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Sample records for solutions vliyanie ionnykh

  1. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  2. Vliyanie antigipertenzivnoy terapii na aktivnost' adipokinov i endotelina-1 u bol'nykh arterial'noy gipertoniey s ozhireniem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Oshorova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacodynamic characteristics of the modern antihypertensive therapy in obese hypertensive patients. Materials and methods. The activity of leptin, adiponectin and endothelin-1 and cardiohemodynamics were studied in 61 patients with essential hypertension and obesity (body mass index 34,3±4,8 kg/m2 before and after the 12-weeks treatment with zofenopril (n=31 and nebivolol (n=29. Results. It was revealed that obese hypertensive patients had abnormal circadian profile of blood pressure (63.9%, hyperleptinemia together with the decrease of the adiponectin activity (67%, as well as the increased activity of endothelin-1 (54%. The 12-weeks therapy with zofenopril and nebivolol has resulted in the improvement of the daily profile of the arterial pressure with the achievement of the target level of the arterial pressure in 72% and 79% of patients correspondingly. The following was recorded: the decrease in the activity of leptin and endothelin-1 in both groups; upward trend of the adiponectins activity under the influence of zofenopril. Conclusion. Zofenopril and nebivolol in obese hypertensive patients in addition to the antihypertensive action reduce negative cardiometabolic effects of the activation of adipocytes and endothelin-1.

  3. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  4. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  5. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  6. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  7. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  8. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  9. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  10. Is Hartmann's the solution?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White S.A; Goldhill D.R

    1997-01-01

    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution...

  11. Reconsidering Schwarzschild's original solution

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, S; Liebscher, D. -E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the Schwarzschild solution in the context of the historical development of its present use, and explain the invariant definition of a singular surface at the Schwarzschild's radius, that can be applied to the Kerr-Newman solution too.

  12. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  13. Multicapillary mixer of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, G W; Bowman, R L

    1966-07-22

    A mixer made from a bundle of glass tubules can mix two solutions within 30 microseconds, with a total-solution flow rate of 1.33 milliliters per second. One solution passes through the interstices of the bundle; the other moves through the lumens of the tubes.

  14. Solutions to Organizational Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    Organizations face all kinds of paradoxical problems. There exist various solutions to organizational paradoxes. We develop a typology that lists nine possible logical approaches to understanding the relationship between paradoxical opposites, out of which we identify five types of solutions...... to organizational paradox. Four of the five solutions are explicitly associated with four prominent philosophies. We show the relevance of the five solutions to the real world by applying our scheme to understand different solutions to the generic strategy paradox. Finally, we address the question whether...

  15. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A T

    1998-06-01

    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  16. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  17. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  18. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  19. On Solutions of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Philip W

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotationally symmetric solutions are derived for some nonlinear equations of the form in the title in terms of elementary functions. Under suitable assumptions, the nonexistence of entire solutions is also proved for the inequality in the title as well as some radial upper bounds are obtained. These results are the consequence of an appropriate differential inequality.

  20. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  1. Is Hartmann's the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S A; Goldhill, D R

    1997-05-01

    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution. Of the 82 candidates surveyed only three (4%) accurately recorded the electrolytes and their concentrations in Hartmann's solution. Lactate was stated to be a source of bicarbonate by 52 (63%) and a source of glucose by 17 (21%). The descriptions of lactate metabolism were largely imprecise, none was complete and 24 (29%) of candidates offered no explanation. The constituents of Hartmann's solution and their concentrations are designed to match those of plasma, reducing ion and fluid shifts postinfusion. The lactate in Hartmann's solution is metabolised by both oxidation and gluconeogenesis, predominantly in the liver, and bicarbonate is generated by both processes over 1-2 h.

  2. Professional Hadoop solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i

  3. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  4. ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTUNEA MIHAELA FILOFTEIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.

  5. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  6. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  7. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caliò

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  8. Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-03-10

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  9. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  10. Deconstructing graphite: graphenide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénicaud, Alain; Drummond, Carlos

    2013-01-15

    Growing interest in graphene over past few years has prompted researchers to find new routes for producing this material other than mechanical exfoliation or growth from silicon carbide. Chemical vapor deposition on metallic substrates now allows researchers to produce continuous graphene films over large areas. In parallel, researchers will need liquid, large scale, formulations of graphene to produce functional graphene materials that take advantage of graphene's mechanical, electrical, and barrier properties. In this Account, we describe methods for creating graphene solutions from graphite. Graphite provides a cheap source of carbon, but graphite is insoluble. With extensive sonication, it can be dispersed in organic solvents or water with adequate additives. Nevertheless, this process usually creates cracks and defects in the graphite. On the other hand, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) provide a means to dissolve rather than disperse graphite. GICS can be obtained through the reaction of alkali metals with graphite. These compounds are a source of graphenide salts and also serve as an excellent electronic model of graphene due to the decoupling between graphene layers. The graphenide macroions, negatively charged graphene sheets, form supple two-dimensional polyelectrolytes that spontaneously dissolve in some organic solvents. The entropic gain from the dissolution of counterions and the increased degrees of freedom of graphene in solution drives this process. Notably, we can obtain graphenide solutions in easily processable solvents with low boiling points such as tetrahydrofuran or cyclopentylmethylether. We performed a statistical analysis of high resolution transmission electronic micrographs of graphene sheets deposited on grids from GICs solution to show that the dissolved material has been fully exfoliated. The thickness distribution peaks with single layers and includes a few double- or triple-layer objects. Light scattering analysis of the

  11. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  12. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  13. Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillies, George D. J

    2011-01-01

    ... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...

  14. Aliteracy : causes and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important

  15. School Solutions for Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article offers solutions and steps to prevent cyberbullying. Schools can improve their ability to handle cyberbullying by educating staff members, students, and parents and by implementing rules and procedures for how to handle possible incidents. Among the steps is to include a section about cyberbullying and expectations in the student…

  16. Antisocial Personalities, Antidemocractic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Howard G.

    1996-01-01

    Provides critical analysis of David T. Lykken's article "Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime" (1996) and its correlation between unstable families and sociopathy and the use of parental licensing as a solution. Discusses reasons for the appeal of parental licensing as well as the issue of state control replacing social control. (GR)

  17. Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)

  18. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  19. Stiff fluid spike solutions from Bianchi type V seed solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, D.; Lim, W. C.; Coley, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we expand upon our previous work Coley et al (2016 Class. Quantum Grav. 33 215010) by using the entire family of Bianchi type V stiff fluid solutions as seed solutions of the Stephani transformation. Among the new exact solutions generated, we observe a number of important physical phenomena. The most interesting phenomenon is exact solutions with intersecting spikes. Other interesting phenomena are solutions with saddle states and a close-to-FL epoch.

  20. From Goods to Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark; Raja, Jawwad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to adopt service-dominant logic (SDL) to empirically explore network configurations resulting from the provision of goods, goods and services, and solutions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a single, in-depth, exploratory case study in a truck manufacturer...... different value propositions and the resulting network configurations are discussed. In so doing, evidence is provided of a more complex, tetradic network configuration for solutions, with varying degrees of interplay between actors in the flow of operand and operant resources to create value....... and its supply network. An abductive approach is adopted. In total, 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Findings – Three value propositions are clearly discernible within the truck provider. These range from a truck to a “solution”. These propositions have different supply network configurations...

  1. Earnest Rutherford, the solution

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you did not make it to the Science & Society talk by John Campbell last week and are still wondering about the spelling of "Earnest", here is the solution: Two months after the birth of his fourth child on 30 August 1871 in Spring Grove, New Zealand, James Rutherford registered his son, who was recorded as "Earnest" in the Birth Register. Presumably the Registrar wrote the name down as it sounded and the father failed to notice the mistake when signing the Register.

  2. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER

  3. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  4. Integrated multiphase solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiskoot, Mark A. [Jiskoot Autocontrol, Kent (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Everyone accepts that multiphase metering provides substantial cost advantages over conventional test separator methods. However the complexity of the flow regimes and process ensures that there is no single applicable technology currently available for all conditions. Numerous optimistic and ill-founded have been made for accuracy. Because of the commercial opportunities, the market is a technology minefield for the potential specifier and user! Jiskoot has introduced an Integarated approach to provision of Multiphase Solutions (IMS) and is the licensee of two distinctly different technologies. This paper outlines a few multiphase measurements problems and the IMS approach using the Mixmeter and Smartstar technologies. (author)

  5. Simulated Solute Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, Robert; Lingenheil, Martin; Tavan, Paul; Mathias, Gerald

    2009-10-13

    For the enhanced conformational sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we present "simulated solute tempering" (SST) which is an easy to implement variant of simulated tempering. SST extends conventional simulated tempering (CST) by key concepts of "replica exchange with solute tempering" (REST, Liu et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 13749). We have applied SST, CST, and REST to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an alanine octapeptide in explicit water. The weight parameters required for CST and SST are determined by two different formulas whose performance is compared. For SST only one of them yields a uniform sampling of the temperature space. Compared to CST and REST, SST provides the highest exchange probabilities between neighboring rungs in the temperature ladder. Concomitantly, SST leads to the fastest diffusion of the simulation system through the temperature space, in particular, if the "even-odd" exchange scheme is employed in SST. As a result, SST exhibits the highest sampling speed of the investigated tempering methods.

  6. Rational homoclinic solution and rogue wave solution for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a rational homoclinic solution is obtained via the classical homoclinicsolution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system. Based on the structures of ratinal homoclinic solution, the characteristics of homoclinic solution are discussed which might provide us with useful information on the dynamics of the ...

  7. Solution of IVP of Second Order ODE with Oscillatory Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Numerical method for solution of IVP of second order with oscillatory solutions using VIM is developed. The method is applied to solve some initial value problems of second order ODE with oscillatory solutions. The results are compared with some existing methods and found to compete favourably with existing methods.

  8. Solute-Filled Syringe For Formulating Intravenous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jim; Bindokas, AL; Dudar, Tom; Finley, Mike; Scharf, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Prefilled syringe contains premeasured amount of solute in powder or concentrate form used to deliver solute to sterile interior of large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag. Predetermined amount of sterile water also added to LVP bag through sterilizing filter, and mixed with contents of syringe, yielding sterile intravenous solution of specified concentration.

  9. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  10. Persistent Self-Association of Solute Molecules in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiwei; Mo, Huaping; Zhang, Mingtao; Parkin, Sean; Gong, Junbo; Wang, Jingkang; Li, Tonglei

    2017-11-02

    The structural evolvement of a solute determines the crystallization outcome. The self-association mechanism leading to nucleation, however, remains poorly understood. Our current study explored the solution chemistry of a model compound, tolfenamic acid (TFA), in three different solvents mainly by solution NMR. It was found that hydrogen-bonded pairs of solute-solute or solute-solvent stack with each through forming a much weaker π-π interaction as the concentration increases. Depending on the solvent, configurations of the solution species may be retained in the resultant crystal structure or undergo rearrangement. Yet, the π-π stacking is always retained in the crystal regardless of the solvent used for the crystallization. The finding suggests that nucleation not only involves the primary intermolecular interaction (hydrogen bonding) but also engages the secondary forces in the self-assembly process.

  11. Exact Solutions to Maccari's System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-Ting; Gong, Lun-Xun

    2007-07-01

    Based on the generalized Riccati relation, an algebraic method to construct a series of exact solutions to nonlinear evolution equations is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, the method is applied to Maccari's system, and some exact solutions of the system are obtained. The method is of important significance in exploring exact solutions for other nonlinear evolution equations.

  12. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  13. Natural climate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, Bronson W.; Adams, Justin; Ellis, Peter W.; Houghton, Richard A.; Lomax, Guy; Miteva, Daniela A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Shoch, David; Siikamäki, Juha V.; Smith, Pete; Woodbury, Peter; Zganjar, Chris; Blackman, Allen; Campari, João; Conant, Richard T.; Delgado, Christopher; Elias, Patricia; Gopalakrishna, Trisha; Hamsik, Marisa R.; Herrero, Mario; Kiesecker, Joseph; Landis, Emily; Laestadius, Lars; Leavitt, Sara M.; Minnemeyer, Susan; Polasky, Stephen; Potapov, Peter; Putz, Francis E.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Silvius, Marcel; Wollenberg, Eva; Fargione, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Better stewardship of land is needed to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement goal of holding warming to below 2 °C; however, confusion persists about the specific set of land stewardship options available and their mitigation potential. To address this, we identify and quantify “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We find that the maximum potential of NCS—when constrained by food security, fiber security, and biodiversity conservation—is 23.8 petagrams of CO2 equivalent (PgCO2e) y‑1 (95% CI 20.3–37.4). This is ≥30% higher than prior estimates, which did not include the full range of options and safeguards considered here. About half of this maximum (11.3 PgCO2e y‑1) represents cost-effective climate mitigation, assuming the social cost of CO2 pollution is ≥100 USD MgCO2e‑1 by 2030. Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of cost-effective CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2 °C. One-third of this cost-effective NCS mitigation can be delivered at or below 10 USD MgCO2‑1. Most NCS actions—if effectively implemented—also offer water filtration, flood buffering, soil health, biodiversity habitat, and enhanced climate resilience. Work remains to better constrain uncertainty of NCS mitigation estimates. Nevertheless, existing knowledge reported here provides a robust basis for immediate global action to improve ecosystem stewardship as a major solution to climate change.

  14. Enthalpy of solution of biuret in various aqueous electrolyte solutions and in an urea solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hisashi; Murakami, Sachio (Osaka City Univ. (Japan))

    1989-06-30

    Enthalpies of biuret which is simplest amido acid and does not have hydrophobic group, in various aqueous solutions and in urea solution were measured at 298.15K to clarify the influence of salt on polymer conformal changes of organism or structure and functions of membrane. The isoperibol calorimeter where the quartz thermometer was used as the thermal sensor, was used in the measurement. The performance of this calorimeter was tested by comparing measurements with values in references. From the analysis of enthalpies of biuret solutions, following results of solute-solute-solvent interactions could be obtained: the rate where biuret destroys water structure is smaller in salt solutions than in aqueous solutions and the tendency depends on the ion size; ion-water interaction weakens owing to the ion-biuret interaction in salt solution of biuret; and water molecules are made free. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Future climate. Engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdinand, J.F.; Hagedorn-Rasmussen, P.; Fonnesbech, B.

    2009-09-15

    Future Climate Engineering Solutions - Joint Report is the common output and a documentation of more than 1 year's effort by 13 engineering associations - in 12 countries - to demonstrate how technologies can combat climate change. The report consists of three parts: Summaries of 10 national climate plans and technology prospects, 5 Key Common Findings, and a Climate Call from Engineers to create a new global climate treaty. The basic assumption of the project is recognition that GHG emissions, and their concentration in the atmosphere, must be reduced to a sustainable level. The project definition of a sustainable level is equivalent to the best-case stabilisation scenario which was presented in the 4th Assessment Report (AR4) by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), whereby the global mean temperature is most likely to stabilise at 2.0-2.4 deg. C. The Future Climate website www.futureclimate.info holds more information about the project, including possibility to download project material, including the full national climate plans.

  16. Passive Micromixing Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim DENNAI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mixing rate is characterized by the diffusion flux given by the Fick’s law. A passive mixing strategy is proposed to enhance mixing of two fluids through perturbed jet flow. A numerical study of passive mixers has been presented. This paper is focused on the modeling of a micro-injection systems composed of passive amplifier without mechanical part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design based on a monostable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about a few hundred of microns. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 92 % within a typical mixing chamber of 2.25 mm diameter and 0.20 mm length when the Reynolds number is Re = 490. In addition, the results confirm that self-rotation in the circular mixer significantly enhances the mixing performance. The novel micro mixing method presented in this study provides a simple solution to mixing problems in micro system.

  17. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  18. Properties of scintillator solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  19. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  20. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-05

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  2. Structure and dynamics of solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtaki, H

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of structural and dynamic properties of solutions have provided a molecular picture of solute-solvent interactions. Although the study of thermodynamic as well as electronic properties of solutions have played a role in the development of research on the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions, such macroscopic and microscopic properties are insufficient for a deeper understanding of fast chemical and biological reactions. In order to fill the gap between the two extremes, it is necessary to know how molecules are arranged in solution and how they change their pos

  3. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  4. Viscosity Control of Protein Solution by Small Solutes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehun; Iwashita, Kazuki; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2017-12-12

    Viscosity of protein solution is one of the most troublesome issues for the high-concentration formulation of protein drugs. In this review, we summarize the practical methods that suppress the viscosity of protein solution using small molecular additives. The small amount of salts decreases the viscosity that results from electrostatic repulsion and attraction. The chaotrope suppresses the hydrophobic attraction and cluster formation, which can lower the solution viscosity. Arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) also suppresses the solution viscosity due to the hydrophobic and aromatic interactions between protein molecules. The small molecular additives are the simplest resolution of the high viscosity of protein solution as well as understanding of the primary cause in complex phenomena of protein interactions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called “water cultures” had a simple

  6. Evaluation of ITRF2014 Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dach, Rolf; Grahsl, Andrea; Susnik, Andreja; Villiger, Arturo; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    For the most recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) realization three candidates have been provided, namely an ITRF2014 solution by IGN, DTRF2014 by DGFI-TUM, and JTRF2014 by JPL. There are significant differences in the way how these solutions have been generated, which parametrization has been applied, and how the solutions from the different space-geodetic techniques are combined. The most recent GNSS reprocessing solution generated in the frame of the EGSIEM project (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management; funded by EC in the frame of Horizon 2020) was used to generate time series of GNSS-based solutions from 2000 to the end of 2014 using these reference frame realizations. The solution contains station coordinates, GNSS satellite orbits, Earth rotation parameters, and troposphere parameters. In order to evaluate the consistency of the contributions from the IGS (GNSS) and ILRS (SLR) in the reference frame solutions, the SLR measurements to the GNSS satellites can be used. Since the microwave-based GNSS satellite orbits obtained in the different reference frames are consistent regarding the orbit modeling differences in the SLR residuals may be interpreted to assess the consistency of the station coordinates between the SLR and GNSS sites in the reference frame solutions. With this contribution we hope to provide an independent contribution to the discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods to generate the IERS-TRF.

  7. Solution of Finite Element Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...

  8. Enclosing Solutions of Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Caprani, Ole; Stauning, Ole

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for enclosing the solution of an integral equation. It is assumed that a solution exists and that the corresponding integral operator T is a contraction near y. When solving the integral equation by iteration we obtain a result which is normally different from y because...

  9. Solutions of equations in languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    A context-free grammar corresponds to a system of equations in languages. The language generated by the grammar is the smallest solution of the system. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an arbitrary solution to be the smallest one. We revive an old criterion to decide that a grammar

  10. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  11. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  12. Vainshtein solutions without superluminal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Kimura, Rampei; Pirtskhalava, David

    2015-06-01

    The Vainshtein mechanism suppresses the fifth force at astrophysical distances, while enabling it to compete with gravity at cosmological scales. Typically, Vainshtein solutions exhibit superluminal perturbations. However, a restricted class of solutions with special boundary conditions was shown to be devoid of the faster-than-light modes. Here we extend this class by finding solutions in a theory of quasidilaton, amended by derivative terms consistent with its symmetries. Solutions with Minkowski asymptotics are not stable, while the ones that exhibit the Vainshtein mechanism by transitioning to cosmological backgrounds are free of ghosts, tachyons, gradient instability, and superluminality, for all propagating modes present in the theory. These solutions require a special choice of the strength and signs of nonlinear terms, as well as a choice of asymptotic cosmological boundary conditions.

  13. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  14. Solutions for the food processing industry; Shokuhin seizogyo solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T.; Iwami, N. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-10

    To improve quality control and maintain stable operation, the food processing industry requires problem solutions in total, including not only processing and operation control divisions but also quality control, design and production technology, and maintenance divisions. This paper describes solutions for HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) support, quality control, and maintenance, in order to improve the quality level, ensure traceability and realize stable processing operations. (author)

  15. Business process solution `Joint MEISTER`; Gyomu shien solution `Joint MEISTER`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ito, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-10

    The business process solution `Joint{sub M}EISTER` can be ranked among computer systems represented by groupware and WWW applications. This paper describes its typical system, ExchangeUSE work flow solution, and the effect of its introduction, citing a concrete case. The Company A introduced the ExchangeUSE work flow for traveling expenses adjustment and attendance, and has gained a reduction of 7 man-months/month. (author)

  16. CERN Single Sign On Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ormancey, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his ...

  17. Adolescents: Health Risks and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Adolescents: health risks and solutions Fact sheet Updated May ... adolescents in some high-income countries. Rights of adolescents The rights of children (people under 18 years ...

  18. Solutions of Nonlocal -Laplacian Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Avci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of variational approach we discuss a nonlocal problem, that is, a Kirchhoff-type equation involving -Laplace operator. Establishing some suitable conditions, we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions.

  19. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... tracers) for a better determination of the diffusivity. The diffusivity was higher in the below-till soil than the plowed soil at the same soil water matric potential due to higher water content but also due to higher continuity and lower tortuosity of the soil pores. We measured identical solute...... diffusivities independent of the tracer set used. We analyzed the whole data set using Archie's law and found a linear relation between Archie's exponent and the logarithm of the soil water matric suction in centimeters of water (pF). An analysis of seven data sets from the literature showed...

  20. Transnistria: Prospects for a Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urse, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    .... After the conclusion of the agreement that ended the armed conflict, Chisinau and Tiraspol made efforts to find a political solution, under the supervision of a negotiation mechanism that included...

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  2. Exact cosmological solutions for MOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, Mahmood [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We find some new exact cosmological solutions for the covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory, the so-called modified gravity (MOG). The exact solution of the vacuum field equations has been derived. Also, for non-vacuum cases we have found some exact solutions with the aid of the Noether symmetry approach. More specifically, the symmetry vector and also the Noether conserved quantity associated to the point-like Lagrangian of the theory have been found. Also we find the exact form of the generic vector field potential of this theory by considering the behavior of the relevant point-like Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the Noether symmetry. Finally, we discuss the cosmological implications of the solutions. (orig.)

  3. Exact solution for generalized pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    An infinite dimensional algebra, which is useful for deriving exact solutions of the generalized pairing problem, is introduced. A formalism for diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian is also proposed. The theory is illustrated with some numerical examples.

  4. Spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.

    1985-04-01

    Many exact solutions for the spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution of matter with shear, acceleration, and expansion are obtained. One of them is expressed in terms of Painleve's third transcendent.

  5. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  6. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  7. Approximative solutions of difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Migda

    2014-03-01

    \\Delta^m x_n=a_nf(n,x_{\\sigma(n}+b_n $$ are studied. Using the iterated remainder operator and fixed point theorems we obtain sufficient conditions under which for any solution $y$ of the equation $\\Delta^my=b$ and for any real $s\\leq 0$ there exists a solution $x$ of the above equation such that $\\Delta^kx=\\Delta^ky+\\mathrm{o}(n^{s-k}$ for any nonnegative integer $k\\leq m$. Using a discrete variant of the Bihari lemma and a certain new technique we give also sufficient conditions under which for a given real $s\\leq m-1$ all solutions $x$ of the equation satisfy the condition $x=y+\\mathrm{o}(n^s$ where $y$ is a solution of the equation $\\Delta^my=b$. Moreover, we give sufficient conditions under which for a given natural $ksolutions $x$ of the equation satisfy the condition $x=y+u$ for a certain solution $y$ of the equation $\\Delta^my=b$ and a certain sequence $u$ such that $\\Delta^ku=\\mathrm{o}(1$.

  8. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  9. One-soliton solutions from Laplace's seed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One-soliton solutions of axially symmetric vacuum Einstein field equations are presented in this paper. Two sets of Laplace's solutions are used as seed and it is shown that the derived solutions reduce to some already known solutions when the constants are properly adjusted. An analysis of the solutions in terms of the ...

  10. One-soliton solutions from Laplace's seed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. One-soliton solutions of axially symmetric vacuum Einstein field equations are pre- sented in this paper. Two sets of Laplace's solutions are used as seed and it is shown that the derived solutions reduce to some already known solutions when the constants are properly adjusted. An analysis of the solutions in ...

  11. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  12. Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.

  13. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... is the possiblility to combine the three methods in an extremely flexible way. We examine some applications where this flexibility is very useful. A method for Taylor expanding solutions of ordinary differential equations is presented, and a method for obtaining interval enclosures of the truncation errors incurred......, using this method has been developed. (ADIODES is an abbreviation of `` Automatic Differentiation Interval Ordinary Differential Equation Solver''). ADIODES is used to prove existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions to specific ordinary differential equations occuring in dynamical systems theory...

