WorldWideScience

Sample records for solutions depolarization elicits

  1. Chlorovirus-mediated membrane depolarization of Chlorella alters secondary active transport of solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkova, Irina; Dunigan, David; Gurnon, James; Greiner, Timo; Barres, Julia; Thiel, Gerhard; Van Etten, James L

    2008-12-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, double-stranded DNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae from the genus Chlorovirus. PBCV-1 infection results in rapid host membrane depolarization and potassium ion release. One interesting feature of certain chloroviruses is that they code for functional potassium ion-selective channel proteins (Kcv) that are considered responsible for the host membrane depolarization and, as a consequence, the efflux of potassium ions. This report examines the relationship between cellular depolarization and solute uptake. Annotation of the virus host Chlorella strain NC64A genome revealed 482 putative transporter-encoding genes; 224 are secondary active transporters. Solute uptake experiments using seven radioactive compounds revealed that virus infection alters the transport of all the solutes. However, the degree of inhibition varied depending on the solute. Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membranes, produced changes in solute uptake that are similar but not identical to those that occurred during virus infection. Therefore, these studies indicate that chlorovirus infection causes a rapid and sustained depolarization of the host plasma membrane and that this depolarization leads to the inhibition of secondary active transporters that changes solute uptake.

  2. Requirements elicitation for geo-information solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbi Sluter, Claudia; van Elzakker, Corné P.J.M.; Ivanova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Geo-information solutions can achieve a higher level of quality if they are developed in accordance with a user-centred design that requires definition of the user requirements in the first step of solution construction. We treat a geo-information solution as a system designed to support human-based

  3. Neutron Depolarization in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuchenko, N. K.

    1995-04-01

    The dependences of neutron depolarization on applied magnetic field are deduced along the magnetization hysteresis loop in terms of the Bean model of the critical state. The depolarization in uniaxial superconductors with the reversible magnetization, including uniaxial magnetic superconductors, is also considered. A strong depolarization is expected if the neutrons travel along the vortex lines. On calcule la dépendance en champ magnétique de la dépolarisation des neutrons le long du cycle d'hystérésis en termes du modèle critique de Bean. On considère aussi la dépolarisation dans les supraconducteurs uniaxiaux en fonction de l'aimantation réversible, y compris pour les supraconducteurs magnétiques. On attend une forte dépolarisation si les neutrons se propagent le long des vortex.

  4. Hydrogen bond dynamics and water structure in glucose-water solutions by depolarized Rayleigh scattering and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Marco; Sassi, Paola; Morresi, Assunta; Santini, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    The effect of glucose on the relaxation process of water at picosecond time scales has been investigated by depolarized Rayleigh scattering (DRS) experiments. The process is assigned to the fast hydrogen bonding dynamics of the water network. In DRS spectra this contribution can be safely separated from the slower relaxation process due to the sugar. The detected relaxation time is studied at different glucose concentrations and modeled considering bulk and hydrating water contributions. As a result, it is found that in diluted conditions the hydrogen bond lifetime of proximal water molecules becomes about three times slower than that of the bulk. The effect of the sugar on the hydrogen bond water structure is investigated by analyzing the low-frequency Raman (LFR) spectrum sensitive to intermolecular modes. The addition of glucose strongly reduces the intensity of the band at 170cm-1 assigned to a collective stretching mode of water molecules arranged in cooperative tetrahedral domains. These findings indicate that proximal water molecules partially lose the tetrahedral ordering typical of the bulk leading to the formation of high density environments around the sugar. Thus the glucose imposes a new local order among water molecules localized in its hydration shell in which the hydrogen bond breaking dynamics is sensitively retarded. This work provides new experimental evidences that support recent molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamics results.

  5. Depolarization on Earth-space paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Sources of depolarization effects on the propagation paths of orthogonally-polarized information channels are considered. The main sources of depolarization at millimeter wave frequencies are hydrometeor absorption and scattering in the troposphere. Terms are defined. Mathematical formulations for the effects of the propagation medium characteristics and antenna performance on signals in dual polarization Earth-space links are presented. Techniques for modeling rain and ice depolarization are discussed.

  6. Heterogeneous incidence and propagation of spreading depolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Dan; Theriot, Jeremy J; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Service, C Austin; Chang, Joshua C; Tang, Y Tanye; Bogdanov, Vladimir B; Multon, Sylvie; Schoenen, Jean; Ju, Y Sungtaek

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations are implicated in a diverse set of neurologic diseases. They are unusual forms of nervous system activity in that they propagate very slowly and approximately concentrically, apparently not respecting the anatomic, synaptic, functional, or vascular architecture of the brain. However, there is evidence that spreading depolarizations are not truly concentric, isotropic, or homogeneous, either in space or in time. Here we present evidence from KCl-induced spreading depolarizations, in mouse and rat, in vivo and in vitro, showing the great variability that these depolarizations can exhibit. This variability can help inform the mechanistic understanding of spreading depolarizations, and it has implications for their phenomenology in neurologic disease. PMID:27562866

  7. Rat hypocretin/orexin neurons are maintained in a depolarized state by TRPC channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cvetkovic-Lopes

    Full Text Available In a previous study we proposed that the depolarized state of the wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx neurons was independent of synaptic inputs as it persisted in tetrodotoxin and low calcium/high magnesium solutions. Here we show first that these cells are hyperpolarized when external sodium is lowered, suggesting that non-selective cation channels (NSCCs could be involved. As canonical transient receptor channels (TRPCs are known to form NSCCs, we looked for TRPCs subunits using single-cell RT-PCR and found that TRPC6 mRNA was detectable in a small minority, TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC7 in a majority and TRPC4 and 5 in the vast majority (∼90% of hcrt/orx neurons. Using intracellular applications of TRPC antibodies against subunits known to form NSCCs, we then found that only TRPC5 antibodies elicited an outward current, together with hyperpolarization and inhibition of the cells. These effects were blocked by co-application of a TRPC5 antigen peptide. Voltage-clamp ramps in the presence or absence of TRPC5 antibodies indicated the presence of a current with a reversal potential close to -15 mV. Application of the non-selective TRPC channel blocker, flufenamic acid, had a similar effect, which could be occluded in cells pre-loaded with TRPC5 antibodies. Finally, using the same TRPC5 antibodies we found that most hcrt/orx cells show immunostaining for the TRPC5 subunit. These results suggest that hcrt/orx neurons are endowed with a constitutively active non-selective cation current which depends on TRPC channels containing the TRPC5 subunit and which is responsible for the depolarized and active state of these cells.

  8. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly Game in Depolarizing Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xia; Kuang Leman

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum Stackelberg duopoly (QSD) game in the noise environment with the depolarizing channel expressed by the Kraus-operator representation. It is found that the presence of the damping in the depolarizing channel always leads to the decrease of the quantities of the moves and payoffs of the two players in the QSD game. It is indicated that under certain conditions the first-mover advantage in the QSD game can be weakened due to the presence of the damping in the depolarizing channel.

  9. Depolarizing Effects of Daikenchuto on Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Dongki; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Byung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT; TJ-100, TU-100), a traditional herbal medicineis used in modern medicine to treat gastrointestinal (GI) functional disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the GI tract and play important roles in the regulation of GI motility. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DKT on the pacemaker potentials (PPs) of cultured ICCs from murine small intestine. Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues. All experiments on ICCs were performed after 12 h of culture. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record ICC PPs (current clamp mode). All experiments were performed at 30-32°C. In current-clamp modeDKT depolarized and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitudes of PPs. Y25130 (a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) or SB269970 (a 5-HT 7 receptor antagonist) did not block DKT-induced PP depolarization, but RS39604 (a 5-HT 4 receptor antagonist) did. Methoctramine (a muscarinic M 2 receptor antagonist) failed to block DKT-induced PP depolarization, but pretreating 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (a muscarinic M 3 receptor antagonist) facilitated blockade of DKT-induced PP depolarization. Pretreatment with an external Ca 2+ -free solution or thapsigargin abolished PPsand under these conditions, DKT did not induce PP depolarization. Furthermore Ginseng radix and Zingiberis rhizomes depolarized PPs, whereas Zanthoxyli fructus fruit (the third component of DKT) hyperpolarized PPs. These results suggest that DKT depolarizes ICC PPs in an internal or external Ca 2+ -dependent manner by stimulating 5-HT 4 and M 3 receptors. Furthermore, the authors suspect that the component in DKT largely responsible for depolarization is probably also a component of Ginseng radix and Zingiberis rhizomes. Daikenchuto (DKT) depolarized and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitudes of pacemaker potentials (PPs)Y25130 (a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) or

  10. First Observation of a Snake Depolarizing Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.; Anferov, V.; Blinov, B.; Crandell, D.; Koutin, S.; Krisch, A.; Liu, T.; Ratner, L.; Wong, V.; Chu, C.; Lee, S.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.; von Przewoski, B.; Sato, H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a 104MeV stored polarized proton beam and a full Siberian snake, we recently found evidence for a so-called open-quotes snakeclose quotes depolarizing resonance. A full Siberian snake forces the spin tune ν s to be a half integer. Thus, if the vertical betatron tune ν y is set near a quarter integer, then the ν s =n±2ν y second-order snake resonance can depolarize the beam. Indeed, with a full Siberian snake, we found a deep depolarization dip when ν y was equal to 4.756; moreover, when ν y was changed to 4.781, the deep dip disappeared and the polarization was preserved. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Depolarization of diffusing spins by paramagnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Hutson, R.L.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    We study the depolarization of diffusing spins (muons) interacting with dilute paramagnetic impurities in a solid using a simple computational model which properly treats the muon motion and preserves correct muon-impurity distances. Long-range (dipolar) and nearest-neighbor (contact) interactions are treated together. Diffusion parameters are deduced and model comparisons made for AuGd (300 ppm). (orig.)

  12. Neutron Depolarization in Submicron Ferromagnetic Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekveldt, M.Th.

    1989-01-01

    The neutron depolarization technique is based on the loss of polarization of a polarized neutron beam after transmission through ferromagnetic substances. This loss, caused by Larmor precession in individual domains, determines the mean domain size, the mean square direction cosines of the domains

  13. Recording, analysis, and interpretation of spreading depolarizations in neurointensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Fabricius, Martin; Ayata, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SD) are waves of abrupt, near-complete breakdown of neuronal transmembrane ion gradients, are the largest possible pathophysiologic disruption of viable cerebral gray matter, and are a crucial mechanism of lesion development. Spreading depolarizations are increasingly r...

  14. Resonant depolarization in electron storage rings equipped with ''siberia snakes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1984-11-01

    Resonant depolarization induced by field errors and quantum emissions in an electron ring equipped with two ''siberian snakes'' is investigated with a first order perturbation calculation. It is shown that this depolarization is not reduced by the snakes when the operating energy is set out of the depolarization resonances [fr

  15. A scattering model for rain depolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Stutzman, W. L.; Bostian, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the amount of depolarization caused by precipitation for a propagation path. In the model the effects of each scatterer and their interactions are accounted for by using a series of simplifying steps. It is necessary only to know the forward scattering properties of a single scatterer. For the case of rain the results of this model for attenuation, differential phase shift, and cross polarization agree very well with the results of the only other model available, that of differential attenuation and differential phase shift. Calculations presented here show that horizontal polarization is more sensitive to depolarization than is vertical polarization for small rain drop canting angle changes. This effect increases with increasing path length.

  16. Entanglement degradation in depolarizing light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the classical regime, when a beam of light is scattered by a medium, it may emerge partially or completely depolarized depending on the optical properties of the medium. Correspondingly, in the quantum regime, when an entangled two-photon pair is scattered, the classical depolarization may result in an entanglement degradation. Here, relations between photon scattering, entanglement and multi-mode detection are investigated. We establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed, and we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multi-mode detection. We show that any multi-mode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-CHSH inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes. (author)

  17. Correction of Depolarizing Resonances in ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, C.; Husmann, D.

    1997-05-01

    The 3.5 GeV electron stretcherring ELSA (ELectron Stretcher Accelerator) at Bonn University is operational since 1987, both as a continuous beam facility for external fixed target experiments and as a partially dedicated synchrotron light source. For the external experiments an upgrade to polarized electrons is under way. One source of polarized electrons (GaAs crystal, photoeffect using circular polarized laser light) is operational. The studies of minimizing the losses in polarization degree due to crossing of depolarizing resonances that necessarily exist in circular accelerators (storagerings) just started recently. Calculations concerning different correction schemes for the depolarizing resonances in ELSA are presented, and first results of measurements are shown (done by means of a Møller polarimeter in one of the external beamlines).

  18. Electron beam depolarization in a damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.

    1993-04-01

    Depolarization of a polarized electron beam injected into a damping ring is analyzed by extending calculations conventionally applied to proton synchrotrons. Synchrotron radiation in an electron ring gives rise to both polarizing and depolarizing effects. In a damping ring, the beam is stored for a time much less than the time for self polarization. Spin flip radiation may therefore be neglected. Synchrotron radiation without spin flips, however, must be considered as the resonance strength depends on the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude which changes as the electron beam is radiation damped. An expression for the beam polarization at extraction is derived which takes into account radiation damping. The results are applied to the electron ring at the Stanford Linear Collider and are compared with numerical matrix formalisms

  19. μ+ depolarization in AlGd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, S.; Brown, J.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Kitchens, T.A. Jr.; Leon, M.; Olsen, C.E.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The μ + depolarization rate in dilute AlGd alloys containing 50 and 450 atomic ppm Gd was measured in a transverse field of 80 Oe over the temperature range 6-300 K. For both alloys, Λ increased dramatically above 200 K, reaching values of 0.69 and 0.93 μs -1 , respectively, near room temperature. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for a thermally-activated trapping mechanism. (Auth.)

  20. Neutron depolarization in compressed ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekveldt, M.Th.; Kraan, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The polarization change of a polarized neutron beam after transmission through a partly magnetized ferromagnetic material can be described by a (3x3) depolarization matrix. This matrix can be expressed in terms of domain quantities such as the reduced mean magnetization M, the mean domain size delta and the mean square direction cosinus γsub(y) of the inner magnetization within the domain, and can be used for measuring magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. In the underlying depolarization theory it is assumed that no correlations exist between the direction of the spontaneous magnetization Bs in neighbouring domains, and between the direction of Bs and the individual domain sizes. In order to extend the measuring method for ferromagnetic materials, measurements have been made with different compressed ferrite powders assuming that the mean domain size is equal to the mean particle size. The neutron depolarization matrix is measured as a function of an alternative external magnetic field and interpreted in terms of m, γsub(y), and delta. The possibilities and limitations of the measuring method are discussed

  1. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  2. Estimating Depolarization with the Jones Matrix Quality Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker, James N.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Herzinger, Craig M.; Tiwald, Tom; Hong, Nina; Schöche, Stefan; Arwin, Hans

    2017-11-01

    Mueller matrix (MM) measurements offer the ability to quantify the depolarization capability of a sample. Depolarization can be estimated using terms such as the depolarization index or the average degree of polarization. However, these calculations require measurement of the complete MM. We propose an alternate depolarization metric, termed the Jones matrix quality factor, QJM, which does not require the complete MM. This metric provides a measure of how close, in a least-squares sense, a Jones matrix can be found to the measured Mueller matrix. We demonstrate and compare the use of QJM to other traditional calculations of depolarization for both isotropic and anisotropic depolarizing samples; including non-uniform coatings, anisotropic crystal substrates, and beetle cuticles that exhibit both depolarization and circular diattenuation.

  3. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-01-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 μM) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 μM veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 μM dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 μM) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated

  4. Tune space manipulations in jumping depolarizing resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.; Ahrens, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    In February 1986, the AGS polarized beam reached a momentum of 22 GeV/c with a 45% polarization and an intensity of 1 to 2 x 10 10 polarized protons per pulse at a repetition rate of 2.1 seconds. In order to achieve this, one had to overcome the effect of some 40 depolarizing resonances. In our first commissioning run in 1984, we had reached 16.5 GeV/c using, with suitable modifications, the conventional techniques first used at the Argonne ZGS. This worked well, but we found that the fast tune shifts required to cross the intrinsic depolarizing resonances were causing an increase in beam emittance which led to the need for stronger corrections later in the cycle and to diminished extraction efficiency. For the 1986 run, we were prepared to minimize this emittance growth by the application of slow quadrupole pulses to change the region in tune space in which we operated the first tune quads. In this paper we give a brief description of the conventional corrections, but our main emphasis is on the descriptions of tune space manipulations

  5. Spreading depolarizations and late secondary insults after traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Strong, Anthony J; Fabricius, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Here we investigated the incidence of cortical spreading depolarizations (spreading depression and peri-infarct depolarization) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to systemic physiologic values during neurointensive care. Subdural electrode strips were placed on peri......-contusional cortex in 32 patients who underwent surgical treatment for TBI. Prospective electrocorticography was performed during neurointensive care with retrospective analysis of hourly nursing chart data. Recordings were 84 hr (median) per patient and 2,503 hr in total. In 17 patients (53%), 280 spreading...... depolarizations (spreading depressions and peri-infarct depolarizations) were observed. Depolarizations occurred in a bimodal pattern with peak incidence on days 1 and 7. The probability of a depolarization occurring increased significantly as a function of declining mean arterial pressure (MAP; R(2) = 0.78; p...

  6. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating...... stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We...

  7. Strong Resilience of Topological Codes to Depolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bombin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable presence of decoherence effects in systems suitable for quantum computation necessitates effective error-correction schemes to protect information from noise. We compute the stability of the toric code to depolarization by mapping the quantum problem onto a classical disordered eight-vertex Ising model. By studying the stability of the related ferromagnetic phase via both large-scale Monte Carlo simulations and the duality method, we are able to demonstrate an increased error threshold of 18.9(3% when noise correlations are taken into account. Remarkably, this result agrees within error bars with the result for a different class of codes—topological color codes—where the mapping yields interesting new types of interacting eight-vertex models.

  8. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Neutron depolarization studies on magnetization process using pulsed polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Setsuo; Endoh, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    Neutron depolarization experiments investigating the magnetization processes have been performed by using pulsed polarized neutrons for the first time. Results on both quenched and annealed ferromagnets of Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy indicate the significant difference in the wavelength dependence of depolarization between them. It also constitutes the experimental demonstration of the theoretical prediction of Halpern and Holstein. (author)

  10. Single neuron dynamics during experimentally induced anoxic depolarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandt, B.; Stigen, Tyler; ten Haken, Bernard; Netoff, Theoden; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2013-01-01

    We studied single neuron dynamics during anoxic depolarizations, which are often observed in cases of neuronal energy depletion. Anoxic and similar depolarizations play an important role in several pathologies, notably stroke, migraine, and epilepsy. One of the effects of energy depletion was

  11. Spreading Depression, Spreading Depolarizations, and the Cerebral Vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayata, Cenk; Lauritzen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spreading depression (SD) is a transient wave of near-complete neuronal and glial depolarization associated with massive transmembrane ionic and water shifts. It is evolutionarily conserved in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of species from locust to human. The depolarization spreads...

  12. Depolarization Lidar Determination of Cloud-Base Microphysical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, D.P.; Klein Baltink, H; Henzing, J. S.; de Roode, S.R.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The links between multiple-scattering induced depolarization and cloud microphysical properties (e.g. cloud particle number density, effective radius, water content) have long been recognised. Previous efforts to use depolarization information in a quantitative manner to retrieve cloud

  13. Depolarization of ultracold neutrons during their storage in material bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A.P.; Lasakov, M.S.; Vassiljev, A.V.; Krasnoschekova, I.A.; Rudnev, Yu.P.; Fomin, A.K.; Varlamov, V.E.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Young, A.R.; Pesavento, U.

    2003-01-01

    The depolarization of ultracold neutrons (UCN) during their storage in traps has been investigated. The neutron spin-flip probability for the materials studied amounts to ∼(1-2)x10 -5 per collision and does not depend on the temperature. The possible connection between the phenomenon of UCN depolarization and that of anomalous losses is discussed

  14. Depolarization of ultracold neutrons during their storage in material bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebrov, A.P.; Lasakov, M.S.; Vassiljev, A.V.; Krasnoschekova, I.A.; Rudnev, Yu.P.; Fomin, A.K.; Varlamov, V.E.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Young, A.R.; Pesavento, U

    2003-07-14

    The depolarization of ultracold neutrons (UCN) during their storage in traps has been investigated. The neutron spin-flip probability for the materials studied amounts to {approx}(1-2)x10{sup -5} per collision and does not depend on the temperature. The possible connection between the phenomenon of UCN depolarization and that of anomalous losses is discussed.

  15. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  16. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  17. Activation of cathepsin L contributes to the irreversible depolarization induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shogo; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) elicits a rapid and irreversible depolarization with a latency of ∼5min in intracellular recordings of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rat slice preparations. In the present study, we examined the role of cathepsin L in the OGD-induced depolarization. OGD-induced depolarizations were irreversible as no recovery of membrane potential was observed. The membrane potential reached 0mV when oxygen and glucose were reintroduced immediately after the onset of the OGD-induced rapid depolarization. The OGD-induced depolarizations became reversible when the slice preparations were pre-incubated with cathepsin L inhibitors (types I and IV at 0.3-2nM and 0.3-30nM, respectively). Moreover, pre-incubation with these cathepsin inhibitors prevented the morphological changes, including swelling of the cell soma and fragmentation of dendrites, observed in control neurons after OGD. These findings suggest that the activation of cathepsin L contributes to the irreversible depolarization produced by OGD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stitching Type Large Aperture Depolarizer for Gas Monitoring Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Li, M.; An, N.; Zhang, T.; Cao, G.; Cheng, S.

    2018-04-01

    To increase the accuracy of radiation measurement for gas monitoring imaging spectrometer, it is necessary to achieve high levels of depolarization of the incoming beam. The preferred method in space instrument is to introduce the depolarizer into the optical system. It is a combination device of birefringence crystal wedges. Limited to the actual diameter of the crystal, the traditional depolarizer cannot be used in the large aperture imaging spectrometer (greater than 100 mm). In this paper, a stitching type depolarizer is presented. The design theory and numerical calculation model for dual babinet depolarizer were built. As required radiometric accuracies of the imaging spectrometer with 250 mm × 46 mm aperture, a stitching type dual babinet depolarizer was design in detail. Based on designing the optimum structural parmeters the tolerance of wedge angle refractive index, and central thickness were given. The analysis results show that the maximum residual polarization degree of output light from depolarizer is less than 2 %. The design requirements of polarization sensitivity is satisfied.

  19. STITCHING TYPE LARGE APERTURE DEPOLARIZER FOR GAS MONITORING IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To increase the accuracy of radiation measurement for gas monitoring imaging spectrometer, it is necessary to achieve high levels of depolarization of the incoming beam. The preferred method in space instrument is to introduce the depolarizer into the optical system. It is a combination device of birefringence crystal wedges. Limited to the actual diameter of the crystal, the traditional depolarizer cannot be used in the large aperture imaging spectrometer (greater than 100 mm. In this paper, a stitching type depolarizer is presented. The design theory and numerical calculation model for dual babinet depolarizer were built. As required radiometric accuracies of the imaging spectrometer with 250 mm × 46 mm aperture, a stitching type dual babinet depolarizer was design in detail. Based on designing the optimum structural parmeters,the tolerance of wedge angle,refractive index, and central thickness were given. The analysis results show that the maximum residual polarization degree of output light from depolarizer is less than 2 %. The design requirements of polarization sensitivity is satisfied.

  20. Depolarization artifacts in dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weiqi; Zhang, Chuanwei; Jiang, Hao; Chen, Xiuguo; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Noticeable depolarization effects are observed in the measurement of the air using an in-house developed dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer. We demonstrate that these depolarization effects are essentially artifacts and mainly induced when the compensator with wavelength-dependent optical properties is integrated with the finite bandwidth detector. We define a general formula to represent the actual Mueller matrix of the compensator by taking into account the depolarization artifacts. After incorporating this formula into the system model, a correction method is further proposed, and consequently, improved accuracy can be achieved in the Mueller matrix measurement. (paper)

  1. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible Depolarization Mechanism due to Low Beta Squeeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbar, V.; Luccio, A.; Bai, M.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations reveal a potential depolarization mechanism during low beta squeeze. This depolarization appears to be driven by a spin tune modulation caused by spin precession through the strong low beta quads due to the vertical fields. The modulation of the spin tune introduces an additional snake resonance condition at ν s0 ± nν x - ν z l = integer which while the same numerology as the well known sextupole resonance, can operate in the absence of sextupole elements

  3. Expert Panel Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Waste Management and Environmental Protection; Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources. While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project. The results show an unusual low variation between the experts.

  4. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  5. Isomerization and fluorescence depolarization of merocyanine 540 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , ... polymers resemble globular proteins and can encapsulate hydrophobic solutes. ... PAA opens up due to electrostatic repulsion, the fluorescent probe becomes exposed to ... conformational transition of such polymers have been studied by ...

  6. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  7. Spin Depolarization due to Beam-Beam Interaction in NLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Kathleen A

    2001-01-04

    Calculations of spin depolarization effects due to the beam-beam interaction are presented for several NLC designs. The depolarization comes from both classical (Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi precession) and quantum (Sokolov-Ternov spin-flip) effects. It is anticipated that some physics experiments at future colliders will require a knowledge of the polarization to better than 0.5% precision. We compare the results of CAIN simulations with the analytic estimates of Yokoya and Chen for head-on collisions. We also study the effects of transverse offsets and beamstrahlung-induced energy spread.

  8. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  9. From depolarization-dependent contractions in gastrointestinal smooth muscle to aortic pulse-synchronized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion SB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah B Marion, Allen W MangelRTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: For decades, it was believed that the diameter of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells is sufficiently narrow, and that the diffusion of calcium across the plasma membrane is sufficient, to support contractile activity. Thus, depolarization-triggered release of intracellular calcium was not believed to be operative in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. However, after the incubation of muscle segments in solutions devoid of calcium and containing the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, an alternative electrical event occurred that was distinct from normal slow waves and spikes. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in gastrointestinal smooth muscle segments that membrane depolarization associated with this alternative electrical event triggered rhythmic contractions by release of intracellular calcium. Although this concept of depolarization-triggered calcium release was iconoclastic, it has now been demonstrated in multiple gastrointestinal smooth muscle preparations. On the basis of these observations, we investigated whether a rhythmic electrical and mechanical event would occur in aortic smooth muscle under the same calcium-free conditions. The incubation of aortic segments in a solution with no added calcium plus ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid induced a fast electrical event without corresponding tension changes. On the basis of the frequency of these fast electrical events, we pursued, contrary to what has been established dogma for more than three centuries, the question of whether the smooth muscle wall of the aorta undergoes rhythmic activation during the cardiac cycle. As with depolarization-triggered contractile activity in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, it was “well known” that rhythmic activation of the aorta does not occur in synchrony with the heartbeat. In a series of experiments, however, it was demonstrated that rhythmic

  10. Depolarization-stimulated 42K+ efflux in rat aorta is calcium- and cellular volume-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliola, L.; Jones, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors controlling membrane permeability to potassium of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta stimulated by depolarization. The increase 42 K+ efflux (change in the rate constant) induced by depolarization (application of high concentrations of potassium chloride) was inhibited significantly by the calcium antagonists diltiazem and nisoldipine. Parallel inhibitory effects on contraction were observed. Diltiazem also inhibited potassium-stimulated 36 Cl- efflux. The addition of 25-150 mM KCl to normal physiologic solution stimulated 42 K+ efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. Diltiazem suppressed potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux approximately 90% at 25 mM KCl and approximately 40% at 150 mM KCl. The ability of nisoldipine to inhibit 42 K+ efflux also diminished as the potassium chloride concentration was elevated. The component of efflux that was resistant to calcium antagonists probably resulted from a decrease in the electrochemical gradient for potassium. Cellular water did not change during potassium addition. Substitution of 80 and 150 mM KCl for sodium chloride produced cellular swelling and enhanced potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux compared with potassium chloride addition. The addition of sucrose to prevent cellular swelling reduced efflux response to potassium substitution toward that of potassium addition. A hypoosmolar physiologic solution produced an increase in the 42 K+ efflux and a contracture that were both prevented by the addition of sucrose. We concluded that the depolarization-mediated 42 K+ efflux has three components: one is calcium dependent; a second is dependent on cellular volume; and a third is resistant to inhibition by calcium antagonists

  11. The problem of radiative depolarization in the 'Siberian Snake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.

    1979-01-01

    As pointed out by Derbenev and Kondratenko and by the LEP Study Group, a 'Siberian Snake' may be a convenient method for providing longitudinally polarized beams at LEP. The author shows that at the highest LEP energies (approximately>60 GeV) synchrotron radiation with spin-flip may depolarize the beams. (Auth.)

  12. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of Na1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a morphotropic ...

  13. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of TiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    2TiO3–Na1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a ...

  14. Twomey effect in subtropical stratocumulus clouds from UV depolarization lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.; Brown, Jessica; Donovan, D.P.; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.

    2018-01-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are important climate regulators, reflecting sunlight over a dark ocean background. A UV-depolarization lidar on Ascension, a small remote island in the south Atlantic, measured cloud droplet sizes and number concentration using an inversion method based on Monte Carlo

  15. Spreading depolarizations increase delayed brain injury in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, Arend M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Lanier, Christian; van Os, Hine J. A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Ferrari, Michel D.; van der Toorn, Annette; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Stowe, Ann M.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    Spreading depolarizations may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the effect of spreading depolarizations on brain lesion progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage has not yet been assessed directly. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that

  16. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  17. Linear theory of beam depolarization due to vertical betatron motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Schwitters, R.F.

    1976-06-01

    It is well known that vertical betatron motion in the presence of quantum fluctuations leads to some degree of depolarization of a transversely polarized beam in electron-positron storage rings even for energies away from spin resonances. Analytic formulations of this problem, which require the use of simplifying assumptions, generally have shown that there exist operating energies where typical storage rings should exhibit significant beam polarization. Due to the importance of beam polarization in many experiments, we present here a complete calculation of the depolarization rate to lowest order in the perturbing fields, which are taken to be linear functions of the betatron motion about the equilibrium orbit. The results are applicable to most high energy storage rings. Explicit calculations are given for SPEAR and PEP. 7 refs., 8 figs

  18. Piezoelectric effect in polarized and electrically depolarized ferrotextures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchaninov, A.G.; Shil'nikov, A.V.; Shuvalov, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Piezoelectric moduli were calculated for ferroelectric textures in the states with the greatest possible (in terms of symmetry) polarization and the zero polarization (obtained from the former by electrical depolarization). The calculations were performed for the textures of crystals of the classes 2, 3, 4, 6, mm2, 3m, 4mm,and 6mm. The experimental results for lead zirconate-titanate- and barium-titanate-based piezoelectric ceramic are reported

  19. Beam-beam depolarization in SPEAR and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In this note some approximate estimates are made of depolarization due to beam-beam forces in SPEAR and PEP, using the results of a calculation by Kondratenko. The model assumes head-on collisions between bunches of Gaussian distribution in the transverse directions; the force on the weak-beam particle is taken to be a δ-function at the interaction point. 1 ref

  20. Scattering and depolarization of polarized neutrons in ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Dokukin, E.B.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Nikitenko, Y.V.

