacific volcanic ridge (1997-2003), Jinotega (2004), Somoto (2005), Estelí (2006), Boaco and Santa Lucia (2007, 2008), Sebaco (2008) and Jalapa (2009) were elaborated. The maps then served to the INETER for implementation into the landuse plans, evacuation routes and other preventive measures to protect and save human lives and inftrastructure. This approach could serve as a muster for a simple, cost effective and relatively fast geohazards susceptibility evaluation of any area in any developing country. The projects also paid attention to capacity building of our Nicaraguan partners. These projects of the Czech Geological Survey were conducted as the international aid of the Czech Republic to Nicaragua

  12. A new integrated planning model for gas compression and transmission through a complex pipeline network; Um novo modelo de planejamento integrado de compressao e escoamento de gas para uma rede complexa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iamashita, Edson K. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galaxe, Frederico; Arica, Jose [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to show a new approach to solve integrated gas balance planning problems that defines the best compression and transmission strategy for a system with a large number of platforms or compression units that are interlinked with the delivery points through a complex gas pipeline network. For solving the proposed optimization problem is used a genetic meta-heuristic technique, where the fitness function of the algorithm is the Profit function of the gas balance, being considered the incomes and costs besides the pipeline network constraints, representing the compression system and transmission network near to the real operational condition. Newton Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear system that represents the calculation of the pressure drop in the gas pipeline network that can contain various cycles. This model could be used for design and optimization of gas pipeline networks, as well as for the gas balance planning of an existent network looking for the profit maximization. (author)

  13. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

  14. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  15. 76 FR 62439 - Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Complex, GA and SC; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... the comments we received and based on the professional judgment of the planning team, we selected... associated with long-term climate change and sea level rise. We will more aggressively manage invasive and exotic plant species by implementing a management plan, completing a baseline inventory, supporting...

  16. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.H.J. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States) and Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yhc@umd.edu; Mosleh, A. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs.

  17. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.H.J.; Mosleh, A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs

  18. SU-G-TeP3-11: Radiobiological-Cum-Dosimetric Quality Assurance of Complex Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, N; Narayanasamy, G; Zhang, X; Penagaricano, J; Morrill, S [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mavroidis, P [University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Pyakuryal, A [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Han, E [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liang, X [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Kim, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seol (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric gamma-analysis used for QA of complex radiotherapy plans tests the dosimetric equivalence of a delivered plan with the treatment planning system (TPS) optimized plan. It does not examine whether a dosimetric difference results in any radiobiological difference. This study introduces a method to test the radiobiological and dosimetric equivalence between a delivered and the TPS optimized plan. Methods: Six head and neck and seven lung cancer VMAT or IMRT plans optimized for patient treatment were calculated and delivered to an ArcCheck phantom. ArcCheck measured dose distributions were compared with the TPS calculated dose distributions using a 2-D gamma-analysis. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various patient structures were obtained by using measured data in 3DVH software and compared against the TPS calculated DVHs using 3-D gamma analysis. DVH data were used in the Poisson model to calculate tumor control probability (TCP) for the treatment targets and in the sigmoid dose response model to calculate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the normal structures. Results: Two-D and three-D gamma passing rates among six H&N patient plans differed by 0 to 2.7% and among seven lung plans by 0.1 to 4.5%. Average ± SD TCPs based on measurement and TPS were 0.665±0.018 and 0.674±0.044 for H&N, and 0.791±0.027 and 0.733±0.031 for lung plans, respectively. Differences in NTCPs were usually negligible. The differences in dosimetric results, TCPs and NTCPs were insignificant. Conclusion: The 2-D and 3-D gamma-analysis based agreement between measured and planned dose distributions may indicate their dosimetric equivalence. Small and insignificant differences in TCPs and NTCPs based on measured and planned dose distributions indicate the radiobiological equivalence between the measured and optimized plans. However, patient plans showing larger differences between 2-D and 3-D gamma-analysis can help us make a more definite conclusion

  19. Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Han; Stolk, Egbert; Tan, Ekim

    2012-01-01

    Today, our cities are an embodiment of the complex, historical evolution of knowledge, desires and technology. Our planned and designed activities co-evolve with our aspirations, mediated by the existing technologies and social structures.  The city represents the accretion and accumulation of successive layers of collective activity, structuring and being structured by other, increasingly distant cities, reaching now right around the globe. This historical and structural development cannot therefore be understood or captured by any set of fixed quantitative relations. Structural changes imply that the patterns of growth, and their underlying reasons change over time, and therefore that any attempt to control the morphology of cities and their patterns of flow by means of planning and design, must be dynamical, based on the mechanisms that drive the changes occurring at a given moment. This carefully edited post-proceedings volume gathers a snapshot view by leading researchers in field, of current complexity...

  20. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  1. A quasi steady state method for solving transient Darcy flow in complex 3D fractured networks accounting for matrix to fracture flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nœtinger, B.

    2015-02-01

    Modeling natural Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) receives more and more attention in applied geosciences, from oil and gas industry, to geothermal recovery and aquifer management. The fractures may be either natural, or artificial in case of well stimulation. Accounting for the flow inside the fracture network, and accounting for the transfers between the matrix and the fractures, with the same level of accuracy is an important issue for calibrating the well architecture and for setting up optimal resources recovery strategies. Recently, we proposed an original method allowing to model transient pressure diffusion in the fracture network only [1]. The matrix was assumed to be impervious. A systematic approximation scheme was built, allowing to model the initial DFN by a set of N unknowns located at each identified intersection between fractures. The higher N, the higher the accuracy of the model. The main assumption was using a quasi steady state hypothesis, that states that the characteristic diffusion time over one single fracture is negligible compared with the characteristic time of the macroscopic problem, e.g. change of boundary conditions. In that context, the lowest order approximation N = 1 has the form of solving a transient problem in a resistor/capacitor network, a so-called pipe network. Its topology is the same as the network of geometrical intersections between fractures. In this paper, we generalize this approach in order to account for fluxes from matrix to fractures. The quasi steady state hypothesis at the fracture level is still kept. Then, we show that in the case of well separated time scales between matrix and fractures, the preceding model needs only to be slightly modified in order to incorporate these fluxes. The additional knowledge of the so-called matrix to fracture transfer function allows to modify the mass matrix that becomes a time convolution operator. This is reminiscent of existing space averaged transient dual porosity models.

  2. A BACTERIA FORAGING ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING INTEGRATED MULTI-PERIOD CELL FORMATION AND SUBCONTRACTING PRODUCTION PLANNING IN A DYNAMIC CELLULAR MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA is a new computation technique inspired by the social foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria. Since the introduction of the BFA by Kevin M. Passino, there have been many challenges in employing this algorithm to problems other than those for which the algorithm was proposed. This research aims to apply this emerging optimisation algorithm to develop a mixed-integer programming model for designing cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs, and production planning in dynamic environments. In dynamic environments, product mix and part demand vary under multi-period planning horizons. Thus the best-designed cells for one period may not be adequate for subsequent periods, requiring their reconstruction. The advantages of the proposed model are as follows: consideration of batch inter-cell and intra-cell material handling by assuming the sequence of operations, allowing for alternative process plans for part types, and consideration of machine copying, with an emphasis on the effect of trade-offs between production and outsourcing costs. The goal is to minimise the sum of the machines’ constant and variable costs, inter-cell and intra-cell material handling costs, reconstruction costs, partial subcontracting costs, and inventory carrying costs. In addition, a newly-developed BFA-based optimisation algorithm has been compared with the branch and bound algorithm. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm performs better than related works.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ‘bacteria foraging algorithm’ (BFA is ‘n berekeningstegniek gebaseeer op die sosiale soekgedrag van Escherichia coli (E. coli bakterieë. Sedert die bekendstelling van BFA was daar talle uitdagings oor toepassings van die algoritme op ander probleme as dié waarvoor dit ontwikkel is. Dié navorsing poog om deur toepassing van die algoritme ‘n gemengde heelgetalprogrammeringmodel te ontwikkel vir die

  3. Can the integration of multiple biomarkers and sediment geochemistry aid solving the complexity of sediment risk assessment? A case study with a benthic fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro M.; Caeiro, Sandra; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T. Àngel; Costa, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Surveying toxicity of complex geochemical media as aquatic sediments often yields results that are either difficult to interpret or even contradictory to acknowledged theory. Multi-level biomarkers were investigated in a benthic fish exposed to estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays, to evaluate their employment either in ecological risk assessment or in more mechanistic approaches to assess sediment-bound toxicity. Biomarkers reflecting lesions (such as genotoxicity or histopathology), regardless of their low or absent specificity to contaminants, are efficient in segregating exposure to contaminated from uncontaminated sediments even when classical biomarkers like CYP1A and metallothionein induction are inconclusive. Conversely, proteomics and gene transcription analyses provided information on the mechanics of toxicity and aided explaining response variation as a function of metabolic imbalance and impairment of defences against insult. In situ bioassays, although less expedite and more affected by confounding factors, produced data better correlated to overall sediment contamination. Highlights: ► Sediment-bound contaminant mixtures can yield unexpected biomarker responses in fish. ► Biomarkers reflecting lesions are sturdier predictors of pollution by mixed xenobiotics. ► Proteomics and gene transcription analyses disclosed the existence of complex patterns of response to toxicity. ► Laboratory bioassays are less impacted by noise variables but tend to lose ecological relevance. - Evaluation of multi-level biomarker responses in fish for ecological risk assessment

  4. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...

  5. Managing the complexity and uncertainties of load, generation and markets in system development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    System planners face today unique challenges to accommodate the new uncertainties in markets, loads and generation and to develop system plans that balance reliability, economy and risk. The report summarizes a survey of the methods used worldwide. In addition, case examples are provided to illustrate in more detail these methods

  6. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  7. SU-E-T-325: The New Evaluation Method of the VMAT Plan Delivery Using Varian DynaLog Files and Modulation Complexity Score (MCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateoka, K [Proton Treatment Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, JP (Japan); Fujimomo, K; Hareyama, M [Proton Treatment Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo (Japan); Saitou, Y; Nakazawa, T; Abe, T; Nakata, A; Yano, M [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, JP (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of Varian DynaLog files to verify VMAT plans delivery and modulation complexity score (MCS) of VMAT. Methods: Delivery accuracy of machine performance was quantified by multileaf collimator (MLC) position errors, gantry angle errors and fluence delivery accuracy for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The relationship between machine performance and plan complexity were also investigated using the modulation complexity score (MCS). Plan and Actual MLC positions, gantry angles and delivered fraction of monitor units were extracted from Varian DynaLog files. These factors were taken from the record and verify system of MLC control file. Planned and delivered beam data were compared to determine leaf position errors and gantry angle errors. Analysis was also performed on planned and actual fluence maps reconstructed from those of the DynaLog files. This analysis was performed for all treatment fractions of 5 prostate VMAT plans. The analysis of DynaLog files have been carried out by in-house programming in Visual C++. Results: The root mean square of leaf position and gantry angle errors were about 0.12 and 0.15, respectively. The Gamma of planned and actual fluence maps at 3%/3 mm criterion was about 99.21. The gamma of the leaf position errors were not directly related to plan complexity as determined by the MCS. Therefore, the gamma of the gantry angle errors were directly related to plan complexity as determined by the MCS. Conclusion: This study shows Varian dynalog files for VMAT plan can be diagnosed delivery errors not possible with phantom based quality assurance. Furthermore, the MCS of VMAT plan can evaluate delivery accuracy for patients receiving of VMAT. Machine performance was found to be directly related to plan complexity but this is not the dominant determinant of delivery accuracy.

  8. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  9. Planning and Building Qualifiable Embedded Systems: Safety and Risk Properties Assessment for a Large and Complex System with Embedded Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Barbosa, R.

    2012-01-01

    Systems based on embedded components and applications are today used in all markets. They are planned and developed by all types of institutions with different types of background experience, multidisciplinary teams and all types of capability and maturity levels. Organisational/engineering maturity has an impact on all aspects of the engineering of large and complex systems. An embedded system is a specific computer system designed to perform one or more dedicated functions, usually with real-time constraints. It is generally integrated as part of a more complex device typically composed of specific hardware such as sensors and actuators. This article presents an experimented technique to evaluate the organisation, processes, system and software engineering practices, methods, tools and the planned/produced artefacts themselves, leading towards certification/qualification. The safety and risk assessment of such core and complex systems is explained, described on a step-by- step manner, while presenting the main results and conclusions of the application of the technique to a real case study.