  14. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of state is derived for the osmotic pressure Π in the semidilute concentration region, in terms of two variables, the polymer concentration c and the ionic strength J of the added salt, according to which Π =1.4×103c9/4/J3/4 kPa, where c and J are expressed in mole. Over the physiological ion concentration range, the effect of the sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of HA solutions is fully accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. The absence of precipitation, even at high CaCl2 concentrations, distinguishes this molecule from other biopolymers such as DNA. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal that the collective diffusion coefficient in HA solutions exceeds that in aqueous solutions of typical neutral polymers by a factor of approximately 5. This property ensures rapid adjustment to, and recovery from, stress applied to HA-containing tissue. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements confirm the absence of appreciable structural reorganization over the observed length scale range 10-1000 Å, as a result of calcium-sodium ion exchange. The scattered intensity in the transfer momentum range q >0.03 Å-1 varies as 1/q, indicating that the HA chain segments in semidilute solutions are linear over an extended concentration range. The osmotic compression modulus c ∂Π/∂c, a high value of which is a prerequisite in structural biopolymers, is several times greater than in typical neutral polymer solutions.

  15. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  16. Hybrid Solution for Integrated Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated applications are complex solutions, whose complexity are determined by the economic processes they implement, the amount of data employed (millions of records grouped in hundreds of tables, databases, hundreds of GB and the number of users. Service oriented architecture (SOA, is now the most talked-about integration solution in mainstream journals, addressing both simple applications, for a department but also at enterprise level. SOA can refer to software architecture or to a way of standardizing the technical architecture of an enterprise and it shows its value when operating in several distinct and heterogeneous environments.

  17. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  18. Teaching sustainable solutions in engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Ejlertsen, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing societal and industrial emphasis on sustainability requests that the next generation engineers needs to be trained in the context of sustainability. One of the means to address students at DTU is the establishment of a course aimed at bachelor students from all of the university......'s study lines. The objectives of the course 'Sustainability in engineering solutions', is for the participants to understand the basic concept of sustainability and its three dimensions (people, profit, planet), as well as to analyse problems and synthesise solutions that are sustainable throughout...

  19. Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

  20. COMPOSITE SOLUTIONS IN RAILROAD ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova Marina Ivanovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present-day methods of recovery of used wooden railway ties, including burial, chemical neutralization, gasification and subsequent burning, utilization in the capacity of composite materials, are expensive and unsafe for the environment. The authors propose a new method of their utilization. Ash generated in the course of their burning may replace a portion of cement in composite solutions and act as an additive to grouting mortars designated for the filling of the annulus space of manifold tunnels. The chemical composition of the ash was identified by the x-ray method applied to three samples taken during various periods of time from out of a dry-type dust collector. The level of human health/environmental hazard of the ash is based on its chemical composition. Changes in the rheological properties of composite solutions that contained concrete fractions, various ratios of ash, and 5% of liquid glass were studied in the course of the research. The experiments have proven that in the event of replacement of 20% of cement by ash, the strength of the composite solution is approximately the same as the one of the benchmark sample; therefore, this ash content ratio is deemed acceptable. The finding demonstrate that the ash has no toxic effect, and the ecological safety of this solution is thus confirmed. The authors have proven that 20% of cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of burning of waste railway ties.

  1. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  2. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  3. Lump solutions in SFT. Complements

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, L.; Giaccari, S.; Tolla, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently a possible violation of the equation of motion for the recently proposed lump solutions in open SFT has been pointed out in the literature. In this paper we argue that, when the issue is considered in the appropriate mathematical setting of distribution theory, no violations to the equation of motion occur.

  4. Archival storage solutions for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunn, Timothy

    1997-05-01

    While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.

  5. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    substrates. The growing number of publications reporting genetic population data for the solute carrier transporters in particular shows ... almost all diseases is also determined to some extent by genetic variation (Brockmoller and .... bile acids, amino acids, ions, xenobiotics, drugs, and other biologically active compounds, ...

  6. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  7. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  8. Graphical Solution of Polynomial Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Anatole

    2009-01-01

    Graphing utilities, such as the ubiquitous graphing calculator, are often used in finding the approximate real roots of polynomial equations. In this paper the author offers a simple graphing technique that allows one to find all solutions of a polynomial equation (1) of arbitrary degree; (2) with real or complex coefficients; and (3) possessing…

  9. A charged spherically symmetric solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By setting the charge contribution to zero we regain an (uncharged) perfect fluid solution found previously with the equation of state =+ constant, which is a generalisation of a stiff equation of state. Our class of ... Govinder1. School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa ...

  10. Looking to nature for solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Will R.

    2018-01-01

    Completely stopping fossil fuel use may not be enough to avoid dangerous climate change. Recent research on the mitigation potential of conservation, restoration, and improved land management demonstrates that natural solutions can reduce emissions and remove atmospheric CO2 while safeguarding food security and biodiversity.

  11. Cosmological solutions with massive gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [Physics Department, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); LE STUDIUM, Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, Tours and Orleans (France); I.H.E.S., F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2011-10-25

    We present solutions describing spatially closed, open, or flat cosmologies in the massive gravity theory within the recently proposed tetrad formulation. We find that the effect of the graviton mass is equivalent to introducing to the Einstein equations a matter source that can consist of several different matter types - a cosmological term, quintessence, gas of cosmic strings, and non-relativistic cold matter.

  12. Authorized Duplication: A Timely Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatilo, Joe

    1997-01-01

    Asks how a music teacher can supply enough sheet music to ensure resources for every student while meeting restrictions of slender budgets and copyright laws. Explores the concept of authorized duplication, similar to software licensing, as a solution. Provides sources of music with authorized duplication agreements. (DSK)

  13. Designing Hyper-V solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at IT admins, consultants, and architects alike who wish to deploy, manage, and maintain Hyper-V solutions in organizations of various sizes. You are expected to have a working knowledge of managing Windows Server and a fair understanding of networking and storage concepts.

  14. Peritoneal dialysis solution and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    20-70% of peritoneal dialysis patients have some signs of malnutrition. Anorexia, protein and amino acid losses in dialysate, advanced age of elderly patients, inflammation and cardiac failure are among the main causes. Modern dialysis solutions aim to reduce these causes, but none of them is without side effects: glucose is relatively safe and brings additional energy but induces anorexia and lipid abnormalities, amino acids compensate dialysate losses but may increase uremia and acidosis, icodextrin helps control hyperhydration and chronic heart failure and minimizes glucose side effects, but may sometimes cause inflammation, and poly chamber bags allow the replacement of lactate by bicarbonate and are more biocompatible, decrease GDP, induce less inflammation and have a better effect on nutritional status. However, it appears that the management of nutrition with the different solutions available nowadays necessitates various combinations of solutions adapted to different patient profiles and there is not actually a single universal solution to minimize malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... genomic variation in South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, especially with regards to health applications. Genomic diversity in this region is indeed relatively under-studied despite being home to significant portion of human genomic diversity. Keywords: Solute carrier transporters, pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics ...

  16. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (-12

  17. Plasma generation in aqueous solution containing volatile solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Yoshiteru; Hatanaka, Shin-ichi; Okitsu, Kenji; Iseki, Yoshikazu; Iwasaki, Ryouhei; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Tanabe, Shuji

    2018-01-01

    When high and short-pulse voltage was applied with a high repetition frequency to tungsten electrodes placed in water containing ammonia and water containing 2-methyl-2-propanol, gas evolved vigorously from the plasma generated between the electrodes. The main gas evolved was H2 in both aqueous solutions. Decomposition of ammonia provided N2 in addition to H2. In the decomposition of aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol solution, CO, CO2, methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene were generated in addition to H2. The “temperature” deduced by kinetic consideration using the yields of C2 products (ethane, ethylene, and acetylene) formed by the recombination of two methyl radicals was calculated to be ca. 4200 K.

  18. Relativity solution for ``Twin paradox'': a comprehensive solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarti, A.

    2012-10-01

    We have provided a complete and realistic solution to the problem of Twin Paradox, for the first time, in the frame work of general relativity. Some of the inspiration for this paper has come from the well known papers by Linet and Teyssandier (Phys Rev D 66:024045, 2002) discussing objects moving on geodesics for more general metrics than Schwarzschild. The subject of the "Twin paradox" is encountered frequently in relativity classes but a complete solution in the general relativity framework is not being taught. Our approaches have covered all the cases, starting with inertial motion in flat space time, going through hyperbolic motion in flat space time and ending with the treatment for curved space time.

  19. Comparison of non-ideal solution theories for multi-solute solutions in cryobiology and tabulation of required coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Michal W; McGann, Locksley E; Nychka, John A; Elliott, Janet A W

    2014-10-01

    Thermodynamic solution theories allow the prediction of chemical potentials in solutions of known composition. In cryobiology, such models are a critical component of many mathematical models that are used to simulate the biophysical processes occurring in cells and tissues during cryopreservation. A number of solution theories, both thermodynamically ideal and non-ideal, have been proposed for use with cryobiological solutions. In this work, we have evaluated two non-ideal solution theories for predicting water chemical potential (i.e. osmolality) in multi-solute solutions relevant to cryobiology: the Elliott et al. form of the multi-solute osmotic virial equation, and the Kleinhans and Mazur freezing point summation model. These two solution theories require fitting to only single-solute data, although they can make predictions in multi-solute solutions. The predictions of these non-ideal solution theories were compared to predictions made using ideal dilute assumptions and to available literature multi-solute experimental osmometric data. A single, consistent set of literature single-solute solution data was used to fit for the required solute-specific coefficients for each of the non-ideal models. Our results indicate that the two non-ideal solution theories have similar overall performance, and both give more accurate predictions than ideal models. These results can be used to select between the non-ideal models for a specific multi-solute solution, and the updated coefficients provided in this work can be used to make the desired predictions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonideal Solute Chemical Potential Equation and the Validity of the Grouped Solute Approach for Intracellular Solution Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Michal W; McGann, Locksley E; Nychka, John A; Elliott, Janet A W

    2017-11-22

    The prediction of nonideal chemical potentials in aqueous solutions is important in fields such as cryobiology, where models of water and solute transport-that is, osmotic transport-are used to help develop cryopreservation protocols and where solutions contain many varied solutes and are generally highly concentrated and thus thermodynamically nonideal. In this work, we further the development of a nonideal multisolute solution theory that has found application across a broad range of aqueous systems. This theory is based on the osmotic virial equation and does not depend on multisolute data. Specifically, we derive herein a novel solute chemical potential equation that is thermodynamically consistent with the existing model, and we establish the validity of a grouped solute model for the intracellular space. With this updated solution theory, it is now possible to model cellular osmotic behavior in nonideal solutions containing multiple permeating solutes, such as those commonly encountered by cells during cryopreservation. In addition, because we show here that for the osmotic virial equation the grouped solute approach is mathematically equivalent to treating each solute separately, multisolute solutions in other applications with fixed solute mass ratios can now be treated rigorously with such a model, even when all of the solutes cannot be enumerated.

  1. Crystallisation of materials from aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Vrijenhoef, J.P.; De Graauw, J.; Van der Ham, F.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for recovering a crystalline material from an aqueous solution, which solution also contains organic contaminants, in which process the material is crystallised from the aqueous solution by freeze crystallising at a eutectic freezing point of the solution.

  2. On exact solutions of the Bogoyavlenskii equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Exact solutions for the Bogoyavlenskii equation are studied by the travelling wave method and the singular manifold method. It is found that the linear superposition of the shock wave solution and the complex solitary wave solution for the physical field is still a solution of the equation of interest, except for a ...

  3. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  4. 21 CFR 522.690 - Dinoprost solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dinoprost solution. 522.690 Section 522.690 Food... Dinoprost solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains dinoprost tromethamine.... (v) Dinoprost solution as provided by No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter may be used...

  5. 21 CFR 522.914 - Fenprostalene solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenprostalene solution. 522.914 Section 522.914... Fenprostalene solution. (a) Specifications—(1) Cattle. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 0.5 milligram of fenprostalene. (2) Swine. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 0.25 milligram of...

  6. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent.... One ml of the nicotine solution (previously agitated in the presence of air) is measured into 100 ml...

  7. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  8. Health solutions for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J L; Fujiwara, P I; Bhambal, P; Emaille-Léotard, N; Harries, A D

    2014-03-21

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organisation involved in the fight against tuberculosis. In 2008, the Institute of The Union was challenged to think boldly about the future and to develop a diverse work portfolio covering a wide spectrum of lung health and other disease-related problems. The vision adopted by The Union at that time was 'Health solutions for the poor'. More recently, there has been lengthy debate about the need for the Union to concentrate just on its core mandate of tuberculosis and lung health and for the Union's vision to reflect this narrower spectrum of activity as 'Lung health solutions for the poor'. In this viewpoint article we outline our reasons for believing that this narrower vision is incompatible with The Union's mission statement, and we argue that making such a change would be a mistake.

  9. DNA denaturation in ionic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arghya; Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2016-05-01

    Salt or cations, present in solution play an important role in DNA denaturation and folding kinetics of DNA helix. In this work we study the thermal melting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule using Peyrard Bishop Dauxois (PBD) model. We modify the potential of H-bonding between the bases of the complimentary strands to introduce the salt and solvent effect. We choose different DNA sequences having different contents of GC pairs and calculate the melting temperatures. The melting temperature increases logarithmically with the salt concentration of the solution. The more GC base pairs in the chain enhance the stability of DNA chain at a fix salt concentration. The obtained results are in good accordance with experimental findings.

  10. Solution landscapes in nematic microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M.; Majumdar, A.; Ramos, A. M.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    We study the static equilibria of a simplified Leslie-Ericksen model for a unidirectional uniaxial nematic flow in a prototype microfluidic channel, as a function of the pressure gradient G and inverse anchoring strength, B. We numerically find multiple static equilibria for admissible pairs (G , B) and classify them according to their winding numbers and stability. The case G = 0 is analytically tractable and we numerically study how the solution landscape is transformed as G increases. We study the one-dimensional dynamical model, the sensitivity of the dynamic solutions to initial conditions and the rate of change of G and B. We provide a physically interesting example of how the time delay between the applications of G and B can determine the selection of the final steady state.

  11. Ahmed's Integral: the maiden solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2014-01-01

    In 2001-2002, I happened to have proposed a new definite integral in the American Mthematical Monthly (AMM),which later came to be known in my name (Ahmed). In the meantime, this integral has been mentioned in mathematical encyclopedias and dictionaries and further it has also been cited and discussed in several books and journals. In particular, a google search with the key word "Ahmed's Integral" throws up more than 60 listings. Here I present the maiden solution for this integral.

  12. Radar Absorbing Colloidal Solutions (RACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    calibrated up to the conmoctons with- open , short ,and load In order to validate the expe ment another mesrm a usqme ing u ma etc particles (Fe;0 4...hydrophobic tolkiene solution and begin t# chlst without the cappihg nibledukw, tis forihh"dg the lag" nanoparticle aggregate. Conversely , the nanopartieles...to control the aggregation of particles using sequec speciity [11]. dsDNA meling transitions are well defined and cotrelate f the DRA ui.leotide sequen

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  14. Viscoelasticity of Concentrated Proteoglycan Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechai, Nispa; Jamieson, Alex; Blackwell, John; Carrino, David

    2001-03-01

    Proteoglycan Aggregate (PGA) is the principal macromolecular component of the energy-absorbing matrix of cartilage and tendon. Its brush-like supramolecular structure consists of highly-ionic subunits, non-covalently bound to a hyaluronate chain. We report viscoelastic behavior of concentrated solutions of PGA, purified by column fractionation to remove free subunits. At physiological ionic strength, these preparations exhibit a sol-to-gel transition when the concentration is increased above molecular overlap. The strain dependence of concentrated solutions shows a pronounced non-linearity above a critical strain, at which the storage modulus decreases suddenly, and the loss modulus exhibits a maximum. This response is similar to that observed for close-packed dispersions of soft spheres, when the applied strain is sufficient to move a sphere past its neighbors. At low and high ionic strength, the elasticity of solutions near the overlap concentration decreases. The former is interpreted as due to a decrease in intramolecular and intermolecular electrostatic repulsions, because of strong trapping of counterions within the PGA brush, the latter to salt-induced brush collapse.

  15. Step Bunching and Solution Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a sequence of equidistant steps parallel to one another on a crystal face growing from solution. Steps may be one or part of a lattice spacing high. With such ideal morphology, the most perfect material is expected to be produced. Sometimes this happens. Much more often, however, steps form bunches, acquire wavy shapes and interlace. With time, these spontaneous perturbations may be increased in amplitude, i.e. the stepped surface becomes morphologically unstable. Interferometric studies of Y.G. Kuznetsov, L.N. Rashkovich, P.G. Vekilov and N.A. Booth and the author demonstrated that the step bunching depends at least on direction and rate of solution flow over the interface, supersaturation and presence of impurities. In particular, if solution and step flow are parallel to one another, the steps convene into bunches. If these flows are antiparallel, the bunches disappear. As the step train propagates, the overall bunch height often increases infinitely. However, we have found recently that if the flow rate is large enough, (approximately 1 meter per second), the bunch height may be limited. All these phenomena come from interaction between steps. The interaction mechanisms are still not fully understood. I plan to overview major approaches to the still unresolved problem on how these dissipative structures on growing crystal face appear and evolve.

  16. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.

  17. Solution Focused Approach and Usage of Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcan AKGÜL GÜNDOÐDU; Handan ZÝNCÝR; Nuran GÜLER

    2016-01-01

    "Problem talk creates problems; solution talk creates solutions " Steve de Shazer In recent years, concern for solution-oriented approach has increased in nursing practice. In this review it is aimed to give information about nursing application of solution-oriented approach whose efficacy has been proved with many studies. In addition, solution-oriented approach is what how it turned out, the answer to the question of principle, and that is what the management strategy and what the n...

  18. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.

    2010-02-01

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  19. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs......’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions...

  20. Mobile authentication problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsson, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Authentication: Problems and Solutions looks at human-to-machine authentication, with a keen focus on the mobile scenario. Human-to-machine authentication is a startlingly complex issue. In the old days of computer security-before 2000, the human component was all but disregarded. It was either assumed that people should and would be able to follow instructions, or that end users were hopeless and would always make mistakes. The truth, of course, is somewhere in between, which is exactly what makes this topic so enticing. We cannot make progress with human-to-machine authentication with

  1. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory...... approximations which depend on a step size, such as numerical integration and solution of ordinary and partial differential equations. An integral part of the error estimation is the estimation of the order of the method and can thus satisfy the inquisitive mind: Is the order what we expect it to be from theopry...

  2. New wormhole solutions on the brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, F.; Riazi, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, static wormholes in the brane-world scenario are studied. We show that the existence of extra terms coming from the bulk help construct exact solutions that satisfy the null energy condition. Two important classes of solutions found earlier are analyzed in more depth in order to determine the conditions necessary for consistent solutions. Two new classes of solutions with different asymptotic behavior are also introduced. We focus on the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to achieve new solutions which have the important property of asymptotic flatness. Some main mathematical and physical properties of the solutions are addressed.

  3. Disentangling entanglements in biopolymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Philipp; Frey, Erwin

    2018-02-05

    Reptation theory has been highly successful in explaining the unusual material properties of entangled polymer solutions. It reduces the complex many-body dynamics to a single-polymer description, where each polymer is envisaged to be confined to a tube through which it moves in a snake-like fashion. For flexible polymers, reptation theory has been amply confirmed by both experiments and simulations. In contrast, for semiflexible polymers, experimental and numerical tests are either limited to the onset of reptation, or were performed for tracer polymers in a fixed, static matrix. Here, we report Brownian dynamics simulations of entangled solutions of semiflexible polymers, which show that curvilinear motion along a tube (reptation) is no longer the dominant mode of dynamics. Instead, we find that polymers disentangle due to correlated constraint release, which leads to equilibration of internal bending modes before polymers diffuse the full tube length. The physical mechanism underlying terminal stress relaxation is rotational diffusion mediated by disentanglement rather than curvilinear motion along a tube.

  4. Research on cloud computing solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community. The most common and well-known deployment model is Public Cloud. A Private Cloud is suited for sensitive data, where the customer is dependent on a certain degree of security.According to the different types of services offered, cloud computing can be considered to consist of three layers (services models: IaaS (infrastructure as a service, PaaS (platform as a service, SaaS (software as a service. Main cloud computing solutions: web applications, data hosting, virtualization, database clusters and terminal services. The advantage of cloud com-puting is the ability to virtualize and share resources among different applications with the objective for better server utilization and without a clustering solution, a service may fail at the moment the server crashes.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.914

  5. Holographic cosmology from BIonic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we will use a BIonic solution for analyzing the holographic cosmology. A BIonic solution is a configuration of a D3-brane and an anti-D3-brane connected by a wormhole, and holographic cosmology is a recent proposal to explain cosmic expansion by using the holographic principle. In our model, a BIonic configuration will be produced by the transition of fundamental black strings. The formation of a BIonic configuration will cause inflation. As the D3-brane moves away from the anti-D3-brane, the wormhole will get annihilated, and the inflation will end with the annihilation of this wormhole. However, it is possible for a D3-brane to collide with an anti-D3-brane. Such a collision will occur if the distance between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane reduces, and this will create tachyonic states. We will demonstrate that these tachyonic states will lead to the formation of a new wormhole, and this will cause acceleration of the universe before such a collision.

  6. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  7. INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майкл Б Хиннер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural misunderstandings involve a number of complex causes which can easily escalate into conflicts. Since conflicts are also complex, it is not easy to find solutions because there is no one solution for all problems. Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model take a holistic approach in investigating complex phenomena. They permit the creation of a theoretical framework based on previous empirical research and theories across scientific disciplines to identify the relevant elements of complex phenomena and to understand the interrelationship of these elements. Intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts are very complex phenomena because they include culture, perception, identity, ethnocentrism, relationships, trust building and conflict management as well as intercultural commu-nication competence which entails cognition, metacognition, and social metacognition. Since most em-pirical studies focus on isolated, individual elements in specific contexts, this article describes the theoretical framework of how the various findings and theories developed in different scientific disciplines can be used to form a cohesive framework to help circumvent intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts. In so doing, it follows the general principles of Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model.

  8. Uniqueness of large positive solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Julián; Maire, Luis

    2017-08-01

    We establish the uniqueness of the positive solution of the singular problem (1.1) through some standard comparison techniques involving the maximum principle. Our proofs do not invoke to the blow-up rates of the solutions, as in most of the specialized literature. We give two different types of results according to the geometrical properties of Ω and the regularity of partial Ω . Even in the autonomous case, our theorems are extremely sharp extensions of all existing results. Precisely, when a(x)≡ 1, it is shown that the monotonicity and superadditivity of f( u) with constant C≥ 0 entail the uniqueness; f is said to be superadditive with constant C≥ 0 if f(a+b) ≥ f(a) + f(b) - C \\quad for all a, b ≥ 0. This condition, introduced by Marcus and Véron (J Evol Equ 3:637-652, 2004), weakens all previous sufficient conditions for uniqueness, as it will become apparent in this paper.

  9. Solution structure of human prolactin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Hoch, Jeffrey C; Goffin, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    We report the solution structure of human prolactin determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our result is a significant improvement over a previous structure in terms of number and distribution of distance restraints, regularity of secondary structure, and potential energy. More significantly, the struct......We report the solution structure of human prolactin determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our result is a significant improvement over a previous structure in terms of number and distribution of distance restraints, regularity of secondary structure, and potential energy. More significantly......, the structure is sufficiently different that it leads to different conclusions regarding the mechanism of receptor activation and initiation of signal transduction. Here, we compare the structure of unbound prolactin to structures of both the homologue ovine placental lactogen and growth hormone. The structures...... of unbound and receptor bound prolactin/placental lactogen are similar and no noteworthy structural changes occur upon receptor binding. The observation of enhanced binding at the second receptor site when the first site is occupied has been widely interpreted to indicate conformational change induced...

  10. Numerical Solution for an Epicycloid Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long

    2014-01-01

    linear equations. Numerical solution for the shear stress intensity factors, maximum stress intensity, and strain energy release rate is obtained. Our results give an excellent agreement to the existing asymptotic solutions.

  11. Silver recovery from spent photographic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunda, W.; Etsell, T.H.

    1991-04-12

    A process is disclosed for recovering silver sulfide from a silver-containing spent photographic fixer solution. The process is particularly suited for treating the fixer solution in a manner which enables recycling of the solution, and does not have the inefficiencies and high costs of alternative processes such as electrolysis. The process comprises introducing hydrosulfide ion into the silver-containing spent fixer solution to precipitate silver sulfide. The resultant precipitate is isolated from the fixer solution in order to remove silver from the solution. The process is especially suited for treating spent solutions which contain thiosulfate, in particular sodium or ammonium thiosulfate. The preferred hydrosulfide is either a sodium or ammonium hydrosulfide for precipitating silver in the form of silver sulfide. The quantity of hydrosulfide used is in the range of greater than 0.5 mole per mole of silver in the fixer solution. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  13. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  14. Solute Partitioning and Hindered Diffusion in Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, David Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Solute uptake and release govern the efficacy of hydrogels in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, and chromatographic separations. In soft contact lenses, uptake and release of wetting, packaging, and care-solution agents is extensively employed to improve on-eye lens performance. Key physical parameters are the equilibrium solute partition coefficient and the solute diffusion coefficient in the gel that dictate the amounts and rates of uptake/release, respectively. To investigate t...