    1999-01-01

    On the SPN - 1 polarized neutron spectrometer at IBR -2 high - flux pulsed rector there were carried out preliminary measurements on transmission and polarization of a neutron beam passing through a magnetic colloidal system of Fe 3 O 4 particles in transformer oil and dodecane carriers. It was found that in the ferrofluids with magnetite particles exist, dependent on the particle volume concentration and the magnitude of the external magnetic field, effects of depolarization and nuclear - magnetic small angle scattering. (author)

  1. On the polarization and depolarization of the electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a general description of the polarization of monochromatic electromagnetic waves that proves useful when the customary description in terms of Stokes parameters does not apply. We also show how this description can be exploited to study the depolarization of linearly polarized waves in the interior of porous model cosmic dust grains. The results that we discuss may affect our understanding of several problems that are relevant for astrobiology

  2. Atrioventricular depolarization differences identify coronary artery anomalies in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Daniel; Sharma, Nandita; Jone, Pei-Ni

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. Signal average electrocardiogram changes in patients during the acute phase of KD with coronary artery anomalies (CAA) include depolarization changes. We set out to determine if 12-lead-derived atrioventricular depolarization differences can identify CAA in patients with KD. A blinded, retrospective case-control study of patients with KD was performed. Deep Q waves, corrected QT-intervals (QTc), spatial QRS-T angles, T-wave vector magnitudes (RMS-T), and a novel parameter for assessment of atrioventricular depolarization difference (the spatial PR angle) and a two dimensional PR angle were assessed. Comparisons between groups were performed to test for significant differences. One hundred one patients with KD were evaluated, with 68 having CAA (67.3%, mean age 3.6 ± 3.0 years, 82.6% male), and 32 without CAA (31.7%, mean age 2.7 ± 3.2 years, 70.4% male). The spatial PR angle significantly discriminated KD patients with CAA from those without, 59.7° ± 31.1° versus 41.6° ± 11.5° (p differences, measured by the spatial or two dimensional PR angle differentiate KD patients with CAA versus those without. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Elastodynamic metasurface: Depolarization of mechanical waves and time effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Claude, E-mail: claude.boutin@entpe.fr [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, Université de Lyon, LGCB, UMR CNRS 5513, Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Schwan, Logan [Acoustics Research Center, University of Salford, Newton Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Dietz, Matthew S. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-14

    We report the concept of microstructured surfaces with inner resonance in the field of elastodynamics, so-called elastodynamic metasurfaces. Such metasurfaces allow for wavefield manipulation of mechanical waves by tuning the boundary conditions at specific frequencies. In particular, they can be used to depolarize elastic waves without introducing heterogeneities in the medium itself; the physical means to do so in homogeneous elastic media used to remain, surprisingly, an open question while depolarization is commonplace in electromagnetism. The principle relies on the anisotropic behaviour of a subwavelength array of resonators: Their subwavelength configuration confines the Bragg interferences scattered by resonators into a boundary layer. The effective behaviour of the resonating array is expressed with homogenization as an unconventional impedance, the frequency-dependence, and anisotropy of which lead to depolarization and time effects. The concept of the elastodynamic metasurface is tested experimentally and results bear testament to its efficacy and robustness. Elastodynamic metasurfaces are easily realized and analytically predictable, opening new possibilities in tomography techniques, ultrasonics, geophysics, vibration control, materials and structure design.

  4. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    differences in the mode of action of the two depolarizing stimuli were reflected in the properties of the increase in [Ca++]i elicited by 55 mM K+ and 100 microM glutamate, respectively. The K(+)-induced increase in [Ca++]i was reduced by both verapamil and Ca(++)-free media whereas the corresponding...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  5. Influence of thermal reduced depolarization on a repetition-frequency laser amplifier and compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ying Jiang; Xiong-wei Yan; Zhen-guo Wang; Jian-gang Zheng; Ming-zhong Li; Jing-qin Su

    2015-01-01

    Thermal stress can induce birefringence in a laser medium, which can cause depolarization of the laser. The depolarization effect will be very severe in a high-average-power laser. Because the depolarization will make the frequency doubling efficiency decline, it should be compensated. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of two kinds of materials are analyzed in respect of temperature, thermal deformation and thermal stress. The depolarization result from thermal stress was simulated. Depolarization on non-uniform pumping was also simulated, and the compensation method is discussed.

  6. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  7. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira G. Slepchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn2+ appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  8. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  9. Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+ν y , 12+ν y and 36+ν y , which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances

  10. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) have been detected in polycrystalline samples of ThO 2 in the temperature range 100K - 350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charges carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen, decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic nuclear oxides [pt

  11. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  12. Neutron depolarization effects in a high-Tc superconductor (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C.; Pickart, S. J.; Crow, L.; Goyette, R.; McGuire, T. R.; Shinde, S.; Shaw, T. M.

    1988-11-01

    Using the polarized beam small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center Reactor, we have observed significant depolarization of a neutron beam by passage through polycrystalline high-Tc superconductors, specifically 123 Y-Ba-Cu-O prepared and characterized at the IBM Watson Research Center. We believe that this technique will prove useful in studying aspects of these materials, such as the penetration depth of shielding currents, the presence and structure of trapped flux vortices, and grain size effects on the supercurrent distribution in polycrystalline samples. The two samples showed sharp transitions at 87 and 89 K, and have been studied at temperatures of 77 K; the second sample has also been studied at 4 K. The transition to the superconducting state was monitored by the shift in resonant frequency of a coil surrounding the sample. No measurable depolarization was observed in either sample at 77 K in both the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled states, using applied fields of 0 (nominal), 54, and 1400 Oe. This negative result may be connected with the fact that the material is still in the reversible region as indicated by susceptibility measurements, but it allows an estimate of the upper bound of possible inhomogeneous internal fields, assuming a distance scale for the superconducting regions. For the 10-μm grain size suggested by photomicrographs, this upper bound for the field turns out to be 1.2 kOe, which seems reasonable. At 4 K a significant depolarization was observed when the sample was cooled in low fields and a field of 1400 Oe was subsequently applied. This result suggests that flux lines are penetrating the sample. Further investigations are being carried out to determine the field and temperature dependence of the depolarization, and attempts will be made to model it quantitatively in terms of possible internal field distributions. We are also searching for possible diffraction effects from ordered vortex

  13. Depolarization of fluorescence of polyatomic molecules in noble gas solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, A. P.; Gelin, M. F.; Kalosha, I. I.; Matylitsky, V. V.; Erohin, N. P.; Barashkov, M. V.; Tolkachev, V. A.

    2001-10-01

    The collisional depolarization of fluorescence is studied for p-quarterphenyl (PQP) in He, Ar, Xe solvents, under pressures ranging from zero to nearly atmospheric. The results are interpreted within the Keilson-Storer model of the orientational relaxation and smooth rigid body collision dynamics. This allows us to estimate the rate of the angular momentum scrambling due to encounters of PQP with its partners. The collisions are shown to be neither strong nor weak, so that the averaged number of encounters giving rise to the PQP angular momentum randomization equals to 33 (PQP-He), 4.5 (PQP-Ar), and 2.1 (PQP-Xe).

  14. Analysis of spin depolarizing effects in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, M.

    1994-05-01

    In this thesis spin depolarizing effects in electron storage rings are analyzed and the depolarizing effects in the HERA electron storage ring are studied in detail. At high beam energies the equilibrium polarization is limited by nonlinear effects. This will be particularly true in the case of HERA, when the socalled ''spin rotators'' are inserted which are designed to provide longitudinal electron polarization for the HERMES experiment in 1994 and later for the H1 and ZEUS experiment. It is very important to quantify the influence of these effects theoretically by a proper modelling of HERA, so that ways can be found to get a high degree of polarization in the real machine. In this thesis HERA is modelled by the Monte-Carlo tracking program SITROS which was originally written by J. Kewisch in 1982 to study the polarization in PETRA. The first part of the thesis is devoted to a detailed description of the fundamental theoretical concepts on which the program is based. Then the approximations which are needed to overcome computing time limitations are explained and their influence on the simulation result is discussed. The systematic and statistical errors are studied in detail. Extensions of the program which allow a comparison of SITROS with the results given by ''linear'' theory are explained. (orig.)

  15. Storage ring lattice calibration using resonant spin depolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Wootton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents measurements of the GeV-scale electron beam energy for the storage rings at the synchrotron light source facilities Australian Synchrotron (AS and SPEAR3 at SLAC. Resonant spin depolarization was employed in the beam energy measurement, since it is presently the highest precision technique and an uncertainty of order 10^{-6} was achieved at SPEAR3 and AS. Using the resonant depolarization technique, the beam energy was measured at various rf frequencies to measure the linear momentum compaction factor. This measured linear momentum compaction factor was used to evaluate models of the beam trajectory through combined-function bending magnets. The main bending magnets of both lattices are rectangular, horizontally defocusing gradient bending magnets. Four modeling approaches are compared for the beam trajectory through the bending magnet: a circular trajectory, linear and nonlinear hyperbolic cosine trajectories, and numerical evaluation of the trajectory through the measured magnetic field map. Within the uncertainty of the measurement the momentum compaction factor is shown to agree with the numerical model of the trajectory within the bending magnet, and disagree with the hyperbolic cosine approximation.

  16. Calibration procedure and wavelength correction for neutron depolarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, W.; Rekveldt, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    The neutron polarimeter, for which an extended calibration procedure is described here, enables one to investigate magnetic properties of materials. Such an investigation is carried out by offering a polarized neutron beam in the x-, y- and z-direction successively and, after transmission through the sample, by analysing the polarization in all three directions. The result is a 3x3 depolarization matrix. After the polarizer, the neutron beam has a polarization along the z-direction. Two coil systems creating a magnetic field in the yz-plane perpendicular to the beam direction provide the possibility to direct the polarization in the x-, y- and z-direction by means of Larmor precession of the polarization in these fields. New research areas, where small depolarization effects together with considerable polarization rotation are measured, have caused a need for more accuracy in, and better knowledge of the calibration of the polarimeter. The calibration procedure use up to now and the improvements made on it are described. (orig.)

  17. Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio in linear alkylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Wenqian; Zhang, Yuning; Wu, Wenjie; Luo, Wentai; Yu, Miao; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    It is planned to use linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as the organic solvent for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) liquid scintillator detectors, due to its ultra-transparency. However, the current Rayleigh scattering length calculation for LAB disagrees with the experimental measurement. This paper reports for the first time that the Rayleigh scattering of LAB is anisotropic, with a depolarization ratio of 0.31±0.01(stat.)±0.01(sys.). We use an indirect method for Rayleigh scattering measurement with the Einstein–Smoluchowski–Cabannes formula, and the Rayleigh scattering length of LAB is determined to be 28.2±1.0 m at 430 nm

  18. Linear Depolarization of Lidar Returns by Aged Smoke Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    We use the numerically exact (superposition) T-matrix method to analyze recent measurements of the backscattering linear depolarization ratio (LDR) for a plume of aged smoke at lidar wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm. We show that the unique spectral dependence of the measured LDRs can be modeled, but only by assuming expressly nonspherical morphologies of smoke particles containing substantial amounts of nonabsorbing (or weakly absorbing) refractory materials such as sulfates. Our results demonstrate that spectral backscattering LDR measurements can be indicative of the presence of morphologically complex smoke particles, but additional (e.g., passive polarimetric or bistatic lidar) measurements may be required for a definitive characterization of the particle morphology and composition.

  19. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  20. Compensating Faraday Depolarization by Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Ashurova, Mohira B. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jabbari, Sarah, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [School of Mathematical Sciences and Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-08-20

    A turbulent dynamo in spherical geometry with an outer corona is simulated to study the sign of magnetic helicity in the outer parts. In agreement with earlier studies, the sign in the outer corona is found to be opposite to that inside the dynamo. Line-of-sight observations of polarized emission are synthesized to explore the feasibility of using the local reduction of Faraday depolarization to infer the sign of helicity of magnetic fields in the solar corona. This approach was previously identified as an observational diagnostic in the context of galactic magnetic fields. Based on our simulations, we show that this method can be successful in the solar context if sufficient statistics are gathered by using averages over ring segments in the corona separately for the regions north and south of the solar equator.

  1. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  2. Effects of penicillin on procaine-elicited bursts of potential in central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Lu, Kuan-Ling; Hsiao, Ru-Wan; Lee, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Lin, Chia Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Effects of penicillin on changes in procaine-elicited bursts of potential (BoP) were studied in a central neuron (RP4) of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Procaine elicited BoP in the RP4 neuron while penicillin elicited depolarization of the neuron. Penicillin decreased the BoP elicited by procaine in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was not altered in the preparations treated with ascorbate or L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). However, the inhibitory effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was enhanced with a decrease in extracellular sodium ion. Sodium ion was one of the important ions contributing to the action potential of the neuron. Two-electrode voltage-clamp studies revealed that penicillin decreased the fast sodium inward current of the neuron. It is concluded that penicillin inhibited the BoP elicited by procaine and sodium ion altered the effect of penicillin on procaine-elicited BoP.

  3. Depolarization due to the resonance tail during a fast resonance jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of depolarization due to a fast resonance jump is studied. The dominant effect for cases of interest is not dependent on the rate of passage through resonance, but rather on the size of the resonance jump as compared to the width, epsilon, of the resonance. The results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  4. Dependence of negative muon depolarization on molecular weight and temperature in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuraev, A.A.; Evseev, V.S.; Obukhov, Yu.V.; Roganov, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An atomic capture of negative muons in the aliphatic spirit series, the dependence of muon rest polarization on the molecular weight of spirit have been studied. The temperature dependence of depolarization in benzole and styrene has been obtained. The results on depolarization are being interpreted basing on notions about chemical interactions of mesic atoms in organic compounds. (author)

  5. Simple non-Markovian microscopic models for the depolarizing channel of a single qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Romero, K M; Lo Franco, R

    2012-01-01

    The archetypal one-qubit noisy channels - depolarizing, phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels - describe both Markovian and non-Markovian evolution. Simple microscopic models for the depolarizing channel, both classical and quantum, are considered. Microscopic models that describe phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels are briefly reviewed.

  6. A rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70s ribosome determined by depolarized laser light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Fijnaut, H.M.

    We have obtained a rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70S ribosome isolated from Escherichia-coli (MRE-600), from the depolarized light scattering spectrum measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The intensity correlation function of depolarized scattered light contains contributions due

  7. Spreading depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and are associated with poor outcome in brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Bullock, M Ross

    2011-01-01

    , although prolonged events have not been observed in animal models. To determine whether detrimental penumbral-type depolarizations occur in human brain trauma, we analysed electrocorticographic recordings obtained by subdural electrode-strip monitoring during intensive care. Of 53 patients studied, 10......Cortical spreading depolarizations occur spontaneously after ischaemic, haemorrhagic and traumatic brain injury. Their effects vary spatially and temporally as graded phenomena, from infarction to complete recovery, and are reflected in the duration of depolarization measured by the negative direct...... current shift of electrocorticographic recordings. In the focal ischaemic penumbra, peri-infarct depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and cause progressive recruitment of the penumbra into the core infarct. In traumatic brain injury, the effects of spreading depolarizations are unknown...

  8. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  9. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  10. The anomalous depolarization anisotropy in the central backscattering area for turbid medium with Mie scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Lai, Jiancheng; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-05-01

    It is generally recognized that circularly polarized light is preferentially maintained over linearly polarized light in turbid medium with Mie scatterers. However, in this work, the anomalous depolarization anisotropy is reported in the backscattering area near the point of illumination. Both experimental and Monte Carlo simulations show preferential retention of linear polarization states compared to circular polarization states in a specific backscattering area. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous depolarization behavior in the specific area is induced by lateral scattering events, which own low circular polarization memory. In addition, it is also found that the size of the anomalous depolarization area is related to the transport mean free path of the turbid medium.

  11. Interaction between depolarization effects, interface layer, and fatigue behavior in PZT thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Waser, R.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of non-ferroelectric regions in ferroelectric thin films evokes depolarization effects leading to a tilt of the P(E) hysteresis loop. The analysis of measured hysteresis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is used to determine a depolarization factor which contains quantitative information about interfacial layers as well as ferroelectrically passive zones in the bulk. The derived interfacial capacitance is smaller than that estimated from conventional extrapolation techniques. In addition, the concept of depolarization is used for the investigation of fatigue behavior of PZT thin films indicating that the mechanism of seed inhibition, which is responsible for the effect, occurs in the entire film.

  12. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1986-01-01

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R s 3+ -F i - ). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author)

  13. Speed of disentanglement in multiqubit systems under a depolarizing channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin, E-mail: flzhang@tju.edu.cn; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin, E-mail: mailinliang@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-06-15

    We investigate the speed of disentanglement in the multiqubit systems under the local depolarizing channel, in which each qubit is independently coupled to the environment. We focus on the bipartition entanglement between one qubit and the remaining qubits constituting the system, which is measured by the negativity. For the two-qubit system, the speed for the pure state completely depends on its entanglement. The upper and lower bounds of the speed for arbitrary two-qubit states, and the necessary conditions for a state achieving them, are obtained. For the three-qubit system, we study the speed for pure states, whose entanglement properties can be completely described by five local-unitary-transformation invariants. An analytical expression of the relation between the speed and the invariants is derived. The speed is enhanced by the three-tangle which is the entanglement among the three qubits, but reduced by the two-qubit correlations outside the concurrence. The decay of the negativity can be restrained by the other two negativity with the coequal sense. The unbalance between two qubits can reduce the speed of disentanglement of the remaining qubit in the system, and even can retrieve the entanglement partially. For the k-qubit systems in an arbitrary superposition of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and W state, the speed depends almost entirely on the amount of the negativity when k increases to five or six. An alternative quantitative definition for the robustness of entanglement is presented based on the speed of disentanglement, with comparison to the widely studied robustness measured by the critical amount of noise parameter where the entanglement vanishes. In the limit of large number of particles, the alternative robustness of the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type states is inversely proportional to k, and the one of the W states approaches 1/√(k)

  14. Light depolarization induced by metallic tips in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi, P G [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sezione Messina, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Lopes, M; Deturche, R; Julien, C; Barchiesi, D; Chapelle, M Lamy de la [Institut Charles Delaunay-CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-05-28

    We have investigated the depolarization effects of light scattered by sharp tips used for apertureless near-field optical microscopy. Dielectric and metal coated tips have been investigated and depolarization factors between 5 and 30% have been measured, changing as a function of the incident light polarization and of the tip shape. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the finite element method, giving a near-field depolarization factor close to 10%. The effect of depolarization has been investigated in polarized tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) experiments; the depolarization gives rise to forbidden Raman modes in Si crystals.

  15. Preliminary evidence that ketamine inhibits spreading depolarizations in acute human brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakowitz, Oliver W; Kiening, Karl L; Krajewski, Kara L

    2009-01-01

    by the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine. This restored electrocorticographic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These anecdotal electrocorticographic findings suggest that ketamine has an inhibitory effect on spreading depolarizations in humans. This is of potential interest for future...

  16. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  17. Weak Depolarizing Resonances in the 3-TeV VLHC Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of polarized-proton-beam acceleration in the proposed low-field 3-TeV VLHC booster is considered. We find that the low-field combined function magnets in the booster's long FODO cells cause an inadvertent cancellation of most depolarizing fields due to a mechanism suggested earlier by Chao and Derbenev [Part.Accel.36, 25 (1991)]. The strongest spin-depolarizing resonances in the 3-TeV booster seem to be similar in strength to those in the 250-GeV RHIC. Moreover, the strength of the 3-TeV booster's strongest intrinsic depolarizing resonances decreases with energy, in contrast with the energy growth of the depolarizing resonance's strength in most proton synchrotrons. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. A review of depolarization modeling for earth-space radio paths at frequencies above 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.; Gaines, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of models for the depolarization, caused by scattering from raindrops and ice crystals, that limits the performance of dual-polarized satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz. The physical mechanisms of depolarization as well as theoretical formulations and empirical data are examined. Three theoretical models, the transmission, attenuation-derived, and scaling models, are described and their relative merits are considered.

  19. Emotion Eliciting in Affective Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Yoke Chin

    2014-01-01

    A successful product needs the designer’s conceptual model congruent with the user’s mental model. The fundamental affective design principle also applies to assistive product design. Eliciting effectively the user’s mental model has been a big challenge for most novice designers. This paper outl...... with 3D digital prototype as emotion stimulus. To form a closed loop reflective model, the emotion response from the user is assessed with an emotion assessment tool. Emotion ontology is established to form the backbone of the emotion assessment tool....

  20. Dibucaine mitigates spreading depolarization in human neocortical slices and prevents acute dendritic injury in the ischemic rodent neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Christopher Risher

    Full Text Available Spreading depolarizations that occur in patients with malignant stroke, subarachnoid/intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury are known to facilitate neuronal damage in metabolically compromised brain tissue. The dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis caused by propagating spreading depolarizations results in neuronal and astroglial swelling. In essence, swelling is the initial response and a sign of the acute neuronal injury that follows if energy deprivation is maintained. Choosing spreading depolarizations as a target for therapeutic intervention, we have used human brain slices and in vivo real-time two-photon laser scanning microscopy in the mouse neocortex to study potentially useful therapeutics against spreading depolarization-induced injury.We have shown that anoxic or terminal depolarization, a spreading depolarization wave ignited in the ischemic core where neurons cannot repolarize, can be evoked in human slices from pediatric brains during simulated ischemia induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation or by exposure to ouabain. Changes in light transmittance (LT tracked terminal depolarization in time and space. Though spreading depolarizations are notoriously difficult to block, terminal depolarization onset was delayed by dibucaine, a local amide anesthetic and sodium channel blocker. Remarkably, the occurrence of ouabain-induced terminal depolarization was delayed at a concentration of 1 µM that preserves synaptic function. Moreover, in vivo two-photon imaging in the penumbra revealed that, though spreading depolarizations did still occur, spreading depolarization-induced dendritic injury was inhibited by dibucaine administered intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg in a mouse stroke model.Dibucaine mitigated the effects of spreading depolarization at a concentration that could be well-tolerated therapeutically. Hence, dibucaine is a promising candidate to protect the brain from ischemic injury with an approach that does not rely on

  1. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  2. Determination of proton-nucleon analyzing powers and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters at 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.A.; Barlett, M.L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Milner, E.C.; Ray, L.; Amann, J.F.; Bonner, B.E.; McClelland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    500 MeV p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic, and p-arrow-right+n quasielastic, analyzing powers (A/sub y/) and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters (D/sub S//sub S/, D/sub S//sub L/, D/sub L//sub S/, D/sub L//sub L/, D/sub N//sub N/) were determined for center-of-momentum angular ranges 6.8 0 -55.4 0 (elastic) and 22.4 0 -55.4 0 (quasielastic); liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets were used. The p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic results are in good agreement; both the p-arrow-right+p and p-arrow-right+n parameters are well described by current phase shift solutions

  3. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  4. Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are early events involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E

    2012-11-01

    Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing early responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by early events, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of ventricular depolarization and repolarization changes in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Demidova, Marina; Koul, Sasha; Laguna, Pablo; Platonov, Pyotr G; Pueyo, Esther

    2012-12-01

    In this study, several electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived indices corresponding to both ventricular depolarization and repolarization were evaluated during acute myocardial ischemia in an experimental model of myocardial infarction produced by 40 min coronary balloon inflation in 13 pigs. Significant changes were rapidly observed from minute 4 after the start of coronary occlusion, achieving their maximum values between 11 and 22 min for depolarization and between 9 and 12 min for repolarization indices, respectively. Subsequently, these maximum changes started to decrease during the latter part of the occlusion. Depolarization changes associated with the second half of the QRS complex showed a significant but inverse correlation with the myocardium at risk (MaR) estimated by scintigraphic images. The correlation between MaR and changes of the downward slope of the QRS complex, [Formula: see text], evaluated at the two more relevant peaks observed during the occlusion, was r = -0.75, p evolution, respectively. Repolarization changes, analyzed by evaluation of ST segment elevation at the main observed positive peak, also showed negative, however non-significant correlation with MaR: r = -0.34, p = 0.28. Our results suggest that changes evaluated in the latter part of the depolarization, such as those described by [Formula: see text], which are influenced by R-wave amplitude, QRS width and ST level variations simultaneously, correlate better with the amount of ischemia than other indices evaluated in the earlier part of depolarization or during the ST segment.

  6. Mechanism of blue-light-induced plasma-membrane depolarization in etiolated cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A large, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane precedes the rapid blue-light (BL)-induced growth suppression in etiolated seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. The mechanism of this voltage transient was investigated by applying inhibitors of ion channels and the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase, by manipulating extracellular ion concentrations, and by measuring cell input resistance and ATP levels. The depolarizing phase was not affected by Ca(2+)-channel blockers (verapamil, La3+) or by reducing extracellular free Ca2+ by treatment with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, these treatments did reduce the rate of repolarization, indicating an inward movement of Ca2+ is involved. No effects of the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA+) were detected. Vanadate and KCN, used to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase, reduced or completely inhibited the BL-induced depolarization. Levels of ATP increased by 11-26% after 1-2 min of BL. Input resistance of trichrome cells, measured with double-barreled microelectrodes, remained constant during the onset of the depolarization but decreased as the membrane voltage became more positive than -90 mV. The results indicate that the depolarization mechanism initially involves inactivation of the H(+)-ATPase with subsequent transient activation of one or more types of ion channels.

  7. Currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn2S4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagiev, B.G.; Tagiev, O.B.; Dzhabbarov, R.B.; Musaeva, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    The results of investigation into currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals are presented for the first time. Spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization for In-CaIn S4 -In structures are measured under T=99 K at various rates of heat, times of polarization and times of expectation following switching off of electrical field up to beginning of measurements of shorting. The main parameters of capture cross section, partial factor, concentration of traps, are determined. It is determined that one may observed a biomolecular mechanism with a strong secondary capture in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals. 9 refs.; 4 figs

  8. A stochastic model of depolarization enhancement due to large energy spread in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1988-10-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of isolated spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA and LEP, at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  9. Analytic calculation of depolarization due to large energy spread in high-energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1989-08-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA, TRISTAN, and LEP at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  10. Beam depolarization and gain saturation in neodymium rods with a diameter of 85 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V N; Ugodenko, A A

    1990-04-01

    Depolarization and gain saturation were investigated in rod amplifiers using phosphate and silicate Nd glasses 85 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length at a pulse duration of 35 ns. Total depolarization losses over the rod cross section were measured for various radial distributions of the small-signal gain. For the phosphate glass the losses amounted to 3-6 percent; for the silicate glass, they amounted to 4-7 percent. Saturation energy densities of 4.5 + or - 0.4 and 8.0 + or - 0.7 J/sq cm were obtained for the phosphate and silicate glass, respectively. 8 refs.

  11. Detection of spreading depolarization with intraparenchymal electrodes in the injured human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcote, Toby; Hinzman, Jason M; Jewell, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    be detected using intra-cortical electrodes, opening the way for electrode insertion via burr hole. METHODS: Animal work was carried out on adult Sprague-Dawley rats in a laboratory setting to investigate the feasibility of recording depolarization events. Subsequently, 8 human patients requiring craniotomy...... for craniotomy. The method provides a new investigative tool for the evaluation of the contribution of these events to secondary brain injury in human patients.......BACKGROUND: Spreading depolarization events following ischemic and traumatic brain injury are associated with poor patient outcome. Currently, monitoring these events is limited to patients in whom subdural electrodes can be placed at open craniotomy. This study examined whether these events can...

  12. Measurement of the depolarization rate of positive muons in copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Heffner, R.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Parkin, D.M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Wampler, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Positive muon spin rotation experiments for polycrystalline Cu and Al from 19 K to temperatures near the melting points are reported. At low temperatures, the depolarization associated with localization of the muons at octahedral interstitial sites is seen in Cu, while in Al only slight depolarization is observed below 250 K. At high temperatures, no evidence for trapping of positive muons at vacancies in thermal equilibrium is found for either metal. It is concluded that the muons either diffuse too slowly to find vacancies or, if they do find vacancies, are bound too weakly to remain trapped. (author)

  13. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    for pervasive healthcare technology, in which established methods for engaging users to elicit their needs can be difficult or even impossible to apply. In this paper we document our needs elicitation process in a relevant example as a method story, and present our findings and reflections on this as the key...

  14. Requirements Elicitation Problems: A Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Davey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is the process through which analysts determine the software requirements of stakeholders. Requirements elicitation is seldom well done, and an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of user requirements has led to the downfall of many software projects. This paper proposes a classification of problem types that occur in requirements elicitation. The classification has been derived from a literature analysis. Papers reporting on techniques for improving requirements elicitation practice were examined for the problem the technique was designed to address. In each classification the most recent or prominent techniques for ameliorating the problems are presented. The classification allows the requirements engineer to be sensitive to problems as they arise and the educator to structure delivery of requirements elicitation training.

  15. Neutron depolarization measurements of HoCo2 near the magnetic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraan, W.

    1976-09-01

    The magnetic phase transition in HoCo 2 at zero applied field is investigated. The Landau theory of magnetic phase transition is discussed. The experimental technique for neutron depolarization measurements in the temperature range 65-90 K is described

  16. Weaver mutant mouse cerebellar granule cells respond normally to chronic depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Annette; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hack, N

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of chronic K(+)-induced membrane depolarization and treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) from weaver mutant mice and non-weaver litter-mates. The weaver mutation is a Gly-to-Ser substitution in a conserved region of the Girk2 G prote...

  17. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  18. Charge movement and depolarization-contraction coupling in arthropod vs. vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, T; Gilly, W F

    1986-01-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movement has been characterized in arthropod skeletal muscle. Charge movement in scorpion (Centuroides sculpturatus) muscle is distinguishable from that in vertebrate skeletal muscle by criteria of kinetics, voltage dependence, and pharmacology. The function of scorpion charge movement is gating of calcium channels in the sarcolemma, and depolarization-contraction coupling relies on calcium influx through these channels.