  10. Multi-year strategic plan for the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain: ASCOT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program was developed by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DOE). The program was originally designed to study atmospheric process in regions of complex terrain and the impact of energy sources on air quality in those regions. The ASCOT program has been the principal atmospheric boundary layer research program of DOE. This document contains a description of the ASCOT program's objectives over the next five years and beyond, placing them in the context of current and anticipated needs of DOE and initiatives described in the National Energy Strategy

  11. Statistical analysis of the reliability of complex systems for maintenance planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Espelund

    2003-01-01

    planning. This overview is structured to highlight the process of choosing a proper model for a given data set, focusing on different measures of time and the data requirements for the different models. The second part of the report describes the analysis of two data sets from the Danish Defence. The data...... sets are analyzed using a graphical method, Nelson-Aalen plots, as well as multiplicative intensities models with proportional intensities regression, which is a parametric model....

  12. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  13. Determination of radiography optimum conditions for complex shape products by simplex planning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, M.A.; Korsunskij, G.M.; Mironenko, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the optimum regime of radiography should be determined using the method of successive simplex planning, which can be convenient in the cases, when the result of testing can not be presented quantitatively. Besides, in this case there is no necessity in duplication of experiments, as even gross errors are automatically corrected with further simplex motion. A plan and results of experimental determination of the optimum regime of product radiography using the X-ray RUP-120-5-1 apparatus are presented. In the experiments described voltage, current intensity and radiography duration are varied. The quality of X-ray images is evaluated according to conventional ten-point scale, taking into account the quality of each projection. It has been established that application of simplex planning to determine regimes of X-ray radiography of different types of products permits to obtain high-quality roentgenograms with simultaneous decrease in the consumption of photomaterials and considerable decrease in the time of laboratory tests

  14. 76 FR 36571 - Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... and new infestations of Russian olive. Larger infestations of invasive species such as crested... treated annually with an emphasis on preventing further encroachment of crested wheatgrass and Russian..., archery-only, big game hunt at Bowdoin Refuge. The refuge complex would serve as a conservation learning...

  15. 76 FR 14042 - San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Alamosa, CO; Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... nesting, migrating, and wintering birds, including grebes, herons, ibis, ducks, geese, hawks, eagles... movement of water, is a complex issue that needs to be addressed. The Service is also proposing to study... sustainability of America's land, water, wildlife and cultural resources. The study would analyze the potential...

  16. Planning and Realization of Complex Intentions in Traumatic Brain Injury and Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Eschen, Anne; Thone-Otto, Angelika I. T.

    2004-01-01

    The realization of delayed intentions (i.e., prospective memory) is a highly complex process composed of four phases: intention formation, retention, re-instantiation, and execution. The aim of this study was to investigate if executive functioning impairments are related to problems in the formation, re-instantiation, and execution of a delayed…

  17. The Role of Awareness for Complex Planning Task Performance: A Microgaming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosch, Heide; Groen, Daan; Kurapati, Shalini; Klemke, Roland; Verbraeck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of microgames to support situated learning in order to foster situational awareness (SA) of planners in seaport container terminals. In today's complex working environments, it is often difficult to develop the required level of understanding of a given situation, described as situational awareness. A container…

  18. The impact of direct aperture optimization on plan quality and efficiency in complex head and neck IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatino Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional step&shoot intensity modulated radio therapy (IMRT approaches potentially lead to treatment plans with high numbers of segments and monitor units (MU and, therefore, could be time consuming at the linear accelerator. Direct optimization methods are able to reduce the complexity without degrading the quality of the plan. The aim of this study is the evaluation of different IMRT approaches at standardized conditions for head and neck tumors. Method For 27 patients with carcinomas in the head and neck region a planning study with a 2-step-IMRT system (KonRad, a direct optimization system (Panther DAO and a mixture of both approaches (MasterPlan DSS was created. In order to avoid different prescription doses for boost volumes a simple standardization was realized. The dose was downscaled to 50 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV which included the primary tumor as well as the bilateral lymphatic drainage (cervical and supraclavicular. Dose restrictions for the organs at risk (OAR were downscaled to this prescription from high dose concepts up to 72 Gy. Those limits were defined as planning objectives while reaching definable PTV coverage with a standardized field setup. The parameters were evaluated from the corresponding dose volume histogram (DVH. Special attention was paid to the efficiency of the method, measured by means of calculated MU and required segments. Statistical tests of significance were applied to quantify the differences between the evaluated systems. Results PTV coverage for all systems in terms of V90% and V95% fell short of the requested 100% and 95%, respectively, but were still acceptable (range: 98.7% to 99.1% and 94.2% to 94.7%. Overall for OAR sparing and the burden of healthy tissue with low doses no technique was superior for all evaluated parameters. Differences were found for the number of segments where the direct optimization systems generated less segments. Lowest average numbers of

  19. The impact of direct aperture optimization on plan quality and efficiency in complex head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, Marcello; Kretschmer, Matthias; Zink, Klemens; Würschmidt, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Conventional step&shoot intensity modulated radio therapy (IMRT) approaches potentially lead to treatment plans with high numbers of segments and monitor units (MU) and, therefore, could be time consuming at the linear accelerator. Direct optimization methods are able to reduce the complexity without degrading the quality of the plan. The aim of this study is the evaluation of different IMRT approaches at standardized conditions for head and neck tumors. For 27 patients with carcinomas in the head and neck region a planning study with a 2-step-IMRT system (KonRad), a direct optimization system (Panther DAO) and a mixture of both approaches (MasterPlan DSS) was created. In order to avoid different prescription doses for boost volumes a simple standardization was realized. The dose was downscaled to 50 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) which included the primary tumor as well as the bilateral lymphatic drainage (cervical and supraclavicular). Dose restrictions for the organs at risk (OAR) were downscaled to this prescription from high dose concepts up to 72 Gy. Those limits were defined as planning objectives while reaching definable PTV coverage with a standardized field setup. The parameters were evaluated from the corresponding dose volume histogram (DVH). Special attention was paid to the efficiency of the method, measured by means of calculated MU and required segments. Statistical tests of significance were applied to quantify the differences between the evaluated systems. PTV coverage for all systems in terms of V 90% and V 95% fell short of the requested 100% and 95%, respectively, but were still acceptable (range: 98.7% to 99.1% and 94.2% to 94.7%). Overall for OAR sparing and the burden of healthy tissue with low doses no technique was superior for all evaluated parameters. Differences were found for the number of segments where the direct optimization systems generated less segments. Lowest average numbers of MU were 308 by Panther DAO calculated for

  20. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  1. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  2. Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.; Schwab, A.

    2012-06-01

    The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable development, energy forecasting, and complexity theory and show how past roadmapping methodologies fall short. While proposing ways of thinking about our responses to global changes, we consider how we can create and discover the pathways through those unpredictable changes toward high global renewables penetration.

  3. LAND SURVEY AND CADASTRAL MEASUREMENT MADE FOR AN PLOT PLAN COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Marian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Law no. 7/1996 of Cadastre and Real Estate Publicity, plan plot is a strip ground graphical representation containing strip ground limits and details of all the buildings that define stable land and cadastral division strip ground is technical administrative unit defined by fixed details, identifiable field that does not change over time, such as roads, water, dams, etc. This paper presents how to make a plot plan strip ground covering a 4 forest Ups (production unit and 108UAs (limits of forestry, land use is forest, pasture and village road. High surface is located extraurban limits Arefu in Arges County and has 28185443mp, that’ s equivalent to 2818,54ha. Forest cadastre specific limits are drawn in the work arrangement of forests and are represented by plot limit and the subparcels limit. This paper aims to presenting the main components of a modern surveying device used in our country, to carry out surveying works for forest cadastre. To use GPS technology (Global Position System in combination with the total station.

  4. The Effects of Simultaneous Use of Careful Online Planning and Task Repetition on Accuracy, Complexity, and Fluency in EFL Learners' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effects of four planning and task repetition conditions (i.e. careful online…

  5. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  6. Using expanded individualized health care plans to assist teachers of students with complex health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Tumlin, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    As special education teachers have increasing numbers of students requiring health care procedures in their classrooms, school nurses need to help these teachers maintain a safe, healthy environment for their students. Part of this consists of having teachers know the steps to take should certain problems arise. This article examines the receptivity of using an expanded version of an individualized health care plan (IHP) to provide critical information to address health care problems, as well as having individualized education program (IEP) objectives for instructional targets identified in the IHP. The findings of this study indicate that a high percentage of school nurses and special education teachers were in favor of an expanded version of the IHP. There was also support for teaching students to independently or partially participate in performing their own health care procedures and having this instruction formalized as IEP objectives.

  7. Management of complex knowledge in planning for sustainable development: The use of multi-criteria decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Jaan-Henrik; Soederberg, Henriette

    2008-01-01

    The vision of sustainable development entails new and complex planning situations, confronting local policy makers with changing political conditions, different content in decision making and planning and new working methods. Moreover, the call for sustainable development has been a major driving force towards an increasingly multi-stakeholder planning system. This situation requires competence in working in, and managing, groups of actors, including not only experts and project owners but also other categories of stakeholders. Among other qualities, such competence requires a working strategy aimed at integrating various, and sometimes incommensurable, forms of knowledge to construct a relevant and valid knowledge base prior to decision making. Consequently, there lies great potential in methods that facilitate the evaluation of strategies for infrastructural development across multiple knowledge areas, so-called multi-criteria decision aids (MCDAs). In the present article, observations from six case studies are discussed, where the common denominators are infrastructural planning, multi-stakeholder participation and the use of MCDAs as interactive decision support. Three MCDAs are discussed - NAIADE, SCA and STRAD - with an emphasis on how they function in their procedural context. Accordingly, this is not an analysis of MCDA algorithms, of software programming aspects or of MCDAs as context-independent 'decision machines'-the focus is on MCDAs as actor systems, not as expert systems. The analysis is carried out across four main themes: (a) symmetrical management of different forms of knowledge; (b) management of heterogeneity, pluralism and conflict; (c) functionality and ease of use; and (d) transparency and trust. It shows that STRAD, by far, seems to be the most useful MCDA in interactive settings. NAIADE and SCA are roughly equivalent but have their strengths and weaknesses in different areas. Moreover, it was found that some MCDA issues require further

  8. Detailed review and analysis of complex radiotherapy clinical trial planning data: Evaluation and initial experience with the SWAN software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Martin A.; Haworth, Annette; Kearvell, Rachel; Hooton, Ben; Coleman, Rhonda; Spry, Nigel; Bydder, Sean; Joseph, David

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Contemporary radiotherapy clinical trials typically require complex three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning. This produces large amounts of data relating technique and dose delivery for correlation with patient outcomes. Assessment of the quality of this information is required to ensure protocol compliance, to quantify the variation in treatments given to patients and to enhance the power of studies to determine correlates of patient outcomes. Materials and methods: A software system ('SWAN') was developed to facilitate the objective analysis, quality-assurance and review of digital treatment planning data from multi-centre radiotherapy trials. The utility of this system was assessed on the basis of its functionality and our experience of its use in the context of multi-centre clinical trials and trials-support activities. Results: The SWAN system has been shown to have the functionality required for use in several multi-centre trials, including automated review and archive processes. Approximately 800 treatment plans from over 30 participating institutions have so far been assessed with the system for several treatment planning scenarios. To illustrate this we include a description of the use of the system for a large-recruitment prostate radiotherapy trial being undertaken in Australasia, including examples of how the review process has changed clinical practice. Conclusion: The successful implementation of SWAN has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. The software provides an opportunity for comprehensive review of treatment parameters that could impact on clinical outcomes and trial results. Such quality-assurance (QA) has previously been difficult or impossible to achieve, particularly for a clinical trial involving large numbers of patients. Such reviews have highlighted inconsistencies in clinical practice that have since been addressed through feedback from the review process. The process of data collection and review should be

  9. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  10. Strategic planning model for achieving stakeholder involvement in environmental at DOE weapons complex sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1994-01-01

    Within today's reality a public manager often needs to develop cooperative relationships among a number of individual, program, and organizational stakeholders to accomplish particular projects, programs, or policies. A DOE site manager charged with accomplishing environmental restoration and conversion at former weapons production sites is no exception. Important reasons for this include the technical and political complexity of the clean-up problem; limits on the funding, authority, and other resources available to DOE; authority, responsibilities, and interests of other stakeholders; and the ever present potential for conflict among stakeholders, and power of any one to hinder, if not halt, the clean-up process if conflicts aren't managed and cooperative relationships established and maintained

  11. One-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, Emiliano; de Donato, Gianmarco; Fargion, Aaron; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Parlani, Gianbattista; Setacci, Carlo; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km 2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals. Surgeons evaluated computed tomography scans and clinical details that were placed on a web platform (Google Drive; Google, Mountain View, Calif) and shared by all surgeons. Patients gave informed consent for the teleconsultation. The surgeon who submits a case discusses in detail his or her case and proposes a possible therapeutic strategy. The other surgeons suggest other solutions and options in terms of grafts, techniques, or access to be used. Computed tomography angiography, angiography, and clinical outcomes of cases are then presented at the following telemeetings, and a final agreement of the operative strategy is evaluated. Teleconsultation is performed using a web conference service (WebConference.com; Avaya Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ) every month. An inter-rater agreement statistic was calculated, and the κ value was interpreted according to Altman's criteria for computed tomography angiography measurements. The rate of participation was constant (mean number of surgeons, 11; range, 9-15). Twenty-four complex TAAD cases were discussed for planning and operation during the study period. The interobserver reliability recorded was moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) to good (κ = 0.61-0.80) for measurements of proximal and distal sealing and very good (κ = 0.81-1) for detection of any target vessel angulation >60 degrees, significant calcification (circumferential), and thrombus presence (>50%). The concordance for planning and therapeutic strategy among all participants was complete in 16 cases. In

  12. Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-03-01

    There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.