  15. A new algorithm for anisotropic solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We establish a new algorithm that generates a new solution to the Einstein field equations, with an anisotropic matter distribution, from a seed isotropic solution. The new solution is expressed in terms of integrals of an isotropic gravitational potential; and the integration can be completed exactly for particular ...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Subharmonic Solutions of Order One-Third

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2005-01-01

    Finding a periodic solution to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is in general a difficult task. Only in a very few cases can direct methods be applied to an equation to find initial values leading to a solution of the corresponding initial value problem that is periodic. Oscillatory periodic solutions have such practical importance that…

  18. An axiomatization of the Euclidean compromise solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Nouweland, A. van den

    2000-01-01

    The Euclidean compromise solution in multicriteria optimization is a solution concept that assigns to a feasible set the alternative with minimal Euclidean distance to the utopia point The purpose of this paper is to provide a characterization of the Euclidean compromise solution

  19. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight. (3...

  20. Positive Integer Solutions of Certain Diophantine Equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    An important area of number theory is devoted to finding solutions of equations where the solutions are restricted to the set of integers. Diophantine equations get their name from Diophantus of. Alexandria and they are algebraic equations for which rational or integer solutions are sought. Many researchers considered the ...

  1. 21 CFR 520.447 - Clindamycin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clindamycin solution. 520.447 Section 520.447 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.447 Clindamycin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains the equivalent of 25 milligrams (mg) clindamycin as the...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1450 - Moxidectin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 522.1450 Section 522.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 10 milligrams (mg) moxidectin...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2012 - Prostalene solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prostalene solution. 522.2012 Section 522.2012 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Prostalene solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 1 milligram of...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1225 - Ketoprofen solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketoprofen solution. 522.1225 Section 522.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ketoprofen solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 100 milligrams...

  7. Estimating the Cost of Heterogeneous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Poort, Eltjo; Vliet, Eric van der

    2014-01-01

    Existing estimation methods have severe limitations when it comes to estimating the delivery cost of heterogeneous IT-based solutions. In this experience report we present Solution-Based Estimation, a new approach that explicitly links a solution's architecture to its delivery cost model.

  8. Mobility needs and wireless solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    The main purpose of this report is to spell out a methodological approach to the analysis of user needs with respect to mobility. Furthermore, this methodological approach is used in an exemplary analysis of the relationship between user needs and technology solutions offered by different wireless...... technologies. The report is based on a research approach, emphasizing important aspects in relation to developing more user oriented mobile services and applications in a heterogeneous network environment. As a staring point, Scandinavian research within the field of social science concerning mobility...... is described and discussed. Furthermore different wireless technologies are briefly described and discussed in relation to possible transmission capacities and coverage areas. In addition to this, a preliminary framework regarding the implications of mobility on the use and development of mobile services...

  9. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  10. Nanoplasmonic solution for nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of dielectric waveguides are well known and are widely used in moderntelecommunication systems [1]. However, the fundamental law of diffraction imposes physical limitation for integration of dielectric photonics and semiconductor electronics [2]. A possible way...... to combine the high speed of a photonic device with the compact size of an electronic device is to produce ananoplasmonic device based on metal waveguides. The successful solutions can be used for future sustainable technologies. In meantime, nonlinear optics of metal waveguides is not fully understood...... and is being under investigation in recent years [3].The purpose of our research is to study nonlinear optical properties of gold waveguides embedded intodielectric medium (silicon dioxide) using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The work includes modeling ofoptical properties of gold waveguides, fabrication...

  11. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship......—tenuous position at home and abroad. Chad is the current representation of the hackneyed phrase, “African solutions to African problems”. However, one must not forget that Chad’s meteoric rise has been facilitated by important states in the international system, mainly France but also the United States...... of apparently competing liberal and illiberal interests. This will lead us to a better explanation of Déby’s recent rise at home and abroad....

  12. Intuitive Solutions to Relativistic Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Lionel D.

    2010-10-01

    Einstein's special theory of relativity is filled with so many apparent paradoxes that many people simply cannot accept its validity. They cannot believe that any theory filled with so many conceptual inconsistencies could possibly correlate with true reality. However, it is not the Theory of Relativity that is filled with paradoxes and inconsistencies but a person's intuitive interpretation of that theory. By simply changing one's perspective or viewpoint it is possible to acquire intuitive solutions to many of relativity's apparent paradoxes and to remove various conceptual inconsistencies commonly associated with the theory. This presentation illustrates how that intuition can be applied to such apparent paradoxes as the twin paradox, the pole-and-barn paradox, and even various paradoxes associated with spacetime itself.

  13. Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center  www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.

  14. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  15. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  16. Solution Focused Approach and Usage of Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan AKGÜL GÜNDOÐDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available "Problem talk creates problems; solution talk creates solutions " Steve de Shazer In recent years, concern for solution-oriented approach has increased in nursing practice. In this review it is aimed to give information about nursing application of solution-oriented approach whose efficacy has been proved with many studies. In addition, solution-oriented approach is what how it turned out, the answer to the question of principle, and that is what the management strategy and what the nursing relationship will be sought. [JCBPR 2016; 5(3.000: 145-152

  17. Multicomponent integrable wave equations: II. Soliton solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degasperis, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Lombardo, S [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Upper Brook Street, Manchester M13 9EP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: antonio.degasperis@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: sara.lombardo@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: sara@few.vu.nl

    2009-09-25

    The Darboux-dressing transformations developed in Degasperis and Lombardo (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 961-77) are here applied to construct soliton solutions for a class of boomeronic-type equations. The vacuum (i.e. vanishing) solution and the generic plane wave solution are both dressed to yield one-soliton solutions. The formulae are specialized to the particularly interesting case of the resonant interaction of three waves, a well-known model which is of boomeronic type. For this equation a novel solution which describes three locked dark pulses (simulton) is introduced.

  18. Oscillating instanton solutions in curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Chul H.; Lee, Wonwoo; Oh, Changheon

    2012-01-01

    We investigate oscillating instanton solutions of a self-gravitating scalar field between degenerate vacua. We show that there exist O(4)-symmetric oscillating solutions in a de Sitter background. The geometry of this solution is finite and preserves the Z2 symmetry. The nontrivial solution corresponding to tunneling is possible only if the effect of gravity is taken into account. We present numerical solutions of this instanton, including the phase diagram of solutions in terms of the parameters of the present work and the variation of energy densities. Our solutions can be interpreted as solutions describing an instanton-induced domain wall or braneworld-like object rather than a kink-induced domain wall or braneworld. The oscillating instanton solutions have a thick wall and the solutions can be interpreted as a mechanism providing nucleation of the thick wall for topological inflation. We remark that Z2 invariant solutions also exist in a flat and anti-de Sitter background, though the physical significance is not clear.

  19. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  20. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha

    2012-06-13

    Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume. However doubts remain as to which colloid is best. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in their safety and efficacy. To compare the effects of different colloid solutions in patients thought to need volume replacement. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Specialised Register (searched 1 Dec 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 4 (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to November Week 3 2011); EMBASE (Ovid) (1974 to 2011 Week 47); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 1 Dec 2011); ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1990 to 1 Dec 2011); CINAHL (EBSCO) (1982 to 1 Dec 2011); National Research Register (2007, Issue 1) and PubMed (searched 1 Dec 2011). Bibliographies of trials retrieved were searched, and for the initial version of the review drug companies manufacturing colloids were contacted for information (1999). Randomised controlled trials comparing colloid solutions in critically ill and surgical patients thought to need volume replacement. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the trials. The outcomes sought were death, amount of whole blood transfused, and incidence of adverse reactions. Ninety trials, with a total of 5678 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Quality of allocation concealment was judged to be adequate in 35 trials and poor or uncertain in the rest.Deaths were obtained in 61 trials. For albumin or PPF versus hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 32 trials (n = 1769) reported mortality. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.32). When the trials by Boldt were removed from the analysis the pooled RR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.20). For albumin or PPF versus gelatin, nine trials (n = 824) reported

  1. Pollution! Find a STEM solution!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career

  2. Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.

  3. Software Solutions for Agile Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel LUPU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses, like people, are continuously evolving and as such face rapid and continual change. As markets and customer needs evolve, enterprises must respond with new ways to attract and retain customers and partners, increase operational efficiency, and achieve greater visibility into their business processes. IT staff see business processes through the lens of the low-level parts of the flow, rather than at the business level. As a result, they aren't capable of implementing the processes so that they will meet continuously changing business requirements, thus impeding business agility. Business users are increasingly demanding that they have control over their own business processes - and so, are requiring systems that put control of the flow and logic into their hands, not those of IT. An Enterprise Service Bus based on a Service Oriented Architecture could be a solution and tie together the notions of service oriented process, service oriented integration and event-driven, message based interaction into a single environment that enables users to combine their assets and information from multiple points of view.

  4. Aeromedical solutions for aerospace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pawan; Gaur, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators. Comprehensive revision of policy permitting early return to flying is an on-going process. OPRAM courses for all three streams of aircrew in IAF have contributed to reduce aircraft accident rates. Human Engineering Consultancy and expert advice is provided by specialists at IAM as well as those in the field. In future, the country needs to provide better post-service opportunities to aerospace medicine specialists. This, in turn, will attract bright young minds to the specialty. The ISRO Humanin-Space programme will be an exciting challenge for all in this unique field. Aerospace Medicine continues to provide aerospace safety solutions to the IAF and the aviation industry. The nation needs to continue to utilize and support this specialty.

  5. Turbulence of Dilute Polymer Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Xu, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    In fully developed three dimensional fluid turbulence the fluctuating energy is supplied at large scales, cascades through intermediate scales, and dissipates at small scales. It is the hallmark of turbulence that for intermediate scales, in the so called inertial range, the average energy flux is constant and independent of viscosity [1-3]. One very important question is how this range is altered, when an additional agent that can also transport energy is added to the fluid. Long-chain polymers dissolved at very small concentrations in the fluid are such an agent [4,5]. Based on prior work by de Gennes and Tabor [6,7] we introduce a theory that balances the energy flux through the turbulent cascade with that of the energy flux into the elastic degrees of freedom of the dilute long-chain polymer solution. We propose a refined elastic length scale, $r_\\varepsilon$, which describes the effect of polymer elasticity on the turbulence energy cascade. Our experimental results agree excellently with this new energy ...

  6. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  7. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence [Director, Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security Programs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  8. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  9. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2017-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.

  10. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2016-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult’s law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed, others can be tested experimentally or by simulation. PMID:27225298

  11. Summer confort solutions in mediterranean areas

    OpenAIRE

    Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean countries is characterized by its complexity. Rapidly changing conditions mean that both cold and heat can be a problem. In architectural practice the design solutions that must be applied in buildings are complex. Solutions for summer comfort in Mediterranean areas also reflect this complexity. The causes of summer discomfort will be described and some examples of solutions against these will be showed and analized. Peer Reviewed

  12. Exact Solutions in Modified Gravity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Obukhov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the exact solutions in modified gravity. It is one of the main problems of mathematical physics for the gravity theory. One can obtain an exact solution if the field equations reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations. In this paper we consider a number of exact solutions obtained by the method of separation of variables. Some applications to Cosmology and BH entropy are briefly mentioned.

  13. Colligative properties of solutions: I. Fixed concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kenneth; Biskup, Marek; Chayes, Lincoln

    2004-01-01

    Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent-solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asym...

  14. Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]|[Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z{>=}4 and z{>=}3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Real-Time Ada Problem Solution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-24

    Method - Tools Solution Timeframe - Short-term Solution Approach - Remedial Solution 2 - Use a compiler which provides "fast" interrupt procesoing . A...applications will experience timing overhead impacts due to tasking features like task allocation, task activation/ termination , task switching...overhead compared to the processing done within the task itself: 26 Task Normal Description Overhead Proc. (usec) (usec) 1. Task activation and termination

  16. Exact Solutions for Some Fractional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Sonmezoglu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The extended Jacobi elliptic function expansion method is used for solving fractional differential equations in the sense of Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. By means of this approach, a few fractional differential equations are successfully solved. As a result, some new Jacobi elliptic function solutions including solitary wave solutions and trigonometric function solutions are established. The proposed method can also be applied to other fractional differential e...

  17. Partnering for A Solution: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Smith, Deyrah

    2003-01-01

    A material-related issue has been identified, which has the potential of impacting the Space Program. Although "in-house" efforts have been underway to solve the problem, a solution has not yet been reached. This presentation shows how a GIDEP member organization is using a Problem Advisory as a solution approach in an effort to receive information from other industry and/or government organizations that may contribute in finding a solution.

  18. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dada Vijay; Mehta Manoj

    1988-01-01

    In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. ...

  19. Vaidya-like exact solutions with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, M

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Oliva-Tempo-Troncoso black hole, a solution of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, a new class of the Vaidya-like exact solutions with torsion is constructed in the three-dimensional Poincar\\'e gauge theory. A particular subclass of these solutions is shown to possess the asymptotic conformal symmetry. The related canonical energy contains a contribution stemming from torsion.

  20. Molecular thermodynamics using fluctuation solution theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela

    to relevant experimental data is limited. This thesis addresses the issue of generating and using simple thermodynamic models within a rigorous statistical mechanical framework, the so-called fluctuation solution theory, from which relations connecting properties and phase equilibria can be obtained....... The framework relates thermodynamic variables to molecular pair correlation functions of liquid mixtures. In this thesis, application of the framework is illustrated using two approaches: 1. Solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvent systems are determined from fluctuation solution theory application...

  1. A numerical solution for a telegraph equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Modanli, Mahmut

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the initial value problem for a telegraph equation in a Hilbert space is considered. The stability estimate for the solution of this problem is given. A first and a second order of approximation difference schemes approximately solving the initial value problem are presented. The stability estimates for the solution of these difference schemes are given. The theoretical statements for the solution of these difference schemes are supported by the results of numerical experiments.

  2. On IR solutions in Horava gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Nastase, Horatiu

    2009-01-01

    In this note we search for large distance solutions of Horava gravity. In the case of the "detailed balance" action, gravity solutions asymptote to IR only above the cosmological constant ($\\sim$horizon) scale. However, if one adds IR dominant terms $\\alpha R^{(3)}+\\beta \\Lambda_W$, one can recover general relativity solutions on usual scales in the real Universe, provided one fine-tunes the cosmological constant, reobtaining the usual cosmological constant problem. We comment on pp wave solu...

  3. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  4. Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, E. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)

  5. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  6. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  7. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1–xCdxTe) for infrared (IR) sensor applications, but etch pit density ( EPD ) measurements are required to measure...dislocations that affect device performance. No EPD solutions have been reported for Hg1–xCdxSe, and standard EPD solutions for Hg1–xCdxTe have proved...ineffective. Thus, a new etching solution is required for EPD measurements of Hg1–xCdxSe. Samples were etched in various solutions and the resulting pits

  8. Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henz, T.; Pawlowski, J.M., E-mail: j.pawlowski@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de; Wetterich, C.

    2017-06-10

    Scaling solutions for the effective action in dilaton quantum gravity are investigated within the functional renormalization group approach. We find numerical solutions that connect ultraviolet and infrared fixed points as the ratio between scalar field and renormalization scale k is varied. In the Einstein frame the quantum effective action corresponding to the scaling solutions becomes independent of k. The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.

  9. Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, T.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Wetterich, C.

    2017-06-01

    Scaling solutions for the effective action in dilaton quantum gravity are investigated within the functional renormalization group approach. We find numerical solutions that connect ultraviolet and infrared fixed points as the ratio between scalar field and renormalization scale k is varied. In the Einstein frame the quantum effective action corresponding to the scaling solutions becomes independent of k. The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.

  10. Solution space assessment for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    literature study and analysis of solution space characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for solution space assessment. They are divided into five caterories: Profitability, Utilization, Variety Demand satisfaction, Architecture and Responsiveness. The metrics and be applied as KPI......In mass customization, the capability solution space development is essential to offer a variety of products which satisfies the idiosyncratic needs of the customers. We argue that there is a need for methods which can assess a company’s solution space and their capability to develop it. Through...

  11. Supergravity solutions for Born-Infeld dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Youm, D

    1999-01-01

    We construct partially localized supergravity counterpart solutions to the 1/2 supersymmetric nonthreshold and the 1/4 supersymmetric threshold bound state BI dyons in the D3-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. Such supergravity solutions have all the parameters of the BI dyons. By applying the type-IIA-type-IIB T-duality transformations to these supergravity solutions, we obtain the supergravity counterpart solutions to 1/2 and 1/4 supersymmetric bions carrying electric and magnetic charges of the world volume U(1) gauge field in the Dirac- Born-Infeld theory in other dimensions. (70 refs).

  12. Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.

  13. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  14. Solute Migration from the Aquifer Matrix into a Solution Conduit and the Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan; Field, Malcolm S

    2016-09-01

    A solution conduit has a permeable wall allowing for water exchange and solute transfer between the conduit and its surrounding aquifer matrix. In this paper, we use Laplace Transform to solve a one-dimensional equation constructed using the Euler approach to describe advective transport of solute in a conduit, a production-value problem. Both nonuniform cross-section of the conduit and nonuniform seepage at the conduit wall are considered in the solution. Physical analysis using the Lagrangian approach and a lumping method is performed to verify the solution. Two-way transfer between conduit water and matrix water is also investigated by using the solution for the production-value problem as a first-order approximation. The approximate solution agrees well with the exact solution if dimensionless travel time in the conduit is an order of magnitude smaller than unity. Our analytical solution is based on the assumption that the spatial and/or temporal heterogeneity in the wall solute flux is the dominant factor in the spreading of spring-breakthrough curves, and conduit dispersion is only a secondary mechanism. Such an approach can lead to the better understanding of water exchange and solute transfer between conduits and aquifer matrix. Euler and Lagrangian approaches are used to solve transport in conduit. Two-way transfer between conduit and matrix is investigated. The solution is applicable to transport in conduit of persisting solute from matrix. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Hausdorff continuous solutions of nonlinear partial differentail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was shown in [15] that very large classes of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's) have solutions which can be assimilated with usual measurable functions on the Euclidean domains of definition of the respective equations. In this paper the regularity of these solutions is improved significantly by showing that they ...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. An Enlarged Profile of Uremic Solutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Better knowledge of the uremic solutes that accumulate when the kidneys fail could lead to improved renal replacement therapy. This study employed the largest widely available metabolomic platform to identify such solutes. Plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate from 6 maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients and 6 normal controls were first compared using a platform combining gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Further studies compared plasma from 6 HD patients who had undergone total colectomy and 9 with intact colons. We identified 120 solutes as uremic including 48 that had not been previously reported to accumulate in renal failure. Combination of the 48 newly identified solutes with those identified in previous reports yielded an extended list of more than 270 uremic solutes. Among the solutes identified as uremic in the current study, 9 were shown to be colon-derived, including 6 not previously identified as such. Literature search revealed that many uremic phenyl and indole solutes, including most of those shown to be colon-derived, come from plant foods. Some of these compounds can be absorbed directly from plant foods and others are produced by colon microbial metabolism of plant polyphenols that escape digestion in the small intestine. A limitation of the metabolomic method was that it underestimated the elevation in concentration of uremic solutes which were measured using more quantitative assays.

  18. Solution Kinetics Database on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 40 NDRL/NIST Solution Kinetics Database on the Web (Web, free access)   Data for free radical processes involving primary radicals from water, inorganic radicals and carbon-centered radicals in solution, and singlet oxygen and organic peroxyl radicals in various solvents.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Rheological characterization of nephila spidroin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation into the rheology of solutions of natural spider silk dope (spinning solution). We demonstrate that dilute dope solutions showed only shear thinning as the shear rate increased while more concentrated solutions showed an initial shear thinning followed by a shear thickening and a subsequent decline in viscosity. The critical shear rate for shear thickening depended on dope concentration and was very low in concentrated solutions. This helps to explain how spiders are able to spin silk at very low draw rates and why they use a very concentrated dope solution. We also show that the optimum shear rate for shear thickening in moderately concentrated solutions occurred at pH 6.3 close to the observed pH at the distal end of the spider's spinning duct. Finally, we report that the addition of K(+) ions to dilute dope solutions produced a spontaneous formation of nanofibrils that subsequently aggregated and precipitated. This change was not seen after the addition of other common cations. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that the secretion of H(+) and K(+) by the spider's duct together with moderate strain rates produced during spinning induce a phase separation in the silk dope in which the silk protein (spidroin) molecules are converted into insoluble nanofibrils.

  2. The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)

  3. Asymptotically periodic solutions of Volterra integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad N. Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of asymptotically periodic solutions of a nonlinear Volterra integral equation. In the process, we obtain the existence of periodic solutions of an associated nonlinear integral equation with infinite delay. Schauder's fixed point theorem is used in the analysis.

  4. Numerical Solution of Differential Algebraic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove; Bendtsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Lecture notes for a PhD-course on the numerical solution of DAE's. The course was held at IMM in the autumn of 1998 and the early spring of 1999.......Lecture notes for a PhD-course on the numerical solution of DAE's. The course was held at IMM in the autumn of 1998 and the early spring of 1999....

  5. Power Series Solution to the Pendulum Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This note gives a power series solution to the pendulum equation that enables to investigate the system in an analytical way only, i.e. to avoid numeric methods. A method of determining the number of the terms for getting a required relative error is presented that uses bigger and lesser geometric series. The solution is suitable for modelling the…

  6. Manager, Human Resources Business Solutions | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Manager, Human Resources (HR) Business Solutions is responsible for the delivery of integrated HR business solutions to clients ensuring ... Work with the Director Human Resources, Manager, Global Compensation and Manager Employee and Labour Relations to develop objectives, set priorities and ...

  7. Super Darboux-Egoroff equations and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, Ruud

    1998-01-01

    Super Darboux-Egoroff equations are discussed. First of all linearity of the potential $\\varphi$ with respect to odd variables is proved. Solutions of Darboux-Egoroff equations in dimension $(2|2)$ including flatness of the unit vector field are constructed. Moreover solutions of Darboux-Egoroff

  8. IMCCE planetary solution: overview and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienga, A.; Simon, J.-L.

    2004-09-01

    The VSOP solutions of the planetary motions are analytical solutions of the planets of the solar system, from Mercury to Neptune. These solutions have to give highly accurate ephemerides on long time intervals, about several thousand years for the inner planets and 1000 years of the outer planets. VSOP2002 (Bretagnon, 2002), the last unfinished VSOP version processed by P.Bretagnon, will be presented and its current accuracy will be discussed. A new analytical solution, VSOP2003, based on VSOP2002, is under development: Pluto perturbations based on the new analytical description of its motion (Simon 2003) are added, we introduce the developments of the mean short periods based on TOP (Simon, 2000), perturbations of the 300 asteroids are added with a one angular parameter model. In parallel, numerical solutions are also under development. Compared to VSOP solutions, these solutions will give more accurate positions and velocities of planets over shorter periods of time. Two types of solutions are considered: i) one follows the JPL integrator and algorithm. Its current status of development as well as the accuracies achieved by this version under process will be given during the talk. ii) one is based on the symplectic integrators developed by Laskar and Robutel (2001). It will be very accurate on short period of time (ten years) but also on very long period of time (several millions of years).

  9. LHCb: DIRAC A community grid solution

    CERN Multimedia

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2007-01-01

    The DIRAC project began as a solution for the LHCb experiment at CERN to carry out massive Monte Carlo simulation and data processing on various distributed computing resources. Now it is evolving to a complete Grid solution for community of users such as LHCb.

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  11. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ISSN 1597-6343. Numerical Solutions of Some Parametric Effects Due to Electromagnetic Wave. Scattering by an Infinite Circular Cylinder. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE. TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING BY AN INFINITE. CIRCULAR CYLINDER. *1 Suleiman A. B. and 1 ...

  12. Analytical solution of one dimensional temporally dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemically non-reactive. The first order decay term which is inversely proportional to the dispersion coefficient is also considered. Initially the porous domain is considered solute free. Analytical solutions are obtained by using Laplace transform technique for continuous uniform and increasing input source concentration.

  13. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  14. Exercises and solutions manual - course 72241

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Bucka-Christensen, E. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A collection of excercises for group-work and examin tasks for the cource: "Measurement and Instrumentation Techniques". 72241. Solution are provided for the examination tasks.......A collection of excercises for group-work and examin tasks for the cource: "Measurement and Instrumentation Techniques". 72241. Solution are provided for the examination tasks....

  15. Analytic solutions of nonlinear Cournot duopoly game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a Cournot duopoly model with production externality in which reaction functions are unimodal. We consider the case of a Cournot model which has a stable equilibrium point. Then we show the existence of analytic solutions of the model. Moreover, we seek general solutions of the model in the form of nonlinear second-order difference equation.

  16. Surface tension of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drzymala, J.; Lyklema, J.

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory is developed for obtaining the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the surface excess Gibbs energy of electrolyte solutions from the dependence of the surface tension on concentration and temperature. For elaboration, accurate activity coefficients in solution as functions

  17. Clinical advantages of new peritoneal dialysis solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.; van Westrhenen, Roos; Zweers, Machteld M.; Struijk, Dirk G.