  19. Neutron depolarization study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuesser, N.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis neutron depolarization experiments are performed on amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetic materials. The subjects studied are concerned with 'domain structure in magnetically weak uniaxial amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons', 'static critical behaviour at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition', 'small magnetic anisotropy in nickel near T c ', and 'magnetization reversal in conducting ferromagnets'. 87 refs.; 37 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Depolarization-induced release of amino acids from the vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Sun, Yizhe; Frisch, Christopher; Godfrey, Matthew A; Rubin, Allan M

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine.

  1. Role of astrocytes in depolarization-coupled release of glutamate in cerebellar cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Release of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate in response to depolarization induced by high potassium, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was studied using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons, cerebell...

  2. Two regulatory RNA elements affect TisB-dependent depolarization and persister formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Bork A; Hoekzema, Mirthe; Aulbach, Lena; Wagner, E Gerhart H

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial survival strategies involve phenotypic diversity which is generated by regulatory factors and noisy expression of effector proteins. The question of how bacteria exploit regulatory RNAs to make decisions between phenotypes is central to a general understanding of these universal regulators. We investigated the TisB/IstR-1 toxin-antitoxin system of Escherichia coli to appreciate the role of the RNA antitoxin IstR-1 in TisB-dependent depolarization of the inner membrane and persister formation. Persisters are phenotypic variants that have become transiently drug-tolerant by arresting growth. The RNA antitoxin IstR-1 sets a threshold for TisB-dependent depolarization under DNA-damaging conditions, resulting in two sub-populations: polarized and depolarized cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that an inhibitory 5' UTR structure in the tisB mRNA serves as a regulatory RNA element that delays TisB translation to avoid inappropriate depolarization when DNA damage is low. Investigation of the persister sub-population further revealed that both regulatory RNA elements affect persister levels as well as persistence time. This work provides an intriguing example of how bacteria exploit regulatory RNAs to control phenotypic heterogeneity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Bert van; Vogelzang, Sake A.; Ypey, Dirk L.; Molen, Loek G. van der; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    We examined a possible role for the plasma membrane potential in signal transduction during cyclic AMP-induced chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Chemotaxis, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP responses in cells with a depolarized membrane potential were measured. Cells can be

  4. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters. Without Inviting Respondents' ... methods based on Randomized Response tech- niques. ... while collecting data on some sensitive issues are well ..... Suppose there is an association of professionals.

  5. Coulometric titrations of bases in propylene carbonate and g-butyrolactone using hydroquinone as the depolarizer and a quinhydrone indicator electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. STANIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of hydroquinone for the coulometric generation of hydrogen ions in propylene carbonate (PC and g-butyrolactone (GBL is described. The current-potential curves recorded for theid sepolarizer, titrated bases, indicator and the solvents used showed that the investigated depolarizer is oxidized at lower potentials than the oxidation potentials of other components in the solution. the hydrogen ions generated by the oxidation of hydroquinone were used for the titration of organic bases (triethylamine, n-butylamine, pyridine, quinoline, aniline, N,N’-diphenylguanidine, piperidine, and 2,2’-bipiridine in PC and GBL with visual (Crystal Violet as indicator and potentiometric end-point detection using a quinhydrone electrode as the indicator electrode. The quinhydrone added to the to be analyzed solution served both as a source of hydrogen ions and, together with the immersed platinum electrode, as a quinhydrone electrode. The relative error of the determination of the bases was about 1 %.

  6. On the nature of the fast depolarization of muons in condensed nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duginov, V.N.; Grebinnik, V.G.; Kirillov, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Temperature dependences of the depolarization rate, the muon precession initial amplitude and phase in liquid and crystalline nitrogen with the oxygen content of 10 -6 have been measured. It has been shown that muon spin relaxation parameters in nitrogen do not change at the reduction of the oxygen impurity content from 0.7x10 -4 to 10 -6 . The fast depolarization of muons in condensed nitrogen is apparently due to the formation of muonium atoms. The muon precession initial phase has been measured as a function of the perpendicular magnetic field to determine the state of short-lived muonium in nitrogen. It has been determined that muonium in nitrogen is in an excited state. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Surface potential at a ferroelectric grain due to asymmetric screening of depolarization fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genenko, Yuri A., E-mail: genenko@mm.tu-darmstadt.de; Hirsch, Ofer [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Erhart, Paul [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-03-14

    Nonlinear screening of electric depolarization fields, generated by a stripe domain structure in a ferroelectric grain of a polycrystalline material, is studied within a semiconductor model of ferroelectrics. It is shown that the maximum strength of local depolarization fields is rather determined by the electronic band gap than by the spontaneous polarization magnitude. Furthermore, field screening due to electronic band bending and due to presence of intrinsic defects leads to asymmetric space charge regions near the grain boundary, which produce an effective dipole layer at the surface of the grain. This results in the formation of a potential difference between the grain surface and its interior of the order of 1 V, which can be of either sign depending on defect transition levels and concentrations. Exemplary acceptor doping of BaTiO{sub 3} is shown to allow tuning of the said surface potential in the region between 0.1 and 1.3 V.

  8. Lactate per se improves the excitability of depolarized rat skeletal muscle by reducing the Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Ørtenblad, Niels; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2010-01-01

    Studies on rats have shown that lactic acid can improve excitability and function of depolarized muscles. The effect has been related to the ensuing reduction in intracellular pH causing inhibition of muscle fibre Cl- channels. Since, however, several carboxylic acids with structural similarities...... to lactate can inhibit muscle Cl- channels it is possible that lactate per se can increase muscle excitability by exerting a direct effect on these channels. We therefore examined effects of lactate on the function of intact muscles and skinned fibres together with effects on pH and Cl- conductance....... In muscles where extracellular compound action potentials (M-waves) and tetanic force response to excitation were reduced by 82±4 and 83±2 %, respectively, by depolarization with 11 mM extracellular K+, both M-waves and force exhibited an up to 4-fold increase when 20 mM lactate was added. This effect...

  9. Neutron depolarization study of internal stresses in amorphous Fe40Ni40B20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, M.; Sietsma, J.; Rekveldt, M.T.; van den Beukel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic domain structure of amorphous ferromagnets with nonzero magnetostriction is mainly determined by the internal stress state because of the magneto-elastic coupling. The stress and field dependence of the domain structure contains important information on the internal stresses in the material. The three-dimensional neutron depolarization technique has been used to study the stress- and field-dependence of the bulk domain structures in both as-quenched and annealed ribbons of the metallic glass Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 . A three-layer domain structure model corresponding to compressive and tensile internal stresses is presented to explain the measured data. The influence of surface roughness on the interpretation of neutron depolarization measurements in amorphous ribbons is discussed. Finally, the internal stress relaxation due to the annealing is explained in terms of the viscous behaviour of the glass. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Quantum key distribution with several intercept-resend attacks via a depolarizing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmani, Mustapha; Errahmani, Mohamed; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2012-01-01

    The disturbance effect of a depolarizing channel on the security of the quantum key distribution of the four-state BB84 protocol, with multiple sequential intercept-resend attacks of many eavesdroppers, has been studied. The quantum bit error rate and the mutual information are computed for an arbitrary number N of eavesdroppers. It is found that the quantum error rate decreases with increasing the depolarizing parameter p characterizing the noise of the channel. For p tr of p below which the information is secure and otherwise the information is not secure. The value of p tr decreases with increasing the number of attacks. In contrast, for p ⩾ 0.165, the information is not secure independently of the number of eavesdroppers. Phase diagrams corresponding to the secure—unsecure information are also established. (paper)

  11. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  12. Effect of the depolarization field on coherent optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Shunta; Asakura, Kenta; Seki, Keisuke; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2018-06-01

    We study the photon echo spectrum of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots using femtosecond light pulses. The spectrum shape changes from a single-peaked to a double-peaked structure as the time delay between the two excitation pulses is increased. The spectrum change is reproduced by numerical calculations, which include the depolarization field induced by the biexciton-exciton transition as well as the conventional local-field effect for the exciton-ground-state transition in a quantum dot. Our findings suggest that various optical transitions in tightly localized systems generate a depolarization field, which renormalizes the resonant frequency with a change in the polarization itself, leading to unique optical properties.

  13. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind...... of special depolarizer: the random roughness birefringent screen (RRBS) is introduced to meet this requirement. The statistical properties of the field generated by the depolarizer is investigated and illustrated in terms of the 2x2 beam coherence and polarization matrix (BCPM) with the corresponding degree...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  14. Potentiation by substance P of contractions of the isolated vas deferens of the mouse elicited by electric field stimulation and by drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, M.; James, T.A.; Starr, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated vasa deferentia from the mouse were opened longitudinally and suspended in Krebs solution at 37 0 C in an organ bath. Contractions of the muscle were elicited by electric field stimulation, noradrenaline (10 -6 M) and acetylcholine (10 -6 M). Continued transmural stimulation evoked a biphasic response comprising a rapid twitch followed by about 10 s later by a smaller, sustained rise in muscle tone. The amplitudes of nerve-mediated and drug-induced responses were considerably potentiated by substances P (SP) in the dose range 10 -12 to 10 -7 M. Higher concentrations of SP were directly spasmogenic. The sensitizing property of SP was dose-dependent and was usually well maintained, but always disappeared quickly on washing the preparation. In some experiments SP facilitated the twitch, but not the subsequent phase of the electrically-induced contraction or the response to externally applied noradrenaline. Phentolamine (10 -6 M) failed to block this effect of SP, but itself potentiated the nerve-mediated twitch, and completely abolished the sustained secondary contraction. Desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) enhanced the delayed contraction but not the immediate contraction. The uptake of tritiated noradrenaline (3 x 10 -7 M) by vasa was inhibited by desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) and increased by nialamide (3 x 10 -5 M), but was not modified by SP (10 -6 M). Nerve-mediated release of accumulated radioactivity was accelerated by phentolamine, but not by SP or desmethylimipramine. These findings suggest that SP sensitizes the muscle cells to depolarizing stimuli but that it has no facilitatory effect on sympathetic neural elements. (author)

  15. Fluorescence/depolarization lidar for mid-range stand-off detection of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Z.; Kopczyński, K.; Zygmunt, M.; Wojtanowski, J.; Młynczak, J.; Gawlikowski, A.; Młodzianko, A.; Piotrowski, W.; Gietka, A.; Knysak, P.; Drozd, T.; Muzal, M.; Kaszczuk, M.; Ostrowski, R.; Jakubaszek, M.

    2011-06-01

    LIDAR system for real-time standoff detection of bio-agents is presented and preliminary experimental results are discussed. The detection approach is based on two independent physical phenomena: (1) laser induced fluorescence (LIF), (2) depolarization resulting from elastic scattering on non-spherical particles. The device includes three laser sources, two receiving telescopes, depolarization component and spectral signature analyzing spectrograph. It was designed to provide the stand-off detection capability at ranges from 200 m up to several kilometers. The system as a whole forms a mobile platform for vehicle or building installation. Additionally, it's combined with a scanning mechanics and advanced software, which enable to conduct the semi-automatic monitoring of a specified space sector. For fluorescence excitation, 3-rd (355 nm) and 4-th (266 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG pulsed lasers are used. They emit short (~6 ns) pulses with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. Collecting optics for fluorescence echo detection and spectral content analysis includes 25 mm diameter f/4 Newton telescope, Czerny Turner spectrograph and 32-channel PMT. Depending on the grating applied, the spectral resolution from 20 nm up to 3 nm per channel can be achieved. The system is also equipped with an eye-safe (1.5 μm) Nd:YAG OPO laser for elastic backscattering/depolarization detection. The optical echo signal is collected by Cassegrain telescope with aperture diameter of 12.5 mm. Depolarization detection component based on polarizing beam-splitter serves as the stand-off particle-shape analyzer, which is very valuable in case of non-spherical bio-aerosols sensing.

  16. Collisional broadening of depolarized spectral lines of hydrogen gases at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, K.D. van den.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the collisional broadening and shift of H 2 , D 2 and HD rotational Raman and depolarized Rayleigh lines at various temperatures between 25 K and 300 K. These are then discussed within the context of current theoretical concepts. For a few temperatures the line broadening cross sections are also reported as a function of the ortho-para composition for H 2 and D 2 . (C.F.)

  17. Coherence and polarization speckle generated by a rough-surfaced retardation plate depolarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    of position introducing random phase differences between the two orthogonal components of the electric vector. Under the assumption of Gaussian statistics with zero mean, the surface model for the depolarizer of the rough-surfaced retardation plate is obtained. The propagation of the modulated fields through...... any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix theory to show how the degree of coherence and polarization of the beam changes on propagation, including propagation in free space...

  18. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  19. Homogenization via the strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory with nonzero depolarization volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2004-08-01

    The depolarization dyadic provides the scattering response of a single inclusion particle embedded within a homogenous background medium. These dyadics play a central role in formalisms used to estimate the effective constitutive parameters of homogenized composite mediums (HCMs). Conventionally, the inclusion particle is taken to be vanishingly small; this allows the pointwise singularity of the dyadic Green function associated with the background medium to be employed as the depolarization dyadic. A more accurate approach is pursued in this communication by taking into account the nonzero spatial extent of inclusion particles. Depolarization dyadics corresponding to inclusion particles of nonzero volume are incorporated within the strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory (SPFT). The linear dimensions of inclusion particles are assumed to be small relative to the electromagnetic wavelength(s) and the SPFT correlation length. The influence of the size of inclusion particles upon SPFT estimates of the HCM constitutive parameters is investigated for anisotropic dielectric HCMs.In particular, the interplay between correlation length and inclusion size is explored.

  20. Effects of in vitro hypoxia on depolarization-stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.M.; Gibson, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of potassium and in vitro histotoxic hypoxia on phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat cortical synaptosomes were determined. [2- 3 H] Inositol prelabelled rat synaptosomes were prepared from cerebral cortex slices that had been incubated with [2- 3 H] inositol. Depolarization with 60 mM KCl increased [2- 3 H] inositol phosphates in a time dependent manner. Depolarization with 60 mM KCl increased [2- 3 H]inositol trisphosphate transiently at 5 s. K + induced rapid formation of [2- 3 H] inositol monophosphate with time. One minute of hypoxia enhance sium-stimulate [2 3 H]inositol bisphosphate and maintained an elevated level for at least 5 min. K + stimulated gradual formation of [2- 3 H] inositol monophosphate with time. One minute of hypoxia enhanced potassium-stimulated [2- 3 H] inositol bisphosphate formation. However, 30 min of hypoxia impaired potassium-stimulated accumulation of [2- 3 H]inositol phosphates. The effects of histotoxic hypoxia were all dependent upon calcium in the medium and on K + -depolarization. Thus, hypoxia altered the K + induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in prelabelled synaptosomes in a time dependent, biphasic manner that was calcium dependent

  1. Thermal Stress-Induced Depolarization Loss in Conventional and Panda-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Laleh; Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We report on the modeling of the depolarization loss in the conventional and panda-shaped photonic crystal fiber lasers (PCFLs) due to the self-heating of the fiber, which we call it thermal stress-induced depolarization loss (TSIDL). We first calculated the temperature distribution over the fiber cross sections and then calculated the thermal stresses/strains as a function of heat load per meter. Thermal stress-induced birefringence (TSIB), which is defined as | n x - n y |, in the core and cladding regions was calculated. Finally, TSIDL was calculated for the conventional and panda-shaped PCFLs as a function of fiber length and, respectively, saturated values of 22 and 25 % were obtained which were independent of heat load per meter. For panda-shaped PCFLs, prior to being saturated, an oscillating and damping behavior against the fiber length was seen where in some lengths reached 35 %. The results are close to an experimental value of 30 % reported for a pulsed PCFL (Limpert et al., Opt Express 12:1313-1319, 2004) where the authors reported a degree of polarization of 70 % (i.e., a depolarization of 30 %). The most important result of this work is a saturation behavior of TSIDL at long-enough lengths of the fiber laser which is independent of heat load per meter. To our knowledge, this the first report of TSIBL for PCFLs.

  2. First observation of the depolarization of Thomson scattering radiation by a fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicotti, L.; Kempenaars, M.; McCormack, O.; Flanagan, J.; Pasqualotto, R.; contributors, JET

    2018-04-01

    We report the first experimental observation of the depolarization of the Thomson scattering (TS) radiation, a relativistic effect expected to occur in very high {{T}e} plasmas and never observed so far in a fusion machine. A set of unused optical fibers in the collection optics of the high resolution Thomson scattering system of JET has been used to detect the depolarized TS radiation during a JET campaign with {{T}e}≤slant 8 keV . A linear polarizer with the axis perpendicular to the direction of the incident E-field was placed in front of a fiber optic pair observing a region close to the plasma core, while another fiber pair with no polariser simultaneously observed an adjacent plasma region. The measured intensity ratio was found to be consistent with the theory, taking into account sensitivity coefficients of the two measurement channels determined with post-experiment calibrations and Raman scattering. This depolarization effect is at the basis of polarimetric TS, a different and complementary method for the analysis of TS spectra that can provide significant advantages for {{T}e} measurements in very hot plasmas such as in ITER ≤ft({{T}e}≤slant 40 keV \\right) .

  3. Large plasma-membrane depolarization precedes rapid blue-light-induced growth inhibition in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Blue-light (BL)-induced suppression of elongation of etiolated Cucumis sativus L. hypocotyls began after a 30-s lag time, which was halved by increasing the fluence rate from 10 to 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. Prior to the growth suppression, the plasma-membrane of the irradiated cells depolarized by as much as 100 mV, then returned within 2-3 min to near its initial value. The potential difference measured with surface electrodes changed with an identical time course but opposite polarity. The lag time for the change in surface potential showed an inverse dependence on fluence rate, similar to the lag for the growth inhibition. Green light and red light caused neither the electrical response nor the rapid inhibition of growth. The depolarization by BL did not propagate to nonirradiated regions and exhibited a refractory period of about 10 min following a BL pulse. Fluence-response relationships for the electrical and growth responses provide correlational evidence that the plasma-membrane depolarization reflects an event in the transduction chain of this light-growth response.

  4. Ferroelectric behavior of a lead titanate nanosphere due to depolarization fields and mechanical stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Landeta, J.; Lascano, I.

    2017-07-01

    A theorical model has been developed based on the theory of Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire to study and predict the effects the decreasing of size particle in a nanosphere of PbTiO3 subjected to the action of depolarization fields and mechanical stress. It was considered that the nanosphere is surrounded by a layer of space charges on its surface, and containing 180° domains generated by minimizing free energy of depolarization. Energy density of depolarization, wall domain and electro-elastic energy have been incorporated into the free energy of the theory Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire. Free energy minimization was performed to determine the spontaneous polarization and transition temperature system. These results show that the transition temperature for nanosphere is substantially smaller than the corresponding bulk material. Also, it has been obtained that the stability of the ferroelectric phase of nanosphere is favored for configurations with a large number of 180° domains, with the decreasing of thickness space charge layer, and the application of tensile stress and decreases with compressive stress. (Author)

  5. Responsibilities in the Usability Requirements Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianella Aveledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other software system quality attribute, usability places requirements on software components. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain usability features have a direct impact throughout the software process. This paper details an approach that looks at how to deal with certain usability features in the early software development stages. In particular, we consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. Additionally, we clearly establish the responsibilities of all the players at the usability requirements elicitation stage.

  6. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously diagnosed contact allergy to HICC were patch tested with 5 solutions of HICC-scented and HICC-unscented deodorants. Patients and 10 healthy controls performed a use test in the axillae using deodorants scented with HICC in increasing concentrations and unscented deodorants as control. The concentration of HICC was increased every second week (200, 600, and 1800 p.p.m.) until either a reaction developed or for 6 weeks. 14 patients completed the study, and all developed unilateral eczema from the HICC-containing deodorant, while controls were all negative (P= 0.004). In 9/14 patients, a positive use test developed during the first 2 weeks to the deodorant containing 200 p.p.m. HICC. Positive correlations were found between the day of positive use and patch test threshold concentration of the HICC solutions (r= 0.71, P= 0.01) as well as the patch test thresholds of the HICC-scented deodorants (r= 0.74, P= 0.007). In conclusion, HICC elicits allergic contact dermatitis in a high proportion of sensitized individuals at common usage concentrations in deodorants.

  7. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to

  8. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  9. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  10. Postsynaptic Depolarization Enhances GABA Drive to Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Neurons through Somatodendritic Cholecystokinin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Karen M; Baimoukhametova, Dinara V; Bains, Jaideep S; Pittman, Quentin J

    2015-09-23

    Somatodendritically released peptides alter synaptic function through a variety of mechanisms, including autocrine actions that liberate retrograde transmitters. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide expressed in neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in satiety and stress. There are clear demonstrations that exogenous CCK modulates food intake and neuropeptide expression in the DMH, but there is no information on how endogenous CCK alters synaptic properties. Here, we provide the first report of somatodendritic release of CCK in the brain in male Sprague Dawley rats. CCK is released from DMH neurons in response to repeated postsynaptic depolarizations, and acts in an autocrine fashion on CCK2 receptors to enhance postsynaptic NMDA receptor function and liberate the retrograde transmitter, nitric oxide (NO). NO subsequently acts presynaptically to enhance GABA release through a soluble guanylate cyclase-mediated pathway. These data provide the first demonstration of synaptic actions of somatodendritically released CCK in the hypothalamus and reveal a new form of retrograde plasticity, depolarization-induced potentiation of inhibition. Significance statement: Somatodendritic signaling using endocannabinoids or nitric oxide to alter the efficacy of afferent transmission is well established. Despite early convincing evidence for somatodendritic release of neurohypophysial peptides in the hypothalamus, there is only limited evidence for this mode of release for other peptides. Here, we provide the first evidence for somatodendritic release of the satiety peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in the brain. We also reveal a new form of synaptic plasticity in which postsynaptic depolarization results in enhancement of inhibition through the somatodendritic release of CCK. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513160-11$15.00/0.

  11. Accuracy of depolarization and delay spread predictions using advanced ray-based modeling in indoor scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the prediction accuracy of an advanced deterministic propagation model in terms of channel depolarization and frequency selectivity for indoor wireless propagation. In addition to specular reflection and diffraction, the developed ray tracing tool considers penetration through dielectric blocks and/or diffuse scattering mechanisms. The sensitivity and prediction accuracy analysis is based on two measurement campaigns carried out in a warehouse and an office building. It is shown that the implementation of diffuse scattering into RT significantly increases the accuracy of the cross-polar discrimination prediction, whereas the delay-spread prediction is only marginally improved.

  12. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawber, M; Chandra, P; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 μm to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  13. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Dawber, M; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 mu m to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  14. A neutron depolarization study of magnetic inhomogeneities in weak-link superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchenko, N.K.; Yagud, R.Z.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T c and low-T c weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo 6 S 8 and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields

  15. The use of thermally stimulated depolarization currents to study grain growth in ceramic thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Depolarization Current Spectra resulting from the destruction of the thermoelectret state in polycrystalline ThO 2 samples have been detected in the temperature range 100K-350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances in the bulk of the specimens with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charge carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic oxides. (Author) [pt

  16. Magnetic-field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Dodds, S.A.; Richards, P.M.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Boekema, C.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the magnetic-field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppM), AgGd (340 ppM) and AgEr (300 ppM). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric-field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence

  17. Magnetic field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Yaouanc, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Dodds, S.A. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Physics); Richards, P.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E. (California Univ., Riverside (USA)); Boekema, C. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the magnetic field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppm), AgGd (340 ppm) and AgEr (300 ppm). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence.

  18. A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1999-01-01

    of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN......The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, has been developed to elicitate such attributes. The purpose of the study presented here is to com-pare attributes of a low involvement product, viz. vegetable oil, elicited by five different techniques on a number...

  19. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  20. Depolarization Ratio Profiles Calibration and Observations of Aerosol and Cloud in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Polarization Raman Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyao Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL system is provided. To calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio, the concept of “ Δ 90 ° -calibration” is applied in this study. This effective and accurate calibration method is adjusted according to the design of WACAL. Error calculations and analysis of the gain ratio, calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio and particle linear depolarization ratio are provided as well. In this method, the influences of the gain ratio, the rotation angle of the plane of polarization and the polarizing beam splitter are discussed in depth. Two groups of measurements with half wave plate (HWP at angles of (0 ° , 45 ° and (22.5 ° , −22.5 ° are operated to calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio. Then, the particle linear depolarization ratios measured by WACAL and CALIOP (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization during the simultaneous observations were compared. Good agreements are found. The calibration method was applied in the third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Sciences (TIPEX III in 2013 and 2014 in China. Vertical profiles of the particle depolarization ratio of clouds and aerosol in the Tibetan Plateau were measured with WACAL in Litang (30.03° N, 100.28° E, 3949 m above sea level (a.s.l. in 2013 and Naqu (31.48° N, 92.06° E, 4508 m a.s.l. in 2014. Then an analysis on the polarizing properties of the aerosol, clouds and cirrus over the Tibetan Plateau is provided. The particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds varies from 0.36 to 0.52, with a mean value of 0.44 ± 0.04. Cirrus clouds occurred between 5.2 and 12 km above ground level (a.g.l.. The cloud thickness ranges from 0.12 to 2.55 km with a mean thickness of 1.22 ± 0.70 km. It is found that the particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds become larger as the height increases. However, the increase rate of the particle depolarization ratio becomes smaller as

  1. Dielectric relaxation of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol around the glass transition by thermally stimulated depolarization currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese-Igor, S; Alegría, A; Colmenero, J

    2015-06-07

    We explore new routes for characterizing the Debye-like and α relaxation in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) monoalcohol by using low frequency dielectric techniques including thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) techniques and isothermal depolarization current methods. In this way, we have improved the resolution of the overlapped processes making it possible the analysis of the data in terms of a mode composition as expected for a chain-like response. Furthermore the explored ultralow frequencies enabled to study dynamics at relatively low temperatures close to the glass transition (Tg). Results show, on the one hand, that Debye-like and α relaxation timescales dramatically approach to each other upon decreasing temperature to Tg. On the other hand, the analysis of partial polarization TSDC data confirms the single exponential character of the Debye-like relaxation in 2E1H and rules out the presence of Rouse type modes in the scenario of a chain-like response. Finally, on crossing the glass transition, the Debye-like relaxation shows non-equilibrium effects which are further emphasized by aging treatment and would presumably emerge as a result of the arrest of the structural relaxation below Tg.

  2. Stability and morphology of Ag nanoplatelets probed by depolarized dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbone, M.; Contino, A.; Maccarrone, G.; Musumeci, P.; Lo Faro, M. J.; Calcagno, L.

    2018-06-01

    The stability of silver nanoplatelet (NP) suspensions prepared with different concentrations of trisodium citrate (TSC) was studied by depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) and UV–vis spectrometry. The morphology of the nanoparticles, as well as the color and stability of the sols, are tuned by the concentration of the capping agent. The nanoparticles prepared with high TSC concentration (>10‑4 M) are blue triangular NPs showing a slight truncation of the tips with aging. When low TSC concentrations are used, the color of the sols changes from blue to yellow with aging time and a strong modification of the morphology occurs: the nanoparticle shape changes from triangular to spherical. Remarkably, they show a high degree of anisotropy. The aging process was followed by the UV–vis spectra and by measuring the rotational diffusion coefficient by DDLS, providing information on the nanoparticle size and shape evolution. The high intensity of depolarized signal and the high value of rotational diffusion coefficient suggest that the aging process increases the thickness and the roughness of the nanoparticles

  3. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders. -- Highlights: ► New superposition T-matrix code is applied to soot aerosols. ► Quasi-Rayleigh side-scattering peak in linear depolarization (LD) is explained. ► LD measurements can be used for morphological characterization of soot aerosols

  5. Elicitation: A Tool for Enriching the Bioactive Composition of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin, abiotic (chemical or physical origin elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods.

  6. Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2014-09-01

    Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin), abiotic (chemical or physical origin) elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods.

  7. LAP-ND: a new instrument for vector polarization analysis and neutron depolarization measurements at FRJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander; Bussmann, Klaus; Dohmen, Ludwig; Axelrod, Leonid; Gordeev, Gennadi; Brueckel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The method of vector analysis of the neutron polarization allows for the determination of both the magnitude and the direction of the magnetization vector in the sample. A directional distribution of the magnetization in a sample results in a spread of the direction of the polarization vector in space and thus in the depolarization of the incident beam. A new neutron depolarization set up is installed at the research reactor FRJ-2 of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. The main feature of the set up is the use of rather long wavelength, λ=(4-6.5) A, neutrons thus allowing for a significant increase in the sensitivity of depolarization measurements. The set up uses a non-cryogenic zero-field sample chamber with the residual magnetic field of about 1 mG. It will be used for the determination of the sample magnetization at mesoscopic and macroscopic levels and for the study of magnetic phase transitions, magnetic nanostructures, magnetic glasses, etc

  8. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  9. LAP-ND: a new instrument for vector polarization analysis and neutron depolarization measurements at FRJ-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioffe, Alexander; Bussmann, Klaus; Dohmen, Ludwig; Axelrod, Leonid; Gordeev, Gennadi; Brueckel, Thomas

    2004-07-15

    The method of vector analysis of the neutron polarization allows for the determination of both the magnitude and the direction of the magnetization vector in the sample. A directional distribution of the magnetization in a sample results in a spread of the direction of the polarization vector in space and thus in the depolarization of the incident beam. A new neutron depolarization set up is installed at the research reactor FRJ-2 of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. The main feature of the set up is the use of rather long wavelength, {lambda}=(4-6.5) A, neutrons thus allowing for a significant increase in the sensitivity of depolarization measurements. The set up uses a non-cryogenic zero-field sample chamber with the residual magnetic field of about 1 mG. It will be used for the determination of the sample magnetization at mesoscopic and macroscopic levels and for the study of magnetic phase transitions, magnetic nanostructures, magnetic glasses, etc.