  13. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex

  14. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  15. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  16. Controlling Uncertainty: A Review of Human Behavior in Complex Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Complex dynamic control (CDC) tasks are a type of problem-solving environment used for examining many cognitive activities (e.g., attention, control, decision making, hypothesis testing, implicit learning, memory, monitoring, planning, and problem solving). Because of their popularity, there have been many findings from diverse domains of research…

  17. Planning of high school examinations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Hansen, Michael Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based support system used to plan high school examinations in Denmark. We will discuss the methods and techniques used to solve such a complex and large scale combinatorial problem. Decomposition and other heuristic principles have been used extensively to develop...

  18. Operational planning optimization of steam power plants considering equipment failure in petrochemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a systematic programming methodology to address equipment failure. ► We classify different operation conditions into real periods and virtual periods. ► The formulated MILP models guarantee cost reduction and enough operation safety. ► The consideration of reserving operation redundancy is effective. - Abstract: One or more interconnected steam power plants (SPPs) are constructed in a petrochemical complex to supply utility energy to the process. To avoid large economic penalties or process shutdowns, these SPPs should be flexible and reliable enough to meet the process energy requirement under varying conditions. Unexpected utility equipment failure is inevitable and difficult to be predicted. Most of the conventional methods are based on the assumption that SPPs do not experience any kind of equipment failure. Unfortunately, a process shutdown cannot be avoided when equipment fails unexpectedly. In this paper, a systematic methodology is presented to minimize the total cost under normal conditions while reserving enough flexibility and safety for unexpected equipment failure conditions. The proposed method transforms the different conditions into real periods to indicate normal scenarios and virtual periods to indicate unexpected equipment failure scenarios. The optimization strategy incorporating various operation redundancy scheduling, the transition constraints from equipment failure conditions to normal conditions, and the boiler load increase behavior modeling are presented to save cost and guarantee operation safety. A detailed industrial case study shows that the proposed systematic methodology is effective and practical in coping with equipment failure conditions with only few additional cost penalties

  19. Protection of Landscape Values of Historical Post Military Objects - Complexes in Spatial, Urban and Architectural Planning of Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Dorota; Zagroba, Marek

    2017-12-01

    should result in appropriate records at all levels of planning documents to protect the fortified landscape of the historic barracks. The article points to the use of greenery as a means to correct barracks exposures and to improve the standard of using historic complexes for new, contemporary functions.

  20. Optimal Resources Planning of Residential Complex Energy System in a Day-ahead Market Based on Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Αhmadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimal resources planning in a residential complex energy system, including FC (fuel cell, PV (Photovoltaic panels and the battery. A day-ahead energy management system (EMS based on invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm is defined for managing different resources to determine an optimal operation schedule for the energy resources at each time interval to minimize the operation cost of a smart residential complex energy system. Moreover, in this paper the impacts of the sell to grid and purchase from grid are also considered. All practical constraints of the each energy resources and utility policies are taken into account. Moreover, sensitivity analysis are conducted on electricity prices and sell to grid factor (SGF, in order to improve understanding the impact of key parameters on residential CHP systems economy. It is shown that proposed system can meet all electrical and thermal demands with economic point of view. Also enhancement of electricity price leads to substantial growth in utilization of proposed CHP system.

  1. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  2. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  3. Assessing problem-solving skills in construction education with the virtual construction simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Fadi

    The ability to solve complex problems is an essential skill that a construction and project manager must possess when entering the architectural, engineering, and construction industry. Such ability requires a mixture of problem-solving skills, ranging from lower to higher order thinking skills, composed of cognitive and metacognitive processes. These skills include the ability to develop and evaluate construction plans and manage the execution of such plans. However, in a typical construction program, introducing students to such complex problems can be a challenge, and most commonly the learner is presented with only part of a complex problem. To support this challenge, the traditional methodology of delivering design, engineering, and construction instruction has been going through a technological revolution, due to the rise of computer-based technology. For example, in construction classrooms, and other disciplines, simulations and educational games are being utilized to support the development of problem-solving skills. Previous engineering education research has illustrated the high potential that simulations and educational games have in engaging in lower and higher order thinking skills. Such research illustrated their capacity to support the development of problem-solving skills. This research presents evidence supporting the theory that educational simulation games can help with the learning and retention of transferable problem-solving skills, which are necessary to solve complex construction problems. The educational simulation game employed in this study is the Virtual Construction Simulator (VCS). The VCS is a game developed to provide students in an engaging learning activity that simulates the planning and managing phases of a construction project. Assessment of the third iteration of the VCS(3) game has shown pedagogical value in promoting students' motivation and a basic understanding of construction concepts. To further evaluate the benefits on

  4. Planning: Complex Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    of the Coordina- tor for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) operational expenses; a Response Readiness Corps with $25 millions financing ; and...an issue that takes us into the realms of the unknown. Defence thinkers everywhere are searching forward for the science and alchemy that will

  5. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  6. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  7. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  8. Groundwater Modeling in Support of Water Resources Management and Planning under Complex Climate, Regulatory, and Economic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin C. Dogrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is an important resource that meets part or all of the water demand in many developed basins. Since it is an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, management of groundwater resources must consider not only the management of surface flows but also the variability in climate. In addition, agricultural and urban activities both affect the availability of water resources and are affected by it. Arguably, the Central Valley of the State of California, USA, can be considered a basin where all stresses that can possibly affect the management of groundwater resources seem to have come together: a vibrant economy that depends on water, a relatively dry climate, a disparity between water demand and availability both in time and space, heavily managed stream flows that are susceptible to water quality issues and sea level rise, degradation of aquifer conditions due to over-pumping, and degradation of the environment with multiple species becoming endangered. Over the past fifteen years, the California Department of Water Resources has developed and maintained the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM to aid in groundwater management and planning under complex, and often competing, requirements. This paper will describe features of IWFM as a generic modeling tool, and showcase several of its innovative applications within California.

  9. An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Oyakhobo Odior

    2012-01-01

    Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...

  10. Three-dimensional virtual reconstruction as a tool for preoperative planning in the management of complex anorectal fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Carvalho Sousa Júnior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The making of three-dimensional virtual models is a promising technology in preoperative planning, but that is not used in the treatment of anorectal fistulas. The objective of this work is to describe the development and initial experience of the construction of a virtual three-dimensional model of the pelvic anatomy of a patient, allowing the exact identification of the relationships between the fistulous tracts of complex anorectal fistulas and the other pelvic structures. An MRI was performed on this patient, and the images were exported to the Vitrea fX Workstation® software. A radiologist did the analysis and segmentation of the images that were then sent to a three-dimensional image processor (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR Research Center, Pisa University, Italy. The final 3D color image was analyzed by the surgeon and used to guide the catheterization of the fistulous pathways, the internal orifice and to assist in the identification of adjacent structures. The final three-dimensional model presented a high correlation with the intraoperative findings and facilitated the surgical planning. Resumo: A criação de modelos virtuais tridimensionais é uma tecnologia promissora no planejamento pré-operatorio, entretanto não é utilizada no tratamento de fistulas anais. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever o desenvolvimento e a experiência inicial da construção de um modelo virtual tridimensional da anatomia pélvica de um paciente, que permite a identificação exata das relações entre os tratos fistulosos de fistulas anais complexas e as demais estruturas pélvicas. O paciente realizou uma ressonância magnética e as imagens foram exportadas para o programa Vitrea fX software Workstation®. Um radiologista realizou a analise e segmentação das imagens que, em seguida, foram enviadas para um processador de imagens tridimensionais (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR research center, Pisa University, Italy®. A imagem 3D colorida

  11. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  12. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  13. A binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design of unmet need for family planning among all women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workie, Demeke Lakew; Zike, Dereje Tesfaye; Fenta, Haile Mekonnen; Mekonnen, Mulusew Admasu

    2017-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy related to unmet need is a worldwide problem that affects societies. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning among women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia. The Performance Monitoring and Accountability2020/Ethiopia was conducted in April 2016 at round-4 from 7494 women with two-stage-stratified sampling. Bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design was fitted. The prevalence of unmet-need for family planning was 16.2% in Ethiopia. Women between the age range of 15-24 years were 2.266 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to above 35 years. Women who were currently married were about 8 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to never married women. Women who had no under-five child were 0.125 times less likely to have unmet need family planning compared to those who had more than two-under-5. The key determinants of unmet need family planning in Ethiopia were residence, age, marital-status, education, household members, birth-events and number of under-5 children. Thus the Government of Ethiopia would take immediate steps to address the causes of high unmet need for family planning among women.

  14. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  15. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  16. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  17. Bridging the Gap Between Planning and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planning research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often focused on problems where there are cascading levels of action choice and complex interactions between actions. In contrast. Scheduling research has focused on much larger problems where there is little action choice, but the resulting ordering problem is hard. In this paper, we give an overview of M planning and scheduling techniques, focusing on their similarities, differences, and limitations. We also argue that many difficult practical problems lie somewhere between planning and scheduling, and that neither area has the right set of tools for solving these vexing problems.

  18. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  19. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  20. Solving Linear Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

  1. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  2. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  3. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  4. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  5. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  6. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  7. Linear Programming for Vocational Education Planning. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert C.; And Others

    The purpose of the paper is to define for potential users of vocational education management information systems a quantitative analysis technique and its utilization to facilitate more effective planning of vocational education programs. Defining linear programming (LP) as a management technique used to solve complex resource allocation problems…

  8. The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim

    2018-01-01

    While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.

  9. Discourse and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    me?" S-REQUEST ^---^ S-REQUEST (plan recognitio ; REQUEST V EXECUTE-PLAN RHjtfEST BIDTOhC TASK COMMUNICATIVE Figure 3-6. Analysis using’please...sur- face phenomena affected? How do beliefs and’ attitudes (social factors) influence? Various principles of coherence are explored as well

  10. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  11. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  12. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  13. Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE

  14. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  15. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2 of 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  16. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  17. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  18. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  19. The Effects of Pre-Task, On-Line, and Both Pre-Task and On-Line Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy--The Case of Iranian EFL Learners' Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Faramarz; Barati, Hossein; Ketabi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of planning on language production have revealed that planning does have a positive effect on language performance in terms of fluency, complexity, and accuracy. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of pre-task, on-line, and both pre-task and on-line planning on fluency, accuracy, and…

  20. Outcomes-Based Authentic Learning, Portfolio Assessment, and a Systems Approach to "Complex Problem-Solving": Related Pillars for Enhancing the Innovative Role of PBL in Future Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve "active learning" approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and…

  1. Two pricing methods for solving an integrated commercial fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we develop two novel pricing methods for solving an integer program. We demonstrate the methods by solving an integrated commercial fishery planning model (IFPM). In this problem, a fishery manager must schedule fishing trawlers (determine when and where the trawlers should go fishing, and when the ...