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the various mechanisms by which conventional glucose/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solutions can induce damage to the peritoneal membrane. The potential advantages of newly developed dialysis solutions and the results of recent studies on their use in patients are discussed

  18. Femtosecond reactivity of electron in aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gauduel, Yann; Migus, A.; Chambaret, J. P.; Antonetti, A.

    1987-01-01

    Femtosecond optical techniques allowing the generation of intense optical pulses from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared are used in the monitoring of ultrafast photophysical and photochemical reactions in aqueous solutions. Selected examples for dynamics of electron solvation in water and aqueous solution of ferrocyanide are discussed.

  19. Exact solutions for the biadjoint scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.D., E-mail: Christopher.White@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Centre for Research in String Theory, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-10

    Biadjoint scalar theories are novel field theories that arise in the study of non-abelian gauge and gravity amplitudes. In this short paper, we present exact nonperturbative solutions of the field equations, and compare their properties with monopole-like solutions in non-abelian gauge theory. Our results may pave the way for nonperturbative studies of the double copy.

  20. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  1. PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRIHAYE, Y; KUNZ, J

    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  2. New stiff matter solutions to Einstein equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.

    1989-01-01

    New exact solutions are presented to the Einstein field equations which are spherically symmetric and static, with a perfect fluid distribution of matter satisfying the equation of state /rho/ = p. One of the obtained solutions may only be used locally, the other represents the stellar interior globally and is singularity-free.

  3. New exact wave solutions for Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... integrals in polynomial form with a high accuracy for two-dimensional plane autonomous systems. Exact soliton solution is constructed through the established first integrals. This method is a powerful tool for searching exact travelling solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) in mathematical physics.

  4. My #safecities solution campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-19

    May 19, 2017 ... The conference, organized with IDRC by the African Leadership Centre, will offer many opportunities for online participation, including webcasts. my safe cities solutions posters. IDRC is running a campaign on Facebook and Twitter to highlight the many solutions generated by SAIC research and other ...

  5. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D = 5, N = 2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein-Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  6. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein–Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D=5, N=2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein–Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  7. Analytical solution methods for geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hackmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The observation of the motion of particles and light near a gravitating object is until now the only way to explore and to measure the gravitational field. In the case of exact black hole solutions of the Einstein equations the gravitational field is characterized by a small number of parameters which can be read off from the observables related to the orbits of test particles and light rays. Here we review the state of the art of analytical solutions of geodesic equations in various space--times. In particular we consider the four dimensional black hole space--times of Pleba\\'nski--Demia\\'nski type as far as the geodesic equation separates, as well as solutions in higher dimensions, and also solutions with cosmic strings. The mathematical tools used are elliptic and hyperelliptic functions. We present a list of analytic solutions which can be found in the literature.

  8. Exact solution to fractional logistic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    2015-07-01

    The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  9. Corundum dissolution in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    u-sheng Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The corundum (α-alumina core has been considered as a suitable candidate for investment casting of hollow, high pressure turbine engine airfoils due to its excellent properties. However, the efficiency of removing alumina cores in concentrated caustic solution cannot meet the needs of industrial production. In this paper, the effects of temperature and initial solution concentration on dissolution of α-alumina were studied by the classical weight-loss method. The fractal kinetic model was developed in order to describe α-alumina dissolution, assuming that the nonporous particles shrank during reaction process. The results show that the dissolution rate increases with increasing reaction temperature and initial solution concentration. Especially, the initial solution concentration has a significant influence on α-alumina dissolution rate at a higher reaction temperature. The activation energies decrease with increasing initial solution concentration, and the chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step.

  10. Radiation Driven Wind Solutions and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curé, M.

    2016-11-01

    The standard modified-CAK equation of motion is a non-linear differential equation that possesses many singular points and therefore many solutions. Apart from the standard solution, we have found three other physical solutions: i) when the rotational velocity is higher than 3/4 of the critical rotational speed; ii) when there is a high ionization change throughout the wind; and iii) when the k line force parameter is very high (k is the fraction of the total stellar flux which would be blocked in the photosphere if all lines were optically thick). We also show some applications of these solutions, e.g., the wind of a B[e] supergiant, the oblate wind of a Be star, and the winds of BA supergiants. Furthermore, we calculate synthetic spectra with FASTWIND, where we have used our new hydrodynamical solutions as input to the code.

  11. Transition between vortex rings and MAP solutions for electrically charged magnetic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Khai-Ming; Soltanian, Amin; Teh, Rosy

    2014-03-01

    We consider the bifurcation and transition of axially symmetric monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and vortex ring solutions in the presence of electric charge for the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory. Here we investigate the properties of MAP/vortex ring solutions with n = 3,η = 0.65, for different Higgs field strength λ. For λ ring solution, but at the critical value of λb = 4.93, branching happens and 2 sets of new solutions appeared. The new branch with less energy is a full MAP solution while the branch with higher energy contains MAP at the beginning and separation between poles of MAP on the z-axis reduces gradually and at another critical value of λt = 14.852, they merge together at z = 0. Beyond this point the solutions change to the vortex ring solutions and a transitions between MAP and vortex ring solutions happens at this branch.

  12. Stability of tacrolimus solutions in polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun H; Goldspiel, Barry R; Ryu, Sujung; Potti, Gopal K

    2016-02-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of tacrolimus solutions stored in polyolefin containers under various temperature conditions are reported. Triplicate solutions of tacrolimus (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were prepared in polyolefin containers. Some samples were stored at room temperature (20-25 °C); others were refrigerated (2-8 °C) for 20 hours and then stored at room temperature for up to 28 hours. The solutions were analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay at specified time points over 48 hours. Solution pH was measured and containers were visually inspected at each time point. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration at all time points, with the exception of the 0.001-mg/mL solution prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, which was deemed unstable beyond 24 hours. At all evaluated concentrations, mean solution pH values did not change significantly over 48 hours; no particle formation was detected. During storage in polyolefin bags at room temperature, a 0.001-mg/mL solution of tacrolimus was stable for 24 hours when prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and for at least 48 hours when prepared in 5% dextrose injection. Solutions of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL prepared in either diluent were stable for at least 48 hours, and the 0.01-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also found to be stable throughout a sequential temperature protocol. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Periodic Solutions and S-Asymptotically Periodic Solutions to Fractional Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Mu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions, S-asymptotically periodic solutions, and other types of bounded solutions for some fractional evolution equations with the Weyl-Liouville fractional derivative defined for periodic functions. Applying Fourier transform we give reasonable definitions of mild solutions. Then we accurately estimate the spectral radius of resolvent operator and obtain some existence and uniqueness results.

  14. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  15. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  16. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  17. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Barr; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Louis D. Schulte; Peter C. Stark; Rebecca M. Chamberlin; Kent D. Abney; Thomas E. Ricketts; Yvette E. Valdez; Richard A. Bartsch

    2000-03-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material.

  18. Disintegration of brown coal using alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Skalicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations carried out by the Institute of Geology and Geotechnics of the Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia are discussed. The investigations were aimed at determining the optimum conditions for in situ solution mining of brown coal using alkaline solutions. Twelve brown coal samples with carbon content ranging from 64.5 to 90.7% were treated with sodium hydroxide solution with concentration ranging from 1 to 5%. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (15%) and ethanolamine (5%) also were investigated. Proportion of the 3 compounds in water was the following: 500 ml sodium hydroxide, 100 ml ethanolamine and 20 ml hydrogen peroxide. Effects of coal grain size on its disintegration in the alkaline solution also were analyzed. Conditions of in situ solution mining were simulated in the laboratory. Investigations showed that the optimum coal grain size was 2 mm, in which case disintegration efficiency depended on carbon content in coal. The lower the carbon content was, the more efficient was the alkaline disintegration. Alkaline solutions did not influence brown coal with carbon content higher than 85%. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide was 3%. Addition of hydrogen peroxide and ethanolamine did not influence disintegration. When alkaline solution was pumped 96 h long into a borehole, it penetrated coal to a depth of 2 mm causing swelling of the borehole walls but not coal disintegration. 8 references.

  19. Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.

  20. The Krafft temperature of surfactant solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Jelena Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our main motivation to revisit the solution properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is related to the clear requirement for better control of the adsorption parameters to form uniform self-assembled monolayers on muscovite mica substrates. To readily monitor the temporal evolution of structural details in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, we realized a rather simple conductivity experiment. Conductivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature, to look closer into the Krafft temperature behavior of this surfactant. We measured the electrical conductivity of different concentrations of aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, below and above the critical micells concentration.

  1. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  2. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  3. Colligative Properties of Solutions: I. Fixed Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kenneth S.; Biskup, Marek; Chayes, Lincoln

    2005-05-01

    Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent--solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asymptotically agree with the formulas used in heuristic analyses of freezing-point depression. The limit of infinitesimal concentrations is described in a subsequent paper.

  4. Solutions of the coupled Higgs field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Benoy; Ghosh, Swapan K.; Saha, Aparna; Pal, Debabrata

    2013-07-01

    By an appropriate choice for the phase of the complex nucleonic field and going over to the traveling coordinate, we reduce the coupled Higgs equations to the Hamiltonian form and treat the resulting equation using the dynamical system theory. We present a phase-space analysis of its stable points. The results of our study demonstrate that the equation can support both traveling- and standing-wave solutions. The traveling-wave solution appears in the form of a soliton and resides in the midst of doubly periodic standing-wave solutions.

  5. Terahertz absorption of dilute aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, Matthias; Tobias, Douglas J; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2012-12-21

    Absorption of terahertz (THz) radiation by aqueous solutions of large solutes reports on the polarization response of their hydration shells. This is because the dipolar relaxation of the solute is dynamically frozen at these frequencies, and most of the solute-induced absorption changes, apart from the expulsion of water, are caused by interfacial water. We propose a model expressing the dipolar response of solutions in terms of a single parameter, the interface dipole moment induced in the interfacial water by electromagnetic radiation. We apply this concept to experimental THz absorption of hydrated sugars, amino acids, and proteins. None of the solutes studied here follow the expectations of dielectric theories, which predict a negative projection of the interface dipole on the external electric field. We find that this prediction is not able to describe the available experimental data, which instead suggests a nearly zero interface dipole for sugars and a more diverse pattern for amino acids. Hydrophobic amino acids, similarly to sugars, give rise to near zero interface dipoles, while strongly hydrophilic ones are best described by a positive projection of the interface dipole on the external field. The sign of the interface dipole is connected to the slope of the absorption coefficient with the solute concentration. A positive slope, implying an increase in the solution polarity relative to water, mirrors results frequently reported for protein solutions. We therefore use molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated glucose and lambda repressor protein to calculate the interface dipole moments of these solutes and the concentration dependence of the THz absorption. The absorption at THz frequencies increases with increasing solute concentration in both cases, implying a higher polarity of the solution compared to bulk water. The structure of the hydration layer, extracted from simulations, is qualitatively similar in both cases, with spatial correlations

  6. Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kipling, J J

    1965-01-01

    Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes provides a general discussion of the subject, which has so far been given little or no attention in current textbooks of physical chemistry. A general view of the subject is particularly needed at a time when we wish to see how far it will be possible to use theories of solutions to explain the phenomena of adsorption. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the types of interface, aspects of adsorption from solution, types of adsorption, and classification of systems. This is followed by separate chapters on experimental methods, adsorption

  7. Approximate solution for Fokker-Planck equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approximate solution to a specific class of the Fokker-Planck equation is proposed. The solution is based on the relationship between the Schrödinger type equation with a partially confining and symmetrical potential. To estimate the accuracy of the solution, a function error obtained from the original Fokker-Planck equation is suggested. Two examples, a truncated harmonic potential and non-harmonic polynomial, are analyzed using the proposed method. For the truncated harmonic potential, the system behavior as a function of temperature is also discussed.

  8. Pro SharePoint 2010 Solution Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hild, E

    2010-01-01

    This book takes a practical problem-solution approach to common business challenges. You'll not only encounter interesting code samples, but also see how to combine these examples with the Microsoft collaboration platform's services. The book's solutions focus on using Visual Studio 2008 and its built-in Office development tools to construct the user interface layer. And solutions can interact with SharePoint as a service provider, taking advantage of SharePoint's many collaboration features like document repositories, collaboration sites, and search functions. This book is unique because it s

  9. Extended solutions for the biadjoint scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Pieter-Jan; White, Chris D.

    2017-12-01

    Biadjoint scalar field theories are increasingly important in the study of scattering amplitudes in various string and field theories. Recently, some first exact nonperturbative solutions of biadjoint scalar theory were presented, with a pure power-like form corresponding to isolated monopole-like objects located at the origin of space. In this paper, we find a novel family of extended solutions, involving non-trivial form factors that partially screen the divergent field at the origin. All previous solutions emerge as special cases.

  10. Mechatronics ideas, challenges, solutions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliński, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Roman; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances and developments in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It presents contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. In particular the book is devoted to new ideas, challenges, solutions and applications of Mechatronics. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  11. Analytic solutions in nonlinear massive gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2011-09-23

    We study spherically symmetric solutions in a covariant massive gravity model, which is a candidate for a ghost-free nonlinear completion of the Fierz-Pauli theory. There is a branch of solutions that exhibits the Vainshtein mechanism, recovering general relativity below a Vainshtein radius given by (r(g)m(2))(1/3), where m is the graviton mass and r(g) is the Schwarzschild radius of a matter source. Another branch of exact solutions exists, corresponding to de Sitter-Schwarzschild spacetimes where the curvature scale of de Sitter space is proportional to the mass squared of the graviton.

  12. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.

    1985-01-08

    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  13. The comparative study on analytical solutions and numerical solutions of displacement in transversely isotropic rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizeng; Zhao, Zhao; Li, Yongtao

    2016-06-01

    This paper attempts to verify the correctness of the analytical displacement solution in transversely isotropic rock mass, and to determine the scope of its application. The analytical displacement solution of a circular tunnel in transversely isotropic rock mass was derived firstly. The analytical solution was compared with the numerical solution, which was carried out by FLAC3D software. The results show that the expression of the analytical displacement solution is correct, and the allowable engineering range is that the dip angle is less than 15 degrees.

  14. HCl, KCl and KOH solvation resolved solute-solvent interactions and solution surface stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Yinyan; Huang, Yongli; Sun, Chang Q.

    2017-11-01

    An incorporation of the hydrogen bond (O:Hsbnd O or HB) cooperativity notion, contact angle detection, and the differential phonon spectrometrics (DPS) has enabled us to gain refined information on the HCl, KCl and KOH solvation resolved solute-solvent molecular interactions and the solution surface stresses. Results show that ionic polarization stiffens the solvent Hsbnd O bond phonon from 3200 to 3480 cm-1 in the hydration shells. The HO- in alkaline solution, however, shares not only the same Hsbnd O phonon redshift of compressed water from 3200 to bonds of H2O surface featured at 3610 cm-1. Salt and alkaline solvation enhances the solution surface stress by K+ and Cl- ionic polarization. The excessive H+ proton in acid solution forms a H↔H anti-HB that depresses the solution surface stress, instead. The solute capability of transforming the fraction of the O:Hsbnd O bonds of the solvent matrix is featured by: fH = 0 and fx ∝ 1-exp(-C/C0) (x = HO-, K+ and Cl-) towards saturation. Exercises not only confirm the presence of the H↔H anti-HB point fragilization, the O:⇔:O super-HB point compression, and ionic polarization dominating the performance of the respective HCl, KOH, and KCl solutions, but also demonstrate the power of the DPS that enables high resolution of solute-solute-solvent interactions and correlation between HB relaxation and solution surface stress.

  15. Effects of Electronic-State-Dependent Solute Polarizability: Application to Solute-Pump/Solvent-Probe Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Ladanyi, Branka M; Stratt, Richard M

    2015-07-23

    Experimental studies of solvation dynamics in liquids invariably ask how changing a solute from its electronic ground state to an electronically excited state affects a solution's dynamics. With traditional time-dependent-fluorescence experiments, that means looking for the dynamical consequences of the concomitant change in solute-solvent potential energy. But if one follows the shift in the dynamics through its effects on the macroscopic polarizability, as recent solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra do, there is another effect of the electronic excitation that should be considered: the jump in the solute's own polarizability. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of this solute polarizability change in the classic example of the solvation dye coumarin 153 dissolved in acetonitrile. After demonstrating that standard quantum chemical methods can be used to construct accurate multisite models for the polarizabilities of ground- and excited-state solvation dyes, we show via simulation that this polarizability change acts as a contrast agent, significantly enhancing the observable differences in optical-Kerr spectra between ground- and excited-state solutions. A comparison of our results with experimental solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra supports our interpretation and modeling of this spectroscopy. We predict, in particular, that solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra should be sensitive to changes in both the solvent dynamics near the solute and the electronic-state-dependence of the solute's own rotational dynamics.

  16. Population and size distribution of solute-rich mesospecies within mesostructured aqueous amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Lee, Han Seung; McCormick, Alon V; Sefcik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of highly soluble substances such as small amino acids are usually assumed to be essentially homogenous systems with some degree of short range local structuring due to specific interactions on the sub-nanometre scale (e.g. molecular clusters, hydration shells), usually not exceeding several solute molecules. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have indicated the presence of much larger supramolecular assemblies or mesospecies in solutions of small organic and inorganic molecules as well as proteins. We investigated both supersaturated and undersaturated aqueous solutions of two simple amino acids (glycine and DL-alanine) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Brownian Microscopy/Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Colloidal scale mesospecies (nanodroplets) were previously reported in supersaturated solutions of these amino acids and were implicated as intermediate species on non-classical crystallization pathways. Surprisingly, we have found that the mesospecies are also present in significant numbers in undersaturated solutions even when the solute concentration is well below the solid-liquid equilibrium concentration (saturation limit). Thus, mesopecies can be observed with mean diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm and a size distribution that broadens towards larger size with increasing solute concentration. We note that the mesospecies are not a separate phase and the system is better described as a thermodynamically stable mesostructured liquid containing solute-rich domains dispersed within bulk solute solution. At a given temperature, solute molecules in such a mesostructured liquid phase are subject to equilibrium distribution between solute-rich mesospecies and the surrounding bulk solution.

  17. Considerations Regarding Designing and Administrating SOA Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions like SOA, Cloud, SaaS, Iaas or PaaS are not only buzzwords, they became a business reality because they are relative cheap and easy to use. SOA and Cloud are tightly linked because most cloud solutions are being defined using SOA making them feasible from the business perspective, because it’s hard to move to cloud when you are using a tightly coupled architecture. Big companies such as Oracle, Microsoft, IBM or Amazon offer many commercial solutions providing software as a service, as well as hosted and managed alternatives to classical deployment. For firms that are building private clouds and for service providers that are building public clouds, diverse solutions are offered by the big players for platform as a service and infrastructure as a service.

  18. Periodic Solution of the Hematopoiesis Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wu and Liu (2012 presented some results for the existence and uniqueness of the periodic solutions for the hematopoiesis model. This paper gives a simple approach to find an approximate period of the model.

  19. Multimodal Solutions for Large Scale Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-30

    In this research, a multimodal transportation model was developed attending the needs of emergency situations, and the solutions provided by the model could be used to moderate congestion during such events. The model incorporated features such as la...

  20. Multimodal solutions for large scale evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-30

    In this research, a multimodal transportation model was developed attending the needs of emergency situations, : and the solutions provided by the model could be used to moderate congestion during such events. : The model incorporated features such a...

  1. On oscillatory solutions of certain difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Grzegorczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some difference equations with deviating arguments are discussed in the context of the oscillation problem. The aim of this paper is to present the sufficient conditions for oscillation of solutions of the equations discussed.

  2. Database of magnetochemistry in solutions (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, O. Ju.; Vinogradov, A. G.

    1994-05-01

    The database (DB) of magnetochemistry in solutions was created to systematize and to critically review data of the magnetic susceptibility of liquids, solutions, and substances in solutions. The database ``MagChemSol 1.0'' was made on a mfoxplus base and may be supported by dbaseiii plus or higher. Search fields include substances, solvent, condition and method of investigation, critical magnetochemistry characteristics, and references to literature. All material is printable and the database can change and expand itself. System requirements include IBM PC or compatible with 640 Kb of RAM, 5 in. and 3 in. diskette drive or hard-disk, and dos 3.30 or higher; printers are Epson or compatible. The DB ``MagChemSol 1.0'' version includes about 1000 data entries according to the magnetochemical properties, the majority solvents in general use some diamagnetic and paramagnetic salts, and also the complex compounds of d and f elements in the solutions.

  3. Cosmological solutions with charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Rashida; Clifton, Timothy; Durk, Jessie

    2017-07-01

    We consider the problem of constructing cosmological solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations that contain multiple charged black holes. By considering the field equations as a set of constraint and evolution equations, we construct exact initial data for N charged black holes on a hypersphere. This corresponds to the maximum of expansion of a cosmological solution, and provides sufficient information for a unique evolution. We then consider the specific example of a universe that contains eight charged black holes, and show that the existence of non-zero electric charge reduces the scale of the cosmological region of the space. These solutions generalize the Majumdar-Papapetrou solutions away from the extremal limit of charged black holes, and provide what we believe to be some of the first relativistic calculations of the effects of electric charge on cosmological backreaction.

  4. Dynamic Selection Screen Generation for SAP Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cornelia Muntean

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an application for generating a dynamic selection screen in ABAP and the need and advantages of this solution instead of the manual modification of the coding itself for adding one...

  5. Mixing, entropy and reactive solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Hochstetler, David L.; Bellin, Alberto; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Rolle, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    Mixing processes significantly affect reactive solute transport in fluids. For example, contaminant degradation in environmental aquatic systems can be limited either by the availability of one or more reactants, brought into contact by physical mixing, or by the kinetics of the (bio)chemical transformations. Appropriate metrics are needed to accurately quantify the interplay between mixing and reactive processes. The exponential of the Shannon entropy of the concentration probability distribution has been proposed and applied to quantify the dilution of conservative solutes either in a given volume (dilution index) or in a given water flux (flux-related dilution index). In this work we derive the transport equation for the entropy of a reactive solute. Adopting a flux-related framework, we show that the degree of uniformity of the solute mass flux distribution for a reactive species and its rate of change are informative measures of physical and (bio)chemical processes and their complex interaction.

  6. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  7. Exercises and solutions in statistical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kupper, Lawrence L; O'Brien, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    ""I have found the book useful in preparing homework and exam questions in my current course, and I could see students benefiting from such a trove of problems with solutions.""-The American Statistician, February 2015

  8. International young physicists' tournament problems & solutions 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    International Young Physicists' Tournament (Iypt), is one of the most prestigious international physics contests among high school students. This book is based on the solutions of 2014 Iypt problems. The authors are undergraduate students who participated in the Cupt (Chinese Undergraduate Physics Tournament). It is intended as a college level solution to the challenging open-ended problems. It provides original, quantitative solutions in fulfilling seemingly impossible tasks. This book is not limited to the tasks required by the problems and it is not confined to the models and methods in present literatures. Many of the articles include modification and extension to existing models in references, or derivation and computation based on fundamental physics. This book provides quantitative solutions to practical problems in everyday life. This is a good reference book for undergraduates, advanced high-school students, physics educators and curious public interested in the intriguing phenomena in daily life.

  9. An approximation of solutions of variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Rhoades

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We use a Mann-type iteration scheme and the metric projection operator (the nearest-point projection operator to approximate the solutions of variational inequalities in uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces.

  10. Rayco Development Solutions, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayco Development Solutions, Inc. (the Company) is located in Hayward, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in several cities in California.

  11. Calorimetric studies of macromolecular aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    Both titration and differential scanning microcalorimetric techniques are shown to yield important information concerning the properties of macromolecules in aqueous solution. Application of titration calorimetry is examined in me context of deaggregation of canonic micelles (e.g.

  12. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  13. Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

    1981-01-01

    The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

  14. Numerical and approximate solutions for plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Gordon Hall, J.

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are compared for turbulent plume rise in a crosswind. The numerical solutions were calculated using the plume rise model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass.19, 585-590), over a wide range of pertinent parameters. Some wind shear and elevated inversion effects are included. The numerical solutions are seen to agree with the approximate solutions over a fairly wide range of the parameters. For the conditions considered in the study, wind shear effects are seen to be quite small. A limited study was made of the penetration of elevated inversions by plumes. The results indicate the adequacy of a simple criterion proposed by Briggs (1969, AEC Critical Review Series, USAEC Division of Technical Information extension, Oak Ridge, Tennesse).

  15. Generating geodesic flows and supergravity solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, E. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.a.bergshoeff@rug.nl; Chemissany, W. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: w.chemissany@rug.nl; Ploegh, A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.r.ploegh@rug.nl; Trigiante, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: mario.trigiante@polito.it; Van Riet, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: thomasvr@itf.fys.kuleuven.ac.be

    2009-05-11

    We consider the geodesic motion on the symmetric moduli spaces that arise after timelike and spacelike reductions of supergravity theories. The geodesics correspond to timelike respectively spacelike p-brane solutions when they are lifted over a p-dimensional flat space. In particular, we consider the problem of constructing the minimal generating solution: A geodesic with the minimal number of free parameters such that all other geodesics are generated through isometries. We give an intrinsic characterization of this solution in a wide class of orbits for various supergravities in different dimensions. We apply our method to three cases: (i) Einstein vacuum solutions, (ii) extreme and non-extreme D=4 black holes in N=8 supergravity and their relation to N=2 STU black holes and (iii) Euclidean wormholes in D{>=}3. In case (iii) we present an easy and general criterium for the existence of regular wormholes for a given scalar coset.