  10. Depolarization changes during acute myocardial ischemia by evaluation of QRS slopes: standard lead and vectorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Laguna, Pablo; Pahlm, Olle; Pueyo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes can be improved by adding information from the depolarization phase (QRS complex) to the conventionally used ST-T segment changes. In this study, ischemia-induced changes in the main three slopes of the QRS complex, upward ( ℑ(US)) and downward ( ℑ(DS) ) slopes of the R wave as well as the upward ( ℑ(TS)) slope of the terminal S wave, were evaluated as to represent a robust measure of pathological changes within the depolarization phase. From ECG recordings both in a resting state (control recordings) and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-induced transmural ischemia, we developed a method for quantification of ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) that incorporates dynamic ECG normalization so as to improve the sensitivity in the detection of ischemia-induced changes. The same method was also applied on leads obtained by projection of QRS loops onto their dominant directions. We show that ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) present high stability in the resting state, thus providing a stable reference for ischemia characterization. Maximum relative factors of change ( ℜ(ℑ)) during PCI were found in leads derived from the QRS loop, reaching 10.5 and 13.7 times their normal variations in the control for ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS), respectively. For standard leads, the relative factors of change were 6.01 and 9.31. The ℑ(TS) index presented a similar behavior to that of ℑ(DS). The timing for the occurrence of significant changes in ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS) varied with lead, ranging from 30 s to 2 min after initiation of coronary occlusion. In the present ischemia model, relative ℑ(DS) changes were smaller than ST changes in most leads, however with only modest correlation between the two indices, suggesting they present different information about the ischemic process. We conclude that QRS slopes offer a robust tool for evaluating depolarization changes during myocardial ischemia.

  11. Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Victoria Jane; Eakins, John; Austin, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who produced an initial ground truth database. Human subjects were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative images. These rankings were then used to score the perceptions, identify the preferred human breakdowns and thus allow us to induce perceptual rules for h...

  12. Experimental observation of spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in side cores of a multicore fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.

  13. Recovery of slow potentials in AC-coupled electrocorticography: application to spreading depolarizations in rat and human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Dreier, Jens P

    2009-01-01

    Cortical spreading depolarizations (spreading depressions and peri-infarct depolarizations) are a pathology intrinsic to acute brain injury, generating large negative extracellular slow potential changes (SPCs) that, lasting on the order of minutes, are studied with DC-coupled recordings in animals...... of the inverse filter was validated by its ability to recover both simulated and real low-frequency input test signals. The inverse filter was then applied to AC-coupled ECoG recordings from five patients who underwent invasive monitoring after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For 117 SPCs, the inverse filter...

  14. Thermally induced depolarization in terbium gallium garnet ceramics rod with natural convection cooling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezák, Ondřej; Yasuhara, R.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Vojna, David; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-8, č. článku 065610. ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : stress-induced birefringence * thermal depolarization * high-power lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.847, year: 2015

  15. Measurement of the broadening and depolarization of a Gaussian beam to transmit in fog water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, G.; Reynoso, E; Davila, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a controlled experimental environment in the laboratory, a waterproof camera where it will introduce artificial fog and become a beam of linearly polarized Gaussian laser light, creating sprawl, broadening and depolarization is studied with a system capable of measuring such phenomena. Most studies on dispersion have focused on the lobes of backscattering, however the correct conditions with the incident light beam a substantial fraction of light is scattered in the forward direction forming a widened light lobe. With this light lobe formed could be studied with extreme precision many factors such as the existence of single or multiple scattering and the amount by which this is carried out. This is of great importance in the estimation of lidar returns because these foundations can learn important information such as extinction and backscatter coefficients, particulate pollutants in the atmosphere and thus understand the operation model of nature. (Author)

  16. Study of depolarization of deuteron and proton beams in the Nuclotron ring

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, N Y; Kondratenko, A M; Kondratenko, A M; Mikhajlov, V A; Strokovsky, E A

    2002-01-01

    The scheme for acceleration of polarized deuterons at the Nuclotron accelerator facility includes a cryogenic polarized deuteron source 'Polaris', a 5 MeV/nucl. linac, a superconducting heavy ion synchrotron of a 6 GeV/nucl. energy with 10 s spill slow extraction, thin internal targets and wide net of external beam lines. This scheme also allows one to generate high energy polarized proton and neutron beams with well determined characteristics. There are two principal problems of polarized particle acceleration: to keep spin orientation during beam acceleration and to produce the high ion intensity sufficient for data taking in physics experiments. The first problem is discussed in this paper. The reasons of depolarization effects in the mentioned parts of the Nuclotron have been analysed and four methods of the polarization conserving have been suggested. They are the spin resonance strength compensation increasing of the resonance strength, the betatron tune jump and the spin tune jump. Among their number, ...

  17. Adiabatic Siberian snake turn-on and acceleration through depolarizing resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulsha, A.V.; Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors plan to install in the IUCF Cooler Ring a rampable partial (30%) Siberian snake to test if the spin polarization is preserved during adiabatic turn-on. They also plan to use this ramped snake to accelerate polarized protons to 370 MeV while passing through two depolarizing resonances. The Siberian snake will consist of two small rampable warm solenoids placed symmetrically on either side of the exciting cold 2 T·m solenoid which would run dc at about 0.5 T·m. Ramping each warm magnet from about -0.25T·m to + 0.25 T·m. Recent experiments showed that turning on the snake in 100 msec at 370 MeV causes no serious beam loss

  18. Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgment Elicitation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C.; Youngs, R.R.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgement Excitation Project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate methods for the excitation of expert judgement, and (2) to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for use in the EPRI-HLW performance assessment. Specifically, the technical issue considered is the probability of differential fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For this study, a strategy for quantifying uncertainties was developed that relies on the judgements of multiple experts. A panel of seven geologists and seismologists was assembled to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for the performance assessment model. A series of technical workshops focusing on these issues were conducted. Finally, each expert was individually interviewed in order to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. This report summarizes the methodologies used to elicit the judgements of the earthquakes and tectonics experts (termed ''specialists''), and summarizes the technical assessments made by the expert panel

  19. Depolarization in the elastic scattering of 17 MeV polarized protons from 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Wolfenstein depolarization parameter D(theta) was measured for the elastic scattering of 17-MeV protons from 9 Be at laboratory scattering angles between 70 0 and 120 0 in 10 0 steps with uncertainties ranging from 0.05 to 0.07. The reaction was initiated by polarized protons and the polarization of those protons elastically scattered by the 9 Be analyzed using a high-resolution, silicon polarimeter. Several of the measured values of D(theta) differed significantly from unity, indicating non-zero probability for proton spin-flip in the elastic scattering process. Theoretical estimates of the depolarization-parameter angular distribution have been made using a multipole expansion of the elastic-scattering amplitude in terms of the amount of angular momentum transferred to the target nucleus during the scattering process. Here the J = 0, 1 and 2 contributions to the scattering amplitude have been explicitly treated for the scattering from 9 Be(I = 3 / 2 ). The J = 0 terms are calculated using the standard, spherical optical-model. The J = 1 and 2 terms can be calculated using DWBA. Both spherical and tensor forms are considered for the J = 1 interaction. The spin-flip probabilities predicted assuming reasonable strengths for the J = 1 potentials are much smaller than those observed experimentally. The J = 2 contribution to the spin-flip probability is calculated assuming a rotational model for 9 Be. Predictions of the J = 2, elastic spin-flip probability are substantially larger than the predictions for the J = 1 contribution and are in rough agreement with the present data. The results of recent coupled-channels calculations also support the conclusion that large elastic spin-flip probabilities can be produced by the J = 2 term in the elastic scattering amplitude

  20. Depolarization of the electron spin in storage rings by nonlinear spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.

    1985-10-01

    Electrons and positrons which circulate in the storage ring are polarized at the emission of synchrotron radiation by the so called Sokolov-Ternov effect. This polarization is on the one hand of large interest for the study of the weak interaction, on the other hand it can be used for the accurate measurement of the beam energy and by this of the mass of elementary particles. The transverse and longitudinal particle vibrations simultaneously excited by the synchrotron radiation however can effect that this polarization is destroyed. This effect is called spin-orbit coupling. For the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling the computer program SITROS was written. This program is a tracking program: The motion of some sample particles and their spin vectors are calculated for some thousand circulations. From this the mean depolarization and by extrapolation the degree of polarization of the equilibrium state is determined. Contrarily to the known program SLIM which is based on perturbational calculations in SITROS the nonlinear forces in the storage ring can be regarded. By this the calculation of depolarizing higher order resonances is made possible. In this thesis the equations of motion for the orbital and spin motion of the electrons are derived which form the base for the program SITROS. The functions of the program and the approximations necessary for the saving of calculational time are explained. The comparison of the SITROS results with the measurement results obtained at the PETRA storage ring shows that the SITROS program is a useful means for the planning and calculation of storage rings with polarized electron beams. (orig.) [de

  1. Implementation of depolarization due to beam-beam effects in the beam-beam interaction simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbault, C.; Le Meur, G.; Blampuy, F.; Bambade, P.; Schulte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Depolarization is a new feature in the beam-beam simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++ (GP++). The results of this simulation are studied and compared with another beam-beam simulation tool, CAIN, considering different beam parameters for the International Linear Collider (ILC) with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV.

  2. Spreading depolarization-modulating drugs and delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage : A hypothesis-generating retrospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, Arend M.; Mulder, Inge A.; Gathier, Celine S.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Hoff, Reinier G.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Verbaan, Dagmar; Ferrari, Michel D.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale; Wermer, Marieke J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) occurs in approximately one-third of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). A proposed underlying mechanism for DCI is spreading depolarization (SD). Our aim was to, retrospectively, investigate the influence of the use of SD-modulating

  3. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Cheng; Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2010-08-01

    An injection of orexin A or B into the cisterna magna or the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where bulbospinal vasomotor neurons are located, elevated arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). We examined how orexins affected RVLM neurons to regulate cardiovascular functions by using in vitro recordings of neuronal activity of the RVLM and in vivo measurement of cardiovascular functions in rats. Orexin A and B concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. At 100 nM, both peptides excited 42% of RVLM neurons. Tetrodotoxin failed to block orexin-induced depolarization. In the presence of N-(2-methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N'-1, 5-naphthyridin-4-yl urea (SB-334867), an orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 42% of RVLM neurons with a smaller, but not significantly different, amplitude (4.9 +/- 0.8 versus 7.2 +/- 1.1 mV). In the presence of (2S)-1- (3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(4-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-1-butanone hydrochloride (TCS OX2 29), an orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 25% of RVLM neurons with a significantly smaller amplitude (1.7 +/- 0.5 mV). Coapplication of both antagonists completely eliminated orexin A-induced depolarization. An OX(2)R agonist, [Ala(11),D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. Regarding neuronal phenotypes, orexins depolarized 88% of adrenergic, 43% of nonadrenergic, and 36 to 41% of rhythmically firing RVLM neurons. Intracisternal TCS OX2 29 (3 and 10 nmol) suppressed intracisternal orexin A-induced increases of AP and HR, whereas intracisternal SB-334867 (3 and 10 nmol) had no effect on the orexin A-induced increase of HR but suppressed the orexin A-induced pressor response at 10 nmol. We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R.

  4. Cellular requirements for cutaneous sensitivity elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, I

    1985-01-01

    The role of glass-adherent cells in cutaneous sensitivity (CS) elicitation has been analyzed in this study. CS responses have been revealed to be mediated by at least two distinct subsets of genetically restricted T cells: I-restricted 'DTH-like' T cells and K/D-restricted 'CTL-like' T cells. Both T-cell responses require I-A-positive glass-adherent cell populations, which lack T-cell markers, to manifest their activities. The role of the adherent cells is different in the 'DTH-like' responses and the 'CTL-like' responses. The disparities between the present results and previous contentions are discussed in this paper.

  5. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

    1999-10-01

    To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.

  7. Slow Bursting Neurons of Mouse Cortical Layer 6b Are Depolarized by Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons firing spontaneously in bursts in the absence of synaptic transmission have been previously recorded in different layers of cortical brain slices. It has been suggested that such neurons could contribute to the generation of alternating UP and DOWN states, a pattern of activity seen during slow-wave sleep. Here, we show that in layer 6b (L6b), known from our previous studies to contain neurons highly responsive to the wake-promoting transmitter hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx), there is a set of neurons, endowed with distinct intrinsic properties, which displayed a strong propensity to fire spontaneously in rhythmic bursts. In response to small depolarizing steps, they responded with a delayed firing of action potentials which, upon higher depolarizing steps, invariably inactivated and were followed by a depolarized plateau potential and a depolarizing afterpotential. These cells also displayed a strong hyperpolarization-activated rectification compatible with the presence of an I h current. Most L6b neurons with such properties were able to fire spontaneously in bursts. Their bursting activity was of intrinsic origin as it persisted not only in presence of blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors but also in a condition of complete synaptic blockade. However, a small number of these neurons displayed a mix of intrinsic bursting and synaptically driven recurrent UP and DOWN states. Most of the bursting L6b neurons were depolarized and excited by hcrt/orx through a direct postsynaptic mechanism that led to tonic firing and eventually inactivation. Similarly, they were directly excited by noradrenaline, histamine, dopamine, and neurotensin. Finally, the intracellular injection of these cells with dye and their subsequent Neurolucida reconstruction indicated that they were spiny non-pyramidal neurons. These results lead us to suggest that the propensity for slow rhythmic bursting of this set of L6b neurons could be directly impeded by hcrt

  8. Depolarization-dependent 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex is enhanced by L-triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Prange, A.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Depolarization-induced release of neurotransmitters and other secretions from nerve endings is triggered by the rapid entry of Ca++ through voltage-sensitive channels. Calcium entry is thought to occur in two distinct phases or processes: a fast-phase response to an action potential, which initiates release; and a slow phase associated with extended stimulation of the neuron. Thyroid hormones are sequestered by nerve terminals and can produce changes in behaviour and mood. They may therefore be involved in modulating central synaptic transmission. We studied the effects of L-triiodothyronine (T3), L-thyroxine (T4), reverse T3 (rT3) and D-T3 on depolarization-induced uptake of 45Ca by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. T3, but not T4, rT3, or D-T3 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced 45Ca uptake at physiologically relevant (1 to 10 nmol/L) concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 10 nmol/L T3 on depolarization-induced uptake after 2 seconds (21%) was greater than after 5 (10%) or 30 (8%) seconds, indicating that T3 enhanced primarily the fast-phase process. There was no effect of T3 or other hormones tested on nondepolarization-induced 45Ca uptake. Preincubation of synaptosomes with T3 prior to depolarization did not enhance the effect of T3; in fact, preincubations of 30 seconds or more resulted in diminished T3 effects. Preincubation of synaptosomes for 15 seconds with D-T3 or the addition of D-T3 and T3 together reduced the effect of T3. We found no difference in the effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. These results suggest a novel mechanism of action of thyroid hormones in the brain

  9. Depolarization-dependent sup 45 Ca uptake by synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex is enhanced by L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Prange, A.J. Jr. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Depolarization-induced release of neurotransmitters and other secretions from nerve endings is triggered by the rapid entry of Ca++ through voltage-sensitive channels. Calcium entry is thought to occur in two distinct phases or processes: a fast-phase response to an action potential, which initiates release; and a slow phase associated with extended stimulation of the neuron. Thyroid hormones are sequestered by nerve terminals and can produce changes in behaviour and mood. They may therefore be involved in modulating central synaptic transmission. We studied the effects of L-triiodothyronine (T3), L-thyroxine (T4), reverse T3 (rT3) and D-T3 on depolarization-induced uptake of 45Ca by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. T3, but not T4, rT3, or D-T3 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced 45Ca uptake at physiologically relevant (1 to 10 nmol/L) concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 10 nmol/L T3 on depolarization-induced uptake after 2 seconds (21%) was greater than after 5 (10%) or 30 (8%) seconds, indicating that T3 enhanced primarily the fast-phase process. There was no effect of T3 or other hormones tested on nondepolarization-induced 45Ca uptake. Preincubation of synaptosomes with T3 prior to depolarization did not enhance the effect of T3; in fact, preincubations of 30 seconds or more resulted in diminished T3 effects. Preincubation of synaptosomes for 15 seconds with D-T3 or the addition of D-T3 and T3 together reduced the effect of T3. We found no difference in the effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. These results suggest a novel mechanism of action of thyroid hormones in the brain.

  10. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by paeonol: roles of ionic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-hung; Lin, Pei-lin; Hsu, Hui-yu; Wu, Ya-ting; Yang, Han-yin; Lu, Dah-yuu; Huang, Shiang-suo; Hsieh, Ching-liang; Lin, Jaung-geng

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol) on the electrophysiological behavior of a central neuron (right parietal 4; RP4) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Methods: Intracellular recordings and the two-electrode voltage clamp method were used to study the effects of paeonol on the RP4 neuron. Results: The RP4 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials. Bath application of paeonol at a concentration of ≥500 μmol/L reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Immersing the neurons in Co2+-substituted Ca2+-free solution did not block paeonol-elicited bursting. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 did not affect the action potential bursts. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that paeonol at a concentration of 500 μmol/L had no remarkable effects on the total inward currents, whereas paeonol decreased the delayed rectifying K+ current (IKD) and the fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). Application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 5 mmol/L), an inhibitor of IA, or charybdotoxin 250 nmol/L, an inhibitor of the Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)), failed to elicit action potential bursts, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA 50 mmol/L), an IKD blocker, successfully elicited action potential bursts. At a lower concentration of 5 mmol/L, TEA facilitated the induction of action potential bursts elicited by paeonol. Conclusion: Paeonol elicited a bursting firing pattern of action potentials in the RP4 neuron and this activity relates closely to the inhibitory effects of paeonol on the IKD. PMID:21042287

  11. Nesfatin-1 activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus and elicits bradycardia in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Benamar, Khalid; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. More recently, increasing evidence supports a modulatory role for nesfatin-1 in autonomic and cardiovascular activity. This study was undertaken to test if the expression of nesfatin-1 in the nucleus ambiguus, a key site for parasympathetic cardiac control, may be correlated with a functional role. As we have previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1 elicits Ca²⁺ signaling in hypothalamic neurons, we first assessed the effect of this peptide on cytosolic Ca²⁺ in cardiac pre-ganglionic neurons of nucleus ambiguus. We provide evidence that nesfatin-1 increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentration via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. The nesfatin-1-induced Ca²⁺ rise is critically dependent on Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q-type voltage-activated Ca²⁺ channels. Repeated administration of nesfatin-1 leads to tachyphylaxis. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 produces a dose-dependent depolarization of cardiac vagal neurons via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. In vivo studies, using telemetric and tail-cuff monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure, indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into the nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia not accompanied by a change in blood pressure in conscious rats. Taken together, our results identify for the first time that nesfatin-1 decreases heart rate by activating cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that nesfatin-1, one of the most potent feeding peptides, increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ by promoting Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q channels and depolarizes nucleus ambiguus neurons; both effects are Gi/o-mediated. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia in conscious rats. This is the first report that nesfatin-1 increases the parasympathetic cardiac tone. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Polar winter cloud depolarization measurements with the CANDAC Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. M.; Nott, G. J.; Duck, T. J.; Sica, R. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Pike-thackray, C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds introduce a significant positive forcing to the Arctic radiation budget and this is strongest during the polar winter when shortwave radiation is absent (Intrieri et al., 2002). The amount of forcing depends on the occurrence probability and optical depth of the clouds as well as the cloud particle phase (Ebert and Curry 1992). Mixed-phase clouds are particularly complex as they involve interactions between three phases of water (vapour, liquid and ice) coexisting in the same cloud. Although significant progress has been made in characterizing wintertime Arctic clouds (de Boer et al., 2009 and 2011), there is considerable variability in the relative abundance of particles of each phase, in the morphology of solid particles, and in precipitation rates depending on the meteorology at the time. The Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar (CRL) was installed in the Canadian High Arctic at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) in 2008-2009. The remotely-operated system began with measurement capabilities for multi-wavelength aerosol extinction, water vapour mixing ratio, and tropospheric temperature profiles, as well as backscatter cross section coefficient and colour ratio. In 2010, a new depolarization channel was added. The capability to measure the polarization state of the return signal allows the characterization of the cloud in terms of liquid and ice water content, enabling the lidar to probe all three phases of water in these clouds. Lidar depolarization results from 2010 and 2011 winter clouds at Eureka will be presented, with a focus on differences in downwelling radiation between mixed phase clouds and ice clouds. de Boer, G., E.W. Eloranta, and M.D. Shupe (2009), Arctic mixed-phase stratiform cloud properties from multiple years of surface-based measurements at two high-latitude locations, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 66 (9), 2874-2887. de Boer, G., H. Morrison, M. D. Shupe, and R. Hildner (2011

  13. A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW ABOUT SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENIS R. WONG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Requirements Elicitation is recognized as one of the most important activity in software development process as it has direct impact on its success. Although there are many proposals for improving this task, still there are issues which have to be solved. This paper aims to identify the current status of the latest researches related to software requirements elicitation through general framework for literature review, in order to answer the following research questions: Q1 What aspects have been covered by different proposal of requirements elicitation? Q2 What activities of the requirements elicitation process have been covered? And Q3 What factors influence on requirements elicitation and how? A cross-analysis of the outcome was performed. One of the results showed that requirements elicitation process needs improvements.

  14. Pacemaker rate and depolarization block in nigral dopamine neurons: a somatic sodium channel balancing act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kristal R.; Huertas, Marco A.; Horn, John P.; Canavier, Carmen C.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are slow intrinsic pacemakers that undergo depolarization (DP) block upon moderate stimulation. Understanding DP block is important because it has been correlated with the clinical efficacy of chronic antipsychotic drug treatment. Here we describe how voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels regulate DP block and pacemaker activity in DA neurons of the substantia nigra using rat brain slices. The distribution, density and gating of NaV currents were manipulated by blocking native channels with tetrodotoxin and by creating virtual channels and anti-channels with dynamic clamp. Although action potentials initiate in the axon initial segment (AIS) and NaV channels are distributed in multiple dendrites, selective reduction of NaV channel activity in the soma was sufficient to decrease pacemaker frequency and increase susceptibility to DP block. Conversely, increasing somatic NaV current density raised pacemaker frequency and lowered susceptibility to DP block. Finally, when NaV currents were restricted to the soma, pacemaker activity occurred at abnormally high rates due to excessive local subthreshold NaV current. Together with computational simulations, these data show that both the slow pacemaker rate and the sensitivity to DP block that characterizes DA neurons result from the low density of somatic NaV channels. More generally, we conclude that the somatodendritic distribution of NaV channels is a major determinant of repetitive spiking frequency. PMID:23077037

  15. Magnetic particles studied with neutron depolarization and small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials containing magnetic single-domain particles, referred to as 'particulate media', have been studied using neutron depolarization (ND) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In a ND experiment the polarization vector of a polarized neutron beam is analyzed after transmission through a magnetic medium. Such an analysis in general yields the correlation length of variations in magnetic induction along the neutron path (denoted 'magnetic correlation length'), mean orientation of these variations and mean magnetic induction. In a SANS experiment, information about nuclear and magnetic inhomogeneities in the medium is derived from the broadening of a generally unpolarized neutron beam due to scattering by these inhomogeneities. Spatial and magnetic microstructure of a variety of particulate media have been studied using ND and/or SANS, by determination of the magnetic or nuclear correlation length in these media in various magnetic states. This thesis deals with the ND theory and its application to particulate media. ND and SANS experiments on a variety of particulate media are discussed. (author). 178 refs., 97 figs., 8 tabs

  16. T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-07-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders.

  17. Apricot melanoidins prevent oxidative endothelial cell death by counteracting mitochondrial oxidation and membrane depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Cossu

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. However, whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed apricots were isolated and their presence confirmed by colorimetric analysis and browning index. Oxidative injury of endothelial cells (ECs is the key step for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, therefore the potential protective effect of apricot melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative mitochondrial damage and cell death was explored in human ECs. The redox state of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments was detected by using the redox-sensitive, fluorescent protein (roGFP, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. ECs exposure to hydrogen peroxide, dose-dependently induced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation. Additionally detected hydrogen peroxide-induced phenomena were MMP dissipation and ECs death. Pretreatment of ECs with apricot melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. In this regard, our current results clearly indicate that melanoidins derived from heat-processed apricots, protect human ECs against oxidative stress.

  18. Study of the cathodic depolarization theory with hydrogen permeation and the bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. F. de; Duque, Z.; Rinco, O. T. de; Perez, O.; Araujo, I.

    2003-01-01

    A Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ssp. desulfuricans (SRB) was used to study the permeation of hydrogen, using a Devanatan and Stachurski cell and a palladium sheet. The aim was to evaluate cathodic depolarization as a Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria action mechanisms in Microbiologically Induced Corrosion. The permeation tests were run with and without cathodic polarization, using a sterile deaerated culture medium inoculated with 10% SRB concentrated at 10''8 cell/ml. the results indicate bacterial growth in the order of 10''9-10''10 cel/ml after 18 h both in the polarized and non-polarized, tests, indicating that SRB developed regardless of the surface polarized as a source of H''0, generating H 2 S as a product of the anaerobic respiration. It was also determined that, without cathodic polarization, the conditions are not enough to reduce the H* generated by the H 2 S dissociation (pd is not susceptible to corrosion at this condition). On the other hand, cathodic polarization increased the permeation current, which was associated with the maximum enzymatic activity phase of the bacteria. (Author) 8 refs

  19. Dynamic neutron depolarization system for the investigation of time dependent magnetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Badurek, G.; Rauch, H.

    1978-01-01

    To study magnetic after-effects in ferro- and superparamagnetic materials within a range of about 100 μs - 10s a so-called dynamic neutron depolarization system has been developed that is currently installed at the polarized beam facility of the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Vienna. It allows to measure the time dependence of the polarization change of an initially fully polarized neutron beam on its transmission through a sample exposed to a pulsed magnetic field. A split-pair coil mounted directly on the nitrogen shield of a specially designed helium/nitrogen bath cryostat can be energized up to a maximal induction of 0.25T at a slope of about 10 3 Ts -1 . Sample temperatures in the ranges of 4.2-15K and 77-120K can be established. In order to minimize eddy currents the coil suspension as well as the sample holder are sliced radially. The maximal repetition frequency of the field pulses is 100 Hz which is the upper limit of the multiscaler system we use for a synchronized registration of the beam polarization. First measurements are dealing with the superparamagnetic system Cu-1%Co where single domain cobalt precipitations are expected to give rise to relaxation phenomena well observable with this method. (author)

  20. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  1. The Time-Dose-Response Relationship for Elicitation of Contact Dermatitis in Isoeugenol Allergic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K. E.; Johansen, J. D.; Bruze, M.

    2001-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Rep......The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double......-blinded Repeated Open Application Test (ROAT) using two concentrations of isoeugenol, 0.2 and 0.05%. Seven controls without isoeugenol allergy were also included. The participants applied 3.72 +/- 1.57 (mean +/- SD) mg/cm(2) of coded isoeugenol solutions twice a day to a 3 x 3 cm(2) area on the volar aspect...... of the right and left arm, respectively. For each test site the applications continued until a reaction appeared or for a maximum of 28 days. The minimal criteria for a positive reaction regarded as allergic contact dermatitis was persistent erythema at the ROAT test site. All controls were negative and 16...

  2. Towards a framework for the elicitation of dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Marc J C

    2008-08-01

    This paper covers the main findings of the doctoral research that was concerned with seeking to extend aspects of dilemma theory. In professional practice, the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Dilemma Reconciliation Process(TM) is a vehicle delivering dilemma theory in application. It informs a manager or leader on how to explore the dilemmas they face, how to reconcile the tensions that result, and how to structure the action steps for implementing the reconciled solutions. This vehicle forms the professional practice of the author who seeks to bring more rigor to consulting practice and thereby also contribute to theory development in the domain. The critical review of dilemma theory reveals that previous authors are inconsistent and variously invalid in their use of the terms 'dilemma theory,' 'dilemma methodology,' 'dilemma process,' 'dilemma reconciliation,' etc., and therefore an attempt is made to resolve these inconsistencies by considering whether 'dilemmaism' at the meta-level might be positioned as a new paradigm of inquiry for (management) research that embodies ontological, epistemological, and methodical premises that frame an approach to the resolution of real world business problems in (multi) disciplinary; (multi) functional and (multi) cultural business environments. This research offers contributions to knowledge, professional practice and theory development from the exploration of the SPID model as a way to make the elicitation of dilemmas more rigorous and structured and in the broader context of exploring 'dilemmaism' as a new paradigm of inquiry.

  3. A role for CaV1 and calcineurin signaling in depolarization-induced changes in neuronal DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Eilis; Chand, Annisa N; Evans, Mark D; Wong, Chloe C Y; Grubb, Matthew S; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Direct manipulations of neuronal activity have been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), although little is known about the cellular signaling pathways involved. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we identify DNAm changes associated with moderate chronic depolarization in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Consistent with previous findings, these changes occurred primarily in the vicinity of loci implicated in neuronal function, being enriched in intergenic regions and underrepresented in CpG-rich promoter regulatory regions. We subsequently used 2 pharmacological interventions (nifedipine and FK-506) to test whether the identified changes depended on 2 interrelated signaling pathways known to mediate multiple forms of neuronal plasticity. Both pharmacological manipulations had notable effects on the extent and magnitude of depolarization-induced DNAm changes indicating that a high proportion of activity-induced changes are likely to be mediated by calcium entry through L-type Ca V 1 channels and/or downstream signaling via the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin.

  4. Depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from GABAergic neurons caused by reversal of glutamate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Pickering, D S; Schousboe, A

    2000-01-01

    if glutamate in addition to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could be released from these cultures. The neurons were preloaded with [(3)H]D-aspartate and subsequently its release was followed during depolarization induced by a high potassium concentration or the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonists, AMPA and kainate. Depolarization of the neurons with 55 mM potassium increased the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate by more than 10-fold. When the non-specific calcium-channel blockers cobalt or lanthanum were included in the stimulation buffer with potassium......, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was decreased by about 40%. These results indicated that some of the released [(3)H]D-aspartate might originate from a vesicular pool. When AMPA was applied to the neurons, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was increased 2-fold and could not be prevented or decreased...