  2. Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…

  3. Two pricing methods for solving an integrated commercial fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a model (Hasan and Raffensperger, 2006) to solve this problem: the integrated ... planning and labour allocation for that processing firm, but did not consider any fleet- .... the DBONP method actually finds such price information, and uses it.

  4. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Evaluating the impact of a disease management program for chronic complex conditions at two large northeast health plans using a control group methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerner, Henry; Mellody, Timothy; Goldstein, Allan B; Wansink, Daryl; Sullivan, Virginia; Yelenik, Stephan N; Charlton, Warwick; Lloyd, Kelley; Courtemanche, Ted

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe trends in payer expenditures for plan members with one of 14 chronic, complex conditions comparing one group with a disease management program specific to their condition (the intervention group) and the other with no specific disease management program (the control group) for these conditions. The authors used payer claims and membership data to identify members eligible for the program in a 12-month baseline year (October 2001 to September 2002) and a subsequent 12-month program year (October 2002 to September 2003). Two payers were analyzed: one health plan with members primarily in New Jersey (AmeriHealth New Jersey [AHNJ]), where the disease management program was offered, and one affiliated large plan with members primarily in the metro Philadelphia area, where the program was not offered. The claims payment policy for both plans is identical. Intervention and control groups were analyzed for equivalence. The analysis was conducted in both groups over identical time periods. The intervention group showed statistically significant (p control group. Intervention group members showed a reduction in expenditures of -8%, while control group members showed an increase of +10% over identical time periods. Subsequent analyses controlling for outliers and product lines served to confirm the overall results. The disease management program is likely responsible for the observed difference between the intervention and control group results. A well-designed, targeted disease management program offered by a motivated, supportive health plan can play an important role in cost improvement strategies for members with complex, chronic conditions.

  6. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

  7. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Petzoldt, T.; Setzer, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on the

  9. Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de

  10. Virtual planning of complex head and neck reconstruction results in satisfactory match between real outcomes and virtual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Henning; Schablowsky, Clemens; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Sehner, Susanne; Riecke, Björn; Nourwali, Ibrahim; Vorwig, Oliver; Gröbe, Alexander; Al-Dam, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The reconstruction of large facial bony defects using microvascular transplants requires extensive surgery to achieve full rehabilitation of form and function. The purpose of this study is to measure the agreement between virtual plans and the actual results of maxillofacial reconstruction. This retrospective cohort study included 30 subjects receiving maxillofacial reconstruction with a preoperative virtual planning. Parameters including defect size, position, angle and volume of the transplanted segments were compared between the virtual plan and the real outcome using paired t test. A total of 63 bone segments were transplanted. The mean differences between the virtual planning and the postoperative situation were for the defect sizes 1.17 mm (95 % confidence interval (CI) (-.21 to 2.56 mm); p = 0.094), for the resection planes 1.69 mm (95 % CI (1.26-2.11); p = 0.033) and 10.16° (95 % CI (8.36°-11.96°); p satisfactory postoperative results are the basis for an optimal functional and aesthetic reconstruction in a single surgical procedure. The technique should be further investigated in larger study populations and should be further improved.

  11. Dutch Druggists in Distress : Franchisees Facing the Complex Decision of How to React to Their Franchisor's Strategic Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, E.P.M.; Brand, M.J.

    This case focuses on the decisions confronting Marc van der Bilt and his family. At the age of 59, Marc had been a franchisee of the Dutch DA drugstore chain for 23 years and had always planned to remain one until his retirement. In the spring of 2003, however, a change of management at the DA

  12. Planning and building a complex mine water treatment plant for Vietnam; Planung und Bau einer komplexen Grubenwasserreinigungsanlage fuer Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenstedt, Joerg [LMBV international, Senftenberg (Germany); Bilek, Felix [GFI Grundwasserforschungsinstitut GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kochan, Hans-Juergen

    2010-05-15

    In an anthracite coal mine in the northeast of Vietnam a mine water treatment plant shall be built. This plant is meant to be a pilot plant for further plants in this region. Apart from the climatic situation and the initially barely existing hydrological and hydrochemical data material, the high solids and manganese content in the mine water are a major challenge. Only by monitoring and capacity building which ran parallel to the planning process as well as the data collection and process optimisation in laboratory and bench scale, the planning process could be realised successfully. For the mine water remediation such a process was developed and well planned. This process is based on neutralisation, oxidation and hydroxide sedimentation as well as on oxidation and sorption processes which are catalysed on solid material surfaces. The project is financed by the BMBF sponsored RAME group and the individual contribution of the German project partners on the on hand. In this framework all scientific and engineering performances are generated. On the other hand the Vietnamese partner VINACOMIN invests by financing the construction of the plant, partly building it and participating on the planning with own engineering performances. Beside the authors, Peter Denke from LMBV international, Stefan Kurtz from GFI Dresden and Marlies Jaschke from eta-AG are involved in the project. (orig.)

  13. Sci-Thur AM: Planning - 04: Evaluation of the fluence complexity, solution quality, and run efficiency produced by five fluence parameterizations implemented in PARETO multiobjective radiotherapy treatment planning software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, H; Fiege, J; McCurdy, B; Potrebko, P; Cull, A

    2012-07-01

    PARETO (Pareto-Aware Radiotherapy Evolutionary Treatment Optimization) is a novel multiobjective treatment planning system that performs beam orientation and fluence optimization simultaneously using an advanced evolutionary algorithm. In order to reduce the number of parameters involved in this enormous search space, we present several methods for modeling the beam fluence. The parameterizations are compared using innovative tools that evaluate fluence complexity, solution quality, and run efficiency. A PARETO run is performed using the basic weight (BW), linear gradient (LG), cosine transform (CT), beam group (BG), and isodose-projection (IP) methods for applying fluence modulation over the projection of the Planning Target Volume in the beam's-eye-view plane. The solutions of each run are non-dominated with respect to other trial solutions encountered during the run. However, to compare the solution quality of independent runs, each run competes against every other run in a round robin fashion. Score is assigned based on the fraction of solutions that survive when a tournament selection operator is applied to the solutions of the two competitors. To compare fluence complexity, a modulation index, fractal dimension, and image gradient entropy are calculated for the fluence maps of each optimal plan. We have found that the LG method results in superior solution quality for a spine phantom, lung patient, and cauda equina patient. The BG method produces solutions with the highest degree of fluence complexity. Most methods result in comparable run times. The LG method produces superior solution quality using a moderate degree of fluence modulation. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  15. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  16. The Relationship between Students' Problem Solving Frames and Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. "Matter and Interactions"…

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 which provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater sampling (Section 3.0), whereas well granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also determines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 4.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 5.0). This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure 1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the

  18. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  19. The Impact of Complexity, Rate of Change and Information Availability on the Production Planning and Control Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Assen (Marcel); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe organizational theory literature argues that the more uncertain the environment, the more likely the firm’s operational decision structure is decentralized. However, it remains unclear which uncertainty dimensions (i.e. complexity, rate of change and lack of information) impacts the

  20. A Problem-Solving Model for Literacy Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Cathy A.

    2017-01-01

    Literacy coaches are more effective when they have a clear plan for their collaborations with teachers. This article provides details of such a plan, which involves identifying a problem, understanding the problem, deciding what to do differently, and trying something different. For each phase of the problem-solving model, there are key tasks for…

  1. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible

  2. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  3. Three-dimensional-printed cardiac prototypes aid surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases: Early experience and proof of concept in a resource-limited environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kappanayil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: 3D-printed cardiac prototypes can radically assist decision-making, planning, and safe execution of complex congenital heart surgery by improving understanding of 3D anatomy and allowing anticipation of technical challenges.

  4. Optimizing perioperative decision making: improved information for clinical workflow planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Burton, Matthew M; Wiebke, Eric A; Miller, Spencer; Baxter, Laurence; Miller, Donald; Alvarez, Jorge; Pekny, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative care is complex and involves multiple interconnected subsystems. Delayed starts, prolonged cases and overtime are common. Surgical procedures account for 40-70% of hospital revenues and 30-40% of total costs. Most planning and scheduling in healthcare is done without modern planning tools, which have potential for improving access by assisting in operations planning support. We identified key planning scenarios of interest to perioperative leaders, in order to examine the feasibility of applying combinatorial optimization software solving some of those planning issues in the operative setting. Perioperative leaders desire a broad range of tools for planning and assessing alternate solutions. Our modeled solutions generated feasible solutions that varied as expected, based on resource and policy assumptions and found better utilization of scarce resources. Combinatorial optimization modeling can effectively evaluate alternatives to support key decisions for planning clinical workflow and improving care efficiency and satisfaction.

  5. An Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Power Distribution Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution network planning because of involving many variables and constraints is a multiobjective, discrete, nonlinear, and large-scale optimization problem. Harmony search (HS algorithm is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the improvisation process of music players. HS algorithm has several impressive advantages, such as easy implementation, less adjustable parameters, and quick convergence. But HS algorithm still has some defects such as premature convergence and slow convergence speed. According to the defects of the standard algorithm and characteristics of distribution network planning, an improved harmony search (IHS algorithm is proposed in this paper. We set up a mathematical model of distribution network structure planning, whose optimal objective function is to get the minimum annual cost and constraint conditions are overload and radial network. IHS algorithm is applied to solve the complex optimization mathematical model. The empirical results strongly indicate that IHS algorithm can effectively provide better results for solving the distribution network planning problem compared to other optimization algorithms.

  6. Dealing with complex and ill-structured problems: results of a Plan-Do-Check-Act experiment in a business engineering semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Achenbach, Marlies; Israelsen, Poul; Kyvsgaard Hansen, Poul; Johansen, John; Deuse, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Challenged by increased globalisation and fast technological development, we carried out an experiment in the third semester of a global business engineering programme aimed at identifying conditions for training student in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems of forming a new business. As this includes a fuzzy front end, learning cannot be measured in traditional, quantitative terms; therefore, we have explored the use of reflection to convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. The experiment adopted a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach and concluded with developing a plan for new learning initiatives in the subsequent year's semester. The findings conclude that (1) problem-based learning develops more competencies than ordinarily measured at the examination, especially, the social/communication and personal competencies are developed; (2) students are capable of dealing with a complex and ambiguous problem, if properly guided. Four conditions were identified; (3) most students are not conscious of their learning, but are able to reflect if properly encouraged; and (4) improving engineering education should be considered as an organisational learning process.

  7. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  9. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  10. Energy-Independent Architectural Models for Residential Complex Plans through Solar Energy in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yul Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests energy-independent architectural models for residential complexes through the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea, was selected as the target area for the residential complex. An optimal location in the area was selected to maximize the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Then, several architectural design models were developed. Next, after analyzing the energy-use patterns of each design model, economic analyses were conducted considering the profits generated from renewable-energy use. In this way, the optimum residential building model was identified. For this site, optimal solar power generation efficiency was obtained when solar panels were installed at 25° angles. Thus, the sloped roof angles were set to 25°, and the average height of the internal space of the highest floor was set to 1.8 m. Based on this model, analyses were performed regarding energy self-sufficiency improvement and economics. It was verified that connecting solar power generation capacity from a zero-energy perspective considering the consumer’s amount of power consumption was more effective than connecting maximum solar power generation capacity according to building structure. Moreover, it was verified that selecting a subsidizable solar power generation capacity according to the residential solar power facility connection can maximize operational benefits.

  11. Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking? A case study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Roling, N.G.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Turnhout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article

  12. Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking?: a case-study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and the sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Röling, N.; Aarts, N.; Turnhout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article

  13. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan For The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2009-09-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12 LLC (hereafter referenced as B&W Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. B&W Y-12 is a new corporate name, assumed in January 2007, for the company formerly known as BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., hereafter referenced as BWXT. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A Environmental Protection Program (hereafter referenced as DOE O 450.1A), which emphasize a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility through implementation of groundwater surveillance monitoring. Additionally, this plan addresses the relevant and applicable GWPP elements and goals described in the DOE O 450.1A technical guidance documents issued in June 2004 (DOE 2004) and May 2005 (DOE 2005). This GWPP management plan is a 'living' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP

  14. The complex factor of ecological risk and its application for planning the marine transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled methods for scheduling the routes of ships, port calls, and cargo handling are now commonly used for the marine freight transport. This presentation proposed a method for preventing accidents for tanker fleets. The risk of accidental oil spills increases with weather deterioration, particularly in polar waters. It is therefore necessary to correlate the risk of the fixed costs with compensation for environmental damages and repair to facilities. The profits lost while waiting for favourable weather conditions are also considered. The proposed 'complex factor of ecological risk' is intended to improve ecological safety and economic efficiencies of transporting oil by sea in areas with difficult weather conditions. It requires computer simulation which is based on volumes of statistical data of weather in marine areas, emergency incidents with tankers near terminals and the economic aspects of crude oil transportation

  15. Amatchmethod Based on Latent Semantic Analysis for Earthquakehazard Emergency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Zhao, S.; Zhang, Z.; Shi, X.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of the emergency plan on earthquake is complex, and it's difficult for decision maker to make a decision in a short time. To solve the problem, this paper presents a match method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). After the word segmentation preprocessing of emergency plan, we carry out keywords extraction according to the part-of-speech and the frequency of words. Then through LSA, we map the documents and query information to the semantic space, and calculate the correlation of documents and queries by the relation between vectors. The experiments results indicate that the LSA can improve the accuracy of emergency plan retrieval efficiently.