  16. Fashion design solutions for environmentally conscious consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Chen, Y.; Curteza, A.; Thomassey, S.; Perwuelz, A.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper intends to give an overview of the design solutions in fashion for environmentally conscious consumers, presenting green and ethical practices in contemporary clothing design. The results introduce the concept of slow fashion and discuss available fashion design solutions, giving most prominent examples of sustainable products and brands, these contain one or more design features. By this, the discussion extracts the main contemporary ideas. The presented examples of current offers are all envisioning less impact on the environment and society. Sustainable design solutions use more environmentally friendly materials such as organic cotton, incorporate circular design or design for recycling, e.g., replacing button closures with alternative closing possibilities or leather labels with printed versions, or ensure long product life through durability, among other methods. There are differing designs due to creators’ individuality. This overview can be beneficial for the future development of new solutions for more environmentally friendly fashion.

  17. Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines challenges involved in the integration of renewable energy into existing electricity grids. It provides models of power systems to show how the integration will effect conventional grids and various solutions to minimize the impacts.

  18. Remediation of Aqueous Solution of Cypermethrin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    288. Okeola, OF; Odebunmi EO; Ameen OM; Adebayo. GB (2011). “Adsorption of Iron (III) ion. Aqueous Solution Using Jatrophacurcas Seed. Coat Activated Carbon”, Proceedings of the 34th. Annual International Conference of the Chemical.

  19. An approximation of solutions of variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoades BE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Mann-type iteration scheme and the metric projection operator (the nearest-point projection operator to approximate the solutions of variational inequalities in uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces.

  20. Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2013-12-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff anytime and anywhere. In this paper we study fully distributed learning schemes for satisfactory solutions in games with continuous action space. Considering games where the payoff function depends only on own-action and an aggregate term, we show that the complexity of learning systems can be significantly reduced, leading to the so-called mean-field learning. We provide sufficient conditions for convergence to a satisfactory solution and we give explicit convergence time bounds. Then, several acceleration techniques are used in order to improve the convergence rate. We illustrate numerically the proposed mean-field learning schemes for quality-of-service management in communication networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Quantum corrections for a cosmological string solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrndt, K.

    1994-08-01

    The author investigates quantum corrections for a cosmological solution of the string effective action. Starting point is a classical solution containing an antisymmetric tensor field, a dilaton and a modulus field which has singularities in the scalar fields. As a first step he quantizes the scalar fields near the singularity with the result that the singularities disappear and that in general non-perturbative quantum corrections form a potential in the scalar fields.

  2. Cusped Bubbles Rising through Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Sostarecz, Michael

    2000-11-01

    It is well known that a bubble rising in a polymer fluid can have a cusp-like tail. We report on an experimental study of bubbles rising through solutions of glycerol/water with the addition of the polymer xanthan gum, a polyelectrolyte which becomes more rigid as the free ion concentration is increased. The addition of salt also decreases the elasticity of the xanthan gum solutions, and we observe its effects on the velocity and shape of the cusped bubble.

  3. New generalized nonspherical black hole solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Radu, Eugen; Rodriguez, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    We present numerical evidence for the existence of several types of static black hole solutions with a nonspherical event horizon topology in $d\\geq 6$ spacetime dimensions. These asymptotically flat configurations are found for a specific metric ansatz and can be viewed as higher dimensional counterparts of the $d=5$ static black rings, dirings and black Saturn. Similar to that case, they are supported against collapse by conical singularities. The issue of rotating generalizations of these solutions is also considered.

  4. Missing solution in a Cornell potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.B., E-mail: luis.castro@pgfsc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Física, CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis - SC (Brazil); Castro, A.S. de, E-mail: castro@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Campus de Guaratinguetá, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 12516-410, Guaratinguetá - SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Missing bound-state solutions for fermions in the background of a Cornell potential consisting of a mixed scalar–vector–pseudoscalar coupling is examined. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed. -- Highlights: •The Dirac equation with scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential is investigated. •The isolated solution from the Sturm–Liouville problem is found. •Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed.

  5. A solution defined by fine vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Sun, H.; Sun, H.; Hoede, C.; Driessen, Theo

    Bumb and Hoede have shown that a cooperative game can be split into two games, the reward game and the fine game, by considering the sign of quantities $c_v^S$ in the c-diagram of the game. One can then define a solution $x$ for the original game as $x = x_r - x_f$ , where $x_r$ is a solution for

  6. Piecewise polynomial solutions to linear inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Mosegaard, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have presented a new algorithm PP-TSVD that computes piecewise polynomial solutions to ill-posed problems, without a priori knowledge about the positions of the break points. In particular, we can compute piecewise constant functions that describe layered models. Such solutions are useful, e.g.......g., in seismological problems, and the algorithm can also be used as a preprocessor for other methods where break points/discontinuities must be incorporated explicitly....

  7. Solutions for 80 km DWDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Currently discussed solutions for 80 km DWDM transmission targeting inter-data center connections at 100G and 400G line rates are reviewed. PDM-64QAM, PAM4, and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) are investigated, while the focus lies on directly detected solutions. For DMT, the vestigial...... sideband approach significantly increases the tolerance toward chromatic dispersion and bandwidth limitation and gives way to a flexible DWDM 400G transceiver using four to eight wavelengths....

  8. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as mu...

  9. VMware Horizon 6 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Ryan; Langone, Jason; Leibovici, Andre

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop architect, solution provider, end-user consultant, virtualization engineer, or anyone who wants to learn how to plan and design the implementation of a virtual desktop solution based on Horizon 6, then this book is for you. An understanding of VMware vSphere fundamentals coupled with experience in the installation or administration of a VMware environment would be a plus during reading.

  10. Stabilizing Lateritic Soil Using Terrasil Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderinola Olumuyiwa S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses stabilizing lateritic soil using Terrasil solution. Preliminary tests were carried out on six natural soil samples from three borrow pit locations-two soil samples from a particular borrow pit location, for the purpose of identification and classification. Soil samples 1 and 2 from borrow pit 3 were found to be poor, hence, needed stabilization. While the other four samples from borrow pits 1 and 2 were found to be good enough. Engineering property tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and Compaction tests were performed on both the natural soil samples and the stabilized lateritic soil samples which were stabilized by adding terrasil solution in percentages ranging from 0% to 16% at 2% interval. The results showed that the addition of terrasil solution enhanced the strength of the two soil samples from borrow pit 3. For soil sample 1, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 8.4% at 0% to optimum value of 30.3% at 12% terrasil solution, while for soil sample 2, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 6.2% to optimum value of 32.0% at 12% terrasil solution. It was therefore concluded that the terrasil solution serves as a cheap and effective stabilizing agent for poor soil.

  11. Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.

  12. A Collaborative GIS Solution for Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Adrian COTFAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent years brought forward a large number of solutions for automating route finding given the increased availability of geographical data. However, such solutions rarely focus on mass transit or involve the user in submitting information in a collaborative manner to further improve the available dataset and provide additional services. The system presented here intends to fully address these issues by providing a modular, extensible collaborative one-stop-shop for public transport needs based on multi-source collaborative data inputs from both official and user-submitted sources with the usage of a flexible, genetic-algorithms based route-finding application. Implementation wise, the solution is based on an open-ended system of collaborative web-services with front-ends available on mobile, desktop and web platforms. The proposed solution will not only provide users with a powerful technical solution, but will address the theoretical concern by which the increase of available GIS data is solely used for last-mile, map-like solutions

  13. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  14. Stabilizing Lateritic Soil Using Terrasil Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinola, Olumuyiwa S.; Nnochiri, Emeka S.

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses stabilizing lateritic soil using Terrasil solution. Preliminary tests were carried out on six natural soil samples from three borrow pit locations-two soil samples from a particular borrow pit location, for the purpose of identification and classification. Soil samples 1 and 2 from borrow pit 3 were found to be poor, hence, needed stabilization. While the other four samples from borrow pits 1 and 2 were found to be good enough. Engineering property tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Compaction tests were performed on both the natural soil samples and the stabilized lateritic soil samples which were stabilized by adding terrasil solution in percentages ranging from 0% to 16% at 2% interval. The results showed that the addition of terrasil solution enhanced the strength of the two soil samples from borrow pit 3. For soil sample 1, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 8.4% at 0% to optimum value of 30.3% at 12% terrasil solution, while for soil sample 2, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 6.2% to optimum value of 32.0% at 12% terrasil solution. It was therefore concluded that the terrasil solution serves as a cheap and effective stabilizing agent for poor soil.

  15. Statistical Solutions of Hyperbolic Conservation Laws: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjordholm, U. S.; Lanthaler, S.; Mishra, S.

    2017-11-01

    We seek to define statistical solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws as time-parametrized probability measures on p-integrable functions. To do so, we prove the equivalence between probability measures on L p spaces and infinite families of correlation measures. Each member of this family, termed a correlation marginal, is a Young measure on a finite-dimensional tensor product domain and provides information about multi-point correlations of the underlying integrable functions. We also prove that any probability measure on a L p space is uniquely determined by certain moments (correlation functions) of the equivalent correlation measure. We utilize this equivalence to define statistical solutions of multi-dimensional conservation laws in terms of an infinite set of equations, each evolving a moment of the correlation marginal. These evolution equations can be interpreted as augmenting entropy measure-valued solutions, with additional information about the evolution of all possible multi-point correlation functions. Our concept of statistical solutions can accommodate uncertain initial data as well as possibly non-atomic solutions, even for atomic initial data. For multi-dimensional scalar conservation laws we impose additional entropy conditions and prove that the resulting entropy statistical solutions exist, are unique and are stable with respect to the 1-Wasserstein metric on probability measures on L 1.

  16. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T T; Cochrane, T A

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that the authors' new "aqueous solution vs pure water" equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of "free" water molecules per unit volume of solution, "Nf," and (c) the "t" factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate Nf was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors' equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. The provisional equations formulated to calculate Nf, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of Nf using recorded relative density data at 20 °C. They were

  17. Osmotic coefficient of aqueous solutions of cyclohexylsulfamic Acid at the freezing point of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Klofutar, Cveto; Rudan-Tasič, Darja

    2010-12-01

    The osmotic coefficient of aqueous solutions of cyclohexylsulfamic acid was determined by freezing point measurements up to the molality 0.65 mol kg-1. The osmotic coefficients were fitted to the Pitzer equation, and ion interaction parameters α1, β(0) and β(1) were evaluated. The mean ion activity coefficient of the solute was calculated, and the non-ideal behaviour of the system investigated was characterized by calculation of the excess Gibbs energy of solution, as well as the respective partial molar functions of solute and solvent. The partial molar excess Gibbs energy of the solute is negative, like the excess Gibbs energy of its solution, while the partial molar excess Gibbs energy of the solvent is positive and increases with increasing concentration of the solute. The solvation ability of water was calculated from the difference between the Gibbs energy of solution of water in solution and that of pure water, and found to be positive and small for the solute investigated, throughout the concentration range studied.

  18. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive Solute and Colloid Transport in Layered Fractured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G. J.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive solutes or colloids through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion (molecular or colloidal), (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical or combined sorption (for solutes) or filtration (for colloids), and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of daughter products of radioactive decay (or of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for pore size exclusion (straining) and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time, and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions of limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of H-3, Np-237 and Pu-239 (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems. Test problems of transport of Pu-239 colloids in multi-layered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly-sorbing solute species.

  19. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

    2015-07-01

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the

  20. On concentrated solute sources in faulted aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. I.; Werner, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Finite aperture faults and fractures within aquifers (collectively called 'faults' hereafter) theoretically enable flowing water to move through them but with refractive displacement, both on entry and exit. When a 2D or 3D point source of solute concentration is located upstream of the fault, the plume emanating from the source relative to one in a fault-free aquifer is affected by the fault, both before it and after it. Previous attempts to analyze this situation using numerical methods faced challenges in overcoming computational constraints that accompany requisite fine mesh resolutions. To address these, an analytical solution of this problem is developed and interrogated using statistical evaluation of solute distributions. The method of solution is based on novel spatial integral representations of the source with axes rotated from the direction of uniform water flow and aligning with fault faces and normals. Numerical exemplification is given to the case of a 2D steady state source, using various parameter combinations. Statistical attributes of solute plumes show the relative impact of parameters, the most important being, fault rotation, aperture and conductivity ratio. New general observations of fault-affected solution plumes are offered, including: (a) the plume's mode (i.e. peak concentration) on the downstream face of the fault is less displaced than the refracted groundwater flowline, but at some distance downstream of the fault, these realign; (b) porosities have no influence in steady state calculations; (c) previous numerical modeling results of barrier faults show significant boundary effects. The current solution adds to available benchmark problems involving fractures, faults and layered aquifers, in which grid resolution effects are often barriers to accurate simulation.

  1. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gulcan Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80 o C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours.

  2. Lattice model for water-solute mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, A P; Almarza, N G; Barbosa, M C

    2016-10-14

    A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction of solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting in, hydrophilic, inert, and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, and the behavior of pure components and the excess properties of the mixtures have been studied. The pure components, water (solvent) and solute, have quite similar phase diagrams, presenting gas, low density liquid, and high density liquid phases. In the case of solute, the regions of coexistence are substantially reduced when compared with both the water and the standard ALG models. A numerical procedure has been developed in order to attain series of results at constant pressure from simulations of the lattice gas model in the grand canonical ensemble. The excess properties of the mixtures, volume and enthalpy as the function of the solute fraction, have been studied for different interaction parameters of the model. Our model is able to reproduce qualitatively well the excess volume and enthalpy for different aqueous solutions. For the hydrophilic case, we show that the model is able to reproduce the excess volume and enthalpy of mixtures of small alcohols and amines. The inert case reproduces the behavior of large alcohols such as propanol, butanol, and pentanol. For the last case (hydrophobic), the excess properties reproduce the behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

  3. Electrical Conductivity and Chemical Composition of Soil Solution: Comparison of Solution Samplers in Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.

  4. Truncated VSV solutions to symmetric rank-deficient problems

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro, Richardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2001-01-01

    Symmetric VSV decompositions are new rank-revealing decompositions that exploit and preserve symmetry. Truncated VSV solutions are stabilized solutions computed by neglecting blocks in the VSV decomposition with small norm. We compare the truncated VSV solutions with truncated SVD solutions and give perturbation bounds for the VSV solutions. Numerical examples illustrate our results.

  5. Truncated VSV solutions to symmetric rank-deficient problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Richardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2001-01-01

    Symmetric VSV decompositions are new rank-revealing decompositions that exploit and preserve symmetry. Truncated VSV solutions are stabilized solutions computed by neglecting blocks in the VSV decomposition with small norm. We compare the truncated VSV solutions with truncated SVD solutions...... and give perturbation bounds for the VSV solutions. Numerical examples illustrate our results....

  6. Truncated VSV Solutions to Symmetric Rank-Deficient Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2002-01-01

    Symmetric VSV decompositions are new rank-revealing decompositions that exploit and preserve symmetry. Truncated VSV solutions are stabilized solutions computed by neglecting blocks in the VSV decomposition with small norm. We compare the truncated VSV solutions with truncated SVD solutions...... and give perturbation bounds for the VSV solutions. Numerical examples illustrate our results....

  7. Effects of organic solutes properties on the volatilization processes from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Chao, Huan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of organic solutes properties, including Henry's law constant (H), molecular weight (M), molar volume at normal boiling point (Vb), and solubility (S), on the usefulness of rate estimation by reference to a reference substance (i.e., reference substance concept) and on the evaporation rate were investigated by measuring the volatilization rate constant of organic solutes under different environmental conditions, including mixing and surfactants. It was found that if benzene was used as a reference substance, the ratio of the solute rate to that of benzene (F) becomes insensitive to water mixing, whether the solute possessed high or low Henry's law constant. In the presence of surfactants, however, the F value changes sharply as the solute solubility decreases. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), the F values are essentially constant irrespective of the presence of other chemicals (including organic compounds, surfactants, and salinity) and of the variation in temperature. On the other hand, the volatilization rates are closely related to molecular weight (solubility) in the existence of mixing (surfactants). Three different approaches, i.e., mass-transport theory, modified Knudsen equation, and reaction rate concept, were used to evaluate the dependence of solute volatilization rates on solute properties. It was concluded that the interaction between solute properties and environmental parameters might play a key role in the volatilization process of organic solutes under different environmental conditions.

  8. Solute transport with multiprocess nonequilibrium: a semi-analytical solution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Christopher J.; Ibaraki, Motomu; Sudicky, Edward A.

    2000-07-01

    A semi-analytical solution for the simulation of one-dimensional subsurface solute transport incorporating multiple nonequilibrium processes is presented. The solution is based on the theory developed by Brusseau et al. (1992) [Brusseau, M.L., Jessup, R.E., Rao, P.S.C., 1992. Modeling solute transport influenced by multiprocess nonequilibrium and transformation reactions. Water Resources Research 28 (1), 175-182.] which is a generalized combination of two-site and two-region model. In addition to developing a semi-analytical complement to their numerical solution, we extend the range of boundary and initial conditions considered. The semi-analytical solution can represent domains of both finite and semi-infinite extent and accommodates nonzero initial concentrations. The solution is derived in Laplace space and final results are obtained using an accurate and robust numerical inversion algorithm. The solution is particularly well suited for interpreting experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions. Identification of the input parameters for the solution is examined by simulating a column experiment by van Genuchten (1974) [van Genuchten, M., 1974. Mass Transfer Studies in Sorbing Porous Media. PhD thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.].

  9. Observation of small cluster formation in concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions and its implications to solution viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearley, Eric J; Godfrin, Paul D; Perevozchikova, Tatiana; Zhang, Hailiang; Falus, Peter; Porcar, Lionel; Nagao, Michihiro; Curtis, Joseph E; Gawande, Pradad; Taing, Rosalynn; Zarraga, Isidro E; Wagner, Norman J; Liu, Yun

    2014-04-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major class of biopharmaceuticals. It is hypothesized that some concentrated mAb solutions exhibit formation of a solution phase consisting of reversibly self-associated aggregates (or reversible clusters), which is speculated to be responsible for their distinct solution properties. Here, we report direct observation of reversible clusters in concentrated solutions of mAbs using neutron spin echo. Specifically, a stable mAb solution is studied across a transition from dispersed monomers in dilute solution to clustered states at more concentrated conditions, where clusters of a preferred size are observed. Once mAb clusters have formed, their size, in contrast to that observed in typical globular protein solutions, is observed to remain nearly constant over a wide range of concentrations. Our results not only conclusively establish a clear relationship between the undesirable high viscosity of some mAb solutions and the formation of reversible clusters with extended open structures, but also directly observe self-assembled mAb protein clusters of preferred small finite size similar to that in micelle formation that dominate the properties of concentrated mAb solutions. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Model for Solute Activities of Asymmetric Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Dutcher, Cari S

    2017-09-21

    Adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic models can be used to determine solute concentration and solute and solvent activities in aqueous solutions. Recently, the number of adjustable parameters in the isotherm model of Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. A/C 2011, 2012, 2013 were reduced for neutral solutes as well as symmetric 1:1 electrolytes by using a Coulombic model to describe the solute-solvent energy interactions (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, Nandy et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2016). Here, the Coulombic treatment for symmetric electrolytes is extended to establish improved isotherm model equations for asymmetric 1-2 and 1-3 electrolyte systems. The Coulombic model developed here results in prediction of activities and other thermodynamic properties in multicomponent systems containing ions of arbitrary charge. The model is found to accurately calculate the osmotic coefficient over the entire solute concentration range with two model parameters, related to intermolecular solute-solute and solute-solvent spacing. The inorganic salts and acids treated here are generally considered to be fully dissociated. However, there are certain weak acids that do not dissociate completely, such as the bisulfate ion. In this work, partial dissociation of the bisulfate ion from sulfuric acid is treated as a mixture, with an additional model parameter that accounts for the dissociation ratio of the dissociated ions to nondissociated ions.

  11. Disinfection of oral rehydration solutions by sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acra, A; Karahagopian, Y; Raffoul, Z; Dajani, R

    1980-12-06

    The use of a salt/sugar oral solution for rehydration in cases of diarrhea is being encouraged by the World Health Organization for developing areas. 1 problem so far with this treatment has been a question as to their safety when prepared with contaminated water or stored in contaminated vessels. An experiment was tried in which the recommended solution was mixed with contaminated water. Some of the containers were exposed to direct sunlight, some kept in the dark, and some stored in normal room conditions. Although the heat in the containers stored in sunlight did not rise significantly, the solutions were found to be purified. It is speculated that the germicidal action resulted from solar radiation near the ultraviolet range. The solution, itself, did not change composition. The microorganisms were not able to regrow within 24 hours after solar irradiation. 50 additional experiments confirmed the findings. It is concluded that this technique of solar irradiation of contaminated solutions will be effective. All types of containers were effective.

  12. Symmetric solutions of evolutionary partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruell, Gabriele; Ehrnström, Mats; Geyer, Anna; Pei, Long

    2017-10-01

    We show that for a large class of evolutionary nonlinear and nonlocal partial differential equations, symmetry of solutions implies very restrictive properties of the solutions and symmetry axes. These restrictions are formulated in terms of three principles, based on the structure of the equations. The first principle covers equations that allow for steady solutions and shows that any spatially symmetric solution is in fact steady with a speed determined by the motion of the axis of symmetry at the initial time. The second principle includes equations that admit breathers and steady waves, and therefore is less strong: it holds that the axes of symmetry are constant in time. The last principle is a mixed case, when the equation contains terms of the kind from both earlier principles, and there may be different outcomes; for a class of such equations one obtains that a spatially symmetric solution must be constant in both time and space. We list and give examples of more than 30 well-known equations and systems in one and several dimensions satisfying these principles; corresponding results for weak formulations of these equations may be attained using the same techniques. Our investigation is a generalisation of a local and one-dimensional version of the first principle from Ehrnström et al (2009 Int. Math. Res. Not. 2009 4578-96) to nonlocal equations, systems and higher dimensions, as well as a study of the standing and mixed cases.

  13. Oral Misoprostol Solution for Induction of Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Varsha L; Rajamanya, Apurva V; Yelikar, K A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effects of oral misoprostol solution for induction of labour. This is a prospective observational study. This study was conducted in Government Medical College, Aurangabad. Patients undergoing induction of labour after 36 weeks of pregnancy were allocated by randomization to induction of labour with oral misoprostol solution administered 2 h apart. Delivery within 24 h after induction with oral misoprostol solution was the primary outcome on which the sample size was based. The data were analysed by Statistical Software for Social Sciences software. Two hundred patients were randomly selected for induction with oral misoprostol solution. There were no significant differences in substantive outcomes. Vaginal delivery within 24 h was achieved in 80.5 % of patients. The caesarean section rate was 19.5 %. Uterine hyperactivity occurred in 4 % of patients. The response to induction of labour in women with unfavourable cervices (modified Bishop's score induction to delivery interval was more, oxytocin requirement was more, and vaginal delivery rate was less. This new approach to oral misoprostol solution administration was successful in achieving vaginal delivery rate in 24 h in 80.5 % of patients; rate of LSCS was less 19.5 %.

  14. Electronic cigarette solutions and resultant aerosol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S; Myers, Colton

    2015-10-30

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity exponentially. Despite their ever-growing acceptance, their aerosol has not been fully characterized. The current study focused on evaluating e-cigarette solutions and their resultant aerosol for potential differences. A simple sampling device was developed to draw e-cigarette aerosol into a multi-sorbent thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was then thermally extracted and analyzed via a gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This novel application provided detectable levels of over one hundred fifteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a single 40mL puff. The aerosol profiles from four commercially available e-cigarettes were compared to their respective solution profiles with the same GC-MS method. Solution profiles produced upwards of sixty four unidentified and identified (some only tentatively) constituents and aerosol profiles produced upwards of eighty two compounds. Results demonstrated distinct analyte profiles between liquid and aerosol samples. Most notably, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and siloxanes were found in the aerosol profiles; however, these compounds were never present in the solutions. These results implicate the aerosolization process in the formation of compounds not found in solutions; have potential implications for human health; and stress the need for an emphasis on electronic cigarette aerosol testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions: generalized Gibbs' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Alexander S; Schmelzer, Jürn W P

    2014-06-28

    Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions on planar solid surfaces is modeled taking into account changes of the state parameters of the critical clusters in dependence on supersaturation. The account of the variation of the state parameters of the cluster phase on nucleation is performed in the framework of the generalized Gibbs' approach. A regular solution is chosen as a model for the analysis of the basic qualitative characteristics of the process. It is shown that, employing the generalized Gibbs approach, contact angle and catalytic activity factor for heterogeneous nucleation become dependent on the degree of metastability (supersaturation) of the solution. For the case of formation of a cluster in supersaturated solutions on a surface of low wettability (the macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being larger than 90°), the solid surface has only a minor influence on nucleation. In the alternative case of high wettability (for macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being less than 90°), nucleation is significantly enhanced by the solid surface. Effectively, the existence of the solid surface results in a significant shift of the spinodal to lower supersaturations as compared with homogeneous nucleation. Qualitatively, the same behavior is observed now near the new (solid surface induced) limits of instability of the solution as compared with the behavior near to the spinodal curve in the case of homogeneous nucleation.