  5. Intercellular K⁺ accumulation depolarizes Type I vestibular hair cells and their associated afferent nerve calyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Zampini, V; Tavazzani, E; Magistretti, J; Russo, G; Prigioni, I; Masetto, S

    2012-12-27

    Mammalian vestibular organs contain two types of sensory receptors, named Type I and Type II hair cells. While Type II hair cells are contacted by several small afferent nerve terminals, the basolateral surface of Type I hair cells is almost entirely enveloped by a single large afferent nerve terminal, called calyx. Moreover Type I, but not Type II hair cells, express a low-voltage-activated outward K(+) current, I(K,L), which is responsible for their much lower input resistance (Rm) at rest as compared to Type II hair cells. The functional meaning of I(K,L) and associated calyx is still enigmatic. By combining the patch-clamp whole-cell technique with the mouse whole crista preparation, we have recorded the current- and voltage responses of in situ hair cells. Outward K(+) current activation resulted in K(+) accumulation around Type I hair cells, since it induced a rightward shift of the K(+) reversal potential the magnitude of which depended on the amplitude and duration of K(+) current flow. Since this phenomenon was never observed for Type II hair cells, we ascribed it to the presence of a residual calyx limiting K(+) efflux from the synaptic cleft. Intercellular K(+) accumulation added a slow (τ>100ms) depolarizing component to the cell voltage response. In a few cases we were able to record from the calyx and found evidence for intercellular K(+) accumulation as well. The resulting depolarization could trigger a discharge of action potentials in the afferent nerve fiber. Present results support a model where pre- and postsynaptic depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation cooperates with neurotransmitter exocytosis in sustaining afferent transmission arising from Type I hair cells. While vesicular transmission together with the low Rm of Type I hair cells appears best suited for signaling fast head movements, depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation could enhance signal transmission during slow head movements. Copyright

  6. Contribution of α-adrenoceptors to depolarization and contraction evoked by continuous asynchronous sympathetic nerve activity in rat tail artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J A; McLachlan, E M; Rayner, S E

    1997-01-01

    The effects of continuous but asynchronous nerve activity induced by ciguatoxin (CTX-1) on the membrane potential and contraction of smooth muscle cells have been investigated in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. These effects have been compared with those produced by the continuous application of phenylephrine (PE).CTX-1 (0.4 nM) and PE (10 μM) produced a maintained depolarization of the arterial smooth muscle that was almost completely blocked by α-adrenoceptor blockade. In both cases, the depolarization was more sensitive to the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.1 μM), than to the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.01 μM).In contrast, the maintained contraction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1 (0.2 nM) and PE (2 and 10 μM) was more sensitive to prazosin (0.01) μM, than to idazoxan (0.01 μM). In combination, these antagonists almost completely inhibited contraction to both agents.Application of the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine (1 μM), had no effect on the depolarization induced by either CTX-1 or PE but maximally reduced the force of the maintained contraction to both agents by about 50%.We conclude that the constriction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1, which mimics the natural discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons, is due almost entirely to α-adrenoceptor activation. The results indicate that neuronally released noradrenaline activates more than one α-adrenoceptor subtype. The depolarization is dependent primarily on α2-adrenoceptor activation whereas the contraction is dependent primarily on α1-adrenoceptor activation. The links between α-adrenoceptor activation and the voltage-dependent and voltage-independent mechanisms that deliver Ca2+ to the contractile apparatus appear to be complex. PMID:9113373

  7. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  8. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during ...

  9. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  10. Activity-associated miRNA are packaged in Map1b-enriched exosomes released from depolarized neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Belinda J; Dun, Matthew D; Lin, Minjie; Smith, Nathan D; Verrills, Nicole M; Dayas, Christopher V; Cairns, Murray J

    2014-08-01

    Rapid input-restricted change in gene expression is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity requiring complex mechanisms of post-transcriptional mRNA trafficking and regulation. Small non-coding miRNA are uniquely poised to support these functions by providing a nucleic-acid-based specificity component for universal-sequence-dependent RNA binding complexes. We investigated the subcellular distribution of these molecules in resting and potassium chloride depolarized human neuroblasts, and found both selective enrichment and depletion in neurites. Depolarization was associated with a neurite-restricted decrease in miRNA expression; a subset of these molecules was recovered from the depolarization medium in nuclease resistant extracellular exosomes. These vesicles were enriched with primate specific miRNA and the synaptic-plasticity-associated protein MAP1b. These findings further support a role for miRNA as neural plasticity regulators, as they are compartmentalized in neurons and undergo activity-associated redistribution or release into the extracellular matrix. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. The role of glutamate in neuronal ion homeostasis: A case study of spreading depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous changes in ion concentrations, glutamate, and cell volume together with exchange of matter between cell network and vasculature are ubiquitous in numerous brain pathologies. A complete understanding of pathological conditions as well as normal brain function, therefore, hinges on elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways involved in these mostly interdependent variations. In this paper, we develop the first computational framework that combines the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations and glutamate homeostasis, neuronal and astroglial volume changes, and ion exchange with vasculature into a comprehensive model to elucidate the role of glutamate uptake in the dynamics of spreading depolarization (SD-the electrophysiological event underlying numerous pathologies including migraine, ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, and trauma. We are particularly interested in investigating the role of glutamate in the duration and termination of SD caused by K+ perfusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glutamate signaling plays a key role in the dynamics of SD, and that impaired glutamate uptake leads to recovery failure of neurons from SD. We confirm predictions from our model experimentally by showing that inhibiting astrocytic glutamate uptake using TFB-TBOA nearly quadruples the duration of SD in layers 2-3 of visual cortical slices from juvenile rats. The model equations are either derived purely from first physical principles of electroneutrality, osmosis, and conservation of particles or a combination of these principles and known physiological facts. Accordingly, we claim that our approach can be used as a future guide to investigate the role of glutamate, ion concentrations, and dynamics cell volume in other brain pathologies and normal brain function.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of Calabadion and sugammadex to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Friederike; Simons, Jeroen Cedric Peter; Foerster, Urs; Duarte, Ingrid Moreno; Diaz-Gil, Daniel; Ganapati, Shweta; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk; Zhang, Ben; Blobner, Manfred; Isaacs, Lyle; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of calabadion 2 to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) by binding and inactivation. Methods The dose-response relationship of drugs to reverse vecuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) was evaluated in vitro (competition binding assays and urine analysis), ex vivo (n=34; phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparation) and in vivo (n=108; quadriceps femoris muscle of the rat). Cumulative dose-response curves of calabadions, neostigmine, or sugammadex were created ex vivo at steady-state deep NMB. In living rats, we studied the dose-response relationship of the test drugs to reverse deep block under physiological conditions and we measured the amount of calabadion 2 excreted in the urine. Results In vitro experiments showed that calabadion 2 binds rocuronium with 89 times the affinity of sugammadex (Ka = 3.4 × 109 M−1 and Ka = 3.8 × 107 M−1). Urine analysis (proton nuclear magnetic resonance), competition binding assays and ex vivo study results obtained in the absence of metabolic deactivation are in accordance with an 1:1 binding ratio of sugammadex and calabadion 2 toward rocuronium. In living rats, calabadion 2 dose-dependently and rapidly reversed all NMBAs tested. The molar potency of calabadion 2 to reverse vecuronium and rocuronium was higher compared to sugammadex. Calabadion 2 was eliminated renally, and did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusion Calabadion 2 reverses NMB-induced by benzylisoquinolines and steroidal NMBAs in rats more effectively, i.e. faster, than sugammadex. Calabadion 2 is eliminated in the urine and well tolerated in rats. PMID:26418697

  13. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite; Correntes de despolarizacao termicamente estimuladas na fluorita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1986-12-31

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R{sub s}{sup 3+} -F{sub i}{sup -}). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author) 60 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Reduction in Cortical Gamma Synchrony during Depolarized State of Slow Wave Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUNJIN eHWANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EEG gamma band oscillations have been proposed to account for the neural synchronization crucial for perceptual integration. While increased gamma power and synchronization is generally observed during cognitive tasks performed during wake, several studies have additionally reported increased gamma power during sleep or anesthesia, raising questions about the characteristics of gamma oscillation during impaired consciousness and its role in conscious processing. Phase-amplitude modulation has been observed between slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5–4 Hz and gamma oscillations during ketamine/xylazine anesthesia or sleep, showing increased gamma activity corresponding to the depolarized (ON state of SWA. Here we divided gamma activity into its ON and OFF (hyperpolarized state components based on the phase of SWA induced by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia and compared their power and synchrony with wake state levels in mice. We further investigated the state-dependent changes in both gamma power and synchrony across primary motor and primary somatosensory cortical regions and their interconnected thalamic regions throughout anesthesia and recovery. As observed previously, gamma power was as high as during wake specifically during the ON state of SWA. However, the synchrony of this gamma activity between somatosensory-motor cortical regions was significantly reduced compared to the baseline wake state. In addition, the somatosensory-motor cortical synchrony of gamma oscillations was reduced and restored in an anesthetic state-dependent manner, reflecting the changing depth of anesthesia. Our results provide evidence that during anesthesia changes in long-range information integration between cortical regions might be more critical for changes in consciousness than changes in local gamma oscillatory power.

  15. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite; Correntes de despolarizacao termicamente estimuladas na fluorita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1987-12-31

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R{sub s}{sup 3+} -F{sub i}{sup -}). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author) 60 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The role of glutamate in neuronal ion homeostasis: A case study of spreading depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, Niklas; Hosseini-Zare, Mahshid S; Žiburkus, Jokūbas; Ullah, Ghanim

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous changes in ion concentrations, glutamate, and cell volume together with exchange of matter between cell network and vasculature are ubiquitous in numerous brain pathologies. A complete understanding of pathological conditions as well as normal brain function, therefore, hinges on elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways involved in these mostly interdependent variations. In this paper, we develop the first computational framework that combines the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations and glutamate homeostasis, neuronal and astroglial volume changes, and ion exchange with vasculature into a comprehensive model to elucidate the role of glutamate uptake in the dynamics of spreading depolarization (SD)-the electrophysiological event underlying numerous pathologies including migraine, ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, and trauma. We are particularly interested in investigating the role of glutamate in the duration and termination of SD caused by K+ perfusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glutamate signaling plays a key role in the dynamics of SD, and that impaired glutamate uptake leads to recovery failure of neurons from SD. We confirm predictions from our model experimentally by showing that inhibiting astrocytic glutamate uptake using TFB-TBOA nearly quadruples the duration of SD in layers 2-3 of visual cortical slices from juvenile rats. The model equations are either derived purely from first physical principles of electroneutrality, osmosis, and conservation of particles or a combination of these principles and known physiological facts. Accordingly, we claim that our approach can be used as a future guide to investigate the role of glutamate, ion concentrations, and dynamics cell volume in other brain pathologies and normal brain function.

  17. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sheng-Fen [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chi-Shun, E-mail: 039611@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hwa-Hsia University of Technology, New Taipei City 23567, Taiwan (China); Hugo Schmidt, V. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Anthoniappen, J. [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-21

    This work reveals that 0.5 mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ (x = 0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (T{sub d}), piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃), and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)₀.₉₂₅Ba₀.₀₇₅TiO₃ (BN7.5BT) and 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)TiO₃ (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R − R + T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (ε′) follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ε′ = C/(T − T{sub o}), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃) and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  18. Electrical characterization of polymer matrix — TiO2 filler composites through isothermal polarization / depolarization currents and I-V tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, Ilias; Triantis, Dimos; Hloupis, George; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2014-04-01

    Specimens of polymer matrix — ceramic TiO2 filler composites were prepared. The contribution of the filler content on the electrical conductivity and energy storage properties of the samples was examined. I-V and Isothermal Polarization/Depolarization Current (IPC/IDC) measurements were conducted. Dc conductivity values directly calculated from the I-V curves exhibited excellent agreement with corresponding values derived from the IPC/IDC recordings. Standard models were employed for fitting the IPC/IDC data. In specific, the short and the very long depolarization times were fitted by use of power laws of different slopes, while the intermediate depolarization times were fitted as a sum of three exponential decays. The present study reveals a strong dependence of the depolarization and polarization processes, as well as of the dc conductivity, on the filler concentration.

  19. Erythroxylum pungens elicits vasorelaxation by reducing intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurylene C. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects elicited by the ethanolic extract obtained from the roots of Erythroxylum pungens O.E. Schulz, Erythroxylaceae (EEEP and the vasorelaxant effect induced by its main tropane alkaloid (pungencine were investigated. In normotensive rats, administration of EEEP (1, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.v., randomly produced dose-dependent hypotension (-2±1, -7±0.5 -17.6±1, -24±1 Δ mmHg, n=5 followed by tachycardia (3±0.5, 7±2, 7.1±1, 10±5 Δ bpm, n=5. In intact phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µM-pre-contracted rings, EEEP (0.01-500 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (EC50 13.7±5.5 µg/mL, Maximal Response= 92±2.6%, and this effect was unchanged after the removal of the vascular endothelium (EC50 27.2±4.7 µg/ml, Maximal Response= 88.3±3.3 %. In KCl (80 mM-pre-contracted-endothelium-denuded rings, EEEP elicited concentration-dependent relaxation (EC50= 128.2±11.2 µg/mL, Maximal Response 76.8±3.4%. Vasorelaxation has also been achieved with tonic contractions evoked by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (EC50 80.2±9.1 µg/mL, Maximal Response 86.3±8.3%. In addition, in a depolarizing medium, EEEP inhibited CaCl2 (30-500 µg/mL induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the relaxation curves. Lastly, the tropane alkaloid pungencine caused vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries resembling to the EEEP responses. These results suggests that EEEP induces hypotension and vasorelaxation, at least in part, due to the reduction in [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  20. A new and specific non-NMDA receptor antagonist, FG 9065, blocks L-AP4-evoked depolarization in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheardown, M J

    1988-04-13

    L(+)-AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate) depolarized slices of rat cerebral cortex, when applied following a 2 min priming application of quisqualate. This response diminishes with time and is not seen after NMDA application. A new selective non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline (FG 9065), inhibits the L(+)-AP4 depolarization. It is argued that the response is mediated indirectly by postsynaptic quisqualate receptors.

  1. PABRE-Proj: applying patterns in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer Bosor, Maria Carme; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as a type of artifact for fostering requirements reuse. In this paper, we present PABRE-Proj, a tool aimed at supporting requirements elicitation and specification. Peer Reviewed

  2. The Interview as an Approach to Elicit Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Iriarte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many software projects requirements elicitation is incomplete or inconsistent. One issue that works for this is presented has to be with the requirements engineers use a single method to do it, which can cause a deficiency in the expected results. Among the factors contributing to the success of this stage of the life cycle is an adequate selection of the elicitation technique and other approaches needed. This article describes an experimental study to elicit requirements, in which was applied a combination of methods and techniques, and discusses the advantages of doing it this way. The results obtained allow concluding that to achieve adequate elicitation is necessary to combine several techniques and methods.

  3. Distributed and Collaborative Requirements Elicitation Based on Social Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in

  4. Film clips and narrative text as subjective emotion elicitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R

    2017-01-01

    Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).

  5. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  6. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to ... system, in the District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECE), in Kenya. In this paper ..... photographs and even direct to a hand-held computer”.

  7. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, Kori Budlong; Stanbro, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  8. Eliciting expert opinion for economic models: an applied example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José; Wordsworth, Sarah; Legood, Rosa; Blair, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Expert opinion is considered as a legitimate source of information for decision-analytic modeling where required data are unavailable. Our objective was to develop a practical computer-based tool for eliciting expert opinion about the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual model parameters. We first developed a prepilot survey with departmental colleagues to test a number of alternative approaches to eliciting opinions on the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual parameters. This information was used to develop a survey instrument for an applied clinical example. This involved eliciting opinions from experts to inform a number of parameters involving Bernoulli processes in an economic model evaluating DNA testing for families with a genetic disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The experts were cardiologists, clinical geneticists, and laboratory scientists working with cardiomyopathy patient populations and DNA testing. Our initial prepilot work suggested that the more complex elicitation techniques advocated in the literature were difficult to use in practice. In contrast, our approach achieved a reasonable response rate (50%), provided logical answers, and was generally rated as easy to use by respondents. The computer software user interface permitted graphical feedback throughout the elicitation process. The distributions obtained were incorporated into the model, enabling the use of probabilistic sensitivity analysis. There is clearly a gap in the literature between theoretical elicitation techniques and tools that can be used in applied decision-analytic models. The results of this methodological study are potentially valuable for other decision analysts deriving expert opinion.

  9. Green Software Engineering Adaption In Requirement Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Khatuna Jannat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.

  10. Retinal ganglion cells: mechanisms underlying depolarization block and differential responses to high frequency electrical stimulation of ON and OFF cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, T.; Maturana, M. I.; Hadjinicolaou, A. E.; Cloherty, S. L.; Ibbotson, M. R.; Grayden, D. B.; Burkitt, A. N.; Meffin, H.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are known to have non-monotonic responses to increasing amplitudes of high frequency (2 kHz) biphasic electrical stimulation. That is, an increase in stimulation amplitude causes an increase in the cell’s spike rate up to a peak value above which further increases in stimulation amplitude cause the cell to decrease its activity. The peak response for ON and OFF cells occurs at different stimulation amplitudes, which allows differential stimulation of these functional cell types. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the non-monotonic responses of ON and OFF brisk-transient RGCs and the mechanisms underlying their differential responses. Approach. Using in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat RGCs, together with simulations of single and multiple compartment Hodgkin-Huxley models, we show that the non-monotonic response to increasing amplitudes of stimulation is due to depolarization block, a change in the membrane potential that prevents the cell from generating action potentials. Main results. We show that the onset for depolarization block depends on the amplitude and frequency of stimulation and reveal the biophysical mechanisms that lead to depolarization block during high frequency stimulation. Our results indicate that differences in transmembrane potassium conductance lead to shifts of the stimulus currents that generate peak spike rates, suggesting that the differential responses of ON and OFF cells may be due to differences in the expression of this current type. We also show that the length of the axon’s high sodium channel band (SOCB) affects non-monotonic responses and the stimulation amplitude that leads to the peak spike rate, suggesting that the length of the SOCB is shorter in ON cells. Significance. This may have important implications for stimulation strategies in visual prostheses.

  11. Lactoferricin B causes depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and fusion of negatively charged liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvatne, H; Haukland, H H; Olsvik, O; Vorland, L H

    2001-03-09

    Antimicrobial peptides have been extensively studied in order to elucidate their mode of action. Most of these peptides have been shown to exert a bactericidal effect on the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Lactoferricin is an antimicrobial peptide with a net positive charge and an amphipatic structure. In this study we examine the effect of bovine lactoferricin (lactoferricin B; Lfcin B) on bacterial membranes. We show that Lfcin B neither lyses bacteria, nor causes a major leakage from liposomes. Lfcin B depolarizes the membrane of susceptible bacteria, and induces fusion of negatively charged liposomes. Hence, Lfcin B may have additional targets responsible for the antibacterial effect.

  12. Coupling between electroosmotically driven flow and bipolar faradaic depolarization processes in electron-conducting microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, S.Z.; Duval, J.F.L.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative theory is proposed for the analysis of steady electroosmotically driven flows within conducting cylindrical microchannels. Beyond a threshold value of the electric field applied in the electrolyte Solution and parallel to the conducting surface, electrochemical oxidation and reduction

  13. Depolarized inactivation overcomes impaired activation to produce DRG neuron hyperexcitability in a Nav1.7 mutation in a patient with distal limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; van Es, Michael; Zhao, Peng; Salomon, Jody; Drenth, Joost P H; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-09-10

    Sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, is expressed in DRG neurons and regulates their excitability. Genetic and functional studies have established a critical contribution of Nav1.7 to human pain disorders. We have now characterized a novel Nav1.7 mutation (R1279P) from a female human subject with distal limb pain, in which depolarized fast inactivation overrides impaired activation to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing in DRG neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells demonstrated that R1279P significantly depolarizes steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation. It accelerates deactivation, decelerates inactivation, and facilitates repriming. The mutation increases ramp currents in response to slow depolarizations. Our voltage-clamp analysis showed that R1279P depolarizes channel activation, a change that was supported by our multistate structural modeling. Because this mutation confers both gain-of-function and loss-of-function attributes on the Nav1.7 channel, we tested the impact of R1279P expression on DRG neuron excitability. Current-clamp studies reveal that R1279P depolarizes resting membrane potential, decreases current threshold, and increases firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. The populations of spontaneously firing and repetitively firing neurons were increased by expressing R1279P. These observations indicate that the dominant proexcitatory gating changes associated with this mutation, including depolarized steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation, faster repriming, and larger ramp currents, override the depolarizing shift of activation, to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing of nociceptive neurons that underlie pain. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412328-13$15.00/0.

  14. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five...... languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert's statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values...

  15. The depolarizing action of GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons is not due to the absence of ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Two recent reports propose that the depolarizing action of GABA in the immature brain is an artifact of in vitro preparations in which glucose is the only energy source. The authors argue that this does not mimic the physiological environment because the suckling rats use ketone bodies and pyruvate as major sources of metabolic energy. Here, we show that availability of physiologically relevant levels of ketone bodies has no impact on the excitatory action of GABA in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the primary ketone body in the neonate rat, affected neither intracellular calcium elevation nor membrane depolarizations induced by the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, when assessed with calcium imaging or perforated patch-clamp recording, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of ketone bodies to the extracellular environment to mimic conditions in the neonatal brain does not reverse the chloride gradient and therefore render GABA hyperpolarizing. Our data are consistent with the existence of a genuine "developmental switch" mechanism in which GABA goes from having a predominantly excitatory role in immature cells to a predominantly inhibitory one in adults.

  16. Simulation of spreading depolarization trajectories in cerebral cortex: Correlation of velocity and susceptibility in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Milakara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cerebral grey matter structures including the neocortex, spreading depolarization (SD is the principal mechanism of the near-complete breakdown of the transcellular ion gradients with abrupt water influx into neurons. Accordingly, SDs are abundantly recorded in patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and malignant hemispheric stroke using subdural electrode strips. SD is observed as a large slow potential change, spreading in the cortex at velocities between 2 and 9 mm/min. Velocity and SD susceptibility typically correlate positively in various animal models. In patients monitored in neurocritical care, the Co-Operative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarizations (COSBID recommends several variables to quantify SD occurrence and susceptibility, although accurate measures of SD velocity have not been possible. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to estimate SD velocities based on reconstructing SD trajectories of the wave-front's curvature center from magnetic resonance imaging scans and time-of-SD-arrival-differences between subdural electrode pairs. We then correlated variables indicating SD susceptibility with algorithm-estimated SD velocities in twelve aSAH patients. Highly significant correlations supported the algorithm's validity. The trajectory search failed significantly more often for SDs recorded directly over emerging focal brain lesions suggesting in humans similar to animals that the complexity of SD propagation paths increase in tissue undergoing injury.

  17. A role for CaV1 and calcineurin signaling in depolarization-induced changes in neuronal DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilis Hannon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct manipulations of neuronal activity have been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation (DNAm, although little is known about the cellular signaling pathways involved. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we identify DNAm changes associated with moderate chronic depolarization in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Consistent with previous findings, these changes occurred primarily in the vicinity of loci implicated in neuronal function, being enriched in intergenic regions and underrepresented in CpG-rich promoter regulatory regions. We subsequently used 2 pharmacological interventions (nifedipine and FK-506 to test whether the identified changes depended on 2 interrelated signaling pathways known to mediate multiple forms of neuronal plasticity. Both pharmacological manipulations had notable effects on the extent and magnitude of depolarization-induced DNAm changes indicating that a high proportion of activity-induced changes are likely to be mediated by calcium entry through L-type CaV1 channels and/or downstream signaling via the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin.

  18. Right precordial-directed electrocardiographical markers identify arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the absence of conventional depolarization or repolarization abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Daniel; Svensson, Anneli; Carlson, Jonas; Graw, Sharon; Sharma, Nandita; Brun, Francesca; Spezzacatene, Anita; Mestroni, Luisa; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2017-10-13

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) carries a risk of sudden death. We aimed to assess whether vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters directed toward the right heart and a measured angle of the S-wave would help differentiate ARVD/C with otherwise normal electrocardiograms from controls. Task Force 2010 definite ARVD/C criteria were met for all patients. Those who did not fulfill Task Force depolarization or repolarization criteria (-ECG) were compared with age and gender-matched control subjects. Electrocardiogram measures of a 3-dimentional spatial QRS-T angle, a right-precordial-directed orthogonal QRS-T (RPD) angle, a root mean square of the right sided depolarizing forces (RtRMS-QRS), QRS duration (QRSd) and the corrected QT interval (QTc), and a measured angle including the upslope and downslope of the S-wave (S-wave angle) were assessed. Definite ARVD/C was present in 155 patients by 2010 Task Force criteria (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). -ECG ARVD/C patients (66 patients) were compared to 66 control patients (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). All parameters tested except the QRSd and QTc significantly differentiated -ECG ARVD/C from control patients (p right-sided VCG or measured angle markers better than the spatial QRS-T angle, the QRSd or QTc, in the absence of Taskforce ECG criteria.

  19. Nicotine-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ increase and cell depolarization in capillary endothelial cells of the bovine adrenal medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL VINET

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs respond to acetylcholine (ACh with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.

  20. Study on in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of anodic reaction in SO_2 depolarized electrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Lulu; Zhang Ping; Chen Songzhe; Wang Laijun

    2014-01-01

    SO_2 depolarized electrolysis (SDE) is the pivotal reaction in hybrid sulfur process, one of the most promising approaches for mass hydrogen production without CO_2 emission. The net result of hybrid sulfur process is to split water into hydrogen and oxygen at a relatively low voltage, which will dramatically decrease the energy consumption for the production of hydrogen. The potential loss of SDE process could be separated into four components, i.e. reversible cell potential, anode overpotential, cathode overpotential and ohmic loss. So far, it has been identified that the total cell potential for the SO_2 depolarized electrolyzer is dominantly controlled by sulfuric acid concentration of the anolyte and electrolysis temperature of the electrolysis process. In this work, an in-situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement of the anodic SDE reaction was conducted. Results show that anodic overpotential is mainly resulted from the SO_2 oxidation reaction other than ohmic resistance or mass transfer limitation. This study extends the understanding to SDE process and gives suggestions for the further improvement of the SDE performance. (author)

  1. Thermal-induced structural transition and depolarization behavior in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BiAlO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Nie, Hengchang; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin

    2018-03-01

    The depolarization temperature Td determines the upper temperature limit for the application of piezoelectric materials. However, the origin of depolarization behavior for Bi-based materials still remains controversial and the mechanism is intricate for different (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based systems. In this work, the structure and depolarization behavior of (1-x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBiAlO3 (BNT-BA, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07) ceramics were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. It was found that as temperature increased, the induced long-range ferroelectric phase irreversibly transformed to the relaxor phase as evidenced by the temperature-dependent ferroelectric and dielectric properties, which corresponded to a gradual structural change from the rhombohedral to the pseudocubic phase. Therefore, the thermal depolarization behavior of BNT-BA ceramics was proposed to be directly related to the rhombohedral-pseudocubic transition. Furthermore, Td (obtained from thermally stimulated depolarization currents curves) was higher than the induced ferroelectric-relaxor phase transition temperature TFR (measured from dielectric curves). The phenomenon was quite different from other reported BNT-based systems, which may suggest the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs) within macrodomains prior to the detexturation of short-range ferroelectric domains with PNRs or nanodomains.

  2. Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

    2013-11-13

    Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition.

  3. Patient Health Goals Elicited During Home Care Admission: A Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.

  4. An Experimental Study of the Use of Design Thinking as a Requirements Elicitation Approach for Mobile Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning is a research field that aims to analyze how mobile devices can contribute to learning. The development of software for mobile devices to support learning is essential for an effective implementation of m-learning or mobile learning environments (MLE. Requirements Engineering processes need to include activities that provoke creativity in the stakeholders to conceive MLEs that actually modify and improve the teaching and learning process. In this context, this paper presents a process for requirements elicitation and documentation of mobile learning environments. This process is based on the concepts of the Design Thinking process that provides a methodology to elicit customer needs, producing simple prototypes that eventually converge to innovative solutions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate if the proposed process contributes to create MLEs that present distinctive and interesting characteristics when compared to existing solutions for a specific problem.

  5. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  6. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...... opportunities are very prominent. If hedging opportunities are transparent, and incentives to hedge are strong, many subjects do spot hedging opportunities and respond to them. The bias can go beyond players actually hedging themselves, because some expect others to hedge and best respond to this....

  7. Profiles of cortical tissue depolarization in cat focal cerebral ischemia in relation to calcium ion homeostasis and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K; Graf, R; Rosner, G; Heiss, W D

    1997-11-01

    Cortical depolarization was investigated in a topographic gradient of ischemic density after 1-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in halothane-anesthetized cats. A laser Doppler flow probe, an ion-selective microelectrode, and a nitric oxide (NO) electrode measured regional CBF (rCBF), direct current (DC) potential, extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o), and NO concentration in ectosylvian and suprasylvian gyri of nine animals. Recordings revealed 12 of 18 sites with persistent negative shifts of the DC potential, severe rCBF reduction, and a drop of [Ca2+]o characteristic for core regions of focal ischemia. Among these sites, two types were distinguished by further analysis. In Type 1 (n = 5), rapid, negative DC shifts resembled anoxic depolarization as described for complete global ischemia. In this type, ischemia was most severe (8.9 +/- 2.5% of control rCBF), [Ca2+]o dropped fast and deepest (0.48 +/- 0.20 mmol/L), and NO concentration increased transiently (36.1 +/- 24.0 nmol/L at 2.5 minutes), and decreased thereafter. In Type 2 (n = 7), the DC potential fell gradually over the first half of the ischemic episode, rCBF and [Ca2+]o reductions were smaller than in Type 1 (16.2 +/- 8.2%; 0.77 +/- 0.41 mmol/L), and NO increased continuously during ischemia (53.1 +/- 60.4 nmol/L at 60 minutes) suggesting that in this type NO most likely exerts its diverse actions on ischemia-threatened tissue. In the remaining six recording sites, a third type (Type 3) attributable to the ischemic periphery was characterized by minimal DC shifts, mild ischemia (37.2 +/- 13.3%), nonsignificant alterations of [Ca2+]o, but decreased NO concentrations during middle cerebral artery occlusion. Reperfusion returned the various parameters to baseline levels within 1 hour, the recovery of [Ca2+]o and NO concentration being delayed in Type 1. An NO synthase inhibitor (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, 50 mg/kg intravenously; four animals) abolished NO elevation during ischemia. In

  8. Fast-switching optically isotropic liquid crystal nano-droplets with improved depolarization and Kerr effect by doping high k nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeonggon; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shim, Gyu-Yeop; Park, Ji-Sub; Joo, Kyung-Il; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Joun-Ho; Baek, Ji-Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo; Choi, Yoonseuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2018-01-10

    We proposed and analyzed an optically isotropic nano-droplet liquid crystal (LC) doped with high k nanoparticles (NPs), exhibiting enhanced Kerr effects, which could be operated with reduced driving voltages. For enhancing the contrast ratio together with the light efficiencies, the LC droplet sizes were adjusted to be shorter than the wavelength of visible light to reduce depolarization effects by optical scattering of the LC droplets. Based on the optical analysis of the depolarization effects, the influence of the relationship between the LC droplet size and the NP doping ratio on the Kerr effect change was investigated.