  16. An assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfu LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the combination explosion problem and the blind searching problem in assembly sequence planning of complex products, an assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm is proposed. In the composite algorithm, a sufficient number of feasible assembly sequences are generated using formalization reasoning algorithm as the initial population of genetic algorithm. Then fuzzy knowledge of assembly is integrated into the planning process of genetic algorithm and ant algorithm to get the accurate solution. At last, an example is conducted to verify the feasibility of composite algorithm.

  17. AMATCHMETHOD BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS FOR EARTHQUAKEHAZARD EMERGENCY PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the emergency plan on earthquake is complex, and it’s difficult for decision maker to make a decision in a short time. To solve the problem, this paper presents a match method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA. After the word segmentation preprocessing of emergency plan, we carry out keywords extraction according to the part-of-speech and the frequency of words. Then through LSA, we map the documents and query information to the semantic space, and calculate the correlation of documents and queries by the relation between vectors. The experiments results indicate that the LSA can improve the accuracy of emergency plan retrieval efficiently.

  18. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  19. Extending systems thinking in planning and evaluation using group concept mapping and system dynamics to tackle complex problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Frerichs, Leah; Dave, Gaurav

    2017-02-01

    Group concept mapping (GCM) has been successfully employed in program planning and evaluation for over 25 years. The broader set of systems thinking methodologies (of which GCM is one), have only recently found their way into the field. We present an overview of systems thinking emerging from a system dynamics (SD) perspective, and illustrate the potential synergy between GCM and SD. As with GCM, participatory processes are frequently employed when building SD models; however, it can be challenging to engage a large and diverse group of stakeholders in the iterative cycles of divergent thinking and consensus building required, while maintaining a broad perspective on the issue being studied. GCM provides a compelling resource for overcoming this challenge, by richly engaging a diverse set of stakeholders in broad exploration, structuring, and prioritization. SD provides an opportunity to extend GCM findings by embedding constructs in a testable hypothesis (SD model) describing how system structure and changes in constructs affect outcomes over time. SD can be used to simulate the hypothesized dynamics inherent in GCM concept maps. We illustrate the potential of the marriage of these methodologies in a case study of BECOMING, a federally-funded program aimed at strengthening the cross-sector system of care for youth with severe emotional disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Forward planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  1. Reflexive Planning as Design and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Grin, John

    2011-01-01

    in planning emerges as a new tool for generating critical knowledge and dialogue that can synthesise the perspectives of multiple actors in a common understanding, existing structural constraints and a collective imagination of alternative future possibilities. Such research highlights the potential......In recent years, planning theorists have advanced various interpretations of the notion of reflexivity, inspired by American pragmatism, complexity theory, hermeneutics, discursive and collaborative planning. Scholars agree that “reflexivity” has a strong temporal dimension: it not only aims...... to solve present planning problems, but to imagine and understand alternative trajectories for future action. This article explores the practical utility of reflexivity for planners, through a case study that focuses on a project to promote sustainable development in the Port of Amsterdam. Reflexivity...

  2. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  3. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  4. Problem Solving on a Monorail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

  5. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, Marc; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  6. Metaheurística Simulated Annealing para solução de problemas de planejamento florestal com restrições de integridade Simulated Annealing metaheuristic to solve forest planning problem with integer constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lopes Rodrigues

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e testar a metaheurística SA para solução de problemas de gerenciamento florestal com restrições de integridade. O algoritmo SA desenvolvido foi testado em quatro problemas, contendo entre 93 e 423 variáveis de decisão, sujeitos às restrições de singularidade, produção mínima e produção máxima, periodicamente. Todos os problemas tiveram como objetivo a maximização do valor presente líquido. O algoritmo SA foi codificado em liguagem delphi 5.0 e os testes foram efetuados em um microcomputador AMD K6II 500 MHZ, com memória RAM de 64 MB e disco rígido de 15GB. O desempenho da SA foi avaliado de acordo com as medidas de eficácia e eficiência. Os diferentes valores ou categorias dos parâmetros da SA foram testados e comparados quanto aos seus efeitos na eficácia do algoritmo. A seleção da melhor configuração de parâmetros foi feita com o teste L&O, a 1% de probabilidade, e as análises foram realizadas através de estatísticas descritivas. A melhor configuração de parâmetros propiciou à SA eficácia média de 95,36%, valor mínimo de 83,66%, valor máximo de 100% e coeficiente de variação igual a 3,18% do ótimo matemático obtido pelo algoritmo exato branch and bound. Para o problema de maior porte, a eficiência da SA foi dez vezes superior à eficiência do algoritmo exato branch and bound. O bom desempenho desta heurística reforçou as conclusões, tiradas em outros trabalhos, do seu enorme potencial para resolver importantes problemas de gerenciamento florestal de difícil solução pelos instrumentos computacionais da atualidade.The objectives of this work was to develop and test an algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA metaheuristic to solve problems of forest management with integer constraints. The algorithm SA developed was tested in five problems containing between 93 and 423 decision variables, periodically subject to singularity constraints, minimum

  7. Metaheurística algoritmo genético para solução de problemas de planejamento florestal com restrições de integridade Genetic algorithm metaheuristic to solve forest planning problem with integer constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lopes Rodrigues

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e testar um algoritmo genético (AG para a solução de problemas de gerenciamento florestal com restrições de integridade. O AG foi testado em quatro problemas, contendo entre 93 e 423 variáveis de decisão, sujeitos às restrições de singularidade, produção mínima e produção máxima, periodicamente. Todos os problemas tiveram como objetivo a maximização do valor presente líquido. O AG foi codificado em ambiente delphi 5.0 e os testes foram realizados em um microcomputador AMD K6II 500 MHZ, com memória RAM de 64 MB e disco rígido de 15GB. O desempenho do AG foi avaliado de acordo com as medidas de eficácia e eficiência. Os valores ou categorias dos parâmetros do AG foram testados e comparados quanto aos seus efeitos na eficácia do algoritmo. A seleção da melhor configuração de parâmetros foi feita com o teste L&O, a 1% de probabilidade, e as análises foram realizadas através de estatísticas descritivas. A melhor configuração de parâmetros propiciou ao AG eficácia média de 94,28%, valor mínimo de 90,01%, valor máximo de 98,48%, com coeficiente de variação de 2,08% do ótimo matemático, obtido pelo algoritmo exato branch and bound. Para o problema de maior porte, a eficiência do AG foi cinco vezes superior à eficiência do algoritmo exato branch and bound. O AG apresentou-se como uma abordagem bastante atrativa para solução de importantes problemas de gerenciamento florestal.The objectives of this work was to develop and test a Genetic Algorithm (GA to solve problems of forest management with integer constraints. GA was tested in five problems containing 93 - 423 decision variables, periodically subject to singularity constraints, minimum and maximum production. The problems had the objective of maximizing the net present value. GA was codified into delphi 5.0 language and the tests were performed in a microcomputer AMD K6II 500 MHZ, with RAM memory of 64 MB

  8. Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) - Classroom Version. Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    The workshop instructional materials described here are designed to try out a systematic problem solving process as a way of working toward improvements in the school setting. Topics include diagnosis using force field technique, small group dynamics, planning for action, and planning a RUPS (Research Using Problem Solving) project. This…

  9. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  10. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M and O) subcontractor for DOE.

  11. Student’s scheme in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Nining; Juniati, Dwi; Suwarsono

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ scheme in solving mathematics problems. Scheme are data structures for representing the concepts stored in memory. In this study, we used it in solving mathematics problems, especially ratio and proportion topics. Scheme is related to problem solving that assumes that a system is developed in the human mind by acquiring a structure in which problem solving procedures are integrated with some concepts. The data were collected by interview and students’ written works. The results of this study revealed are students’ scheme in solving the problem of ratio and proportion as follows: (1) the content scheme, where students can describe the selected components of the problem according to their prior knowledge, (2) the formal scheme, where students can explain in construct a mental model based on components that have been selected from the problem and can use existing schemes to build planning steps, create something that will be used to solve problems and (3) the language scheme, where students can identify terms, or symbols of the components of the problem.Therefore, by using the different strategies to solve the problems, the students’ scheme in solving the ratio and proportion problems will also differ.

  12. Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Community College Students Use when Solving Science Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibensteiner, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful science students have mastered their field of study by being able to apply their learned knowledge and problem solving skills on tests. Problem solving skills must be used to figure out the answer to many classes of questions. What this study is trying to determine is how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in…

  13. Are Middle School Mathematics Teachers Able to Solve Word Problems without Using Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökkurt Özdemir, Burçin; Erdem, Emrullah; Örnek, Tugba; Soylu, Yasin

    2018-01-01

    Many people consider problem solving as a complex process in which variables such as "x," "y" are used. Problems may not be solved by only using "variable." Problem solving can be rationalized and made easier using practical strategies. When especially the development of children at younger ages is considered, it is…

  14. Assessing Student Written Problem Solutions: A Problem-Solving Rubric with Application to Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…

  15. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  16. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    1995-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  17. Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frew Demeke Alemu

    concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...

  18. Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, A.A.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems

  19. Emotion Oriented Programming: Computational Abstractions for AI Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Darty , Kevin; Sabouret , Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a programming paradigm for AI problem solving based on computational concepts drawn from Affective Computing. It is believed that emotions participate in human adaptability and reactivity, in behaviour selection and in complex and dynamic environments. We propose to define a mechanism inspired from this observation for general AI problem solving. To this purpose, we synthesize emotions as programming abstractions that represent the perception ...

  20. Operations research for resource planning and -use in radiotherapy: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Bruno; Hans, Erwin W.; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; van de Kamer, Jeroen; van Harten, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background The delivery of radiotherapy (RT) involves the use of rather expensive resources and multi-disciplinary staff. As the number of cancer patients receiving RT increases, timely delivery becomes increasingly difficult due to the complexities related to, among others, variable patient inflow, complex patient routing, and the joint planning of multiple resources. Operations research (OR) methods have been successfully applied to solve many logistics problems through the development of a...

  1. Using 3D Reflection Seismics for Deep Platinum Mine Planning and Risk Mitigation: A Case Study from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Manzi, M. S.; Webb, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Loss-of-ground in mining is a common problem. Using the integration of high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D reflection seismic data to delineate the causative geological features allows for more efficient mine planning and risk reduction. High resolution data from Impala Platinum mine in the western Bushveld Complex are used to image potholes, iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), faults, dykes and diapirs that may impact the economic horizons (UG2). Imaging of these structures was previously limited to outcrop, both on surface and underground, as well as 2D seismic data. These high resolution seismic data are able to resolve faults with throws as small as 10 m. A diapir is imaged in the southwest of the study area with a diameter of approximately 6 km. The diapir has a depth extend of around 4 km below the UG2 horizon and displaces the horizon by 350 m. It has been suggested that topographic highs in the Transvaal Supergroup basement initiate the formation of these diapirs as new magma is injected into the chamber. The origin of the diapir within the layered basement rocks, and disruption of layering within the complex is visible on the seismic section. In the north of the study area a large region of slumping or several merged potholes is identified that is up to 2.5 km in length, with up to 700 m of vertical displacement. Ductile deformation that formed the potholes is imaged on the seismic section, with the UG2 cutting down into the footwall. However, brittle deformation of the UG2 is also imaged with faulting at the edges of the regions of slumping. The edges of these slump regions are also characterised by the emplacement of iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), which show up as regions of diffuse reflectivity on the seismic data and magnetic highs. The proximity of these faults and IRUPs to the edges of the slump structure brings in to question whether they contribute to pothole formation. The diapir and slump structure displaces the economic UG2

  2. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    pioneering LA solutions to this problem, unequivocally demonstrates that LA can play an important role in solving complex combinatorial and integer optimization problems.