  16. Severe asthma: emergency care patient driven solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karen; Corrigan, Chris; Punshon, Geoffrey; Leary, Alison

    2017-08-14

    Purpose Patients with severe asthma were choosing not to use the emergency department (ED) in extremis and were self-medicating when experiencing severe asthma, putting their lives at risk. This local issue reflected a nationwide situation. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the reasons behind patients' reluctance to attend ED and to consider practical solutions in a structured way. Design/methodology/approach Systems thinking (soft systems methodology) was used to examine the issues resulting in this reluctance to attend the ED. Once this tame (well-defined) problem was revealed, a potential solution was developed in co-production with patients. Findings Patients feared attending the ED and felt vulnerable while in the ED for several reasons. This appeared to be a well-defined and solvable problem. The solution proposed was an asthma patient passport (APP), which increased patient's confidence in their ability to communicate their needs while in severe distress. The APP decreases (from 12 to 5 steps) the work patients had to do to achieve care. The APP project is currently being evaluated. Practical implications The APP should be offered to all people with severe asthma. Originality/value By revisiting systems thinking and identifying problems, a solution was identified. Although methods such as soft systems methodology have limitations when used in wicked (difficult or impossible to resolve) problems, such methods still have merit in tame problems and were applicable in this case to fully understand the issues, and to design practical solutions.

  17. SOME UNUSUAL SOLUTIONS FOR EUROPEAN NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernescu V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors present several non-conventional solutions unused in Europe which are, however, frequently adopted in some medium (M and low (L voltages (V networks from North-American and Australian countries, especially in low density areas of consumption in rural and urban distribution. The proposed solutions may assure diversified supply possibilities in our middle and South–Eastern regions, as regards modernizing and upgrading the distribution networks. The solutions try to propose to adapt our European practice to the North-American experience, aiming at developing more flexible, cheaper and safer supply of the consumers, both at MV and at LV networks. Several original solutions promoted in Romanian networks and their peculiarities are also described. The paper presents distribution schemes at medium voltage in connection with low voltage supply in different condition of neutral treatment at MV or LV. It also shows the measures to be adopted in order to diminish the investment expenses in low voltage at the supplied consumers. The technical condition of co-existence of OHEL at MV and LV on the same poles, without jeopardizing the LV equipment, is necessary. Among the solutions proposed, the authors also describe the unconventional one, consisting in the supply of isolated monophase consumer at MV by ground return and also the conditions necessary for sure and safe operation of this particularly connection. Finally, there are shown some conclusions about the necessity to assure imposed environmental conditions.

  18. Almost periodic solutions of impulsive differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamov, Gani T

    2012-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations are suitable for the mathematical simulation of evolutionary processes in which the parameters undergo relatively long periods of smooth variation followed by short-term rapid changes (that is, jumps) in their values. Processes of this type are often investigated in various fields of science and technology. The question of the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions of differential equations is an age-old problem of great importance. The qualitative theory of impulsive differential equations is currently undergoing rapid development in relation to the investigation of various processes which are subject to impacts during their evolution, and many findings on the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions of these equations are being made. This book systematically presents findings related to almost periodic solutions of impulsive differential equations and illustrates their potential applications.

  19. Ten-dimensional supersymmetric Janus solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estes, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gutperle, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: gutperle@physics.ucla.edu

    2006-11-20

    The reduced field equations and BPS conditions are derived in Type IIB supergravity for configurations of the Janus type, characterized by an AdS{sub 4}-slicing of AdS{sub 5}, and various degrees of internal symmetry and supersymmetry. A generalization of the Janus solution, which includes a varying axion along with a varying dilaton, and has SO(6) internal symmetry, but completely broken supersymmetry, is obtained analytically in terms of elliptic functions. A two-parameter family of solutions with 4 real supersymmetries, SU(3) internal symmetry, a varying axion along with a varying dilaton, and non-trivial B{sub (2)} field, is derived analytically in terms of genus 3 hyper-elliptic integrals. This supersymmetric solution is the 10-dimensional Type IIB dual to the N=1 interface super-Yang-Mills theory with SU(3) internal symmetry previously found in the literature.

  20. Complete Solutions to Extended Stokes' Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Min Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study is to theoretically solve the viscous flow of either a finite or infinite depth, which is driven by moving plane(s. Such a viscous flow is usually named as Stokes' first or second problems, which indicates the fluid motion driven by the impulsive or oscillating motion of the boundary, respectively. Traditional Stokes' problems are firstly revisited, and three extended problems are subsequently examined. Using some mathematical techniques and integral transforms, complete solutions which can exactly capture the flow characteristics at any time are derived. The corresponding steady-state and transient solutions are readily determined on the basis of complete solutions. Current results have wide applications in academic researches and are of significance for future studies taking more boundary conditions and non-Newtonian fluids into account.

  1. Sustainable manufacturing challenges, solutions and implementation perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Seliger, Günther; Bonvoisin, Jérémy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability imposes an unprecedented challenge on society and has become the driving force of an urgent search for innovative solutions in all branches of economy. Manufacturing plays a key role in many areas of human living, and it is both part of the problem and of the solution. This book offers an overview of the broad field of research on sustainability in manufacturing with a particular focus on manufacturing technology and management. It summarizes the current challenges, describes best in class methods for development of sustainable manufacturing solutions and offers implementation perspectives. This volume covers areas of research such as production processes, product development, business model and corporate development, macro economy and education. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  2. Dynamic Selection Screen Generation for SAP Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia MUNTEAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application for generating a dynamic selection screen in ABAP and the need and advantages of this solution instead of the manual modification of the coding itself for adding one or more parameters in the whole logic of the program. Depending on data found in a customizing table, we would like to generate a program with a selection screen, containing select options based on the criteria specified in the customizing table. The presented solution can be adapted to any dynamically generated ABAP program, according to the desired selection screen elements, and may be used as a template even for other programs. The advantages of the proposed solution are also presented along with the disadvantages, underlining the particularities of the ABAP programming language.

  3. Static solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))

    1989-11-15

    The structure and stability of static spherically symmetric solutions in the SU(2)-Higgs theory are examined using both analytic and numerical methods. Accurate results are presented for the energy and instability growth rates of the sphaleron'' solution as a function of the Higgs-boson mass. The sphaleron is shown to undergo an infinite sequence of bifurcations as the Higgs-boson mass is increased, starting at {ital M}{sub {ital H}}=12M{sub W}. New deformed sphaleron'' solutions emerge from each of these bifurcations. These deformed sphalerons are not charge-conjugation invariant, have non-half-integral winding numbers, and are lower in energy than the original sphaleron. Hence, for sufficiently large Higgs-boson mass, minimal-energy paths connecting inequivalent vacuum states do not pass through the original sphaleron configuration.

  4. Electro-ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Erik Børresen; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2007-01-01

    can be filtered with EUF, mainly due to a low surface charge and impurities in the feed solution. Using a pulsed electric field did not improve the flux compared to a constant field. Gel electrophoresis experiments of the enzymes appear to be a useful method for estimating the influence......To reduce the problems with fouling and concentration polarization during crossflow ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions an electric field is applied across the membrane. The filtration performance during electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) has been tested with several enzymes. Results show...... that EUF is an effective method to filter high concentrated solutions at low crossfiow. The flux improved 3-7 times for enzymes with a significant surface charge at an electric field strength of 1600V/m compared to conventional UF. The greatest improvement is observed at high concentration. Not all enzymes...

  5. Solution blowing of soy protein fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Ray, S; Zhang, Y; Yarin, A L; Davis, S C; Pourdeyhimi, B

    2011-06-13

    Solution blowing of soy protein (sp)/polymer blends was used to form monolithic nanofibers. The monolithic fibers were blown from blends of soy protein and nylon-6 in formic acid. The sp/nylon-6 ratio achieved in dry monolithic nanofibers formed using solution blowing of the blend was equal to 40/60. In addition, solution blowing of core-shell nanofibers was realized with soy protein being in the core and the supporting polymer in the shell. The shells were formed from nylon-6. The sp/nylon-6 ratio achieved in dry core-shell fibers was 32/68. The nanofibers developed in the present work contain significant amounts of soy protein and hold great potential in various applications of nonwovens.

  6. Are Entangled Polymer Melts Different From Solutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Mednova, Olga; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    The possible existence of a qualitative difference on extensional steady state viscosity between polymer melts and polymer solutions is still an open question. Recent experiments [1-4] showed the extensional viscosity of both polymer melts and solutions decayed as a function of strain rate...... with an exponent of -0.5. When the strain rate became higher than the order of inverse Rouse time, the polymer solutions showed an upturn [1, 4]. However, in the same regime for polymer melts, the experiments were contrary: some of the experiments showed an upturn [4, 5], while others did not [2, 3]. In order...... to further investigate the extensional steady state viscosity of polymer melts, we carefully synthesized two monodisperse polystyrenes with molar masses of 248 and 484 kg/mole. The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for the two melts using a filament stretching rheometer...

  7. NIR Spectroscopic Properties of Aqueous Acids Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R2 above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918–925 nm and 990–996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  8. Periodic solutions of Volterra integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the system of equationsx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sx(sds,           (1andx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sg(s,x(sds.       (2Existence of continuous periodic solutions of (1 is shown using the resolvent function of the kernel k. Some important properties of the resolvent function including its uniqueness are obtained in the process. In obtaining periodic solutions of (1 it is necessary that the resolvent of k is integrable in some sense. For a scalar convolution kernel k some explicit conditions are derived to determine whether or not the resolvent of k is integrable. Finally, the existence and uniqueness of continuous periodic solutions of (1 and (2 are btained using the contraction mapping principle as the basic tool.

  9. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  10. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While......We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... century. Unfortunately, from submissions of our call for papers presenting IS solutions for environmental sustainability, we found only one paper worthy of publication. Given that IS have been the major force for productivity increases in the last half-century, we suggest that IS scholars should immerse...

  11. Method of lines solution of Richards` equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  14. Exact solutions for helical magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villata, M. (Istituto di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)); Tsinganos, K. (Department of Physics, University of Crete and Research Center of Crete, GR-71409, Heraklion, Crete (Greece))

    1993-07-01

    Three novel classes of exact solutions of the generalized Grad--Shafranov equation for helically symmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria are presented. The first two classes may be applied to helical MHD equilibria for plasma confined between two coaxial cylinders, while the third one to the modeling of helicoidal magnetic fields and flows in several recently observed astrophysical jets. The same solutions can be also used for the testing of sophisticated numerical codes. It is also shown that all helically symmetric MHD equilibria can be treated by the same general method which is employed to generate exact MHD solutions for systems possessing an ignorable coordinate in a system of three orthogonal basis vectors, although in the case of helical symmetry an [ital orthogonal] ignorable coordinate does not exist, contrary to what happens in the well-known cases of axial and translational symmetries.

  15. Page turning solutions for musicians: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolberg, George; Schipper, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Musicians have long been hampered by the challenge in turning sheet music while their hands are occupied playing an instrument. The sight of a human page turner assisting a pianist during a performance, for instance, is not uncommon. This need for a page turning solution is no less acute during practice sessions, which account for the vast majority of playing time. Despite widespread appreciation of the problem, there have been virtually no robust and affordable products to assist the musician. Recent progress in assistive technology and electronic reading devices offers promising solutions to this long-standing problem. The objective of this paper is to survey the technology landscape and assess the benefits and drawbacks of page turning solutions for musicians. A full range of mechanical and digital page turning products are reviewed.

  16. Kinetics of gold dissolution in iodide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kang

    Cyanide has been used as a lixiviant for free milling gold ores for a long time. Cyanide solutions are highly toxic and their use poses long term environmental problems. Cyanidation process is efficient for oxide gold ores but it is ineffective for gold ores containing sulfides. Among the noncyanide based lixiviants, iodide has the potential of replacing cyanide due to its ability to leach gold at a wider pH range and higher rate of gold dissolution. The emerging technology of bio-oxidation is an accepted process for pretreatment of sulfide gold ores. The bio-oxidation is conducted at acidic pH which makes direct cyanidation without pH adjustment impractical. On the contrary, iodide leaching of gold from the bio-oxidized ore can be accomplished without any pH adjustment. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the kinetics of gold dissolution in various iodide-oxidant solutions under conditions similar to those prevailing in a solution containing bio-oxidized ore. The thermodynamic study indicated that gold can be spontaneously dissolved in iodide-hydrogen peroxide, iodide-ferric ion and iodide-persulfate solutions. Dissolution of gold powder was carried out in these solutions and the results showed that the gold dissolution was dependent on solution pH, concentrations of iodide, oxidants and temperature. Gold dissolution was found to increase with decreasing pH and substantial gold dissolution could be achieved at pH ≤ 2. Increasing concentration of oxidant till an optimum oxidant/iodide molar ratio increased gold dissolution and much higher concentration of oxidant would result in a decrease in gold dissolution. With increasing iodide concentration and temperature, gold dissolution increased significantly. The activation energy data which ranged between 9.6 and 13.6 kcal/mole for various oxidants indicated that surface reaction was the rate controlling step. At higher temperatures a change in rate limiting step with passage of time was observed

  17. On Suboptimal Solution of Antagonistic Matrix Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryashko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines resource allocation games such as Colonel Blotto and Colonel Lotto games with the goal to develop tractable method for building suboptimal solution in mixed strategies of these games without solving the relevant optimization problem. The foundation of proposed method lies in the specific combinatorial properties of the partition games. It turned out that as far as distribution of resource along battlefield is concerned that pure strategies participating in ε-optimal solution possessed specific structure. Numerical experiments showed that these specific structural peculiarities can be easily reproduced utilizing previously found combinatorial properties of partition. As a result, we get ε-optimal solution of partition games and support set mixed strategies can be computed in polynomial time.

  18. Minimal mass solutions to inverse eigenvalue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, G. M. L.

    2006-04-01

    One of the fundamental inverse problems in vibration theory is to construct an in-line system of masses and springs, fixed at one end, free at the other, so that it has a specified spectrum of natural frequencies. The solution, based on the work pioneered by Gantmacher and Krein, makes use of a second spectrum, that for the system fixed at both ends. We derive a closed form procedure to construct the system with a minimal mass for given overall stiffness from the first specified spectrum. The analogous problem of constructing a discrete model of a cantilever beam in flexural vibration having a specified spectrum uses two additional spectra corresponding to the previously free end being respectively pinned and sliding. We formulate the problem of finding a minimal mass solution for the given length and stiffness, and obtain explicit solutions in simple cases.

  19. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  20. Inverse solutions for tilting orthogonal double prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Bian, Yongming; Liu, Liren

    2014-06-10

    An analytical reverse solution and actual examples are given to show how to direct a laser beam from a pair of orthogonal prisms to given targets in free space. Considering the influences of double-prism structural parameters, a lookup table method to seek the numerical reverse solution of each prism's tilting angle is also proposed for steering the double-prism orientation to track a target position located in the near field. Some case studies, as well as a specified elliptical target trajectory scanned by the cam-based driving double prisms, exhibit the significant application values of the theoretical derivation. The analytic reverse and numerical solutions can be generalized to investigate the synthesis of scanning patterns and the controlling strategy of double-prism tilting motion, the potentials of which can be explored to perform the orientation and position tracking functions in applications of precision engineering fields.

  1. Arsenic species in solutions for parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Becker, Emilene; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Dessuy, Morgana

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its high toxicity, arsenic is a common contaminant in pharmaceuticals. This is stated by pharmacopoeias' monographs where it is not generically included with other heavy metals, but has its own specifications. Arsenic should not exceed 0.1 mg/L in most pharmaceutical products for IV administration. This limit, however, was established without taking into consideration the specific arsenic species which contribute to this amount. In this work, the presence of arsenite and arsenate species in solutions of amino acids, salts, vitamins, and lipids commercialized for IV administration was investigated. The measurements were done by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that all commercial formulations contain both arsenic species in some level; however, the total arsenic content exceeded the allowed limit in only a few samples. Calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate, heparin, and vitamin solutions were the most contaminated, presenting total arsenic concentration ranging from 62 to 249 microg/L. The most important finding, however, was the different ratios As(V)/As(III) among the formulations. Whereas practically only As(V) was found in ampoules containing water for injection and salt solutions (NaCl, KC1, phosphates), As(III) predominated in solutions of vitamins, gluconate, and glucose. As these are reducing substances, we investigated the possibility of their reaction with As(V) and its conversion into As(III). The heating of As(V) in the presence of gluconate, glucose, ascorbic acid, methionine, isoleucine, sodium chloride, and pure water, in autoclave for 15 minutes, showed that, whereas no As(III) was found in pure water and sodium chloride solution, approximately 50% of As(V) was converted into As(III) in the remainder of the solutions. The results showed that As(V), the main species in these formulations, may be converted into As(III), depending on the presence of reducing substances among the formulation constituents.

  2. Bringing nature-based solutions to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Balog, Simone; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje

    2017-04-01

    Coastal communities in developing countries are highly exposed and vulnerable to coastal flood risk, and are likely to suffer from climate change induced changes in risk. Over the last decade, strong evidence has surfaced that nature-based solutions or ecosystem-based approaches are efficient and effective alternatives for flood risk reduction and climate change adaptation. In developing countries, numerous projects have therefore been implemented, often driven by international donors and NGOs. Some of these projects have been successful in reducing risk while improving environmental and socioeconomic conditions. However, the feasibility assessment, design and implementation of nature-based solutions is a multifaceted process, which needs to be well-understood before such solutions can be effectively implemented as an addition or alternative to grey infrastructure. This process has not always been followed. As a result, many projects have failed to deliver positive outcomes. The international community therefore has a challenge in bringing nature-based solutions to scale in an effective way. In this presentation, we will present best practice guidelines on nature-based solution implementation that are currently being discussed by the international community. Furthermore, we will present the alpha version of a new web platform being developed by the World Bank that will serve as a much-needed central repository for project information on nature-based solutions, and that will host actionable implementation guidelines. The presentation will also serve as an invitation to the scientific community to share their experience and lessons learned, and contribute to the outlining of best practice guidance.

  3. New technical solutions in nanotechnology. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «The method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885» refers to construction and can be used to stabilize the base of constructed or restored buildings and structures by means of injections. The technical result is the increased flowability of hardening mortar and, consequently, volume of the space filled with the mortar through ground gaps. The method to produce hardening mortar includes the following operations: mixing of Portland cement and water, introduction of nanoadditive and mortar treatment. The mix of nanodispersed silica dioxide particles of different specific surface is used as nanoadditive. The nanoadditive is introduced into water to obtain colloid solution of specified concentration, the solution is mechanically mixed and additionally it is treated by ultrasound. Then the colloid solution is agitated with required quantity of mixing water and later – with Portland cement. To significally increase the flowability of hardening mortar it is necessary to use colloid water solution of mixture of nanodispersed silica dioxide particles of different specific surface, with concentration about 20÷35 mas.%. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to form crystal nanoporous oxide on the titanium-aluminium alloy (RU 2601904, nanoporous polymer foam with high porosity (RU 2561267, the method to introduce nanoadditives into polymers (RU 2585003, the method to process natural bitumen (RU 2600448, the method to produce nanosize powder stabilized zirconium dioxide (RU 2600400, raw mixture for production of foam concrete of autoclave hardening (RU 2600398, application of modified nanoparticles to timber to decrease emission of volatile organic compounds (RU 2600050, the

  4. Implementing SaaS Solution for CRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana LIMBASAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Greatest innovations in virtualization and distributed computing have accelerated interest in cloud computing (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, aso. This paper presents the SaaS prototype for Customer Relationship Management of a real estate company. Starting from several approaches of e-marketing and SaaS features and architectures, we adopted a model for a CRM solution using SaaS Level 2 architecture and distributed database. Based on the system objective, functionality, we developed a modular solution for solve CRM and e-marketing targets in real estate companies.

  5. Mercury dosing solutions for fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, A.; Boffito, C.

    2008-07-01

    A review of the different technologies used to dose mercury in fluorescent lamps is presented. Conventional liquid mercury dosing is gradually being replaced with more reliable and environmentally friendly solutions that enable a significant reduction of the amount of mercury introduced in the lamp, so as to cope with more stringent regulations issued to minimize the environmental impact of exhausted lamps. This paper will review the most advanced novel methods to assure an accurate and fine dosing of mercury in fluorescent lamps, especially focusing on solutions based on the use of solid alloys.

  6. Self similar solutions of generalized Burgers equation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelilah Gmira; Ahmed Hamydy; Salek Ouailal

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the initial-value problem $$displaylines{ (|u'|^{p-2}u')'+eta r u'+alpha u-gamma |u|^{q-1}u|u'|^{p-2}u'=0, quad r greater than 0, cr u(0)=A,quad u'(0)=0, }$$ where $A$ greater than 0, $p$ greater than 2, $q greater than 1, $alpha greater than 0, $eta greater than 0 and $ gamma in{mathbb{R}}$. Existence and complete classification of solutions are established. Asymptotic behavior for nonnegative solutions is also presented.

  7. Self similar solutions of generalized Burgers equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Gmira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the initial-value problem $$displaylines{ (|u'|^{p-2}u''+eta r u'+alpha u-gamma |u|^{q-1}u|u'|^{p-2}u'=0, quad r greater than 0, cr u(0=A,quad u'(0=0, }$$ where $A$ greater than 0, $p$ greater than 2, $q greater than 1, $alpha greater than 0, $eta greater than 0 and $ gamma in{mathbb{R}}$. Existence and complete classification of solutions are established. Asymptotic behavior for nonnegative solutions is also presented.

  8. Nonextensive statistical mechanics of ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, L.M. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: fmluis@usc.es; Carrete, J. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Munoz-Sola, R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez, J.R.; Gallego, J. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-10-29

    Classical mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory of ionic solutions is revisited in the theoretical framework of nonextensive Tsallis statistics. The nonextensive equivalent of Poisson-Boltzmann equation is formulated revisiting the statistical mechanics of liquids and the Debye-Hueckel framework is shown to be valid for highly diluted solutions even under circumstances where nonextensive thermostatistics must be applied. The lowest order corrections associated to nonadditive effects are identified for both symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes and the behavior of the average electrostatic potential in a homogeneous system is analytically and numerically analyzed for various values of the complexity measurement nonextensive parameter q.

  9. Complex Technical Solution for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex technical solution for implementing renewable energy, namely: wind, solar photovoltaic and hydraulics. Because wind and solar photovoltaic energy habe a highly random character, it is required to find solution to store the product energy for unfavorable periods, without wind or solar radiations. This could be achieved using the third type of renewable energy, the hydraulic one, obtained from an hydroelectric pumped storage plant (HPSP, located in the imediate vicinity of the wind and solar photovoltaic plant.

  10. Nucleation of gold nanoparticle superclusters from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Cingarapu, S; Klabunde, K J; Chakrabarti, A; Sorensen, C M

    2009-03-06

    Measurements of the solubility curve of a quasi-monodisperse gold nanoparticle solution are given. Temperature quenches from the one-phase to the two-phase regime yielded superclusters of the nanoparticle solid phase with sizes that depended on the quench depth. Classical nucleation theory was used to describe these sizes using a value of the surface tension for the nanoparticle solid phase of 0.042 erg/cm2. This value is consistent with molecule size scaling of the surface tension. In total these results show that suspensions of nanoparticles act like molecular solutions.

  11. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  12. On the solution topologies of polytropic winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailyn, C.; Rosner, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    1985-01-01

    Steady polytropic wind flows are studied by examining their solution topologies. The problem of whether the degeneracy of the continuous and standing shocked solutions in the isothermal case persist in the more general case of a polytropic expanding atmosphere is addressed. The effects of departures from spherical symmetry and nonthermal momentum addition are considered within the context of the new class of magnetospheric models proposed by Low and Tsinganos (1985). The flow near the boundary of a polar coronal hole is considered for the specific case of a magnetosphere in which this boundary asymptotically approaches the equator at large heliocentric distances.

  13. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G. [Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Quantum Field Theroy; Gitman, Dmitry [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2013-07-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  14. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  15. Accurate simulation of protein dynamics in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, M.; Sharon, R. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

    1988-10-01

    Simulation of the molecular dynamics of a small protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, was found to be more realistic when water molecules were included than when in vacuo: the time-averaged structure was much more like that observed in high-resolution x-ray studies, the amplitudes of atomic vibration in solution were smaller, and fewer incorrect hydrogen bonds were formed. The authors approach, which provides a sound basis for reliable simulation of diverse properties of biological macromolecules in solution, uses atom-centered forces and classical mechanics.