  9. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  10. PKA Phosphorylation of NCLX Reverses Mitochondrial Calcium Overload and Depolarization, Promoting Survival of PINK1-Deficient Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kostic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload is a critical, preceding event in neuronal damage encountered during neurodegenerative and ischemic insults. We found that loss of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 function, implicated in Parkinson disease, inhibits the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX, leading to impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ extrusion. NCLX activity was, however, fully rescued by activation of the protein kinase A (PKA pathway. We further show that PKA rescues NCLX activity by phosphorylating serine 258, a putative regulatory NCLX site. Remarkably, a constitutively active phosphomimetic mutant of NCLX (NCLXS258D prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial depolarization in PINK1 knockout neurons, thereby enhancing neuronal survival. Our results identify an mitochondrial Ca2+ transport regulatory pathway that protects against mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Because mitochondrial Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is a prominent feature of multiple disorders, the link between NCLX and PKA may offer a therapeutic target.

  11. Application of expert elicitation techniques in human reliability, assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Expert elicitation techniques are being used, in the area of technological forecasting, in estimating data needed for analysis when it is either difficult to arrive at the data by experimental means or when it is quite involved to plan and conduct the experiment. In this study, expert elicitation techniques are applied to the evaluation of the frequencies of the various accident sequences that can result from the initiating event (IE) 'High Pressure Process Water (HPPW) system failure' in typical Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of the older generation. The Operating Procedure under Emergency Conditions (OPEC) for this IE involves human actions according to a pre-defined procedure. The Human Error Probabilities for all these human actions are obtained using expert elicitation techniques. These techniques aim at eliciting the opinion of the experts in the area of interest with regard to the issue in question. The uncertainty is analysed by employing the measure of dissonance and the most probable range of human error probabilities are arrived at by maximizing this measure. These values are combined using the same procedures mentioned above to yield a distribution representing the uncertainty associated with the predictions. (author)

  12. Belief elicitation in experiments: is there a hedging problem?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, A. K.; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 412-438 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : belief elicitation * hedging * experimental methodology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  13. Elicitation support requirements of multi-expertise teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, M.; Martens, R.L.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are more and more used in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that there exist differences between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach

  14. Requirements Elicitation in a Telemedicine Pain-treatment Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sandsjö, L.; Schaake, L.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Ryan, K.; Robinson, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the early phase requirements elicitation for a work-related neck-shoulder pain teletreatment trial and the assessment of those requirements in respect of their importance to the trial and the feasibility of the needed software adaptations of the telemedicine system within the

  15. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  16. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously...

  17. Do community and autonomy moral violations elicit different emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareth, Dolichan; Kikutani, Mariko; Shirai, Mariko; Russell, James A

    2018-06-11

    According to one important set of theories, different domains of immorality are linked to different discrete emotions-panculturally. Violations against the community elicit contempt, whereas violations against an individual elicit anger. To test this theory, American, Indian and Japanese participants (N = 480) indicated contempt and anger reactions (with verbal rating and face selection) to both the types of immorality. To remedy method problems in previous research, community and autonomy violations were created for the same story-frame, by varying the target to be either the community or an individual. Community and autonomy violations did not differ significantly in the emotion elicited: overall, both types of violations elicited more anger than contempt (and more negative emotion of any kind than positive emotion). By verbal rating, Americans and Indians reported more anger than contempt for both types of violation, whereas Japanese reported more contempt than anger for both types. By face selection, the three cultural groups selected anger more than contempt for both types of violation. The results speak against defining distinct domains of morality by their association with distinct emotions. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Effect of elicitation on picrotin and picrotoxinin production from in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...

  19. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  20. Eliciting the Dutch loan phoneme /g/ with the Menu Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; de Jonge, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the menu task, which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of

  1. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  2. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...

  3. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  4. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  5. Pattern visual evoked potentials elicited by organic electroluminescence screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Sasaki, Kakeru; Minoda, Haruka; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  6. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  7. Eliciting and Applying Local Research Knowledge for Peacebuilding ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) are pleased to announce a jointly-funded research initiative Eliciting and Applying Local Research. Knowledge for Peacebuilding and Statebuilding. The research initiative seeks to increase the level of recognition and ...

  8. Elicitation of Pharmacologically Active Substances in Intact Medical Plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  9. Extinction and renewal of cue-elicited reward-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Louise; Lee, Jessica C; Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Reward cues can contribute to overconsumption of food and drugs and can relapse. The failure of exposure therapies to reduce overconsumption and relapse is generally attributed to the context-specificity of extinction. However, no previous study has examined whether cue-elicited reward-seeking (as opposed to cue-reactivity) is sensitive to context renewal. We tested this possibility in 160 healthy volunteers using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design involving voluntary responding for a high value natural reward (chocolate). One reward cue underwent Pavlovian extinction in the same (Group AAA) or different context (Group ABA) to all other phases. This cue was compared with a second non-extinguished reward cue and an unpaired control cue. There was a significant overall PIT effect with both reward cues eliciting reward-seeking on test relative to the unpaired cue. Pavlovian extinction substantially reduced this effect, with the extinguished reward cue eliciting less reward-seeking than the non-extinguished reward cue. Most interestingly, extinction of cue-elicited reward-seeking was sensitive to renewal, with extinction less effective for reducing PIT when conducted in a different context. These findings have important implications for extinction-based interventions for reducing maladaptive reward-seeking in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxytocin Depolarizes Fast-Spiking Hilar Interneurons and Induces GABA Release onto Mossy Cells of the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Scott W.; Frazier, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of exogenous oxytocin (OXT) to central oxytocin receptors (OXT-Rs) is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, social anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite significant research implicating central OXT signaling in modulation of mood, affect, social behavior, and stress response, relatively little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these complex actions, particularly in brain regions which express the OXT-R but lie outside of the hypothalamus (where OXT-synthesizing neurons reside). We report that bath application of low concentrations of the selective OXT-R agonist Thr4,Gly7-OXT (TGOT) reliably and robustly drives GABA release in the dentate gyrus in an action potential dependent manner. Additional experiments led to identification of a small subset of small hilar interneurons that are directly depolarized by acute application of TGOT. From a physiological perspective, TGOT-responsive hilar interneurons have high input resistance, rapid repolarization velocity during an action potential, and a robust afterhyperpolarization. Further, they fire irregularly (or stutter) in response to moderate depolarization, and fire quickly with minimal spike frequency accommodation in response to large current injections. From an anatomical perspective, TGOT responsive hilar interneurons have dense axonal arborizations in the hilus that were found close proximity with mossy cell somata and/or proximal dendrites, and also invade the granule cell layer. Further, they have primary dendrites that always extend into the granule cell layer, and sometimes have clear arborizations in the molecular layer. Overall, these data reveal a novel site of action for OXT in an important limbic circuit, and represent a significant step towards better understanding how endogenous OXT may modulate flow of information in hippocampal networks. PMID:27068005

  11. Further insights into blood pressure induced premature beats: Transient depolarizations are associated with fast myocardial deformation upon pressure decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemers, Peter; Sutherland, George; Cikes, Maja; Jakus, Nina; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; Willems, Rik; Claus, Piet

    2015-11-01

    An acute increase in blood pressure is associated with the occurrence of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). We aimed to study the timing of these PVCs with respect to afterload-induced changes in myocardial deformation in a controlled, preclinically relevant, novel closed-chest pig model. An acute left ventricular (LV) afterload challenge was induced by partial balloon inflation in the descending aorta, lasting 5-10 heartbeats (8 pigs; 396 inflations). Balloon inflation enhanced the reflected wave (augmentation index 30% ± 8% vs 59% ± 6%; P blood pressure by 35% ± 4%. This challenge resulted in a more abrupt LV pressure decline, which was delayed beyond ventricular repolarization (rate of pressure decline 0.16 ± 0.01 mm Hg/s vs 0.27 ± 0.04 mm Hg/ms; P pressure 1 ± 12 ms vs 36 ± 9 ms; P = .008), during which the velocity of myocardial shortening at the basal septum increased abruptly (ie, postsystolic shortening) (peak strain rate -0.6 ± 0.5 s(-1) vs -2.5 ± 0.8 s(-1); P pressure decline, with increased postsystolic shortening, and not at peak pressure, that PVCs occur (22% of inflations). These PVCs preferentially occurred at the basal and apical segments. In the same regions, monophasic action potentials demonstrated the appearance of delayed afterdepolarization-like transient depolarizations as origin of PVCs. An acute blood pressure increase results in a more abrupt LV pressure decline, which is delayed after ventricular repolarization. This has a profound effect on myocardial mechanics with enhanced postsystolic shortening. Coincidence with induced transient depolarizations and PVCs provides support for the mechanoelectrical origin of pressure-induced premature beats. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depolarization in Delivering Public Services? Impacts of Minimum Service Standards (MSS on the Quality of Health Services in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Roudo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Some scholars argue that decentralization policy tends to create polarization, i.e. an increase of inequality/disparity among districts. To deal with this problem, Minimum Service Standards (MSS were introduced as a key strategy in decentralizing Indonesia. In this research, we tried to find out through MSS performance measurements whether imposing standards can be effective in a decentralized system by seeking its impacts on polarization/depolarization in the delivery of public services, specifically in the health sector. This question is basically a response to the common criticism that decentralization is good to create equality between central government and local governments but often does not work to achieve equality among local governments. Using self-assessment data from a sample of 54 districts from 534 districts in Indonesia, from 2010 to 2013, we found that the existence of depolarization in the delivery of public services could potentially occur among regions by reducing the gap between their public service performance and the targets of MSS. We acknowledge that there are weaknesses in the validity of the self-assessment data, caused by a lack of knowledge and skills to execute the self-assessment according to the official guidelines, by the overrating of target achievements, as well as the lack of data from independent sources to confirm the self-assessment outcomes. We also acknowledge that differences in financial capacity are still the main determinant why one district is more successful in achieving the MSS targets compared to other districts. Keywords. Decentralization, Public Service, Minimum Standard Service

  13. Depolarization and electrical stimulation enhance in vitro and in vivo sensory axon growth after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goganau, Ioana; Sandner, Beatrice; Weidner, Norbert; Fouad, Karim; Blesch, Armin

    2018-02-01

    Activity dependent plasticity is a key mechanism for the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt to its environment. Whether neuronal activity also influences axonal regeneration in the injured CNS, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) can activate regenerative programs in the injured CNS remains incompletely understood. Using KCl-induced depolarization, in vivo ES followed by ex-vivo neurite growth assays and ES after spinal cord lesions and cell grafting, we aimed to identify parameters important for ES-enhanced neurite growth and axonal regeneration. Using cultures of sensory neurons, neurite growth was analyzed after KCl-induced depolarization for 1-72h. Increased neurite growth was detected after short-term stimulation and after longer stimulation if a sufficient delay between stimulation and growth measurements was provided. After in vivo ES (20Hz, 2× motor threshold, 0.2ms, 1h) of the intact sciatic nerve in adult Fischer344 rats, sensory neurons showed a 2-fold increase in in vitro neurite length one week later compared to sham animals, an effect not observed one day after ES. Longer ES (7h) and repeated ES (7days, 1h each) also increased growth by 56-67% one week later, but provided no additional benefit. In vivo growth of dorsal column sensory axons into a graft of bone marrow stromal cells 4weeks after a cervical spinal cord lesion was also enhanced with a single post-injury 1h ES of the intact sciatic nerve and was also observed after repeated ES without inducing pain-like behavior. While ES did not result in sensory functional recovery, our data indicate that ES has time-dependent influences on the regenerative capacity of sensory neurons and might further enhance axonal regeneration in combinatorial approaches after SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress

  15. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

  16. Effect of ouabain on the gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid uptake and release in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.S.; Goncalves, P.P.; Carvalho, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ouabain on the uptake of tritiated [ 3 H]GABA and on its release in the absence of Ca(+)+ was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes. Ouabain, in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization, induces the release of [ 3 H]GABA with half-maximal effect occurring at a concentration of about 7 X 10(-6) M. Parallel measurements of the effects of ouabain on the [ 3 H]GABA uptake and the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity show that ouabain inhibits both mechanisms and that the half-maximal effect also occurs at about the same ouabain concentration. Although [ 3 H]GABA release is stimulated by ouabain, it appears that the inhibition of [ 3 H]GABA uptake is due to a direct effect on the uptake mechanism, inasmuch as the initial velocity of the process is inhibited by ouabain. Ouabain requires extracellular Na+ for [ 3 H]GABA release and for membrane depolarization and, in the absence of Na+, ouabain does not cause either [ 3 H]GABA release or membrane depolarization. No significant changes in the Na+ gradients occur under conditions which permit release of [ 3 H]GABA, but the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity is inhibited, which may be responsible for membrane depolarization, which in turn may cause [ 3 H]GABA release or inhibit its uptake

  17. Electric quadrupole interactions on /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N implanted in Mg studied by nuclear depolarization due to level mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanihata, I; Kogo, S; Sugimoto, K [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

    1977-04-25

    Electric quadrupole interactions on polarized /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N implanted in a Mg single crystal have been studied by a new method in which the nuclear depolarization due to level mixing caused by an external magnetic field is detected.

  18. Influence of Solid Target Reflectivity and Incident Angle on Depolarization Ratio and Reflected Energy from Polarized Lights: Experimental Results of the May 2008 Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    enviromental targets . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Figure 25: Relative reectivity of environmental targets . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Figure 26: Relationship...Environmental targets and position of the center . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 11: Depolarization ratio of enviromental targets...42 Table 12: Relative reectivity results of enviromental targets . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 13: Sand papers and position of the center

  19. Delayed-action battery with an improved depolarizer. Einen verbesserten Depolarisator enthaltende Batterie mit verzoegerter Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, R.F.; Klein, L.E.

    1978-11-27

    The invention refers to a delayed action battery, which has an anode made of magnesium, aluminium or zinc, and whose cathode consists of a conducting metal grid, and is coated with a depolarising material. The depolarising material consists of caprothio cyanate, carbon sulphur and a binder such as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This mixture is heated to a certain temperature, in order to melt the sulphur contained in it, before it is applied to the metal grid, in order to melt the sulphur contained in it, before it is applied to the metal grid, in order to form the cathode depolariser. The metal grid is also used as current terminal. The delayed action battery is activated by normal seawater or any other suitable aquaeous solution.

  20. An alternative approach for eliciting willingness-to-pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Damschroder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1 WTP in dollars; 2 WTP as a percentage of financial resources; 3 WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4 WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity to severity of health states, and was not associated with income. WTP elicited on a monthly basis also showed promise.

  1. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...

  2. Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Márquez , Jesús ,; Ziegler , Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stag...

  3. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  4. Graph and Network for Model Elicitation (GNOME Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    GRAPH AND NETWORK FOR MODEL ELICITATION (GNOME PHASE II) CUBRC FEBRUARY 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR...NUMBER 00 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 01 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC 4455 Genesee St. Buffalo, NY 14225 8. PERFORMING...Explorer Since the previous version of GNOME was developed as an Eclipse RCP plug-in, it allowed CUBRC to develop the Model Explorer separately without

  5. Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a pr...

  6. Neutrosophic Logic for Mental Model Elicitation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pérez-Teruel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental models are personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them. They are useful in multiple situations such as muticriteria decision making, knowledge management, complex system learning and analysis. In this paper a framework for mental models elicitation and analysis based on neutrosophic Logic is presented. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the proposal. The paper ends with conclusion future research directions.

  7. Autobiographical memories of young adults elicited by positive musical stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Margarida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia Studies on autobiographical memories have shown the presence of three main components: childhood amnesia, recency effect and reminiscence bump (Rubin, 1986). Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories elicited by positive stimuli are associated with highly, specific and generally pleasant episodes (Krumhansl & Zupnick, 2013). Music has an important and highly emotional and social role in individual’s lives. The p...

  8. Incentives for Truthful Information Elicitation of Continuous Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2014-01-01

    We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...

  9. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...

  10. The Lookahead Principle for Preference Elicitation: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Viappiani, Paolo; Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Preference-based search is the problem of finding an item that matches best with a user's preferences. User studies show that example-based tools for preference-based search can achieve significantly higher accuracy when they are complemented with suggestions chosen to inform users about the available choices. We discuss the problem of eliciting preferences in example-based tools and present the lookahead principle for generating suggestions. We compare two different implementations of this p...

  11. Non-Functional Requirements Elicitation and Incorporation into Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Song , Xiaoyu; Duan , Zhenhua; Tian , Cong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Top-quality software architecture should consider both functional and non-functional aspects of systems and their association. In the the existing literature, considerable efforts have been directed at functional requirement analysis and design, regardless of the non-functional aspects. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and evolution hard. This paper proposes a strategy on how to elicit non-functional requirements and incorporate them into the design...

  12. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  13. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  14. Role of local neurons in cerebrocortical vasodilation elicited from cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadecola, C.; Arneric, S.P.; Baker, H.D.; Tucker, L.W.; Reis, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The vasodilation elicited in cerebral cortex by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) is mediated by input pathways coming from the basal forebrain. The authors studied whether these pathways mediate the cortical vasodilation via a direct action on local blood vessels or via interposed local neurons. Neurons were destroyed in the primary sensory cortex by local microinjection of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). Five days later rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated. Arterial pressure and blood gases were controlled, and FN was stimulated electrically. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) was measured using the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine technique with autoradiography. Five days after IBO, neurons were destroyed in a restricted cortical area, and afferent fibers and terminals were preserved. The selectivity of the neuronal loss was established by histological and biochemical criteria and by transport of horseradish, peroxidase from or into the lesion. Within the lesion, resting LCBF was unaffected, but the increase in LCBF evoked from the FN was abolished. In contrast the vasodilation elicited by hypercapnia was preserved. In the rest of the brain the vasodilation elicited from FN was largely unaffected. The authors conclude that the vasodilation evoked from FN in cerebral cortex depends on the integrity of a restricted population of local neurons that interact with the local microvasculature

  15. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  16. Conditioned responses elicited by experimentally produced cues for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, R F; Pauli, P; Angrilli, A

    1998-03-01

    Several theories of drug-craving postulate that a signal for drug elicits conditioned responses. However, depending on the theory, a drug cue is said to elicit drug similar, drug compensatory, positive motivational, and negative motivational effects. Since animal data alone cannot tease apart the relative importance of different cue-related processes in the addict, we developed and examined a model of drug cues in the human based on a two-sound, differential conditioning procedure using smoking as the reinforcer. After multiple pairings of a sound with smoking, there was a preference for the smoking cue on a conditioned preference test. The acute effects of smoking (increased heart rate, respiration rate, skin conductance level, skin conductance fluctuations, EEG beta power and trapezius EMG, decreased alpha power) were not affected by the smoking cue, although subjects drew more on their cigarette in the presence of the smoking cue than in the presence of a control cue. Moreover, the cue did not change baseline behaviour except for a possible increase in EEG beta power and an increase in trapezius EMG at about the time when smoking should have occurred. The findings confirm the value of experimental models of drug cues in the human for comparing different cue phenomena in the dependent individual. They indicate that an acquired signal for drug in the human may elicit incentive motivational effects and associated preparatory motor responses in addition to possible conditioned tolerance.

  17. Risk-Informed SSCs Categorization: Elicitation Method of Expert's Opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2005-01-01

    The regulations have been performing by deterministic way since nuclear power plants have been operating. However, some SSCs identified as safety-significance by deterministic way, were turned out to be low or non safety-significant and some SSCs identified as non-safety significance were turned out to be high safety-significant according to the results of PSA. Considering these risk insights, Regulatory Guide 1.174 and 10CFR50.69 were drawn up, and we can re-categorize the SSCs according to their safety significance. Therefore, a study and an interest about the risk-informed SSCs re-categorization and treatment has been continued. The objective of this regulatory initiative is to adjust the scope of equipment subject to special regulatory treatment to better focus licensee and regulatory attention and resources on equipment that has safety significance. Current most regulations define the plant equipment necessary to meet deterministic regulatory basis as 'safety-related.' This equipment is subject to special treatment regulations. Other plant equipment is categorized as 'non-safety related,' and is not subject to a select number of special treatment requirement or a subset of those requirement. However, risk information is not a magic tool making a decision but a supporting tool to categorize SSCs. This is because only small parts of a plant are modeled in PSA model. Thus, engineering and deterministic judgments are also used for risk-informed SSCs categorization, and expert opinion elicitation is very important for risk-informed SSCs categorization. Therefore, we need a rational method to elicit the expert's opinions, and in this study, we developed a systematic method for expert elicitation to categorize the nuclear power plants' SSCs. Current states for SSCs categorization of the USA and the existing methods for expert elicitation were surveyed and more systematic way eliciting the expert opinions and combining was developed. To validate the developed method

  18. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  19. Achiral Mannich-Base Curcumin Analogs Induce Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization in PANC-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor J. Szebeni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Achiral Mannich-type curcumin analogs have been synthetized and assayed for their cytotoxic activity. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of curcuminoids has been tested on human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (A549, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 and pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1. Based on the highest anti-proliferative activity nine drug candidates were further tested and proved to cause phosphatidylserine exposure as an early sign of apoptosis. Curcumin analogs with the highest apoptotic activity were selected for mechanistic studies in the most sensitive PANC-1 cells. Cytotoxic activity was accompanied by cytostatic effect since curcumin and analogs treatment led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cytotoxic effect could be also detected via the accumulation of curcuminoids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the up-regulation of ER stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR genes: HSPA5, ATF4, XBP1, and DDIT3. The activated UPR induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 activation and subsequent DNA breakdown in PANC-1 cells. Achiral curcumin analogs, C509, C521 and C524 possessed superior, 40-times more potent cytotoxic activity compared to natural dihydroxy-dimetoxycurcumin in PANC-1 cells.

  20. Achiral Mannich-Base Curcumin Analogs Induce Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization in PANC-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, Gábor J; Balázs, Árpád; Madarász, Ildikó; Pócz, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Kanizsai, Iván; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Alföldi, Róbert; Hackler, László; Puskás, László G

    2017-10-07

    Achiral Mannich-type curcumin analogs have been synthetized and assayed for their cytotoxic activity. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of curcuminoids has been tested on human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (A549), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1). Based on the highest anti-proliferative activity nine drug candidates were further tested and proved to cause phosphatidylserine exposure as an early sign of apoptosis. Curcumin analogs with the highest apoptotic activity were selected for mechanistic studies in the most sensitive PANC-1 cells. Cytotoxic activity was accompanied by cytostatic effect since curcumin and analogs treatment led to G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cytotoxic effect could be also detected via the accumulation of curcuminoids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the up-regulation of ER stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) genes: HSPA5 , ATF4, XBP1 , and DDIT3 . The activated UPR induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 activation and subsequent DNA breakdown in PANC-1 cells. Achiral curcumin analogs, C509, C521 and C524 possessed superior, 40-times more potent cytotoxic activity compared to natural dihydroxy-dimetoxycurcumin in PANC-1 cells.

  1. The schizophrenia-associated Kv11.1-3.1 isoform results in reduced current accumulation during repetitive brief depolarizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Heide

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies identified a brain and primate specific isoform of a voltage-gated potassium channel, referred to as Kv11.1-3.1, which is significantly associated with schizophrenia. The 3.1 isoform replaces the first 102 amino acids of the most abundant isoform (referred to as Kv11.1-1A with six unique amino acids. Here we show that the Kv11.1-3.1 isoform has faster rates of channel deactivation but a slowing of the rates of inactivation compared to the Kv11.1-1A isoform. The Kv11.1-3.1 isoform also has a significant depolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation. The consequence of the altered gating kinetics is that there is lower current accumulation for Kv11.1-3.1 expressing cells during repetitive action potential firing compared to Kv11.1-1A expressing cells, which in turn will result in longer lasting trains of action potentials. Increased expression of Kv11.1-3.1 channels in the brain of schizophrenia patients might therefore contribute to disorganized neuronal firing.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide increases depolarization-induced contraction of mechanically skinned slow twitch fibres from rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, David R; Lynch, Gordon S; Williams, David A

    2002-03-15

    The effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function was compared in mechanically skinned slow twitch fibres (prepared from the soleus muscles) and fast twitch fibres (prepared from the extensor digitorum longus; EDL muscles) of adult rats. Equilibration (5 min) with 1 mM H(2)O(2) diminished the ability of the Ca(2+)-depleted SR to reload Ca(2+) in both slow (P fast twitch fibres (P fast twitch fibres by 24 +/- 5 % (P slow twitch fibres. Treatment with 1 mM H(2)O(2) also increased the peak force of low [caffeine] contracture by approximately 45% in both fibre types compared to control (P slow twitch fibres, compared to control (no H(2)O(2); P fast twitch fibres was not altered by 1 mM H(2)O(2) treatment. Equilibration with 5 mM H(2)O(2) induced a spontaneous force response in both slow and fast twitch fibres, which could be partly reversed by 2 min treatment with 10 mM DTT. Peak DICR was also increased approximately 40% by 5 mM H(2)O(2) in slow twitch fibres compared to control (no H(2)O(2); P slow but not fast twitch fibres. The increase in depolarization-induced contraction in slow twitch fibres might be mediated by an increased SR Ca(2+) release during contraction and/or an increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  3. Multiple relaxation processes in high-energy ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide: Thermally stimulated depolarization current study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Maneesha; Quamara, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy ion irradiation effects on the thermally stimulated depolarization current (Tdc) behaviour of kapton-H samples (12.5 μm) irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (fluence 5 x 10 4 , 10 5 and 5 x 10 5 ions/cm 2 ) have been investigated. The TSDC spectra of the irradiated samples reveal that the β-peak (appearing around 80-110 deg. C) associated with dipolar relaxation has been significantly affected owing to the demerization of carbonyl groups due to irradiation. The TSDC spectra also reveal a new relaxation process (termed as γ-relaxation) around 30 deg. C, due to increased water absorptivity in irradiated samples. The peak around 200 deg. C (α-peak) associated with space charge relaxation process also shows a behavioural change with ion irradiation. The peak not only shifts towards the higher temperature with increasing fluence but also show an increase in its activation energy (0.33-0.99 eV) with increasing polarizing field. The creation of new deep energy trap centers due to the formation of conjugated bonds after irradiation is responsible for this modification. The Cole-Cole distribution curves show the formation of new sub-polar group with different characteristic relaxation time

  4. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  5. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  6. Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤ 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Structured tradeoffs preference elicitation: Evaluating CRWMS design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, H.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies over the past few years have yielded multiple design and operations alternatives for the planned Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Waste isolation, pre-closure health and safety, and life cycle cost are among the many factors considered in developing these alternatives. The task of CRWMS designers is complicated by substantial heat and nuclear radiation energy output of the spent nuclear fuel and high level waste intended for disposal in an underground repository. Not only must the usual effectiveness, operability and cost objectives be balanced, but done so in the context of a constantly changing environment. Particular alternatives sometimes are favored by virtue of their outstanding performance relative to one of these factors. The Ultimate success of the potential repository, however, depends on reaching a defensible and traceable final decision through simultaneous and systematic weighing of all relevant factors. This paper documents the outcome of Structured Tradeoffs Preference (STP) elicitation as a method for the simultaneous and systematic weighing of factors relevant to repository thermal loading, waste package (WP) design, and emplacement mode decisions. The study provided a low-cost early indication of directions of further research on CRWMS design and operations likely to be most fruitful. The method of STP elicitation was utilized to avoid potential biases documented in other efforts which use only unstructured decision making, or open-quotes well-considered judgmentclose quotes. The STP elicitation procedure presented here complements the use of a parameter network-model pyramid suggested elsewhere in this proceedings to provide a framework for precisely articulating technical questions needing answers. It also forms an independent crosscheck of systems engineering study results and performance assessment modeling

  8. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  9. Graphical User Interfaces Reverse Engineering for Requirements Elicitation - Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Jaimes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exhibits a synthesis of the use of legacy systems GUI reverse engineering as a tool to software requirements elicitation. It presents a literature review describing the approaches related to the topic. This work primary goal is to determine the major investigations in this area, and if there are techniques focused exclusively on the observation of the legacy applications GUI to obtain software requirements in a standard format, without the use of source code, data structures, documentation or sophisticated algorithms for the application analysis.

  10. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  11. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  12. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can...... be beneficial, it is speculated that involving the audiences in the creative process of developing an interactive art piece can make the artist improve the art in general and the audience's experience in particular. In this paper, the experience of eliciting the experience of the audiences of an interactive art...

  13. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  14. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael

    2005-12-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle

  15. Integrating Effectiveness, Transparency and Fairness into a Value Elicitation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Michael; Sheng, Grant

    2001-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of Canada's proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel (FEARP) undertook an extensive, nation-wide public hearing process. The hearing process itself was contentious and has been criticized on numerous grounds. It is our contention that the fundamental weakness of the FEARP process was that it was designed as an information-based forum, as opposed to a value-based forum.' Our observations and analyses of these hearings indicate that the FEARP envisioned a different purpose and a different outcome of this process than the public in general. As a result, public acceptability for the Concept or even the assessment process itself was not garnered due to a failure in the process to identify, address and incorporate values. To address this, we proposed a seven-step value elicitation process specifically designed to assess public acceptability of the disposal concept. An unfortunate consequence of the flawed public consultation process employed by the FEARP is that it is unclear exactly what it is the public finds unacceptable. Both from discussions and observations, it is difficult to ascertain whether the unacceptability lies with the Concept itself and/or the process by which the Concept was to be assessed. As a result, there is uncertainty as to what questions should be asked and how should the 'unacceptability' be addressed. In other words, does Canada need a new concept? Does Canada need to develop a mechanism for assessing the public acceptability of the Concept? Or both? The inability of the current process to answer such fundamental questions demonstrates the importance of developing an effective public acceptability and consultation process. We submit that, to create an acceptable Public Participation mechanism, it is necessary to found the construction of such a mechanism on the principles of effectiveness, transparency and fairness. Moreover, we believe that the larger decision

  16. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.