  3. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-05-01

    To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15-24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15-24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. The trial was registered on the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio database

  4. W-algebra for solving problems with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlyakov, A. O.; Matveev, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    A method of solving the problems with fuzzy parameters by means of a special algebraic structure is proposed. The structure defines its operations through operations on real numbers, which simplifies its use. It avoids deficiencies limiting applicability of the other known structures. Examples for solution of a quadratic equation, a system of linear equations and a network planning problem are given.

  5. The evolution of brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Beaulieu, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Brachytherapy is a mature treatment modality that has benefited from technological advances. Treatment planning has advanced from simple lookup tables to complex, computer-based dose-calculation algorithms. The current approach is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism with recent advances in acquiring single-source dose distributions. However, this formalism has clinically relevant limitations for calculating patient dose. Dose-calculation algorithms are being developed based on Monte Carlo methods, collapsed cone, and solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to improved dose-calculation tools, planning systems and brachytherapy treatment planning will account for material heterogeneities, scatter conditions, radiobiology, and image guidance. The AAPM, ESTRO, and other professional societies are working to coordinate clinical integration of these advancements. This Vision 20/20 article provides insight into these endeavors.

  6. Back to Basics: Solving Games with SAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUER, S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Games became popular, within the formal verification community, after their application to automatic synthesis of circuits from specifications, and they have been receiving more and more attention since then. This paper focuses on coding the "Sokoban" puzzle, i.e., a very complex single-player strategy game. We show how its solution can be encoded and represented as a Bounded Model Checking problem, and then solved with a SAT solver. After that, to cope with very complex instances of the game, we propose two different ad-hoc divide-and-conquer strategies. Those strategies, somehow similar to state-of-the-art abstraction-and-refinement schemes, are able to decompose deep Bounded Model Checking instances into easier subtasks, trading-off between efficiency and completeness. We analyze a vast set of difficult hard-to-solve benchmark games, trying to push forward the applicability of state-of-the-art SAT solvers in the field. Those results show that games may provide one of the next frontier for the SAT community.

  7. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  8. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  9. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  10. Intelligent control of a planning system for astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Chen, G

    1999-07-01

    This work intends to design, analyze and solve, from the systems control perspective, a complex, dynamic, and multiconstrained planning system for generating training plans for crew members of the NASA-led International Space Station. Various intelligent planning systems have been developed within the framework of artificial intelligence. These planning systems generally lack a rigorous mathematical formalism to allow a reliable and flexible methodology for their design, modeling, and performance analysis in a dynamical, time-critical, and multiconstrained environment. Formulating the planning problem in the domain of discrete-event systems under a unified framework such that it can be modeled, designed, and analyzed as a control system will provide a self-contained theory for such planning systems. This will also provide a means to certify various planning systems for operations in the dynamical and complex environments in space. The work presented here completes the design, development, and analysis of an intricate, large-scale, and representative mathematical formulation for intelligent control of a real planning system for Space Station crew training. This planning system has been tested and used at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  11. Models in Planning Urban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The solving of complex problems in public transport requiresthe usage of models that are based on the estimate of demandin planning the transport routes. The intention is to predictwhat is going to happen in the future, if the proposed solutionsare implemented. In the majority of cases, the publictransport system is formed as a network and stored in the computermemory in order to start the evaluation process by specifYingthe number of trip origins and destinations in each zone.The trip distribution model which is used to calculate the numberof trips between each pair in the zone is based on the overalltravel frictions from zone to zone.

  12. Multicriteria vehicle routing problem solved by artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles route planning in large transportation companies, where drivers are workers, usually takes place on the basis of experience or intuition of the employees. Because of the cost and environmental protection, it is important to save fuel, thus planning routes in an optimal way. In this article an example of the problem is presented solving delivery vans route planning taking into account the distance and travel time within the constraints of vehicle capacities, restrictions on working time of drivers and having varying degrees of movement. An artificial immune system was used for the calculations.

  13. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  14. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  15. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  16. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  17. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  18. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Soetaert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in

  19. Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Li, Chunbo

    2007-04-18

    The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional

  20. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  1. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Morcillo, María [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Taylor, Nicholas M. I. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gruene, Tim [Georg-August-University, Tammannstrasse 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Legrand, Pierre [SOLEIL Synchrotron, L’Orme de Merisiers, Saint Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rashid, Umar J. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruiz, Federico M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fernández-Tornero, Carlos, E-mail: cftornero@cib.csic.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  2. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  3. Strategic Planning and Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin-Graham, Karen; Berge, Zane L.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic planning is a critical part of sustaining distance education. Through such planning, the organization can solve business problems that involve training and education in an effective and often cost savings manner compared to in-person training efforts. This paper examines the strategic planning process as it relates to sustaining distance…

  4. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  5. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  6. Solving Complex Logistics Problems with Multi-Artificial Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Tse

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economy, which has become more information intensive, more global and more technologically dependent, is undergoing dramatic changes. The role of logistics is also becoming more and more important. In logistics, the objective of service providers is to fulfill all customers? demands while adapting to the dynamic changes of logistics networks so as to achieve a higher degree of customer satisfaction and therefore a higher return on investment. In order to provide high quality service, knowledge and information sharing among departments becomes a must in this fast changing market environment. In particular, artificial intelligence (AI technologies have achieved significant attention for enhancing the agility of supply chain management, as well as logistics operations. In this research, a multi-artificial intelligence system, named Integrated Intelligent Logistics System (IILS is proposed. The objective of IILS is to provide quality logistics solutions to achieve high levels of service performance in the logistics industry. The new feature of this agile intelligence system is characterized by the incorporation of intelligence modules through the capabilities of the case-based reasoning, multi-agent, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, achieving the optimization of the performance of organizations.

  7. Complex Problem-Solving in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, Jonas; Lans, T.; Mustafic, Maida; Greiff, Samuel; Ederer, Peer

    2017-01-01

    The general aim of today’s vocational and professional education is the preparation of individuals for the world of work. In this chapter, the following issues are explored: (1) current trends in cognitive skill assessment, (2) benefits of relating them to well-established approaches to learning and

  8. Solving Complex Logistics Problems with Multi-Artificial Intelligent System

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Y.K.; Chan, T.M.; Lie, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    The economy, which has become more information intensive, more global and more technologically dependent, is undergoing dramatic changes. The role of logistics is also becoming more and more important. In logistics, the objective of service providers is to fulfill all customers? demands while adapting to the dynamic changes of logistics networks so as to achieve a higher degree of customer satisfaction and therefore a higher return on investment. In order to provide high quali...

  9. Three-dimensional-printed cardiac prototypes aid surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases: Early experience and proof of concept in a resource-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappanayil, Mahesh; Koneti, Nageshwara Rao; Kannan, Rajesh R; Kottayil, Brijesh P; Kumar, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional. (3D) printing is an innovative manufacturing process that allows computer-assisted conversion of 3D imaging data into physical "printouts" Healthcare applications are currently in evolution. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and impact of using patient-specific 3D-printed cardiac prototypes derived from high-resolution medical imaging data (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography [MRI/CT]) on surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Five patients with complex CHD with previously unresolved management decisions were chosen. These included two patients with complex double-outlet right ventricle, two patients with criss-cross atrioventricular connections, and one patient with congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries with pulmonary atresia. Cardiac MRI was done for all patients, cardiac CT for one; specific surgical challenges were identified. Volumetric data were used to generate patient-specific 3D models. All cases were reviewed along with their 3D models, and the impact on surgical decision-making and preoperative planning was assessed. Accurate life-sized 3D cardiac prototypes were successfully created for all patients. The models enabled radically improved 3D understanding of anatomy, identification of specific technical challenges, and precise surgical planning. Augmentation of existing clinical and imaging data by 3D prototypes allowed successful execution of complex surgeries for all five patients, in accordance with the preoperative planning. 3D-printed cardiac prototypes can radically assist decision-making, planning, and safe execution of complex congenital heart surgery by improving understanding of 3D anatomy and allowing anticipation of technical challenges.

  10. Massive Joint Multinational Exercise Planning to Solve Army Warfighting Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    and military sustainment occurs for various reasons, such as physical distance between offices, or a lack of institutional knowledge about Army...this thesis. Thank you to the entire library staff. A final thank you to LTC Toni Sabo for her expert review of the final paper. Your knowledge of the... English language reminded me how much I need to continue to refine and hone my skills. Thank you for your support and leadership in our staff group

  11. Education: 1. Creativity and Problem Finding/Solving in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Marinela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a complex process that invites to action, both the conscious and the unconscious mind. The work proposed by us puts into question a new aspect of the process of creativity: finding and solving problems, inserting the cognitive and ideational elements into the artistic creative process. Artistic personality represents a complex interaction between diverse psychological factors: intellectual (lateral, creative-thinking and convergent thinking and nonintellectual factors (temperament, character, motivation, affectivity, abyssal factors, special aptitudes. To these are added also, the biological factors (heredity, age, gender, mental health and social factors (economical condition, historical epoch, socio-cultural conditions. In the same time, the artist's success also appears to be linked to his ability to find and solve new problems in artistic themes, to his ability to correctly formulate questions, and then to find original, genuine answers. This paper explains the link between the multitude of solved problems and the artistic success.

  12. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  13. Complexities of coalition building: leaders' successes, strategies, struggles, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, T; Rosenthal, B B

    2001-01-01

    Government and private funding initiatives are promoting coalitions, collaborations, and other interorganizational approaches to address complex community, social services, and health issues. Social work organizers and administrators are increasingly leading coalitions themselves or representing their organizations in collaborative planning and problem solving, often without understanding how to manage the complexities involved in interorganizational relationships. This article reports on aspects of a larger quantitative and qualitative research project that studied coalition dynamics, operations, and outcomes. Coalition leaders interviewed defined success in multiple ways. Competent leadership was the factor most often identified with coalition success.

  14. Recent Trends in Japanese Mathematics Textbooks for Elementary Grades: Supporting Teachers to Teach Mathematics through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving has been a major theme in Japanese mathematics curricula for nearly 50 years. Numerous teacher reference books and lesson plans using problem solving have been published since the 1960s. Government-authorized mathematics textbooks for elementary grades, published by six private companies, have had more and more problem solving over…

  15. Improving Histopathology Laboratory Productivity: Process Consultancy and A3 Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKOĞLU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ISO 17020 quality program has been run in our pathology laboratory for four years to establish an action plan for correction and prevention of identified errors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the errors that we could not identify through ISO 17020 and/or solve by means of process consulting. Process consulting is carefully intervening in a group or team to help it to accomplish its goals. Material and Method: The A3 problem solving process was run under the leadership of a ‘workflow, IT and consultancy manager’. An action team was established consisting of technical staff. A root cause analysis was applied for target conditions, and the 6-S method was implemented for solution proposals. Applicable proposals were activated and the results were rated by six-sigma analysis. Non-applicable proposals were reported to the laboratory administrator. Results: A mislabelling error was the most complained issue triggering all pre-analytical errors. There were 21 non-value added steps grouped in 8 main targets on the fish bone graphic (transporting, recording, moving, individual, waiting, over-processing, over-transaction and errors. Unnecessary redundant requests, missing slides, archiving issues, redundant activities, and mislabelling errors were proposed to be solved by improving visibility and fixing spaghetti problems. Spatial re-organization, organizational marking, re-defining some operations, and labeling activities raised the six sigma score from 24% to 68% for all phases. Operational transactions such as implementation of a pathology laboratory system was suggested for long-term improvement. Conclusion: Laboratory management is a complex process. Quality control is an effective method to improve productivity. Systematic checking in a quality program may not always find and/or solve the problems. External observation may reveal crucial indicators about the system failures providing very simple solutions.