  16. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  17. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniewicz Lech

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  18. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  19. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  20. Silverlight recipes a problem-solution approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, J

    2010-01-01

    Silverlight Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition is your practical companion to developing rich, interactive web applications with Microsoft's latest technology. This book tackles common problems and scenarios that on-the-job developers face every day by revealing code and detailed solutions. You'll quickly be able to integrate real-world, functioning code into your applications-and save hours of coding time. The recipes included in Silverlight Recipes have been carefully selected and tested with the professional developer in mind. You'll find problems stated clearly and succin

  1. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  3. Synthesis of solid solutions of perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambekalne, M.Y.; Antonova, M.K.; Perro, I.T.; Plaude, A.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors carry out thermographic studies, using a derivatograph, in order to understand the nature of the processes taking place during the synthesis of solid solutions of perovskites. Based on the detailed studies on the phase transformations occurring in the charges of the PSN-PMN solid solutions and on the selection of the optimum conditions for carrying out their synthesis, the authors obtained a powder containing a minimum quantity of the undesirable pyrochlore phase and by sintering it using the hot pressing method, they produced single phase ceramic specimens containing the perovskite phase alone with a density close to the theoretical value and showing zero apparent porosity and water absorption.

  4. Classical thermodynamics of non-electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Van Ness, H C

    1964-01-01

    Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions covers the historical development of classical thermodynamics that concerns the properties of vapor and liquid solutions of non-electrolytes. Classical thermodynamics is a network of equations, developed through the formal logic of mathematics from a very few fundamental postulates and leading to a great variety of useful deductions. This book is composed of seven chapters and begins with discussions on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and the thermodynamic properties of fluids. The succeeding chapter presents the equations of state for

  5. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  6. Mercury dosing solutions for fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, A; Boffito, C [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, Lainate (MI) 20020 (Italy)], E-mail: alessio_corazza@saes-group.com

    2008-07-21

    A review of the different technologies used to dose mercury in fluorescent lamps is presented. Conventional liquid mercury dosing is gradually being replaced with more reliable and environmentally friendly solutions that enable a significant reduction of the amount of mercury introduced in the lamp, so as to cope with more stringent regulations issued to minimize the environmental impact of exhausted lamps. This paper will review the most advanced novel methods to assure an accurate and fine dosing of mercury in fluorescent lamps, especially focusing on solutions based on the use of solid alloys.

  7. Small signal microwave amplifier design solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  8. Nonstandard Constructional Solutions in Contemporary Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owczarek Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the design process on making the nonstandard patterns—constructional solutions in contemporary clothing design. A few examples of design processes have been presented, differing because of the source of inspiration and individuality of the designer in his or her strive to create original clothing forms. The influence of various factors connected with the development of new constructional solutions in clothing (including social, ideological, resulting from fashion trends, and the impact of the environment has also been presented.

  9. The classification of the single travelling wave solutions to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The discrimination system for the polynomial method is applied to variant Boussinesq equations to classify single travelling wave solutions. In particular, we construct corresponding solutions to the concrete parameters to show that each solution in the classification can be realized.

  10. The world solution for world problems : the problem, its cause, its solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    2002-01-01

    The book discusses the main world problem of today, which is the gradual, but lethal change of the soil and atmosphere, the main cause, which is the world-wide overpopulation, and the main solution, which is world government by lottocracy. It is a recipe for the solution of the one and only problem

  11. Iterative Solutions to the Inverse Geometric Problem for Manipulators with no Closed Form Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Johan From

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of new iterative solutions to the inverse geometric problem is presented. The approach is general and does not depend on intersecting axes or calculation of the Jacobian. The solution can be applied to any manipulator and is well suited for manipulators for which convergence is poor for conventional Jacobian-based iterative algorithms. For kinematically redundant manipulators, weights can be applied to each joint to introduce stiffness and for collision avoidance. The algorithm uses the unit quaternion to represent the position of each joint and calculates analytically the optimal position of the joint when only the respective joint is considered. This sub-problem is computationally very efficient due to the analytical solution. Several algorithms based on the solution of this sub-problem are presented. For difficult problems, for which the initial condition is far from a solution or the geometry of the manipulator makes the solution hard to reach, it is shown that the algorithm finds a solution fairly close to the solution in only a few iterations.

  12. Semi-ideal solution theory. 2. Extension to conductivity of mixed electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Ji-Guang; Liang, Qian-Qing

    2008-12-04

    Conductivities were measured for the ternary systems NaCl-LaCl(3)-H(2)O and KCl-CdCl(2)-H(2)O and their binary subsystems NaCl-H(2)O, KCl-H(2)O, CdCl(2)-H(2)O, and LaCl(3)-H(2)O at 298.15 K. The semi-ideal solution theory for thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of electrolyte mixtures was used together with the Eyring absolute rate theory to study conductivity of mixed electrolyte solutions. A novel simple equation for prediction of the conductivity of mixed electrolyte solutions in terms of the data of their binary solutions was established. The measured conductivities and those reported in literature were used to test the newly established equation and the generalized Young's rule for conductivity of mixed electrolyte solutions. The comparison results show that the deviation of a ternary solution from the new conductivity equation is closely related to its isopiestic behavior and that the deviations are often within experimental uncertainty if the examined system obeys the linear isopiestic relation. While larger deviations are found in the system with large ion pairing effect, the predictions can be considerably improved by using the parameters calculated from its isopiestic results. These results imply that the previous formulation of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of electrolyte mixtures has a counterpart for transport properties.

  13. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2010-05-25

    To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles. Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution) and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time. With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 +/- 0.5 seconds to 4.6 +/- 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa), the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R(2) = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R(2) = 0.563). Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.

  14. Solution-phase reaction dynamics: Gaining control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amanda S.

    2018-02-01

    Using infrared light to control the outcome of a chemical reaction is problematic in solution because of numerous interactions and non-specific sample heating. Now, condensed-phase results showing the vibrational enhancement of an otherwise thermally driven reaction may reinvigorate discussion of the practical applications of vibrational control.

  15. Soliton solutions for a quasilinear Schrodinger equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, critical point theory is used to show the existence of nontrivial weak solutions to the quasilinear Schrodinger equation $$ -\\Delta_p u-\\frac{p}{2^{p-1}}u\\Delta_p(u^2=f(x,u $$ in a bounded smooth domain $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  16. Explicit solutions of the Rand Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Nonlinear partial differential equations, evolution equations, symmetries, similarity solutions, Rand Equation. PACS-Code: ... Classical symmetry analysis - algebraic group properties ... The result is a well-defined system of eight linear homogeneous PDEs (describing the point symmetries) for the infinitesimals. ),(.

  17. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  18. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an initial proof-of-concept, a general case when the number of particles varies with respect to time is chosen. Three cases, i.e. (1) balanced aggregation ... The results are then compared with the available analytical solution, based on Laplace transform obtained from literature. In this communication, it is shown that the ...

  19. Download Strategic Plan: Investing in Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    results of the Centre's work around the world, in areas including health, agriculture, and security. This plan seeks to multiply that impact, positioning IDRC to bring knowledge, innovation, and solutions to even more people in developing countries. I believe this is important not only because it reflects our Canadian values, but ...

  20. Thermalized solutions, statistical mechanics and turbulence: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermalized solutions, statistical mechanics and turbulence only for an interval of time O(KG. −2/3). By using arguments of phase mixing, we can see that coherent structures can happen only at spatial points where the fluid velocity differs from the resonance velocity (the velocity of the shock) by an amount v such that v ≲.

  1. Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: microscopic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicent-Luna, J.M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Gómez-Álvarez, P.; Calero, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids are of special interest, due to the distinctive properties of ionic liquids, in particular, their amphiphilic character. A better understanding of the structure-property relationships of such systems is hence desirable. One of the crucial molecular-level

  2. Developing Tomorrow’s Innovative Surgical Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Breedon, P

    2009-01-01

    Designers are increasingly becoming aware of the potential use and integration of smart materials and technologies within their designs. One of the critical steps towards building innovative surgical solutions will be to link physicians and product designers utilising the appropriate materials and technologies to provide tangible improvements in patient care and treatment.

  3. Viscoelastic behavior and microstructure of protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty percent solutions of calcium caseinate (CC), egg albumin (EA), fish protein isolate (FPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), wheat gluten (WG), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were examined during heating by small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, which provided an indication of protein behav...

  4. Neuroprosthetics and Solutions for Restoring Sensorimotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    staining were done in the same condition, i.e. same concentration of the primary and the secondary antibodies, same blocking solution and incubation time...A fuzzy logic model for hand posture control using human cortical activity recorded by micro-ECoG. In: IEEE EMBC. Minneapolis, MN. 12. Wang W

  5. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  6. Regularity of solutions in semilinear elliptic theory

    KAUST Repository

    Indrei, Emanuel

    2016-07-08

    We study the semilinear Poisson equation Δu=f(x,u)inB1. (1) Our main results provide conditions on f which ensure that weak solutions of (1) belong to C1,1(B1/2). In some configurations, the conditions are sharp.

  7. Spheroid droplets evaporation of water solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Misyura S. Y.; Morozov V.S.

    2017-01-01

    Droplet film boiling on a horizontal heating surface was studied experimentally. The heat transfer coefficient of droplet water solution in the spheroidal state decreases with a rise of wall overheating and spheroid diameter. Evaporation of small spheroid (diameter d 20 mm). At the evaporation of large spheroids a spheroid shape changes in time that significantly affect coefficients of generalizing curves that use dimensionless numbers.

  8. EFFECT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS ON FERTILIZATION. AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEA URCHIN,. PARECHINUS ANGULOSUS. P. J. GREENWOOD & A. C. BROWN. Department o/Zoology, University o/Cape Town. ASTRACT. Eggs and sperm of Parechinus have been placed in sea water containing 1, ...

  9. Solution electrospinning of particle-composite fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Fojan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a simple and fast way to produce nano- and microfibers. By applying high voltage to a droplet of solution or polymer melt, fibre mats can be produced. These mats are porous in the micrometre domain, and have a high surface area to volume ratio....

  10. Solution space diagram in conflict detection scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Solution Space Diagram (SSD) as a measure of sector complexity and also as a predictor of performance and workload, focusing on the scenarios regarding Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)’s ability to detect future conflicts. A human-in-the-loop experiment with

  11. Solution to Problem–June 2005

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 10. Solution to Problem – June 2005. Soubhik Chakraborty. Think It Over Volume 10 Issue 10 October 2005 pp 92-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/10/0092-0093. Keywords.

  12. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laplace transform obtained from literature. ... used in the literature. Keywords. Population balance; aggregation; breakage; auxiliary equation method; Laplace transform. PACS Nos 02.70.−c; 02.30.Mv; 02.30.Jr. 1. ...... assumptions proposed earlier, a more realistic representation of the solutions is obtained compared to the ...

  13. Quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Koç, R; Tuetuencueler, H

    2002-01-01

    A method is suggested to obtain the quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian. It is conceptually simple and can be easily extended to other systems. The analytical expressions are obtained for eigenstates and eigenvalues in terms of orthogonal polynomials. It is also demonstrated that the Rabi system, in a particular case, coincides with the quasi exactly solvable Poeschl-Teller potential.

  14. Scaffolding Mathematical Modelling with a Solution Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Kolter, Jana; Blum, Werner

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented in this paper, we examined the possibility to scaffold mathematical modelling with strategies. The strategies were prompted using an instrument called "solution plan" as a scaffold. The effects of this step by step instrument on mathematical modelling competency and on self-reported strategies were tested using…

  15. CRYPTOGRAPHY- AN IDEAL SOLUTION TO PRIVACY, DATA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gains, revenge, terrorism and simple publicity. People in the communication and computer engineering have· really working to their best to introduce new security mechanisms on the one band and to make the already existing security mechanisms more tightening both ip software and hardware solutions, on the other band.

  16. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  17. New networking solutions support GEANT2

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Researchers across the globe are benefiting from new advanced networking solutions, deployed as part of the GEANT2. For the first time, scientists collaborating on the world's largest particle physics experiment, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now have access to point-to-point network connections between distributed research centres." (1 page)

  18. Evaluation of automatic vacuum- assisted compaction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brzeziński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently on the mould-making machines market the companies like: DiSA, KUENKEL WAGNER, HAFLINGER, HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO, HUNTER, SAVELLI AND TECHNICAL play significant role. These companies are the manufacturers of various solutions in machines and instalations applied in foundry engineering. Automatic foundry machines for compaction of green sand have the major role in mechanisation and automation processes of making the mould. The concept of operation of automatic machines is based on the static and dynamic methods of compacting the green sand. The method which gains the importance is the compacting method by using the energy of the air pressure. It's the initial stage or the supporting process of compacting the green sand. However in the automatic mould making machines using this method it's essential to use the additional compaction of the mass in order to receive the final parameters of the form. In the constructional solutions of the machines there is the additional division which concerns the method of putting the sand into the mould box. This division distinquishes the transport of the sand with simultaneous compaction or the putting of the sand without the pre-compaction. As the solutions of the major manufacturers are often the subject for application in various foundries, the authors of the paper would like/have the confidence to present their own evaluation process confirmed by their own researches and independent analysis of the producers' solutions.

  19. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  20. Solutions to the relativistic precession model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, A.; Motta, S.

    2014-01-01

    The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM

  1. Interpeace: local solutions, lasting peace | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    General, Interpeace. Photo of Matthias Stiefel "In the early 1990s “it became clear that what the international community had been trying to do — imposing solutions — was not going to work. We had to find a way to get all these ...

  2. An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2010-11-01

    Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

  3. Symmetrized solutions for nonlinear stochastic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adomian

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of nonlinear stochastic differential equations in series form can be put into convenient symmetrized forms which are easily calculable. This paper investigates such forms for polynomial nonlinearities, i.e., equations of the form Ly+ym=x where x is a stochastic process and L is a linear stochastic operator.

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  5. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    2. METHODOLOGY. The finite difference method for the solution of a two point boundary value problem consists in replacing the derivatives present in the differential equation and the boundary conditions with the help of finite difference approximations and then solving the resulting linear system of equations by a standard ...

  6. Approximate Solution of Rod Heating Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lasy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contains exact and approximate analytic representations pertaining to the solution of a homogeneous mixed problem for a non-homogeneous one-dimensional equation of heat conduction using a special psi-function. The order of an approximate formula accuracy is given in the paper.

  7. Existence of solutions of functional differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions of a functional differential inclusion. By using the variation of parameters formula we convert the functional differential inclusion into an integral inclusion and prove the existence of a fixed point of the set-valued mapping with the help of the Kakutani-Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem.

  8. Innovative solutions in Dutch DBFMO Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Prins, M.; Hansen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated building contracts are assumed to result in lower costs, better performance and more innovative solutions as a result of a collaborative environment, output specifications and long-time commitment. Life cycle costs can be reduced when investment and exploitation costs are brought in line

  9. Limiting profiles in reactive solute transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); R.E. Grundy; C.N. Dawson

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this paper we consider the large time structure of reactive solute plumes in two dimensional, macroscopically homogeneous, flow domains. The reactions between the dissolved chemicals and the porous matrix are equilibrium adsorption reactions, given by an isotherm of

  10. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly in the...

  11. Challenging mathematical problems with elementary solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yaglom, A M

    1987-01-01

    Volume I of a two-part series, this book features a broad spectrum of 100 challenging problems related to probability theory and combinatorial analysis. The problems, most of which can be solved with elementary mathematics, range from relatively simple to extremely difficult. Suitable for students, teachers, and any lover of mathematics. Complete solutions.

  12. aqueous solutions by caladium bicolor (wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maximum sorption was found to be 75.11 mg/g and 25.30 mg/g for Pb2+ and Cdº ... be used to predict the rate of pollutant removal from aqueous solutions in the ... The adsorbent used in the present study is C. bicolor (wild cocoyam) biomass.

  13. Recognition of caffeine in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiammengo, R.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    Binding of caffeine in aqueous solutions has been achieved for the first time by using water-soluble, tetracationic peptide-porphyrin conjugates Zn-1 as the receptor molecules. The association constant for caffeine with receptor Zn-1 is in some cases as high as 6000 M-1, only 5-6 times lower than

  14. BY DL-METHIGNINE IN ACID SOLUTION \\

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintain the ionic strength constant at 0.50 M; All other chemicals were used as supplied. Stoichiometric studies. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined by spectrophotometric titration with the mole ratio method. Solutions containing known concentration of Mn“'()2Mnw and varying concentrations of RSCH, were ...

  15. Optimal power flow solution using evolutionary programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, T.; Ravikumar, R.; Ramya, S.C.; Vandhana, M.S.; Swarupini, S. [Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Optimal power flow (OPF) is used to determine the optimal outputs of generators, bus voltages, and transformer tap settings in power systems. This paper provided details of an evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm for solving OPF. EP is a stochastic optimization method which analyzes the mechanics of evolution to produce optimal solutions by evolving a population of candidate solutions towards the global minimum through the use of a mutation operator and selection scheme. In this study, EP was used to determine the global optimum solution to the OPF for a range of constraints and objective functions as well as to develop non-convex generator cost curves. The proposed algorithm was applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system under different generator input-output curves. Two sets of generator cost curves were then used to illustrate the robustness of the technique. The first case considered all curves as quadratic. In the second case, a number of local optimal solutions for the dispatch problem were developed. The EP-based OPF algorithm method was then compared with results obtained from a genetic algorithm. Results showed that the EP-based algorithm was reliable even in nonlinear cases with value point loading. It was concluded that the proposed algorithm produced optimal results. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. The School Dropout: Causes, Effects and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinal, Terry Lynn

    This document reviews the literature on elementary and secondary school dropouts and notes the effects and possible solutions to the dropout problem. Statistical findings about dropouts from the 1960's to the present are presented along with methods of predicting who the dropouts will be. Dropout characteristics, including psychological, social,…

  17. Cyanide poisoning from metal cleaning solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, A; Saxena, K

    1987-05-01

    We report two cases of cyanide poisoning from accidental ingestion of an imported metal cleaning solution used by some Southeast Asians for shining coins. Both patients received specific therapy and recovered completely after a dramatic sequence of sudden collapse and severe cardiovascular compromise.

  18. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used

  19. Optimal control solutions to sodic soil reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-05-01

    We study the reclamation process of a sodic soil by irrigation with water amended with calcium cations. In order to explore the entire range of time-dependent strategies, this task is framed as an optimal control problem, where the amendment rate is the control and the total rehabilitation time is the quantity to be minimized. We use a minimalist model of vertically averaged soil salinity and sodicity, in which the main feedback controlling the dynamics is the nonlinear coupling of soil water and exchange complex, given by the Gapon equation. We show that the optimal solution is a bang-bang control strategy, where the amendment rate is discontinuously switched along the process from a maximum value to zero. The solution enables a reduction in remediation time of about 50%, compared with the continuous use of good-quality irrigation water. Because of its general structure, the bang-bang solution is also shown to work for the reclamation of other soil conditions, such as saline-sodic soils. The novelty in our modeling approach is the capability of searching the entire "strategy space" for optimal time-dependent protocols. The optimal solutions found for the minimalist model can be then fine-tuned by experiments and numerical simulations, applicable to realistic conditions that include spatial variability and heterogeneities.

  20. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  1. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  2. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  3. ANALYTICAL BENDING SOLUTION OF ALL CLAMPED ISOTROPIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYTICAL BENDING SOLUTION OF ALL CLAMPED ISOTROPIC RECTANGULAR PLATE ON WINKLER’S FOUNDATION USING CHARACTERISTIC ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  4. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and…

  5. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  6. Constant force extensional rheometry of polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.; Clasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the rapid stretching of a liquid filament under the action of a constant imposed tensile force, a problem which was first considered by Matta and Tytus [J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 35 (1990) 215–229]. A liquid bridge formed from a viscous Newtonian fluid or from a dilute polymer solution...

  7. An Integrated Playful Music Learning Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Frimodt-Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instru- ment. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various ac- tivities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help...... quality together with shared audio and video material that can be viewed by teacher and peers....

  8. Climate change: the science, impacts and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittock, A. Barrie

    2009-01-01

    ... Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry Pittock, A. Barrie, 1938- Climate change : the science, impacts and solutions / A. Barrie Pittock. 2nd ed. 9780643094840 (pbk.) Includes index. Bibliography. Climatic changes - Government policy. Climatic changes - Risk assessment. Global environmental change. Greenhouse effect, Atmospheric. ...

  9. Direct multiangle solution for poorly stratified atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    The direct multiangle solution is considered, which allows improving the scanning lidar-data-inversion accuracy when the requirement of the horizontally stratified atmosphere is poorly met. The signal measured at zenith or close to zenith is used as a core source for extracting optical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol loading. The multiangle signals are used...

  10. Developing Tomorrow’s Innovative Surgical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Breedon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Designers are increasingly becoming aware of the potential use and integration of smart materials and technologies within their designs. One of the critical steps towards building innovative surgical solutions will be to link physicians and product designers utilising the appropriate materials and technologies to provide tangible improvements in patient care and treatment.

  11. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  12. Analytical Solutions To Describe Juxtaposed Sands | Adeniji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... face flow rate, but can be extended, using convolution integral that can be deconvolved by Laplace transformation, to correct for storage capacity of the well bore and near well bore complexities. These solutions can improve design and analysis of interference testing. Type curves are presented to characterize flow regime ...

  13. Frontiers of solution-oriented adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisaro, A.; Swart, R.J.; Hinkel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is heterogeneous and relevant for a range of sectors and levels of decision-making. As adaptation moves up the policy agenda, solution-oriented adaptation research requires addressing questions that are salient to stakeholders and decision-makers at various scales and involves applying a

  14. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient.

  15. Study of TATP: stability of TATP solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachman, Jiri; Matyáš, Robert

    2011-04-15

    Stability of raw TATP (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane) samples in solutions of common solvents was studied to highlight problems faced by forensic labs in identification and analysis of organic peroxide samples. The TATP samples were prepared by reaction of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (30%) with the aid of following catalysts: hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, perchloric and methanesulfonic acid. Acetone, acetonitrile, methanol and acetonitrile/water solutions of TATP samples were prepared and stored at 50°C. Various degrees of stability were observed for particular combination of catalyst and solvent ranging from totally unstable (catalyst-H(2)SO(4)/any solvent) to very stable (catalyst-HCl/solvent acetonitrile). Purification of crude TATP by re-crystallization results in product stable in all investigated solvents. Stability of solution prepared from re-crystallized DADP (3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,2,4,5-tetroxane) was found to be on the same level as the stability of solution of re-crystallized TATP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New exact wave solutions for Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) of mathematical physics are major sub- jects in physical science. With the development of soliton theory, many useful methods for obtaining exact solutions of NPDEs have been presented. Some of them are: the (G /G)- expansion method [1–4], the simplest equation method ...

  17. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  18. Augmenting solute clearance in peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, R. T.; Douma, C. E.; van Olden, R. W.; Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, M. M.; Struijk, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The removal of low molecular weight solutes by peritoneal dialysis is less than by hemodialysis. The targets for Kt/Vurea and creatinine clearance formulated in the Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative are unlikely to be achieved in a substantial portion of peritoneal dialysis patients.

  19. Process for preparing concentrated byproduct nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.

    1988-07-12

    This patent describes a process for preparing a concentrated aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, further containing sulfate ions and a substantially reduced portion of calcium ions from a dilute aqueous waste stream. The stream is characterized by having a neutral pH and containing ammonium nitrate and sulfate ions and calcium ions.

  20. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we discuss about some basic things of boundary value problems. Secondly, we study boundary conditions involving derivatives and obtain finite difference approximations of partial derivatives of boundary value problems. The last section is devoted to determine an approximate solution for boundary value ...

  1. Composite finite element solutions for neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T.; Wilson, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Composite solutions for neutron transport employ a finite element representation for a spatial dependence of the angular flux and spherical-harmonic expansions for its directional dependence. The orders of the spherical harmonic expansions are varied from region to region, according to the physical characteristics of the regions, so that the massive calculations inherent with high-order expansions can be confined to the regions for which they are essential. The transitions from low- to high-order expansions are made at the interfaces of elements. The K/sup +-/ boundary-free maximum principle provides a convenient means of optimizing a composite approximate solution for the angular flux. The way in which penalty weighting of interfaces is used to optimize composite solutions is investigated theoretically and numerically. The method is illustrated by solutions of two benchmark problems. An estimate for penalty weightings is obtained by deriving a central difference analogue of the even-parity transport equation. This provides also a demonstration of the use of admissible, wildly nonconforming elements in a maximum principle.

  2. Exact Solution for a Gravitational Wave Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri; Borissova, Larissa

    2008-04-01

    The experimental statement on gravitational waves proceeds from the equation for deviating geodesic lines and the equation for deviating non-geodesics. Weber's result was not based upon an exact solution to the equations, but on an approximate analysis of what could be expected: he expected that a plane weak wave of the space metric may displace two resting particles with respect to each other. In this work, exact solutions are presented for the deviation equation of both free and spring-connected particles. The solutions show that a gravitational wave may displace particles in a two-particle system only if they are in motion with respect to each other or the local space (there is no effect if they are at rest). Thus, gravitational waves produce a parametric effect on a two-particle system. According to the solutions, an altered detector construction can be proposed such that it might interact with gravitational waves: 1) a horizontally suspended cylindrical pig, whose butt-ends have basic relative oscillations induced by a laboratory source; 2) a free-mass detector where suspended mirrors have laboratory induced basic oscillations relative to each other.