  17. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating Effectiveness, Transparency and Fairness into a Value Elicitation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Michael; Sheng, Grant [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Collins, Alison [York Centre for Applied Sustainability, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    As part of the evaluation of Canada's proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel (FEARP) undertook an extensive, nation-wide public hearing process. The hearing process itself was contentious and has been criticized on numerous grounds. It is our contention that the fundamental weakness of the FEARP process was that it was designed as an information-based forum, as opposed to a value-based forum.' Our observations and analyses of these hearings indicate that the FEARP envisioned a different purpose and a different outcome of this process than the public in general. As a result, public acceptability for the Concept or even the assessment process itself was not garnered due to a failure in the process to identify, address and incorporate values. To address this, we proposed a seven-step value elicitation process specifically designed to assess public acceptability of the disposal concept. An unfortunate consequence of the flawed public consultation process employed by the FEARP is that it is unclear exactly what it is the public finds unacceptable. Both from discussions and observations, it is difficult to ascertain whether the unacceptability lies with the Concept itself and/or the process by which the Concept was to be assessed. As a result, there is uncertainty as to what questions should be asked and how should the 'unacceptability' be addressed. In other words, does Canada need a new concept? Does Canada need to develop a mechanism for assessing the public acceptability of the Concept? Or both? The inability of the current process to answer such fundamental questions demonstrates the importance of developing an effective public acceptability and consultation process. We submit that, to create an acceptable Public Participation mechanism, it is necessary to found the construction of such a mechanism on the principles of effectiveness, transparency and fairness. Moreover, we believe that

  19. Domain wall motion and magnetization reversal processes in a FeSi picture frame single crystal studied by the time-dependent neutron depolarization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaik, F.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    The three dimensional neutron depolarization technique, which gives detailed information about the static properties of ferromagnetic materials, has been extended to a method by means of which the time dependence of magnetic phenomena can be studied. The measurement of the neutron depolarization against time is made possible by applying a periodical magnetic field on the investigated specimen and by continuous sampling of the transmitted neutron intensity in time channels, which are started synchronously with the applied field. The technique has been used in the study of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature of a (010) [001] picture frame FeSi single crystal (3.5 wt.% Si) with outer dimensions of (15 x 10 x 0.26) mm and a frame width of 2.78 mm. (Auth.)

  20. Membrane depolarization increases ryanodine sensitivity to Ca2+ release to the cytosol in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Implications for excitation-contraction coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitake, Saumitra; Ochs, Raymond S

    2016-04-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are known to physically interact in the process of excitation-contraction coupling. However, the mechanism for subsequent Ca(2+) release through the ryanodine receptor is unknown. Our lab has previously presented evidence that the dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor combine as a channel for the entry of Ca(2+) under resting conditions, known as store operated calcium entry. Here, we provide evidence that depolarization during excitation-contraction coupling causes the dihydropyridine receptor to disengage from the ryanodine receptor. The newly freed ryanodine receptor can then transport Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Experimentally, this should more greatly expose the ryanodine receptor to exogenous ryanodine. To examine this hypothesis, we titrated L6 skeletal muscle cells with ryanodine in resting and excited (depolarized) states. When L6 muscle cells were depolarized with high potassium or exposed to the dihydropyridine receptor agonist BAYK-8644, known to induce dihydropyridine receptor movement within the membrane, ryanodine sensitivity was enhanced. However, ryanodine sensitivity was unaffected when Ca(2+) was elevated without depolarization by the ryanodine receptor agonist chloromethylcresol, or by increasing Ca(2+) concentration in the media. Ca(2+) entry currents (from the extracellular space) during excitation were strongly inhibited by ryanodine, but Ca(2+) entry currents in the resting state were not. We conclude that excitation releases the ryanodine receptor from occlusion by the dihydropyridine receptor, enabling Ca(2+) release from the ryanodine receptor to the cytosol. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. The relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient measured by magnetic resonance imaging, anoxic depolarization, and glutamate efflux during experimental cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N G; Zilkha, E; Houseman, J; Symms, M R; Obrenovitch, T P; Williams, S R

    2000-01-01

    A reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to occur early after cerebrovascular occlusion. This change may be a useful indicator of brain tissue adversely affected by inadequate blood supply. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that loss of membrane ion homeostasis and depolarization can occur simultaneously with the drop in ADC. Also investigated was whether elevation of extracellular glutamate ([GLU]e) would occur before ADC changes. High-speed MRI of the trace of the diffusion tensor (15-second time resolution) was combined with simultaneous recording of the extracellular direct current (DC) potential and on-line [GLU]e from the striatum of the anesthetized rat. After a control period, data were acquired during remote middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion, and cardiac arrest-induced global ischemia. After either focal or global ischemia, the ADC was reduced by 10 to 25% before anoxic depolarization occurred. After either insult, the time for half the maximum change in ADC was significantly shorter than the corresponding DC potential parameter (P potential and did not peak until much later after either ischemic insult. This study demonstrates that ADC changes can occur before membrane depolarization and that high [GLU]e has no involvement in the early rapid ADC decrease.

  2. Depolarization of the conductance-voltage relationship in the NaV1.5 mutant, E1784K, is due to altered fast inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alec; Zhu, Wandi; Silva, Jonathan R.; Ruben, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    E1784K is the most common mixed long QT syndrome/Brugada syndrome mutant in the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5. E1784K shifts the midpoint of the channel conductance-voltage relationship to more depolarized membrane potentials and accelerates the rate of channel fast inactivation. The depolarizing shift in the midpoint of the conductance curve in E1784K is exacerbated by low extracellular pH. We tested whether the E1784K mutant shifts the channel conductance curve to more depolarized membrane potentials by affecting the channel voltage-sensors. We measured ionic currents and gating currents at pH 7.4 and pH 6.0 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Contrary to our expectation, the movement of gating charges is shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials by E1784K. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry experiments show that this gating charge shift is due to the movement of the DIVS4 voltage-sensor being shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Using a model and experiments on fast inactivation-deficient channels, we show that changes to the rate and voltage-dependence of fast inactivation are sufficient to shift the conductance curve in E1784K. Our results localize the effects of E1784K to DIVS4, and provide novel insight into the role of the DIV-VSD in regulating the voltage-dependencies of activation and fast inactivation. PMID:28898267

  3. Measurement of the depolarization in the elastic proton scattering on 1H, 27Al, and 89Y in the low energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1986-01-01

    With the Erlangen QDQ magnetic spectrometer angular distributions of the depolarization in the elastic scattering of protons on 27 Al, 89 Y at 11 MeV and 1 H at 12 MeV were measured. The evaluation was performed for yttrium and aluminium by adding of additional terms in the optical model which regard the spin-spin interaction. The optical-model parameter without spin-spin potentials were stated by measurements of the cross section and the analyzing power in the 4π scattering chamber in Erlangen at several energies. The calculation of the depolarization which emerges because of the spin-spin interaction was performed by means of DWBA. The depolarization of the proton-proton scattering was evaluated by scattering-phase analysis. The fits were thereby performed on analyzing-power data. The electrical P-wave scattering phases resulted to δ 10 = 4.442±0.121, δ 11 = -2.515±0.026, and δ 12 = 0.937±0.038 (all in degrees). (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Depolarization of the conductance-voltage relationship in the NaV1.5 mutant, E1784K, is due to altered fast inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Peters

    Full Text Available E1784K is the most common mixed long QT syndrome/Brugada syndrome mutant in the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5. E1784K shifts the midpoint of the channel conductance-voltage relationship to more depolarized membrane potentials and accelerates the rate of channel fast inactivation. The depolarizing shift in the midpoint of the conductance curve in E1784K is exacerbated by low extracellular pH. We tested whether the E1784K mutant shifts the channel conductance curve to more depolarized membrane potentials by affecting the channel voltage-sensors. We measured ionic currents and gating currents at pH 7.4 and pH 6.0 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Contrary to our expectation, the movement of gating charges is shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials by E1784K. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry experiments show that this gating charge shift is due to the movement of the DIVS4 voltage-sensor being shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Using a model and experiments on fast inactivation-deficient channels, we show that changes to the rate and voltage-dependence of fast inactivation are sufficient to shift the conductance curve in E1784K. Our results localize the effects of E1784K to DIVS4, and provide novel insight into the role of the DIV-VSD in regulating the voltage-dependencies of activation and fast inactivation.

  5. Emotion elicitation: A comparison of pictures and films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Katrin Uhrig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a single pictures presented for 6 s, (b a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation towards positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < .001 and were less arousing (all p ≤ .02. Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.

  6. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.

  7. Eliciting conditional and unconditional rank correlations from conditional probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, O.; Kurowicka, D.; Roelen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Causes of uncertainties may be interrelated and may introduce dependencies. Ignoring these dependencies may lead to large errors. A number of graphical models in probability theory such as dependence trees, vines and (continuous) Bayesian belief nets [Cooke RM. Markov and entropy properties of tree and vine-dependent variables. In: Proceedings of the ASA section on Bayesian statistical science, 1997; Kurowicka D, Cooke RM. Distribution-free continuous Bayesian belief nets. In: Proceedings of mathematical methods in reliability conference, 2004; Bedford TJ, Cooke RM. Vines-a new graphical model for dependent random variables. Ann Stat 2002; 30(4):1031-68; Kurowicka D, Cooke RM. Uncertainty analysis with high dimensional dependence modelling. New York: Wiley; 2006; Hanea AM, et al. Hybrid methods for quantifying and analyzing Bayesian belief nets. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ENBIS5 conference, 2005; Shachter RD, Kenley CR. Gaussian influence diagrams. Manage Sci 1998; 35(5) .] have been developed to capture dependencies between random variables. The input for these models are various marginal distributions and dependence information, usually in the form of conditional rank correlations. Often expert elicitation is required. This paper focuses on dependence representation, and dependence elicitation. The techniques presented are illustrated with an application from aviation safety

  8. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Monitoring of anatabine release by methyl jasmonate elicited BY-2 cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bleye, C; Dumont, E; Dispas, A; Hubert, C; Sacré, P-Y; Netchacovitch, L; De Muyt, B; Kevers, C; Dommes, J; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

    2016-11-01

    A new application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the field of plant material analysis is proposed in this study. The aim was to monitor the release of anatabine by methyl jasmonate (MeJa) elicited Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) were used as SERS substrate. The first step was to study the SERS activity of anatabine in a complex matrix comprising the culture medium and BY-2 cells. The second step was the calibration. This one was successfully performed directly in the culture medium in order to take into account the matrix effect, by spiking the medium with different concentrations of anatabine, leading to solutions ranging from 250 to 5000µgL(-1). A univariate analysis was performed, the intensity of a band situated at 1028cm(-1), related to anatabine, was plotted against the anatabine concentration. A linear relationship was observed with a R(2) of 0.9951. During the monitoring study, after the MeJa elicitation, samples were collected from the culture medium containing BY-2 cells at 0, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h and were analysed using SERS. Finally, the amount of anatabine released in the culture medium was determined using the response function, reaching a plateau after 72h of 82µg of anatabine released/g of fresh weight (FW) MeJa elicited BY-2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: Methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1989-01-01

    The most ambitious and certainly the most extensive formal expert judgment process was the elicitation of numerous events and uncertain quantities for safety issues in five nuclear power plants in the U.S. The general methodology for formal expert elicitations are described. An overview of the expert elicitation process of NUREG 1150 is provided and the elicitation of probabilities for the interfacing systems loss of coolant accident LOCA (ISL) in PWRs is given as an example of this elicitation process. Some lessons learned from this study are presented. (DG)

  12. Therapeutic Targeting of the Mitochondria Initiates Excessive Superoxide Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization Causing Decreased mtDNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L; Biel, Thomas G; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Rao, V Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-targeted agent [(MTAs) conjugated to TPP+: mitoTEMPOL, mitoquinone and mitochromanol-acetate] on mitochondrial physiology and mtDNA integrity in breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (H23) cancer cells. The integrity of the mtDNA was assessed by quantifying the degree of mtDNA fragmentation and copy number, as well as by measuring mitochondrial proteins essential to mtDNA stability and maintenance (TFAM, SSBP1, TWINKLE, POLG and POLRMT). Mitochondrial status was evaluated by measuring superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification and mRNA or protein levels of the RC complexes along with TCA cycle activity. In this study, we demonstrated that all investigated MTAs impair mitochondrial health and decrease mtDNA integrity in MDA-MB-231 and H23 cells. However, differences in the degree of mitochondrial damage and mtDNA degradation suggest unique properties among each MTA that may be cell line, dose and time dependent. Collectively, our study indicates the potential for TPP+ conjugated molecules to impair breast and lung cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial homeostasis.

  13. Imaging rapid redistribution of sensory-evoked depolarization through existing cortical pathways after targeted stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Albrecht; Mohajerani, Majid H; Murphy, Timothy H

    2009-07-14

    Evidence suggests that recovery from stroke damage results from the production of new synaptic pathways within surviving brain regions over weeks. To address whether brain function might redistribute more rapidly through preexisting pathways, we examined patterns of sensory-evoked depolarization in mouse somatosensory cortex within hours after targeted stroke to a subset of the forelimb sensory map. Brain activity was mapped with voltage-sensitive dye imaging allowing millisecond time resolution over 9 mm(2) of brain. Before targeted stroke, we report rapid activation of the forelimb area within 10 ms of contralateral forelimb stimulation and more delayed activation of related areas of cortex such as the hindlimb sensory and motor cortices. After stroke to a subset of the forelimb somatosensory cortex map, function was lost in ischemic areas within the forelimb map center, but maintained in regions 200-500 microm blood flow deficits indicating the size of a perfused, but nonfunctional, penumbra. In many cases, stroke led to only partial loss of the forelimb map, indicating that a subset of a somatosensory domain can function on its own. Within the forelimb map spared by stroke, forelimb-stimulated responses became delayed in kinetics, and their center of activity shifted into adjacent hindlimb and posterior-lateral sensory areas. We conclude that the focus of forelimb-specific somatosensory cortex activity can be rapidly redistributed after ischemic damage. Given that redistribution occurs within an hour, the effect is likely to involve surviving accessory pathways and could potentially contribute to rapid behavioral compensation or direct future circuit rewiring.

  14. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Picture book exposure elicits positive visual preferences in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture book. We describe three studies that explored the number and nature of exposures required to elicit positive visual preferences for stimuli and the extent to which induced preferences generalize to other similar items. Results show that positive preferences for stimuli are easily and reliably induced in children and, importantly, that this effect of exposure is not restricted to the exposed stimulus per se but also applies to new representations of the exposed item.

  16. Fuzzy rationality and parameter elicitation in decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Natalia D.; Tenekedjiev, Kiril I.

    2010-07-01

    It is widely recognised by decision analysts that real decision-makers always make estimates in an interval form. An overview of techniques to find an optimal alternative among such with imprecise and interval probabilities is presented. Scalarisation methods are outlined as most appropriate. A proper continuation of such techniques is fuzzy rational (FR) decision analysis. A detailed representation of the elicitation process influenced by fuzzy rationality is given. The interval character of probabilities leads to the introduction of ribbon functions, whose general form and special cases are compared with the p-boxes. As demonstrated, approximation of utilities in FR decision analysis does not depend on the probabilities, but the approximation of probabilities is dependent on preferences.

  17. Eliciting design patterns for e-learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-06-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through the use of appropriate, authentic scenarios. However, an iterative pattern process is proposed that takes advantage of multiple data sources, thus emphasizing a holistic view of the teaching learning processes. The proposed schema of pattern mining has been extensively validated for Asynchronous Network Supported Collaborative Learning (ANSCL) systems, as well as for other types of tools in a variety of scenarios, with promising results.

  18. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: → Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. → EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. → EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. → EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. → EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration

  19. Eliciting regret improves decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Mhaskar, Rahul; Hozo, Iztok; Miladinovic, Branko; Tuch, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Management choices at the end of life are high-stake decisions fraught with emotions, chief among is regret. Our objective in this paper is to test the utility of a regret-based model to facilitate referral to hospice care while helping patients clarify their preferences on how they wish to spend the remaining days of their lives. A prospective cohort study that enrolled consecutive adult patients (n = 178) aware of the terminal nature of their disease. The patients were at the point in care where they had to decide between continuing potentially 'curative/life-prolonging' treatment (Rx) versus hospice care. Preferences were elicited using a Dual Visual Analog Scale regarding the level of regret of omission versus commission (RgO/RgC) towards hospice care and Rx. Each patient's RgO/RgC was contrasted against the predictive probability of death to suggest a management plan, which was then compared with the patient's actual choice. The probability of death was estimated using validated Palliative Performance Scale predictive model. Eighty-five percent (151/178) of patients agreed with the model's recommendations (p < 0.000001). Model predicted the actual choices for 72% (128/178) of patients (p < 0.00001). Logistic regression analysis showed that people who were initially inclined to be referred to hospice and were predicted to choose hospice over disease-directed treatment by the regret model have close to 98% probability of choosing hospice care at the end of their lives. No other factors (age, gender, race, educational status and pain level) affected their choice. Using regret to elicit choices in the end-of-life setting is both descriptively and prescriptively valid. People with terminal disease who are initially inclined to choose hospice and do not regret such a choice will select hospice care with high level of certainty. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  1. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification. The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R and volume linear depolarization (δV ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4, which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l. since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p- and perpendicular (s- polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times. Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC, as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS, parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function

  2. TRAC-Monterey FY16 Work Program Development and Report of Research Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    any changes to priorities or additional projects that require immediate research. Work Program; Research Elicitation Unclassified UU UU UU UU 35 MAJ...conduct analysis for the Army. 1 Marks, Chris, Nesbitt, Peter. TRAC FY14 Research Requirements Elicitation . Technical Report TRAC-M-TM-13-059. 700 Dyer... Requirements Elicitation Interviews Interview Guide: 1. Describe a research requirement in the areas of topics, techniques, and methodologies. 2

  3. Application and Evaluation of an Expert Judgment Elicitation Procedure for Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis.

  4. β-Hydroxybutyrate is the preferred substrate for GABA and glutamate synthesis while glucose is indispensable during depolarization in cultured GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trine M; Obel, Linea F; Risa, Øystein; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    The ketogenic diet has multiple beneficial effects not only in treatment of epilepsy, but also in that of glucose transporter 1 deficiency, cancer, Parkinson's disease, obesity and pain. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanism behind this metabolic therapy. Patients on a ketogenic diet reach high plasma levels of ketone bodies, which are used by the brain as energy substrates. The interaction between glucose and ketone bodies is complex and there is still controversy as to what extent it affects the homeostasis of the neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate and GABA. The present study was conducted to study this metabolic interaction in cultured GABAergic neurons exposed to different combinations of (13)C-labeled and unlabeled glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. Depolarization was induced and the incorporation of (13)C into glutamate, GABA and aspartate was analyzed. The presence of β-hydroxybutyrate together with glucose did not affect the total GABA content but did, however, decrease the aspartate content to a lower value than when either glucose or β-hydroxybutyrate was employed alone. When combinations of the two substrates were used (13)C-atoms from β-hydroxybutyrate were found in all three amino acids to a greater extent than (13)C-atoms from glucose, but only the (13)C contribution from [1,6-(13)C]glucose increased upon depolarization. In conclusion, β-hydroxybutyrate was preferred over glucose as substrate for amino acid synthesis but the total content of aspartate decreased when both substrates were present. Furthermore only the use of glucose increased upon depolarization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time optical diagnosis of the rat brain exposed to a laser-induced shock wave: observation of spreading depolarization, vasoconstriction and hypoxemia-oligemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Sato

    Full Text Available Despite many efforts, the pathophysiology and mechanism of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI have not yet been elucidated, partially due to the difficulty of real-time diagnosis and extremely complex factors determining the outcome. In this study, we topically applied a laser-induced shock wave (LISW to the rat brain through the skull, for which real-time measurements of optical diffuse reflectance and electroencephalogram (EEG were performed. Even under conditions showing no clear changes in systemic physiological parameters, the brain showed a drastic light scattering change accompanied by EEG suppression, which indicated the occurrence of spreading depression, long-lasting hypoxemia and signal change indicating mitochondrial energy impairment. Under the standard LISW conditions examined, hemorrhage and contusion were not apparent in the cortex. To investigate events associated with spreading depression, measurement of direct current (DC potential, light scattering imaging and stereomicroscopic observation of blood vessels were also conducted for the brain. After LISW application, we observed a distinct negative shift in the DC potential, which temporally coincided with the transit of a light scattering wave, showing the occurrence of spreading depolarization and concomitant change in light scattering. Blood vessels in the brain surface initially showed vasodilatation for 3-4 min, which was followed by long-lasting vasoconstriction, corresponding to hypoxemia. Computer simulation based on the inverse Monte Carlo method showed that hemoglobin oxygen saturation declined to as low as ∼35% in the long-term hypoxemic phase. Overall, we found that topical application of a shock wave to the brain caused spreading depolarization/depression and prolonged severe hypoxemia-oligemia, which might lead to pathological conditions in the brain. Although further study is needed, our findings suggest that spreading depolarization/depression is one of

  6. Measurement of the depolarization of the reaction 27Al (p vector, p vector.) 27Al for the study of the spin-spin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeh, H.

    1981-01-01

    For the study of the spin-spin interactions in the optical potential the depolarization in the elastic scattering of polarized protons was measured. The double-scattering experiments were performed in the angular range 40 0 -110 0 at an incident energy of 10.35 MeV at the Erlangen QD magnetic spectrometer. The determination of the optical model parameters independent from the spin-spin potentials resulted by the fit of those to the observables and sigmasup(di). These were obtained from a measurement of the angular distribution of the analyzing power and the differential cross section in the 4π-scattering chamber for the reaction 27 Al (p vector,psub(o)) at the same energy. The compound contributions present at this energy, which can also influence the depolarization, were regarded by the calculation of the compound-elastic non-spin-flip respectively spin-flip subcross sections by means of the formalism of Hofmann, Richard, Tepel, and Weidenmueller. Because of the target nucleus 27 Al posesses in the ground state a spin I=5/2 also the possible quadrupole spin flip had to be included in the analysis. This was performed by coupled channel calculations. The depolarization data corrected according to compound contributions and quadrupole effects could now be applied to the study of the spin-spin potentials by means of DWBA calculations. As result it turned out that for the description of the experimental data a spherical spin-spin potential of the strength Vsub(SS)=1.5+-0.3 MeV had to be assumed. For the addition of a tensor term however no necessity resulted. (orig.) [de

  7. Biophysical Insights into How Spike Threshold Depends on the Rate of Membrane Potential Depolarization in Type I and Type II Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Sheng Yi

    Full Text Available Dynamic spike threshold plays a critical role in neuronal input-output relations. In many neurons, the threshold potential depends on the rate of membrane potential depolarization (dV/dt preceding a spike. There are two basic classes of neural excitability, i.e., Type I and Type II, according to input-output properties. Although the dynamical and biophysical basis of their spike initiation has been established, the spike threshold dynamic for each cell type has not been well described. Here, we use a biophysical model to investigate how spike threshold depends on dV/dt in two types of neuron. It is observed that Type II spike threshold is more depolarized and more sensitive to dV/dt than Type I. With phase plane analysis, we show that each threshold dynamic arises from the different separatrix and K+ current kinetics. By analyzing subthreshold properties of membrane currents, we find the activation of hyperpolarizing current prior to spike initiation is a major factor that regulates the threshold dynamics. The outward K+ current in Type I neuron does not activate at the perithresholds, which makes its spike threshold insensitive to dV/dt. The Type II K+ current activates prior to spike initiation and there is a large net hyperpolarizing current at the perithresholds, which results in a depolarized threshold as well as a pronounced threshold dynamic. These predictions are further attested in several other functionally equivalent cases of neural excitability. Our study provides a fundamental description about how intrinsic biophysical properties contribute to the threshold dynamics in Type I and Type II neurons, which could decipher their significant functions in neural coding.

  8. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging of infarct core and peri-infarct depolarization in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2014-03-01

    To understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, in vivo imaging of the brain tissue viability and related spreading depolarization is crucial. In the infarct core, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic depolarization (AD), which considerably increases energy consumption, accelerating irreversible neuronal damage. In the peri-infarct penumbra region, where tissue is still reversible despite limited blood flow, peri-infarct depolarization (PID) occurs, exacerbating energy deficit and hence expanding the infarct area. We previously showed that light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, was correlated with AD and brain tissue viability in a rat hypoxia-reoxygenation model. In the present study, we performed transcranial NIR diffuse reflectance imaging of the rat brain during middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and examined whether the infarct core and PIDs can be detected. Immediately after occluding the left MCA, light scattering started to increase focally in the occlusion site and a bright region was generated near the occlusion site and spread over the left entire cortex, which was followed by a dark region, showing the occurrence of PID. The PID was generated repetitively and the number of times of occurrence in a rat ranged from four to ten within 1 hour after occlusion (n=4). The scattering increase in the occlusion site was irreversible and the area with increased scattering expanded with increasing the number of PIDs, indicating an expansion of the infarct core. These results suggest the usefulness of NIR diffuse reflectance signal to visualize spatiotemporal changes in the infarct area and PIDs.

  9. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2005-01-01

    option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...

  10. Glucose stimulates neurotensin secretion from the rat small intestine by mechanisms involving SGLT1 and GLUT2 leading to cell depolarization and calcium influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Bechmann, Louise Ellegaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    of secretion. Luminal glucose (20% wt/vol) stimulated secretion but vascular glucose (5, 10, or 15 mmol/l) was without effect. The underlying mechanisms depend on membrane depolarization and calcium influx, since the voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine and the KATP channel opener diazoxide......, suggesting that glucose stimulates secretion by initial uptake by this transporter. However, secretion was also sensitive to GLUT2 inhibition (by phloretin) and blockage of oxidative phosphorylation (2-4-dinitrophenol). Direct KATP channel closure by sulfonylureas stimulated secretion. Therefore, glucose...

  11. A neutron depolarization study of magnetic inhomogeneities in weak-link superconductors. Issledovanie magnitnykh neodnorodnostej v sverkhprovodnikakh so slabymi svyazyami metodom depolyarizatsii nejtronov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuchenko, N K; Yagud, R Z [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1993-09-01

    Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T[sub c] and low-T[sub c] weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo[sub 6]S[sub 8] and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields.

  12. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  13. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  14. Assessing Mental Models of Emergencies Through Two Knowledge Elicitation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Daphne E; Sims, Valerie K; Torres, Michael E

    2017-05-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university. In Study 2, participants listed emergencies in a thought-listing task. Study 3 measured participants' time to decide if a situation was an emergency. The university distributed the most alerts about an armed person, theft, and fire. In Study 2, participants most frequently listed fire, car accident, heart attack, and theft. In Study 3, participants quickly decided a bomb, murder, fire, tornado, and rape were emergencies. They most slowly decided that a suspicious package and identify theft were emergencies. Recent interaction with warnings was only somewhat related to participants' mental models of emergencies. Risk identification precedes decision-making and applying protective actions. Examining these characteristics of people's mental representations of emergencies is fundamental to further understand why some emergency warnings go ignored. Someone must believe a situation is serious to categorize it as an emergency before taking the protective action recommendations in an emergency warning. Present-day research must continue to examine the problem of people ignoring warning communication, as there are important cognitive factors that have not yet been explored until the present research.

  15. An oral microjet vaccination system elicits antibody production in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Chooljian, Marc; Paredes, Jacobo; Rafi, Mohammad; Lee, Kunwoo; Kim, Allison Y; An, Jeanny; Yau, Jennifer F; Chum, Helen; Conboy, Irina; Murthy, Niren; Liepmann, Dorian

    2017-03-08

    Noninvasive immunization technologies have the potential to revolutionize global health by providing easy-to-administer vaccines at low cost, enabling mass immunizations during pandemics. Existing technologies such as transdermal microneedles are costly, deliver drugs slowly, and cannot generate mucosal immunity, which is important for optimal immunity against pathogens. We present a needle-free microjet immunization device termed MucoJet, which is a three-dimensional microelectromechanical systems-based drug delivery technology. MucoJet is administered orally, placed adjacent to the buccal tissue within the oral cavity, and uses a self-contained gas-generating chemical reaction within its two-compartment plastic housing to produce a high-pressure liquid jet of vaccine. We show that the vaccine jet ejected from the MucoJet device is capable of penetrating the buccal mucosal layer in silico, in porcine buccal tissue ex vivo, and in rabbits in vivo. Rabbits treated with ovalbumin by MucoJet delivery have antibody titers of anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulins G and A in blood serum and buccal tissue, respectively, that are three orders of magnitude higher than rabbits receiving free ovalbumin delivered topically by a dropper in the buccal region. MucoJet has the potential to accelerate the development of noninvasive oral vaccines, given its ability to elicit antibody production that is detectable locally in the buccal tissue and systemically via the circulation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  17. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  18. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  19. Genuine eye contact elicits self-referential processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Jonne O; Hietanen, Jari K

    2017-05-01

    The effect of eye contact on self-awareness was investigated with implicit measures based on the use of first-person singular pronouns in sentences. The measures were proposed to tap into self-referential processing, that is, information processing associated with self-awareness. In addition, participants filled in a questionnaire measuring explicit self-awareness. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was a video clip showing another person and, in Experiment 2, the stimulus was a live person. In both experiments, participants were divided into two groups and presented with the stimulus person either making eye contact or gazing downward, depending on the group assignment. During the task, the gaze stimulus was presented before each trial of the pronoun-selection task. Eye contact was found to increase the use of first-person pronouns, but only when participants were facing a real person, not when they were looking at a video of a person. No difference in self-reported self-awareness was found between the two gaze direction groups in either experiment. The results indicate that eye contact elicits self-referential processing, but the effect may be stronger, or possibly limited to, live interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When Do Morally Motivated Innovators Elicit Inspiration Instead of Irritation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Brouwer, Claire; Cornelissen, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Innovators (i.e., consumers who are the first to adopt an innovation) are pivotal for the societal diffusion of sustainable innovations. But when are innovators most influential? Recent work suggests that morally motivated innovators (i.e., consumers who adopt an innovation out of concern for the welfare of others) can make fellow consumers who have not yet adopted that innovation feel morally inadequate. As a self-defense mechanism, those fellow consumers might dismiss these innovators and their choices. As a result, ironically, morally motivated innovators might discourage others to adopt sustainable innovations. In an experimental study, we replicate this pattern, but also show that moral innovators can elicit a more positive response as well. Specifically, our results offer initial evidence that morally motivated innovators may be more inspiring than self-interested innovators, provided that their actions do not directly pose a threat to the moral self-concept of observers. In sum, our research sheds empirical light on the conditions under which innovators are likely to facilitate, rather than slow down the transition to a more sustainable society.

  1. Mechanism of phosphaturia elicited by administration of phosphonoformate in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanScoy, M.; Loghman-Adham, M.; Onsgard, M.; Szczepanska-Konkel, M.; Homma, Sumiko; Knox, F.G.; Dousa, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined whether phosphonoformate (PFA) can cause phosphaturia through its direct action on brush-border membrane (BBM) in vivo. Infusion of PFA or of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to thyroparathyroidectomized rats caused a marked increase in fractional excretion of phosphate without changes in excretion of Na + or of GFR. The PFA-induced phosphaturia was not accompanied by an increase in urinary adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP); moreover, PFA added in vitro did not influence the PTH-sensitive adenylate cyclase and cAMP-phosphodiesterase in proximal convoluted tubules. In BBM vesicles (BBMV) from rats with PFA-elicited phosphaturia, neither the rate of Na + -P i symport nor Na + -dependent binding of [ 14 C]PFA on BBMV was changed, whereas in BBMV from PTH-infused rats the V max of Na + -P i symport decreased. PFA is almost completely ultrafiltrable; no metabolic transformation of PFA was detected after [ 14 C]PFA exposure to rat renal cortical slices, homogenate, or to blood. They conclude that PFA causes phosphaturia by direct inhibition of Na + -P i symport across BBM in proximal tubules, acting from the luminal side. Thus PFA (foscarnet) has a unique direct mechanism of phosphaturic effect, via its action on P i reabsorption in proximal tubules in vivo

  2. Enhancement of β-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the β-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the β-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

  3. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v. to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom. Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity.