  16. Improving Histopathology Laboratory Productivity: Process Consultancy and A3 Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörükoğlu, Kutsal; Özer, Erdener; Alptekin, Birsen; Öcal, Cem

    2017-01-01

    The ISO 17020 quality program has been run in our pathology laboratory for four years to establish an action plan for correction and prevention of identified errors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the errors that we could not identify through ISO 17020 and/or solve by means of process consulting. Process consulting is carefully intervening in a group or team to help it to accomplish its goals. The A3 problem solving process was run under the leadership of a 'workflow, IT and consultancy manager'. An action team was established consisting of technical staff. A root cause analysis was applied for target conditions, and the 6-S method was implemented for solution proposals. Applicable proposals were activated and the results were rated by six-sigma analysis. Non-applicable proposals were reported to the laboratory administrator. A mislabelling error was the most complained issue triggering all pre-analytical errors. There were 21 non-value added steps grouped in 8 main targets on the fish bone graphic (transporting, recording, moving, individual, waiting, over-processing, over-transaction and errors). Unnecessary redundant requests, missing slides, archiving issues, redundant activities, and mislabelling errors were proposed to be solved by improving visibility and fixing spaghetti problems. Spatial re-organization, organizational marking, re-defining some operations, and labeling activities raised the six sigma score from 24% to 68% for all phases. Operational transactions such as implementation of a pathology laboratory system was suggested for long-term improvement. Laboratory management is a complex process. Quality control is an effective method to improve productivity. Systematic checking in a quality program may not always find and/or solve the problems. External observation may reveal crucial indicators about the system failures providing very simple solutions.

  17. SHA-1, SAT-solving, and CNF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motara, YM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the intersection between the SHA-1 preimage problem, the encoding of that problem for SAT-solving, and SAT-solving. The results demonstrate that SAT-solving is not yet a viable approach to take to solve the preimage problem, and also indicate that some...

  18. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  19. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  20. Engineering and Computing Portal to Solve Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudov, A. M.; Zavozkin, S. Y.; Sotnikov, I. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes architecture and services of the Engineering and Computing Portal, which is considered to be a complex solution that provides access to high-performance computing resources, enables to carry out computational experiments, teach parallel technologies and solve computing tasks, including technogenic safety ones.

  1. Pendekatan Problem Solving berbantuan Komputer dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswadi Laswadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating effective mathematics learning is a complex and continuous undertaking. Using the right approach of learning and utilizing technological developments is an attempt to improve the quality of learning. This paper examines the problem solving learning computer-assisted and how its potential in developing high-order thinking skills of students. 

  2. Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…

  3. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  4. Cognitive load and the acquisition of a problem solving skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoe, van R.R.G.; Brouwer-Janse, M.D.; Harrington, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Current theories of leaming consider the restructuring of the components of a weak problem solving sequence into a domain-specific procedure to be the fundamental leaming mechanism in complex knowledge domains. Within the context of cognitive load theory, there is growing evidence that applying weak

  5. An ontological framework for model-based problem-solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multidisciplinary projects to solve real world problems of increasing complexity are more and more plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds and bad modelling practices. To tackle these difficulties, a body of knowledge on problems, on

  6. Medical Problem-Solving: A Critique of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Christine H.

    1985-01-01

    Prescriptive, decision-analysis of medical problem-solving has been based on decision theory that involves calculation and manipulation of complex probability and utility values to arrive at optimal decisions that will maximize patient benefits. The studies offer a methodology for improving clinical judgment. (Author/MLW)

  7. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  8. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children.\\ud Method. Children (8–11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N ¼ 27) and low (N ¼ 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to\\ud problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs(confidence and perceived ...

  9. Confluent-Functional solving systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Koval

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a statistical knowledge-acquision approach. The solving systems are considered, which are able to find unknown structural dependences between situational and transforming variables on the basis of statistically analyzed input information. Situational variables describe features, states and relations between environment objects. Transforming variables describe transforming influences, exerted by a goal-oriented system onto an environment. Unknown environment rules are simulated by a structural equations system, associating situational and transforming variables.

  10. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  11. On the Efficacy of Solving LWE by Reduction to Unique-SVP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Martin Roland; Fitzpatrick, Robert; Göpfert, Florian

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the concrete complexity of solving instances of the unique shortest vector problem (uSVP). In particular, we study the complexity of solving the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem by reducing the Bounded-Distance Decoding (BDD) problem to uSVP and attempting to solve...... such instances using the ‘embedding’ approach. We experimentally derive a model for the success of the approach, compare to alternative methods and demonstrate that for the LWE instances considered in this work, reducing to uSVP and solving via embedding compares favorably to other approaches....

  12. Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the

  13. Improving of Junior High School Visual Thinking Representation Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving by CTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim

    2013-01-01

    The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…

  14. Developing Physics Concepts through Hands-On Problem Solving: A Perspective on a Technological Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Chen, Mei-Yung; Wong, Ashley; Hsu, Tsui-Fang; Peng, Chih-Chi

    2012-01-01

    In a contest featuring hands-on projects, college students were required to design a simple crawling worm using planning, self-monitoring and self-evaluation processes to solve contradictive problems. To enhance the efficiency of problem solving, one needs to practice meta-cognition based on an application of related scientific concepts. The…

  15. Age differences in everyday problem-solving effectiveness: older adults select more effective strategies for interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Seay, Renee Baldi

    2007-01-01

    Using the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory of Cornelius and Caspi, we examined differences in problem-solving strategy endorsement and effectiveness in two domains of everyday functioning (instrumental or interpersonal, and a mixture of the two domains) and for four strategies (avoidance-denial, passive dependence, planful problem solving, and cognitive analysis). Consistent with past research, our research showed that older adults were more problem focused than young adults in their approach to solving instrumental problems, whereas older adults selected more avoidant-denial strategies than young adults when solving interpersonal problems. Overall, older adults were also more effective than young adults when solving everyday problems, in particular for interpersonal problems.

  16. The Effects of Guided Careful Online Planning on Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Intermediate EFL Learners' Oral Production: The Case of English Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was twofold: First, to see whether guided careful online planning assists intermediate learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in accurate oral production of English articles ("an/a" and "the"); and, second, to see whether guided careful online planning has any effects…

  17. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  18. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  19. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at the mining complex facility in Los Gigantes - Cordoba : Monitoring plan of surface and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande Cobian, Juan D.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Cicerone, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission declares under its Environmental policy the commitment to restore those sites where activities concerning Uranium mining were developed. It makes it beyond the scope of the Project of Environmental Restitution of the Uranium Mining (PRAMU from its Spanish abbreviation). The Chemistry of Water and Soil Division at the Environmental Chemistry and Energy Generation Department belonging to the Chemistry Management Office assist the PRAMU on the installation of an hydroxyapatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) inside the Mining Complex facility placed at Los Gigantes in the Argentine province of Cordoba (in advance named the site). Among the preliminary assessment activities that are being carried out before the installation of the PRB, it has been prepared a monitoring program of surface water and groundwater useful to develop an environmental baseline suitable for the efficiency assessment of the corrective action to be applied. An exploratory campaign was conducted in the site with the aim of establishing a monitoring net of meteorological and hydrological, as well as physical, chemical and biological parameters in matrixes of sediments, water and suspended particulate matter collected on a regular time basis from its surface water and groundwater bodies. The processed results turn into useful environmental information to: a) determine the status of the environmental baseline of the site, b) establish a water quality index (WQI) to manage the natural resource quality according to a rational basis, c) plan experiments related to the design process of a biogenic hydroxyapatite PRB and d) apply chemometric and mechanistic models to forecast the contaminants mobilization through different scenarios and improve the engineering design of the PRB. Once achieved the hydrogeological characterisation of the site and taking into account the originality of the system the following results have been reached: 1) The boundaries of

  20. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFedor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.

  1. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  2. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  3. Problem solving and inference mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A

    1982-01-01

    The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.

  4. A Robust Planning Algorithm for Groups of Entities in Discrete Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated planning is a well-established field of artificial intelligence (AI, with applications in route finding, robotics and operational research, among others. The task of developing a plan is often solved by finding a path in a graph representing the search domain; a robust plan consists of numerous paths that can be chosen if the execution of the best (optimal one fails. While robust planning for a single entity is rather simple, development of a robust plan for multiple entities in a common environment can lead to combinatorial explosion. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach, joining heuristic search and the wavefront algorithm to provide a plan featuring robustness in areas where it is needed, while maintaining a low level of computational complexity.

  5. Optimal motion planning using navigation measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Umesh

    2018-05-01

    We introduce navigation measure as a new tool to solve the motion planning problem in the presence of static obstacles. Existence of navigation measure guarantees collision-free convergence at the final destination set beginning with almost every initial condition with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Navigation measure can be viewed as a dual to the navigation function. While the navigation function has its minimum at the final destination set and peaks at the obstacle set, navigation measure takes the maximum value at the destination set and is zero at the obstacle set. A linear programming formalism is proposed for the construction of navigation measure. Set-oriented numerical methods are utilised to obtain finite dimensional approximation of this navigation measure. Application of the proposed navigation measure-based theoretical and computational framework is demonstrated for a motion planning problem in a complex fluid flow.

  6. Prompting in Web-Based Environments: Supporting Self-Monitoring and Problem Solving Skills in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Ge, Xun; Xie, Kui; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2008-01-01

    This study explored Metacognition and how automated instructional support in the form of problem-solving and self-reflection prompts influenced students' capacity to solve complex problems in a Web-based learning environment. Specifically, we examined the independent and interactive effects of problem-solving prompts and reflection prompts on…

  7. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  8. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...

  9. An application of Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Clement, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that social-value information is needed to inform stakeholders and decision makers regarding trade-offs in environmental management, it too often remains absent from ecosystem service assessments. Although quantitative indicators of social values need to be explicitly accounted for in the decision-making process, they need not be monetary. Ongoing efforts to map such values demonstrate how they can also be made spatially explicit and relatable to underlying ecological information. We originally developed Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) as a tool to assess, map, and quantify nonmarket values perceived by various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. With SolVES 2.0 we have extended the functionality by integrating SolVES with Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social-value maps from available value and preference survey data and to produce more robust models describing the relationship between social values and ecosystems. The current study has two objectives: (1) evaluate how effectively the value index, a quantitative, nonmonetary social-value indicator calculated by SolVES, reproduces results from more common statistical methods of social-survey data analysis and (2) examine how the spatial results produced by SolVES provide additional information that could be used by managers and stakeholders to better understand more complex relationships among stakeholder values, attitudes, and preferences. To achieve these objectives, we applied SolVES to value and preference survey data collected for three national forests, the Pike and San Isabel in Colorado and the Bridger–Teton and the Shoshone in Wyoming. Value index results were generally consistent with results found through more common statistical analyses of the survey data such as frequency, discriminant function, and correlation analyses. In addition, spatial analysis of the social-value maps produced by SolVES provided information that was

  10. PEMBELAJARAN KONTEKSTUAL OPEN ENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DENGAN KOMIK MATEMATIKA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Kurniati

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research to develop a mathematics learning instrument using contextual open ended problem solving with mathematic comic to increase the problem solving skill which valid, practical and effective. The type of research used in this study is development research using modification of Plomp model. Learning instrumen that have been develop are: syllabus, Lesson plan, worksheet, mathematics comic, and problem solving ability test. The results showed: (1 device developed valid; (2 practical learning is characterized by the positive response of students and good teachers ability, (3 Effectiveness characterized by (a problem solving ability score of the experimental class higher than minimum completeness criterion, (b learn interest and problem solving skill, both affected the problem solving ability positively,  (c problem solving ability of the experimental class score is higher than the control class, (d problem solving skill of the experimental class is increasing by 31%, the problem solving ability of the experimental class higher than the control class.. Because of the learning instrument develope are valid, practice and effective, it is shows that the research has ben reach out. Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, open ended problem solving, mathematics comic, problem solving.

  11. Solving rational expectations models using Excel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved......Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved...

  12. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  13. Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...

  14. Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-08-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.