  3. Creating by Reusing Learning Design Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Harrer, Andreas; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Hernández-Leo, D., Harrer, A., Dodero, J. M., Asension-Pérez, J. I., & Burgos, D. (2006). Creating by reusing Learning Design solutions. Proceedings of 8th Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology. Retrieved October 3rd, 2006, from

  4. Diffusion of organic solutes in squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Bruce A; Watson, Michael B

    2011-08-18

    The translational diffusion constants, D, of 26 hydrocarbons have been determined in squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) at room temperature using capillary flow techniques. These new data and previously published room-temperature D values for the same solutes in some (or all) of the n-alkanes n-C(6)-n-C(16) constitute a study of solute diffusion in media spanning a 100-fold change in viscosity; at 23 °C, η = 0.31 cP for n-C(6), 3.2 cP for n-C(16), and 30 cP for squalane. The D values in the n-alkanes and squalane show deviations from the Stokes-Einstein relation, D = k(B)T/(6πηr); the values of r, a solute's hydrodynamic radius, decrease as the viscosity increases. The deviations increase as the solute size decreases and are analyzed by fitting the diffusion constants to the modified Stokes-Einstein equation, D/T = A(SE)/η(p). Fits involving the n-alkane-only and combined n-alkane-squalane D values give comparable results with values of p squalane.

  5. Bridge Hopping on Conducting Polymers in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hone, Daniel W.; Orland, Henri

    2000-01-01

    Configurational fluctuations of conducting polymers in solution can bring into proximity monomers which are distant from each other along the backbone. Electrons can hop between these monomers across the "bridges" so formed. We show how this can lead to (i) a collapse transition for metallic polymers, and (ii) to the observed dramatic efficiency of acceptor molecules for quenching fluorescence in semiconducting polymers.

  6. CORROSION TESTING IN SIMULATED TANK SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.

    2010-12-09

    Three simulated waste solutions representing wastes from tanks SY-102 (high nitrate, modified to exceed guidance limits), AN-107, and AY-102 were supplied by PNNL. Out of the three solutions tested, both optical and electrochemical results show that carbon steel samples corroded much faster in SY-102 (high nitrate) than in the other two solutions with lower ratios of nitrate to nitrite. The effect of the surface preparation was not as strong as the effect of solution chemistry. In areas with pristine mill-scale surface, no corrosion occurred even in the SY-102 (high nitrate) solution, however, corrosion occurred in the areas where the mill-scale was damaged or flaked off due to machining. Localized corrosion in the form of pitting in the vapor space of tank walls is an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of the liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. It has been shown that the liquid waste condensate chemistry influences the amount of corrosion that occurs along the walls of the storage tanks. To minimize pitting corrosion, an effort is underway to gain an understanding of the pitting response in various simulated waste solutions. Electrochemical testing has been used as an accelerated tool in the investigation of pitting corrosion. While significant effort has been undertaken to evaluate the pitting susceptibility of carbon steel in various simulated waste solutions, additional effort is needed to evaluate the effect of liquid waste supernates from six Hanford Site tanks (AY-101, AY-102, AN-102, AN-107, SY-102 (high Cl{sup -}), and SY-102 (high nitrate)) on carbon steel. Solutions were formulated at PNNL to replicate tank conditions, and in the case of SY-102, exceed Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} conditions, respectively, to provide a contrast between in and out of specification limits. The majority of previous testing has been performed on pristine polished samples. To evaluate the actual tank carbon steel

  7. Aluminum Content of Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K; Heisel, Carl F; Vermillion, Benjamin R; Christensen, J Mark; Minc, Leah

    2017-04-01

    Calcium chloride (CaCl2) has been the only calcium additive available in the United States that has a low aluminum (Al) content. Calcium gluconate in glass vials (CaGluc-Gl) has a high Al content while calcium gluconate in plastic vials (CaGluc-Pl) has a low Al content. The purpose of this study was to measure Al concentrations in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions prepared using various calcium additives. Samples of solutions compounded with CaCl2 or CaGluc-Gl and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) as well as CaGluc-Pl and sodium glycerophosphate (NaGP) with and without cysteine were analyzed for Al content. Samples of the cysteine and calcium gluconate additives were also sent for analysis. Solutions containing CaCl2 and CaGlu-Pl had mean Al concentrations of 1.2-2.3 mcg/dL, while those with CaGlu-Gl had mean concentrations of 14.6-15.1 mcg/dL. Solutions made with NaGP were low in Al content. The measured Al content of 2 lots of the cysteine additive were 168 ± 23 mcg/L and 126 ± 5 mcg/L. The Al concentration equalled 2730 ± 20 mcg/L for the CaGlu-Gl additive and 310 ± 80 mcg/L for the CaGlu-Pl additive. The study indicates that solutions containing CaCl2 or CaGluc-Pl and NaPhos or NaGP are low in Al content. Using these options for calcium and phosphate additives can limit aluminum intake from neonatal PN to levels within the Food and Drug Administration guideline of ≤5 mcg/kg/d.

  8. Optical diagnostics of solution crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkee; Reddy, B. R.; George, Tharayil G.; Lal, Ravindra B.

    1995-01-01

    Solution crystal growth monitoring of LAP/TGS crystals by various optical diagnostics systems, such as conventional and Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometers, optical heterodyne technique, and ellipsometry, is under development. The study of the dynamics of the crystal growth process requires a detailed knowledge of crystal growth rate and the concentration gradient near growing crystals in aqueous solution. Crystal growth rate can be measured using conventional interferometry. Laser beam reflections from the crystal front as well as the back surface interfere with each other, and the fringe shift due to the growing crystal yields information about the growth rate. Our preliminary results indicate a growth rate of 6 A/sec for LAP crystals grown from solution. Single wavelength M-Z interferometry is in use to calculate the concentration gradient near the crystal. Preliminary investigation is in progress using an M-Z interferometer with 2 cm beam diameter to cover the front region of the growing crystal. In the optical heterodyne technique, phase difference between two rf signals (250 KHZ) is measured of which one is a reference signal, and the other growth signal, whose phase changes due to a change in path length as the material grows. From the phase difference the growth rate can also be calculated. Our preliminary results indicate a growth rate of 1.5 A/sec. the seed and solution temperatures were 26.46 C and 27.92 C respectively, and the solution was saturated at 29.0 C. an ellipsometer to measure the growth rate and interface layer is on order from JOBIN YVON, France. All these systems are arranged in such a manner that measurements can be made either sequentially or simultaneously. These techniques will be adapted for flight experiment.

  9. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBAMIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Avramenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of measurements of refractometric properties (refractive index n, its temperature factor dn/dt and the ultraviolet spectral absorption in carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions (carbamide depending on solid residue mass fraction md = 0-50 % and on temperaturet = 10-70 °C.Method of Research. Laboratory methods ofliquid-phase medium refractometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were applied for the research. We carried out computational modeling of electronic states spectrum for the carbonic acid diamide molecule and theoretical calculation of the fundamental electronic absorption of the molecule in the ultraviolet wavelenght region.Main Results. We have established that the solution concentration md has a nonlinear character and may be represented by the quadratic polynomial with the error Δn= ± 0,0005. We have shown the refractive indexdependence on temperature n(t changes in linear fashion att = 10-70 °C.At that, the inclination of lines n(t increases at the increase of md; so, the temperature factor dn/dt may be approximated by the quadratic polynomial. Transmission spectra of solutions in the spectral region λ= 225-760 nm have no special features except for the sharp edge in the short-wavelength region; the fundamental electronic absorptionis responsible for it. We have established that dispersion dependences of the refraction index n(λ;md in aqueous solutions of carbamide at λ= 360-760 nm and at md = 0-50 % may be calculated with the satisfactory error without additional adjustable parameters from the ultraviolet absorption data in terms of the one-dimentional oscillator Lorentz model.PracticalRelevance. Representedmeasurements of carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions optical properties may be applied for the adjustment and calibration of commercial refractometers at processing lines of the AdBlue reagent manufacture for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR of motor transport

  10. Dynamics of water trapped between hydrophobic solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Niharendu; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2005-04-07

    We describe the model dynamical behavior of the solvent between two nanoscopic hydrophobic solutes. The dynamics of the vicinal water in various sized traps is found to be significantly different from bulk behavior. We consider the dynamics at normal temperature and pressure at three intersolute distances corresponding to the three solvent separated minima in the free energy profile between the solutes with attractions. These three states correspond to one, two, and three intervening layers of water molecules. Results are obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation at constant temperature and pressure (NPT) ensemble. Translational diffusion of water molecules trapped between the two solutes has been analyzed from the velocity correlation function as well as from the mean square displacement of the water molecules. The rotational behavior has been analyzed through the reorientational dynamics of the dipole moment vector of the water molecule by calculating both first and second rank dipole-dipole correlation functions. Both the translational and reorientational mobilities of water are found to be much slower at the smaller separation and increases as the separation between solutes becomes larger. The occupation time distribution functions calculated from the trajectories also show that the relaxation is much slower for the smallest intersolute separation as compared to other wider separations. The sublinear trend in mean square displacement and the stretched exponential decay of the relaxation of dipolar correlation and occupation distribution function indicate that the dynamical behavior of water in the confined region between two large hydrophobic solutes departs from usual Brownian behavior. This behavior is reminiscent of the behavior of water in the vicinity of protein surface clefts or trapped between two domains of a protein.

  11. Optical solutions for unbundled access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacîş Vasile, Irina Bristena

    2015-02-01

    The unbundling technique requires finding solutions to guarantee the economic and technical performances imposed by the nature of the services that can be offered. One of the possible solutions is the optic one; choosing this solution is justified for the following reasons: it optimizes the use of the access network, which is the most expensive part of a network (about 50% of the total investment in telecommunications networks) while also being the least used (telephone traffic on the lines has a low cost); it increases the distance between the master station/central and the terminal of the subscriber; the development of the services offered to the subscribers is conditioned by the subscriber network. For broadband services there is a need for support for the introduction of high-speed transport. A proper identification of the factors that must be satisfied and a comprehensive financial evaluation of all resources involved, both the resources that are in the process of being bought as well as extensions are the main conditions that would lead to a correct choice. As there is no single optimal technology for all development scenarios, which can take into account all access systems, a successful implementation is always done by individual/particularized scenarios. The method used today for the selection of an optimal solution is based on statistics and analysis of the various, already implemented, solutions, and on the experience that was already gained; the main evaluation criterion and the most unbiased one is the ratio between the cost of the investment and the quality of service, while serving an as large as possible number of customers.

  12. An Updated 2017 Astrometric Solution for Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.; Guinan, E. F.; O'Gorman, E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Kervella, P.; Decin, L.

    2017-07-01

    We provide an update for the astrometric solution for the Type II supernova progenitor Betelgeuse using the revised Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD) of van Leeuwen, combined with existing VLA and new e-MERLIN and ALMA positions. The 2007 Hipparcos refined abscissa measurements required the addition of so-called Cosmic Noise of 2.4 mas to find an acceptable 5-parameter stochastic solution. We find that a measure of radio Cosmic Noise should also be included for the radio positions because surface inhomogeneities exist at a level significant enough to introduce additional intensity centroid uncertainty. Combining the 2007 HIAD with the proper motions based solely on the radio positions leads to a parallax of π =5.27+/- 0.78 mas ({190}-25+33 pc), smaller than the Hipparcos 2007 value of 6.56 ± 0.83 mas ({152}-17+22 pc). Furthermore, combining the VLA and new e-MERLIN and ALMA radio positions with the 2007 HIAD, and including radio Cosmic Noise of 2.4 mas, leads to a nominal parallax solution of 4.51 ± 0.80 mas ({222}-34+48 pc), which, while only 0.7σ different from the 2008 solution of Harper et al., is 2.6σ different from the solution of van Leeuwen. An accurate and precise parallax for Betelgeuse is always going to be difficult to obtain because it is small compared to the stellar angular diameter (θ =44 mas). We outline an observing strategy utilizing future mm and sub-mm high-spatial resolution interferometry that must be used if substantial improvements in the precision and accuracy of the parallax and distance are to be achieved.

  13. A Finite-Difference Solution of Solute Transport through a Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Godongwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a theoretical analysis of the transport of solutes through a fixed-film membrane bioreactor (MBR, immobilised with an active biocatalyst. The dimensionless convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients was solved analytically and numerically for concentration profiles of the solutes through the MBR. The analytical solution makes use of regular perturbation and accounts for radial convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate species. The Michaelis-Menten (or Monod rate equation was assumed for the sink term, and the perturbation was extended up to second-order. In the analytical solution only the first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation was considered; hence the linearized equation was solved. In the numerical solution, however, this restriction was lifted. The solution of the nonlinear, elliptic, partial differential equation was based on an implicit finite-difference method (FDM. An upwind scheme was employed for numerical stability. The resulting algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using the multivariate Newton-Raphson iteration method. The solution allows for the evaluation of the effect on the concentration profiles of (i the radial and axial convective velocity, (ii the convective mass transfer rates, (iii the reaction rates, (iv the fraction retentate, and (v the aspect ratio.

  14. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmuson, Ake C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: rasmuson@ket.kth.se

    2008-12-15

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value.

  15. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  16. Homogenization Theory for the Prediction of Obstructed Solute Diffusivity in Macromolecular Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Preston; Chehreghanianzabi, Yasaman; Rathinam, Muruhan; Zustiak, Silviya Petrova

    2016-01-01

    The study of diffusion in macromolecular solutions is important in many biomedical applications such as separations, drug delivery, and cell encapsulation, and key for many biological processes such as protein assembly and interstitial transport. Not surprisingly, multiple models for the a-priori prediction of diffusion in macromolecular environments have been proposed. However, most models include parameters that are not readily measurable, are specific to the polymer-solute-solvent system, or are fitted and do not have a physical meaning. Here, for the first time, we develop a homogenization theory framework for the prediction of effective solute diffusivity in macromolecular environments based on physical parameters that are easily measurable and not specific to the macromolecule-solute-solvent system. Homogenization theory is useful for situations where knowledge of fine-scale parameters is used to predict bulk system behavior. As a first approximation, we focus on a model where the solute is subjected to obstructed diffusion via stationary spherical obstacles. We find that the homogenization theory results agree well with computationally more expensive Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the homogenization theory agrees with effective diffusivities of a solute in dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Lastly, we provide a mathematical formula for the effective diffusivity in terms of a non-dimensional and easily measurable geometric system parameter.

  17. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yoshikawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Keiji Yoshikawa1, Hiroshi Yamada21Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 2Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles.Methods: Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time.Results: With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 ± 0.5 seconds to 4.6 ± 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P < 0.0001. When using the bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa, the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R2 = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R2 = 0.563.Conclusions: Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.Keywords: dispensing time, model eye dropper bottle, model ophthalmic solution, nozzle internal space volume, nozzle inner aperture diameter

  18. Complex Singular Solutions of the 3-d Navier-Stokes Equations and Related Real Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrighini, Carlo; Li, Dong; Sinai, Yakov G.

    2017-04-01

    By applying methods of statistical physics Li and Sinai (J Eur Math Soc 10:267-313, 2008) proved that there are complex solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the whole space R3 which blow up at a finite time. We present a review of the results obtained so far, by theoretical work and computer simulations, for the singular complex solutions, and compare with the behavior of related real solutions. We also discuss the possible application of the techniques introduced in (J Eur Math Soc 10:267-313, 2008) to the study of the real ones.

  19. Recovery of silver from CEPOD anolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, D.L.; Surma, J.E.; Alexander, D.L.; Shade, E.H.; Matheson, J.D.; Cochran, D.L.; Wheelwright, E.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, T. [EG& G Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The process known as Catalyzed Electrochemical Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD) has been shown effective for removing plutonium from a variety of residues and solids. This process involves the electrochemical oxidation of PuO{sub 2} (and other Pu species) to (PuO{sub 2}){sup 2+}, and dissolution of the latter species in the anode solution (anolyte). Silver is used to transfer charge from the electrodes to the solid Pu oxide. Ag (1) is oxidized at the anode to Ag(II) and carried by the solution to the plutonium oxide solids, where the silver and oxide undergo a redox reaction that converts Pu(IV) to Pu(VI), and Ag(II) to Ag(I). Other metal ions [such as Ce(IV) and Co(III)] may also be used for this charge transfer, but have been found to be less effective than silver. The same process may be used to destroy various organic materials (such as paper and wood, oil and fuels, and synthetic polymer materials) by complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, for example. Upon completion of a CEPOD dissolver run, the anolyte may be processed to remove solution species of interest (i.e., Pu), or the anolyte may be recycled, or disposed. Because silver is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land ban material, it must be removed from waste streams. Preliminary experiments, completed in FY 1991, demonstrated a simple, effective technique for silver removal from solutions. Ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}) Was Used to reduce silver ion to metallic silver, which precipitates from solution. The process was demonstrated effective on a bench scale using samples of actual CEPOD anolyte. Further experiments, in FY 1993, optimized these parameters and demonstrated the effectiveness of the technique on CEPOD anolyte on a larger, process scale (liters of solution). This report describes both the preliminary bench-scale experiments and the more recent process-scale experiments. The results are also compared to electro-deposition, another method of silver ion removal.

  20. Thermal properties of spinel based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Kelley Rae

    Solid solution formation in spinel based systems proved to be a viable approach to decreasing thermal conductivity. Samples with systematically varied additions of MgGa2O4 to MgAl2O 4 were prepared and thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Additionally, heat capacity was measured using differential scanning calorimetry and modeled for the MgAl2O4-MgGa 2O4 system. At 200°C thermal conductivity decreased 24% with a 5 mol% addition of MgGa2O4 to the system. The solid solution continued to decrease the thermal conductivity by 13% up to 1000°C with 5 mol% addition. The decrease in thermal conductivity ultimately resulted in a decrease in heat flux when applied to a theoretical furnace lining, which could lead to energy savings in industrial settings. The MgAl2O4-Al2O3 phase equilibria was investigated to fully understand the system and the thermal properties at elevated temperatures. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al 2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O4 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been identified at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevated temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present. Thermal properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O 3 system were investigated in both the single phase solid solution region and the two phase region. The thermal diffusivity decreased through the MgAl 2O4 solid solution region and was at a minimum through the entire metastable (nucleation and growth) region. As Al2O 3 became present as a second phase the thermal diffusivity increased with Al2O3 content. There was an 11.7% increase in thermal diffusivity with a change in overall chemistry of 85.20 wt% Al2O 3 to 87.71 wt% Al2O3, due to the drastic change in

  1. Infinitely many sign-changing solutions of an elliptic problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Infinitely many sign-changing solutions of an elliptic problem involving critical Sobolev and Hardy–Sobolev exponent. MOUSOMI ... Sign-changing solution; multiple critical exponent; Hardy-Sobolev; infinitely many solutions. Abstract. We study the existence and multiplicity of sign-changing solutions of the following equation.

  2. Electrolyte Solutions and Specific Ion Effects on Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Introductory general and physical chemistry courses often deal with colligative properties of solutions and do not discuss nonideal solutions in detail. Yet, a growing body of evidence reveals that even at physiological concentrations electrolyte solutions cannot be treated as ideal when a charged or partially charged solute (such as a protein) is…

  3. Soliton solutions for quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, B.; Ali, K.; Rizvi, S. T. R.; Younis, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we find the rational function solution, confluent hypergeometric functions solutions and solitary wave solutions for quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGLQ) model by using extended trial equation method. We also find some new solitary wave soliton solutions for CGLQ equation by using modified extended tanh-function method.

  4. Analytical solutions for the recovery tests after constant-discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new analytical solution for residual drawdown during the recovery period after a constant rate pumping test is described. A comparison between the proposed solution, existing solutions and experimental data from field observation are presented. The proposed analytical solution is in perfect agreement with the ...

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  6. 21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gentamicin solution for approximately 10 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Eggs can also be treated by warming... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529... Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. 520.2158a... Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Solution containing 25 percent streptomycin sulfate. (b... administer for more than 4 days. Prepare fresh solution daily. Calves: Withdraw 2 days before slaughter. As...

  8. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic...

  9. Solubility of Crystalline Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Organic Solvents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaci P Hoover, Krisztina Pop, William E Acree Jnr, Michael H Abraham ... a gas phase concentration, E is the solute excess molar refraction, V is the McGowan volume of the solute, A and B are measures of the solute hydrogen-bond acidity and hydrogen-bond basicity, S denotes the solute dipolarity/polarizability descriptor, ...

  10. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  11. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...... coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...... simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative...

  12. Solute-mediated interactions between active droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Pepijn G.; Moyses, Henrique W.; van der Wee, Ernest B.; Grier, David G.; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Kegel, Willem K.; Groenewold, Jan; Brujic, Jasna

    2017-09-01

    Concentration gradients play a critical role in embryogenesis, bacterial locomotion, as well as the motility of active particles. Particles develop concentration profiles around them by dissolution, adsorption, or the reactivity of surface species. These gradients change the surface energy of the particles, driving both their self-propulsion and governing their interactions. Here, we uncover a regime in which solute gradients mediate interactions between slowly dissolving droplets without causing autophoresis. This decoupling allows us to directly measure the steady-state, repulsive force, which scales with interparticle distance as F ˜1 /r2 . Our results show that the dissolution process is diffusion rather than reaction rate limited, and the theoretical model captures the dependence of the interactions on droplet size and solute concentration, using a single fit parameter, l =16 ±3 nm , which corresponds to the length scale of a swollen micelle. Our results shed light on the out-of-equilibrium behavior of particles with surface reactivity.

  13. Optimization of the annual construction program solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers potentially possible optimization solutions in scheduling while forming the annual production programs of the construction complex organizations. The optimization instrument is represented as a two-component system. As a fundamentally new approach in the first block of the annual program solutions, the authors propose to use a scientifically grounded methodology for determining the scope of work permissible for the transfer to a subcontractor without risk of General Contractor’s management control losing over the construction site. For this purpose, a special indicator is introduced that characterizes the activity of the general construction organization - the coefficient of construction production management. In the second block, the principal methods for the formation of calendar plans for the fulfillment of the critical work effort by the leading stream are proposed, depending on the intensity characteristic.

  14. On Continuation of Solutions to Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modern investigation of the real-analytic continuability of solutions to boundary problems involves elements of complex and microlocal analysis, as well as the theory of pseudodifferential operators. Apart from its purely mathematical interest, this investigation can lead to significant improvement...... of numerical methods used in, e.g., acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In this talk, I shall take as the starting point the desire to improve one such numerical method, namely the so-called Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). The latter is a promising numerical scheme, with the potential of replacing...... the traditional boundary layer formulations in the numerical solution of scattering problems. To address the convergence issues inherent to the MAS, I shall introduce a relevant general real-analytic continuation problem and describe how it can be reformulated in terms of an analytic Cauchy problem in the complex...

  15. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  16. Supply chain configuration concepts, solutions, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Charu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the models and tools available for solving configuration problems, emphasizes the value of model integration to obtain comprehensive and robust configuration decisions, proposes solutions for supply chain configuration in the presence of stochastic and dynamic factors, and illustrates application of the techniques discussed in applied studies. It is divided into four parts, which are devoted to defining the supply chain configuration problem and identifying key issues, describing solutions to various problems identified, proposing technologies for enabling supply chain confirmations, and discussing applied supply chain configuration problems. Its distinguishing features are: an explicit focus on the configuration problem an in-depth coverage of configuration models an emphasis on model integration and application of information modeling techniques in decision-making New to this edition is Part II: Technologies, which introduces readers to various technologies being utilized for supply chai...

  17. Bridging Flows: Microfluidic End‐User Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David

    . A second practical challenge users face stems from the peripheral equipment, e.g. pumps, required to drive microfluidic devices. This equipment is often costly and bulky and results in limitations and restrictions on microfluidic device operation, such as the number of channels or devices which can...... be actuated or microscopic observation. To address the above issues interconnection and pumping solutions were developed. Methods for creating multiple, aligned, parallel and planar interconnections well suited to microscopy are described. Both reusable, non‐integrated, and permanent, integrated...... interconnection solutions are presented. The construction of twelve and eight channel miniaturized, mechanically actuated peristaltic pumps is also described. The small footprint of the pumps allows their placement adjacent to microfluidic devices and on microscope stages. The reusable, non...

  18. Software Patents: Current Challenges and Future Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Goyal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Software patents for years have been used in the software industry to suppress innovation, kill competition, and generate undeserved royalties. This article considers whether software patents maintain the right “bargain between the inventor and the public” where, in exchange for disclosure of the invention to the public, the inventor receives a limited monopoly and the exclusive right to exploit the invention. This article argues that they do not and then explores possible solutions to address the problems identified. Those solutions include streamlining the patent process, making it more difficult to patent software innovations, making it easier to invalidate software patents, and shortening the patent protection from 20 to 10 years. The article closes with a call to action for people to work collectively to effect change in the industry.

  19. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.