  15. A Comprehensive Planning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    1972-01-01

    Combines elements of the problem solving approach inherent in methods of applied economics and operations research and the structural-functional analysis common in social science modeling to develop an approach for economic planning and resource allocation for schools and other public sector organizations. (Author)

  16. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  17. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  18. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  19. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın KANBAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and

  20. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  1. A Computational/Experimental Platform for Investigating Three-Dimensional Puzzle Solving of Comminuted Articular Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Anderson, Donald D.; Willis, Andrew R.; Liu, Pengcheng; Frank, Matthew C.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing highly comminuted articular fractures poses a difficult surgical challenge, akin to solving a complicated three-dimensional (3D) puzzle. Pre-operative planning using CT is critically important, given the desirability of less invasive surgical approaches. The goal of this work is to advance 3D puzzle solving methods toward use as a pre-operative tool for reconstructing these complex fractures. Methodology for generating typical fragmentation/dispersal patterns was developed. Five identical replicas of human distal tibia anatomy, were machined from blocks of high-density polyetherurethane foam (bone fragmentation surrogate), and were fractured using an instrumented drop tower. Pre- and post-fracture geometries were obtained using laser scans and CT. A semi-automatic virtual reconstruction computer program aligned fragment native (non-fracture) surfaces to a pre-fracture template. The tibias were precisely reconstructed with alignment accuracies ranging from 0.03-0.4mm. This novel technology has potential to significantly enhance surgical techniques for reconstructing comminuted intra-articular fractures, as illustrated for a representative clinical case. PMID:20924863

  2. The association between motivation, affect, and self-regulated learning when solving problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Baars (Martine); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSelf-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a

  3. Investigating Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Problem Solving Strategies: Towards Developing a Framework in Teaching Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Allen A.; Nueva España, Rebecca C.; Marasigan, Arlyne C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pre-service chemistry teachers' problem solving strategies and alternative conceptions in solving stoichiometric problems and later on formulate a teaching framework based from the result of the study. The pre-service chemistry teachers were given four stoichiometric problems with increasing complexity and they need…

  4. Flexible integration of path-planning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobie, Iain C.; Tambe, Milind; Rosenbloom, Paul S.

    1993-05-01

    Robots pursuing complex goals must plan paths according to several criteria of quality, including shortness, safety, speed and planning time. Many sources and kinds of knowledge, such as maps, procedures and perception, may be available or required. Both the quality criteria and sources of knowledge may vary widely over time, and in general they will interact. One approach to address this problem is to express all criteria and goals numerically in a single weighted graph, and then to search this graph to determine a path. Since this is problematic with symbolic or uncertain data and interacting criteria, we propose that what is needed instead is an integration of many kinds of planning capabilities. We describe a hybrid approach to integration, based on experiments with building simulated mobile robots using Soar, an integrated problem-solving and learning system. For flexibility, we have implemented a combination of internal planning, reactive capabilities and specialized tools. We illustrate how these components can complement each other's limitations and produce plans which integrate geometric and task knowledge.

  5. Knowledge-inducing Global Path Planning for Robots in Environment with Hybrid Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-nan Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In complex environment with hybrid terrain, different regions may have different terrain. Path planning for robots in such environment is an open NP-complete problem, which lacks effective methods. The paper develops a novel global path planning method based on common sense and evolution knowledge by adopting dual evolution structure in culture algorithms. Common sense describes terrain information and feasibility of environment, which is used to evaluate and select the paths. Evolution knowledge describes the angle relationship between the path and the obstacles, or the common segments of paths, which is used to judge and repair infeasible individuals. Taken two types of environments with different obstacles and terrain as examples, simulation results indicate that the algorithm can effectively solve path planning problem in complex environment and decrease the computation complexity for judgment and repair of infeasible individuals. It also can improve the convergence speed and have better computation stability.

  6. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy

    2011-03-01

    To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children. Children (8-11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N= 27) and low (N= 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and perceived control). High and low worry groups differed significantly on measures of anxiety and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and control) but not on problem-solving skills. Consistent with findings with adults, worry in children was associated with cognitive distortions, not skills deficits. Interventions for worried children may benefit from a focus on increasing positive problem-solving beliefs. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Interactive Energy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje

    2006-01-01

    Though it is being questioned whether planning theory should be fitted into neat typologies, some have described evolving planning theory as a journey away from ethnocentrism, through the lands of rationalism, pragmatism, socio-ecological idealism, political-economic mobilization, currently...... anchoring along the shores of the land of communications and collaboration. Whether or not a particular typology is applicable, theory and praxis are establishing standpoints, which strengthens our understanding of the planning complex, and which should inspire improved energy planning methodologies...

  8. A study of the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions in a financial planning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V; Grafman, J; Tajik, J; Gana, S; Danto, D

    1997-10-01

    It has long been argued that patients with lesions in the prefrontal cortex have difficulties in decision making and problem solving in real-world, ill-structured situations, particularly problem types involving planning and look-ahead components. Recently, several researchers have questioned our ability to capture and characterize these deficits adequately using just the standard neuropsychological test batteries, and have called for tests that reflect real-world task requirements more accurately. We present data from 10 patients with focal lesions to the prefrontal cortex and 10 normal control subjects engaged in a real-world financial planning task. We also introduce a theoretical framework and methodology developed in the cognitive science literature for quantifying and analysing the complex data generated by problem-solving tasks. Our findings indicate that patient performance is impoverished at a global level but not at the local level. Patients have difficulty in organizing and structuring their problem space. Once they begin problem solving, they have difficulty in allocating adequate effort to each problem-solving phase. Patients also have difficulty dealing with the fact that there are no right or wrong answers nor official termination points in real-world planning problems. They also find it problematic to generate their own feedback. They invariably terminate the session before the details are fleshed out and all the goals satisfied. Finally, patients do not take full advantage of the fact that constraints on real-world problems are negotiable. However, it is not necessary to postulate a 'planning' deficit. It is possible to understand the patients' difficulties in real world planning tasks in terms of the following four accepted deficits: inadequate access to 'structured event complexes', difficulty in generalizing from particulars, failure to shift between 'mental sets', and poor judgment regarding adequacy and completeness of a plan.

  9. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  10. Fast RBF OGr for solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Cécile; Dunn, Jarrett

    2016-10-01

    The Radial Basis Functions Orthogonal Gradients method (RBF-OGr) was introduced in [1] to discretize differential operators defined on arbitrary manifolds defined only by a point cloud. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent complex geometries in any spatial dimension. A large limitation of the RBF-OGr method was its large computational complexity, which greatly restricted the size of the point cloud. In this paper, we apply the RBF-Finite Difference (RBF-FD) technique to the RBF-OGr method for building sparse differentiation matrices discretizing continuous differential operators such as the Laplace-Beltrami operator. This method can be applied to solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces embedded in ℛ3. We illustrate the accuracy of our new method by solving the heat equation on the unit sphere.

  11. The Future of Design: Unframed Problem Solving in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche

    2016-01-01

    The present paper sets out to investigate the impact and significance of a 3rd semester course in design methods, complex problem solving, and cross-disciplinary collaboration to the students within six design disciplines as experienced by the students three years later. The course reflects a shi......, society, and technology influencing the future disciplines and practices of design and thus the professional roles that they themselves might take....

  12. A genetic algorithm for solving supply chain network design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozi, Z.; Ismail, N.; Ariafar, S. H.; Tang, S. H.; Ariffin, M. K. M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Network design is by nature costly and optimization models play significant role in reducing the unnecessary cost components of a distribution network. This study proposes a genetic algorithm to solve a distribution network design model. The structure of the chromosome in the proposed algorithm is defined in a novel way that in addition to producing feasible solutions, it also reduces the computational complexity of the algorithm. Computational results are presented to show the algorithm performance.

  13. Solving Multi-variate Polynomial Equations in a Finite Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    hardware to encrypt and decrypt messages. Many of the AES predecessors use this Feistel structure (i.e. DES, Lucifer , Blowfish). However, AES does not...However, then it is very effective . The interesting aspect about the agreeing algorithm is that it can gain momentum to solve the system once RHSs are...columns from Lh can now be removed. This can create a ‘cascade effect ’ on the system and the system quickly reduces its size and complexity. Agreeing

  14. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  15. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  16. Solving computationally expensive engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...

  17. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Baars

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  18. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  19. Metacognitive experience of mathematics education students in open start problem solving based on intrapersonal intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. P.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to describe metacognitive experience of mathematics education students with strong, average, and weak intrapersonal intelligence in open start problem solving. Type of this research was qualitative research. The research subject was mathematics education students in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in academic year 2017/2018. The selected students consisted of 6 students with details of two students in each intrapersonal intelligence category. The research instruments were questionnaire, open start problem solving task, and interview guidelines. Data validity used time triangulation. Data analyses were done through data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusion. Based on findings, subjects with strong intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence that they were able to solve problem correctly, able to do planning steps and able to solve the problem appropriately. Subjects with average intrapersonal intelligence had high self-assessment that they were able to solve the problem, able to do planning steps appropriately but they had not maximized in carrying out the plan so that it resulted incorrectness answer. Subjects with weak intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence in capability of solving math problem, lack of precision in taking plans so their task results incorrectness answer.

  20. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on students’ problem solving ability in vector analysis course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan

    2018-01-01

    The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.

  1. LEMBAR KERJA PESERTA DIDIK (LKPD BERBASIS PROBLEM SOLVING POLYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nurliawaty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of exact use of teaching materials and does not correspond to the needs of student leads to lack of analytical ability of students to the process of problem solving. Research development worksheets based on Polya problem solving on the heat material aims to develop valid LKPD, practical, and effective. Stages of development using the 4D model was modified into 3D, namely define (definition, Design (planning, and Development (development The results of the validity of the learning device in the category valid, obtained from the calculation of CVI are in the range 0-1 and said in category reliably with r11 value greater than rtabel (rcount > rtabel. The results of the analysis of questionnaire responses of students obtained an average percentage of 87.9% on the analysis. The analysis result of sheets assessment of learning physics used LKPD-based Polya problem solving obtained average percentage analysis results in the first meeting is 77.33% with good category, the average percentage of the results of the analysis at the second meeting is 81.11% with a very good category and average of results percentage analysis at the third meeting is 78.89% with good category. So it can say that LKPD-based Polya problem solving developed valid, practical and effective to use.

  2. Population-Wide Genetic Risk Prediction of Complex Diseases: A Pilot Feasibility Study in Macau Population for Precision Public Healthcare Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, Nancy B. Y.; Cheng, Gregory; Chung, Teresa; Lam, Christopher W. K.; Yee, Anita; Chung, Peter K. C.; Kwan, Tsz-Ki; Ko, Elaine; He, Daihai; Wong, Wing-Tak; Lau, Johnson Y. N.; Lau, Lok Ting; Fok, Manson

    2018-01-01

    The genetic bases of many common diseases have been identified through genome-wide association studies in the past decade. However, the application of this approach on public healthcare planning has not been well established. Using Macau with population of around 650,000 as a basis, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of population genomic research and its potential on public health decisions. By performing genome-wide SNP genotyping of over a thousand Macau individuals, we...

  3. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  4. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  5. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsworth Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  6. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  7. Dealing with Complex and Ill-Structured Problems: Results of a Plan-Do-Check-Act Experiment in a Business Engineering Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Achenbach, Marlies; Israelsen, Poul; Kyvsgaard Hansen, Poul; Johansen, John; Deuse, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by increased globalisation and fast technological development, we carried out an experiment in the third semester of a global business engineering programme aimed at identifying conditions for training students in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems of forming a new business. As this includes a fuzzy front end, learning…

  8. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  9. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  11. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  12. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisan, Yusuf

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...

  13. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  14. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices. Copyright

  15. RATING MODELS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION FOR MANAGEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper aims to develop rating models and related information technologies designed to resolve the tasks of strategic planning of the administrative and territorial units’ development, as well as the tasks of multi-criteria control of inhomogeneous multiparameter objects operation. Methodology. When solving problems of strategic planning of administrative and territorial development and heterogeneous classes management of objects under control, a set of agreed methods is used. Namely the multi-criteria properties analysis for objects of planning and management, diagnostics of the state parameters, forecasting and management of complex systems of different classes. Their states are estimated by sets of different quality indicators, as well as represented by the individual models of operation process. A new information technology is proposed and created to implement the strategic planning and management tasks. This technology uses the procedures for solving typical tasks, that are implemented in MS SQL Server. Findings. A new approach to develop models of analyze and management of complex systems classes based on the ratings has been proposed. Rating models development for analysis of multicriteria and multiparameter systems has been obtained. The management of these systems is performed on the base of parameters of the current and predicted state by non-uniform distribution of resources. The procedure of sensitivity analysis of the changes in the rating model of inhomogeneous distribution of resources parameters has been developed. The information technology of strategic planning and management of heterogeneous classes of objects based on the rating model has been created. Originality. This article proposes a new approach of the rating indicators’ using as a general model for strategic planning of the development and management of heterogeneous objects that can be characterized by the sets of parameters measured on different scales

  16. Rapid Mission Design for Dynamically Complex Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Designing trajectories in dynamically complex environments is very challenging and easily becomes an intractable problem. More complex planning implies potentially...

  17. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  18. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012

  19. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  20. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.