  4. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  5. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  6. Seeding Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?

  7. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  8. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  9. Elevated hydrostatic pressures induce apoptosis and oxidative stress through mitochondrial membrane depolarization in PC12 neuronal cells: A cell culture model of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tök, Levent; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Tök, Ozlem

    2014-10-01

    Despite the importance of oxidative stress and apoptosis through mitochondrial depolarization in neurodegenerative diseases, their roles in etiology of glaucoma are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative stress and apoptosis formation are altered in rat pheochromocytoma-derived cell line-12 (PC12) neuronal cell cultures exposed to elevated different hydrostatic pressures as a cell culture model of glaucoma. Cultured PC12 cells were subjected to 0, 15 and 70 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 1 and 24 h. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability; (b) lipid peroxidation and intracellular reactive oxygen species production; (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization; (d) cell apoptosis; (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; (f) reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The hydrostatic pressures (15 and 70 mmHg) increased oxidative cell damage through a decrease of GSH and GSH-Px values, and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, 70 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 24 h indicated highest apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis, caspase-3 and -9 values. The present data indicated oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial changes in PC12 cell line during different hydrostatic pressure as a cell culture model of glaucoma. This findings support the view that mitochondrial oxidative injury contributes early to glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

  10. Primary afferent depolarization and changes in extracellular potassium concentration induced by L-glutamate and L-proline in the isolated spinal cord of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyklický, L; Vyskocil, F; Kolaj, M; Jastreboff, P

    1982-10-08

    To test the hypothesis that L-proline acts as an antagonist on glutamate receptors [17, 18], the interaction between L-glutamate and L-proline was studied in the isolated spinal cord of the frog. Glutamate at concentrations of 10(-6) -5 x 10(-3) mol/l depolarized the primary afferent fibres and increased extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]e, by 0.3-4 mmol/l. Repeated applications lead to inactivation of the response. L-Proline at 5 x 10(-3) -10(-2) mol/l, also depolarized the primary afferents and increased [K+]e by 0.5-2 mmol/l, but there was only a slight decrease of the effects after repeated application. The effects were additive when the amino acids were applied simultaneously. The effect of L-proline was still present when it was applied during inactivation of the glutamate receptors. This suggests that L-glutamate and L-proline act on different receptors.

  11. Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation Induces Bergmann Glia Membrane Depolarization and Ca2+ Rises Mainly Mediated by K+ and ATP Increases in the Extracellular Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Helleringer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During brain ischemia, intense energy deficiency induces a complex succession of events including pump failure, acidosis and exacerbated glutamate release. In the cerebellum, glutamate is the principal mediator of Purkinje neuron anoxic depolarization during episodes of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD. Here, the impact of OGD is studied in Bergmann glia, specialized astrocytes closely associated to Purkinje neurons. Patch clamp experiments reveal that during OGD Bergmann glial cells develop a large depolarizing current that is not mediated by glutamate and purinergic receptors but is mainly due to the accumulation of K+ in the extracellular space. Furthermore, we also found that increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration appear in Bergmann glia processes several minutes following OGD. These elevations require, in an early phase, Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores via P2Y receptor activation, and, over longer periods, Ca2+ entry through store-operated calcium channels. Our results suggest that increases of K+ and ATP concentrations in the extracellular space are primordial mediators of the OGD effects on Bergmann glia. In the cerebellum, glial responses to energy deprivation-triggering events are therefore highly likely to follow largely distinct rules from those of their neuronal counterparts.

  12. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopic analysis of depolarization-induced expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret

    2007-10-17

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC- 1alpha) is a coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors that regulate several metabolic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, energy homeostasis, respiration, and gluconeogenesis. PGC-1alpha plays a vital role in stimulating genes that are important to oxidative metabolism and other mitochondrial functions in brown adipose tissue and skeleton muscles, but the significance of PGC-1alpha in the brain remains elusive. The goal of our present study was to determine by means of quantitative immuno-electron microscopy the expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons under normal conditions as well as after depolarizing stimulation for varying periods of time. Our results showed that: (a) PGC-1alpha was normally located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, PGC-1alpha was associated mainly with euchromatin rather than heterochromatin, consistent with active involvement in transcription. In the cytoplasm, it was associated mainly with free ribosomes. (b) Neuronal depolarization by KCl for 0.5 h induced a significant increase in PGC-1alpha labeling density in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Pneuronal activity by synthesizing more proteins in the cytoplasm and translocating them to the nucleus for gene activation. PGC-1alpha level in neurons is, therefore, tightly regulated by neuronal activity.

  13. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  14. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  15. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  16. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  17. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol - 2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.D.; Bernard, G.; Gimenez-Arnau, E.

    2006-01-01

    of chloroatranol relative to atranol based on testing with equimolar concentrations was 217% (95% confidence interval 116-409%). Both substances elicited reactions at very low levels of exposure. It is concluded that the differences in elicitation capacity between the 2 substances are counterbalanced by exposure...

  18. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  19. Belief Elicitation to Populate Health Economic Models of Medical Diagnostic Devices in Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Wieke; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Bojke, Laura; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Bayesian methods can be used to elicit experts’ beliefs about the clinical value of healthcare technologies. This study investigates a belief–elicitation method for estimating diagnostic performance in an early stage of development of photoacoustic mammography (PAM) imaging

  20. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  1. Entropy-optimal weight constraint elicitation with additive multi-attribute utility models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenhoef , van Gert; Tervonen, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the elicitation of incomplete preference information for the additive utility model in terms of linear constraints on the weights. Eliciting incomplete preferences using holistic pair-wise judgments is convenient for the decision maker, but selecting the best pair-wise comparison is

  2. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1989-01-01

    Expert judgment has always been used informally in the analysis of complex engineering problems. Increasingly, however, the use of expert judgment has been formalized by eliciting judgments in an explicit, documented and often quantitative way. In nuclear safety studies the need for formal elicitation of expert judgments arises because of the lack of data and experiences, the need to adapt model results to the specific circumstances of a plant, and the large uncertainties surrounding the events and quantities that characterize an accident sequence. The recognition of the need for a formal elicitation of expert judgments has led to one of the most extensive expert elicitation processes to date in the context of the NUREG 1150 study. About 30 safety issues were quantified using expert judgments about probabilities of various uncertain events and quantities, ranging from the failure of a check valve in the cooling system to the pressure built up due to hydrogen production to release fractions of various radionuclides. In total, some 1000 probability distributions were elicited from some 50 experts. This paper first motivates the use of formal expert elicitation in complex engineering studies and describes the methodology of formal expert elicitation. Subsequently, it describes the overall approach of NUREG 1150 and provides an example of the elicitation of the probability of a bypass failure in a pressurized water reactor. The paper ends by discussing some lessons learned, problems encountered and by providing some recommendations

  3. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by renal nerve stimulation, veratridine and potassium chloride in the isolated rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    el-Din, M.M.; Malik, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which renal nerve stimulation (RNS), veratridine (Vt) and KCl promote release of norepinephrine in the isolated rat kidney perfused with Tyrode's solution and prelabeled with [ 3 H]norepinephrine by examining the overflow of tritium elicited by these stimuli during 1) extracellular Ca++ depletion, 2) alterations in extracellular Na+ concentration and 3) administration of tetrodotoxin, amiloride, LiCl and calcium channel blockers. RNS (1-4 Hz), Vt (15-90 nmol) and KCl (150-500 mumol) produced renal vasoconstriction and enhanced the tritium overflow in a frequency- and concentration-dependent manner, respectively. Omission of Ca++ (1.8 mM) from the perfusion fluid abolished the renal vasoconstriction and the increase in tritium overflow elicited by RNA and KCl and substantially reduced that caused by Vt. Lowering the Na+ concentration in the perfusion medium (from 150 to 25 mM) reduced the overflow of tritium and the renal vasoconstriction caused by RNS (2 Hz) or Vt (45 nmol); the increase in tritium overflow in response to these stimuli was positively correlated with extracellular Na+ (25-150 mM). In contrast, KCl-induced tritium overflow was negatively correlated with extracellular Na+ concentration. Tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) abolished the effect of RNS and Vt, but not that of KCl, to increase overflow of tritium and to produce renal vasoconstriction. Administration of amiloride (180 microM) enhanced the overflow of tritium but attenuated the associated renal vasoconstriction produced by RNS, Vt and KCl. Replacement of NaCl (75 mM) with equimolar concentration of LiCl enhanced the overflow of tritium elicited by RNS, Vt and KCl; the associated renal vasoconstriction remained unaltered

  4. Proposal for a Five-Step Method to Elicit Expert Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duco Veen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.

  5. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  6. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  7. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  8. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  9. Video Elicitation Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003

  10. Eliciting Help Without Pity: The Effect of Changing Media Images on Perceptions of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Stuart B; Dimakos, Christina; Aslemand, Asal; Saleh, Amani; Ali-Mohammed, Saamiyah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether newer, more positive disability charity images can elicit helping behavior without producing pity. One hundred sixty-one university undergraduate students were presented with 35 older (1960-1990) and newer (1991-2010) disability charity images and completed a questionnaire about each image. Results indicate that overall, identification with depicted individuals was low; positive attitudes and perceptions of capabilities were moderate to high. Newer images led to more positive responses, but no significant difference in willingness to help. Eliciting pity through negative depictions of disability appears not to be a necessary precondition for eliciting helping behavior toward people with disabilities.

  11. A Cross-Age Study on the Understanding of Chemical Solutions and Their Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconceptions that students had about the terms "solute", "solvent" and "solution." The second was to understand how students' prior learning affected their misconceptions. The third was to determine if students were able to make a…

  12. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction...... with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control groups vs. 1 PID in alpha-PBN groups, p...... with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume...

  13. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents and dielectric properties of Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 filled HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 (MCT) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared by twin-screw extrusion followed by hot pressing technique. The thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurement was performed to analyze the contribution of charge distribution and interfacial characteristics to the dielectric loss. TSDC spectra under different polarization conditions show that the introduction of ceramic fillers engenders shallow traps in the vicinity of ceramic-polymer interface, which hinders the injection of space charge from the electrode into the polymer matrix. In the composite materials applied to an external field, charges tend to be captured by these traps. The temperature dependence of relative permittivity and dielectric loss of the composites was measured, and a strong reliance of dielectric loss on temperature was observed. In the heating process, the release of charges accumulating at interfacial region is considered to contribute to the rise in dielectric loss with the increase of temperature.

  14. Depolarization of sperm membrane potential is a common feature of men with subfertility and is associated with low fertilization rate at IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sean G; Publicover, Stephen J; Mansell, Steven A; Lishko, Polina V; Williams, Hannah L; Ramalingam, Mythili; Wilson, Stuart M; Barratt, Christopher L R; Sutton, Keith A; Da Silva, Sarah Martins

    2016-06-01

    Are significant abnormalities in outward (K(+)) conductance and resting membrane potential (Vm) present in the spermatozoa of patients undertaking IVF and ICSI and if so, what is their functional effect on fertilization success? Negligible outward conductance (≈5% of patients) or an enhanced inward conductance (≈4% of patients), both of which caused depolarization of Vm, were associated with a low rate of fertilization following IVF. Sperm-specific potassium channel knockout mice are infertile with defects in sperm function, suggesting that these channels are essential for fertility. These observations suggest that malfunction of K(+) channels in human spermatozoa might contribute significantly to the occurrence of subfertility in men. However, remarkably little is known of the nature of K(+) channels in human spermatozoa or the incidence and functional consequences of K(+) channel defects. Spermatozoa were obtained from healthy volunteer research donors and subfertile IVF and ICSI patients attending a hospital assisted reproductive techniques clinic between May 2013 and December 2015. In total, 40 IVF patients, 41 ICSI patients and 26 normozoospermic donors took part in the study. Samples were examined using electrophysiology (whole-cell patch clamping). Where abnormal electrophysiological characteristics were identified, spermatozoa were further examined for Ca(2+) influx induced by progesterone and penetration into viscous media if sufficient sample was available. Full exome sequencing was performed to specifically evaluate potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M α 1 (KCNMA1), potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily U member 1 (KCNU1) and leucine-rich repeat containing 52 (LRRC52) genes and others associated with K(+) signalling. In IVF patients, comparison with fertilization rates was done to assess the functional significance of the electrophysiological abnormalities. Patch clamp electrophysiology was used to assess outward (K

  15. Induction of necrosis and apoptosis to KB cancer cells by sanguinarine is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.-C.; Chan, C.-P.; Wang, Y.-J.; Lee, P.-H.; Chen, L.-I; Tsai, Y.-L.; Lin, B.-R.; Wang, Y.-L.; Jeng, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Sanguinarine is a benzopheanthridine alkaloid present in the root of Sanguinaria canadensis L. and Chellidonium majus L. In this study, sanguinarine (2 and 3 μM) exhibited cytotoxicity to KB cancer cells by decreasing MTT reduction to 83% and 52% of control after 24-h of exposure. Sanguinarine also inhibited the colony forming capacity (> 52-58%) and growth of KB cancer cells at concentrations higher than 0.5-1 μM. Short-term exposure to sanguinarine (> 0.5 μM) effectively suppressed the adhesion of KB cells to collagen and fibronectin (FN). Sanguinarine (2 and 3 μM) induced evident apoptosis as indicated by an increase in sub-G0/G1 populations, which was detected after 6-h of exposure. Only a slight increase in cells arresting in S-phase and G2/M was noted. Induction of KB cell apoptosis and necrosis by sanguinarine (2 and 3 μM) was further confirmed by Annexin V-PI dual staining flow cytometry and the presence of DNA fragmentation. The cytotoxicity by sanguinarine was accompanied by an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential as indicated by single cell flow cytometric analysis of DCF and rhodamine fluorescence. NAC (1 and 3 mM) and catalase (2000 U/ml) prevented the sanguinarine-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity, whereas dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed no marked preventive effect. These results suggest that sanguinarine has anticarcinogenic properties with induction of ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which mediate cancer cell death

  16. Measurement of the depolarization of the reaction 27Al(p vector,p vector.)27Al for the study of the spin-spin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeh, H.

    1981-01-01

    For the study of the spin-spin interaction in the optical potential the depolarisation in the elastic scattering of polarized protons was measured. The double-scattering experiments were performed in the angular range 40 0 -110 0 at an incident energy of 10.35 MeV at the Erlangen QD-magnetic spectrometer. The determination of the optical model parameters independent from the spin-spin potentials was performed by the fitting of these to the observables and sigmasup(di). These were obtained from a measurement of the angular distribution of the analyzing power and the differential cross section in the 4π-scattering chamber for the reaction 27 Al(p vector,p 0 ) at the same energy. The compound contributions present at this energy, which can also influence the depolarization, were regarded by the calculation of the compound-elastic non-spin-flip respectively spin-flip subcross sections by means of the formalism of Hofmann, Richert, Tepel and Weidenmueller. Because the target nucleus 27 Al possesses in the ground state a spin I=5/2, also the possible quadrupole spin flip had to be included. This was performed by coupled-channel calculations. The respecting compound contributions and quadrupole effects corrected depolarization data could by used for the study of the spin-spin potentials by means of DWBA calculations. As result it was shown that for the description of the experimental data a spherical spin-spin potential of the strength Vsub(SS)=1.5+-0.3 MeV had to be assumed. (orig.) [de

  17. Attributes Of Quality Scenarios/Scenario Sets Used In Software Requirements Elicitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines scenarios used in software requirements elicitation. Many different definitions, formats, and ideas exist on scenarios, but no thorough work has been done on what makes a good, quality scenario and scenario set...

  18. Requirements model generation to support requirements elicitation: The Secure Tropos experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyavitskaya, N.; Zannone, N.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several efforts have been devoted by researchers in the Requirements Engineering community to the development of methodologies for supporting designers during requirements elicitation, modeling, and analysis. However, these methodologies often lack tool support to facilitate their

  19. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p medulla. PMID:15212423

  20. Conditioning stimulation techniques for enhancement of transcranially elicited evoked motor responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded

  1. Eliciting Preferences of Multimorbid Elderly Adults in Family Practice Using an Outcome Prioritization Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Summeren, Jojanneke J. G. T.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Schuling, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo explore an outcome prioritization tool (OPT) in eliciting individuals' preferred health outcomes (remaining alive, maintaining independence, reducing pain, reducing other symptoms) in the context of medication review in family practice. DesignCross-sectional pilot study with

  2. A Systematic Review to Identify the Use of Preference Elicitation Methods in Healthcare Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; Janus, Sarah; van Til, Janine Astrid; Raisch, Dennis; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preference elicitation methods help to increase patient-centred medical decision making (MDM) by measuring benefit and value. Preferences can be applied in decisions regarding reimbursement, including health technology assessment (HTA); market access, including benefit–risk assessment

  3. Knowledge acquisition in ecological poduct design: the effects of computer-mediated communication and elicitation method

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, J.; Schramme, S.; Rüttinger, B.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a study that examines multiple effects of using different means of computer-mediated communication and knowledge elicitation methods during a product design process. The experimental task involved a typical scenario in product design, in which a knowledge engineer consults two experts to generate knowledge about a design issue. Employing a 3x2 between-subjects design, three conference types (face-to-face, computer, multivedia) and two knowledge elicitation methods (struc...

  4. Periodic modulation of repetitively elicited monosynaptic reflexes of the human lumbosacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Danner, Simon M.; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury, epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord at 2 Hz evokes unmodulated reflexes in the lower limbs, while stimulation at 22–60 Hz can generate rhythmic burstlike activity. Here we elaborated on an output pattern emerging at transitional stimulation frequencies with consecutively elicited reflexes alternating between large and small. We analyzed responses concomitantly elicited in thigh and leg muscle groups bilaterally by epidural...

  5. A new method for eliciting three speaking styles in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Harnsberger, James D.; Wright, Richard; Pisoni, David B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a method was developed to elicit three different speaking styles, reduced, citation, and hyperarticulated, using controlled sentence materials in a laboratory setting. In the first set of experiments, the reduced style was elicited by having twelve talkers read a sentence while carrying out a distractor task that involved recalling from short-term memory an individually-calibrated number of digits. The citation style corresponded to read speech in the laboratory. The hyperartic...

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  8. Persuasion Through Emotion? An Experimental Test of the Emotion-Eliciting Nature of Populist Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Populist parties have been extremely successful in recent years. It is often argued that their focus on emotion-eliciting appeals instead of rational arguments contributes to this success; however, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support this assumption. The objective of this article is to test whether populist appeals do indeed elicit emotions and whether this increases the persuasiveness of the appeals. An experiment was conducted (N = 580) comparing populist and nonpopulist appeal...

  9. Characterization of depolarization-coupled release of glutamate from cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells using DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) to distinguish between the vesicular and cytoplasmic pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2003-01-01

    Release of preloaded [3H]D-aspartate in response to depolarization induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was characterized using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons. Release from the vesicular and the cytoplasmic glutamate pools, respectively, wa...

  10. Eliciting explanations: Constraints on when self-explanation aids learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M

    2017-10-01

    Generating explanations for oneself in an attempt to make sense of new information (i.e., self-explanation) is often a powerful learning technique. Despite its general effectiveness, in a growing number of studies, prompting for self-explanation improved some aspects of learning, but reduced learning of other aspects. Drawing on this recent research, as well as on research comparing self-explanation under different conditions, we propose four constraints on the effectiveness of self-explanation. First, self-explanation promotes attention to particular types of information, so it is better suited to promote particular learning outcomes in particular types of domains, such as transfer in domains guided by general principles or heuristics. Second, self-explaining a variety of types of information can improve learning, but explaining one's own solution methods or choices may reduce learning under certain conditions. Third, explanation prompts focus effort on particular aspects of the to-be-learned material, potentially drawing effort away from other important information. Explanation prompts must be carefully designed to align with target learning outcomes. Fourth, prompted self-explanation often promotes learning better than unguided studying, but alternative instructional techniques may be more effective under some conditions. Attention to these constraints should optimize the effectiveness of self-explanation as an instructional technique in future research and practice.

  11. Copper-induced activation of TRP channels promotes extracellular calcium entry and activation of CaMs and CDPKs leading to copper entry and membrane depolarization in Ulva compressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify channels involved in membrane depolarization, Ulva compressa was incubated with agonists of TRP channels C5, A1 and V1 and the level of intracellular calcium was detected. Agonists of TRPC5, A1 and V1 induced increases in intracellular calcium at 4, 9 and 12 min of exposure, respectively, and antagonists of TRPC5, A1 and V1 corresponding to SKF-96365 (SKF, HC-030031 (HC and capsazepin (CPZ, respectively, inhibited calcium increases indicating that functional TRPs exist in U. compressa. In addition, copper excess induced increases in intracellular calcium at 4, 9 and 12 min which were inhibited by SKF, HC and CPZ, respectively, indicating that copper activate TRPC5, A1 and V1 channels. Moreover, copper-induced calcium increases were inhibited by EGTA, a non-permeable calcium chelating agent, but not by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium ATPase, indicating that activation of TRPs leads to extracellular calcium entry. Furthermore, copper-induced calcium increases were not inhibited by W-7, an inhibitor of CaMs, and staurosporine, an inhibitor of CDPKs, indicating that extracellular calcium entry did not require CaMs and CDPKs activation. In addition, copper induced membrane depolarization events at 4, 8 and 11 min and these events were inhibited by SKF, HC, CPZ and bathocuproine, a specific copper chelating agent, indicating copper entry through TRP channels leading to membrane depolarization. Moreover, membrane depolarization events were inhibited by W-7 and staurosporine, indicating that CaMs and CDPKs are required in order to activate TRPs to allow copper entry. Thus, light-dependent copper-induced activation TRPC5, A1 and V1 promotes extracellular calcium entry leading to activation of CaMs and CDPKs which, in turn, promotes copper entry through these TRP channels leading to membrane depolarization.

  12. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; hide

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  14. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  15. Eliciting and Defining Requirements Based on Metaevaluation: the Case of the CRAS 2008 Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Ferneda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger (MDS regularly promotes the evaluation of its social programs, such as those developed in the Reference Centers for Social Assistance (CRAS. Such evaluations make use of a web system that supports the collection and processing of information as well as the dissemination of its results to local, regional and central government officials through the so-called CRAS Census. A meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census was carried out based on criteria specified by the Joint Committee (1994, from which we elicited requirements that enabled improvements of the web system. The article reports new requirements elicited from the meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census, held in the period 2009-2010. The approach of meta-evaluation as an alternative source of requirements elicitation took into consideration results from evaluations of social programs in order to identify system problems without the usual need of intense interaction with users. This approach revealed opportunities for improvements in the evaluation process that led to the elicitation of requirements for the computerized system. Some of the elicited features were incorporated into the Census 2010 and others may be incorporated in future censuses.

  16. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  17. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  18. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  19. Good Food, Bad Food, and White Rice: Understanding Child Feeding Using Visual-Narrative Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.

  20. "I Don't Know What's Right Anymore": Engaging Distressed Interviewees Using Graphic-Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kuehne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphic-elicitation appears to be a research method that potentially has much to offer, particularly so when working with distressed and disaffected groups. It can be especially suited to presenting contentious ideas with unwelcome implications to sceptical interviewees, in this case irrigation farmers who were questioning aspects of climate change. Five images were introduced in the course of conducting in-depth personal interviews. The interviews were recorded and analysed for recurrent themes related to the images. The graphic-elicitation method allowed some participants to preserve or build their sense of optimism by viewing the graphic-elicitation images in particular ways—they saw in them what they wanted to see. Encouraged by the images some attempted to transfer their felt responsibility toward climate change responses to the government and upstream irrigators by blaming them for their low water availability. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130321

  1. Induction of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L. cells by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis F R; Ferreres, Federico; Tavares, Rui M; Dias, Alberto C P

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phenolic metabolism after elicitation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (CG) has been studied in Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) cell suspension cultures. Soluble phenolics were analysed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. HP cultures elicited with the CG elicitor showed a significant increase in xanthone accumulation. Xanthone accumulation increased twelve fold when the cells were primed with methyl-jasmonate (MeJ) or salicylic acid (SA), before elicitation. HP cultures exposed only to MeJ produced a set of flavonoids, the flavones which represent a substantial part (approx. 40%) of the total flavonoids accumulated in these cells. The possible importance of xanthones as a component of defence mechanism of HP against biotic stress is discussed.

  2. Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide; Roigard, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread......Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions...... have been claimed to have a smaller effect on hedonic scores than other attribute such as just-about-right or intensity scales. In this research, nine studies using consumers as participants examined effects on hedonic product scores when sensory attribute information was co-elicited using CATA...

  3. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridelli, M. G.; Capelletti, R.; Mora, C.

    2013-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100-300 K (type I) and 100-285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (aw = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH2/CH3, PO_{2}^{-} and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed.

  4. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridelli, M G; Capelletti, R; Mora, C

    2013-01-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100–300 K (type I) and 100–285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (a w  = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH 2 /CH 3 , PO 2 − and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed. (paper)

  5. Interface depolarization field as common denominator of fatigue and size effect in Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 ferroelectric thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouregba, R.; Sama, N.; Soyer, C.; Poullain, G.; Remiens, D.

    2010-05-01

    Dielectric, hysteresis and fatigue measurements are performed on Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 (PZT) thin film capacitors with different thicknesses and different electrode configurations, using platinum and LaNiO3 conducting oxide. The data are compared with those collected in a previous work devoted to study of size effect by R. Bouregba et al., [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044101 (2009)]. Deterioration of the ferroelectric properties, consecutive to fatigue cycling and thickness downscaling, presents very similar characteristics and allows drawing up a direct correlation between the two phenomena. Namely, interface depolarization field (Edep) resulting from interface chemistry is found to be the common denominator, fatigue phenomena is manifestation of strengthen of Edep in the course of time. Change in dielectric permittivity, in remnant and coercive values as well as in the shape of hysteresis loops are mediated by competition between degradation of dielectric properties of the interfaces and possible accumulation of interface space charge. It is proposed that presence in the band gap of trap energy levels with large time constant due to defects in small nonferroelectric regions at the electrode—PZT film interfaces ultimately governs the aging process. Size effect and aging process may be seen as two facets of the same underlying mechanism, the only difference lies in the observation time of the phenomena.

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields depolarize transmembrane potential via voltage-gated K+, Ca2+ and TRPM8 channels in U87 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Bardet, Sylvia M; Carr, Lynn; Romanenko, Sergii; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rodney P

    2017-10-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have a variety of applications in the biomedical and biotechnology industries. Cancer treatment has been at the forefront of investigations thus far as nsPEFs permeabilize cellular and intracellular membranes leading to apoptosis and necrosis. nsPEFs may also influence ion channel gating and have the potential to modulate cell physiology without poration of the membrane. This phenomenon was explored using live cell imaging and a sensitive fluorescent probe of transmembrane voltage in the human glioblastoma cell line, U87 MG, known to express a number of voltage-gated ion channels. The specific ion channels involved in the nsPEF response were screened using a membrane potential imaging approach and a combination of pharmacological antagonists and ion substitutions. It was found that a single 10ns pulsed electric field of 34kV/cm depolarizes the transmembrane potential of cells by acting on specific voltage-sensitive ion channels; namely the voltage and Ca2 + gated BK potassium channel, L- and T-type calcium channels, and the TRPM8 transient receptor potential channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soft-contact conductive carbon enabling depolarization of LiFePO4 cathodes to enhance both capacity and rate performances of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenju; Wang, Kai; Yang, Jinlong; Tan, Rui; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Duan, Yandong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Conductive nanocarbons generally are used as the electronic conductive additives to contact with active materials to generate conductive network for electrodes of commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). A typical of LiFePO4 (LFP), which has been widely used as cathode material for LIBs with low electronic conductivity, needs higher quantity of conductive nanocarbons to enhance the performance for cathode electrodes. In this work, we systematically studied three types of conductive nanocarbons and related performances in the LFP electrodes, and classify them as hard/soft-contact conductive carbon (named as H/SCC), respectively, according to their crystallite size, surface graphite-defect, specific surface area and porous structure, in which SCC can generate much larger contact area with active nano-particles of cathode materials than that of HCC. It is found that LFP nanocrystals wrapped in SCC networks perform significantly enhanced both capacity and rate performance than that in HCC. Combined experiments with multiphysics simulation, the mechanism is that LFP nanoparticles embedded in SCC with large contact area enable to generate higher depolarized effects with a relatively uniform current density vector (is) and lithium flux vector (NLi) than that in HCC. This discovery will guide us to how to design LIBs by selective using conductive carbon for high-performance LIBs.

  8. Muscular reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R

    2000-01-01

    no sign of ACL disease, thin wire electrodes were inserted into the proximal and mid parts of the ACL. Postoperatively, the sensory nerve fibers inside the ACL were stimulated electrically while motor activity in the knee muscles was recorded using electromyography. In seven of the eight patients......, a muscular contraction of the semitendinosus muscle could be elicited with stimulus trains consisting of at least two stimuli. The latency was 95 +/- 35 ms. Stimulation during isometric contraction of either extensor or flexor muscles elicited a short, complete inhibition of the muscle activity...

  9. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical sample. The results show that exposure to virtual environments provokes changes in reported craving for food. High-calorie food cues are the ones that elicit the highest increases in craving.

  10. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  11. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  12. Currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} single crystals; Toki termostimulirovannoj depolyarizatsii v monokristallakh CaIN{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagiev, B G; Tagiev, O B; Dzhabbarov, R B; Musaeva, N N [AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku (Azerbaijan). Inst. Fiziki

    1996-10-01

    The results of investigation into currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} monocrystals are presented for the first time. Spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization for In-CaIn{sub S4}-In structures are measured under T=99 K at various rates of heat, times of polarization and times of expectation following switching off of electrical field up to beginning of measurements of shorting. The main parameters of capture cross section, partial factor, concentration of traps, are determined. It is determined that one may observed a biomolecular mechanism with a strong secondary capture in CaIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} monocrystals. 9 refs.; 4 figs.

  13. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies and the possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V.G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC). It is shown that these phenomena can be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles in this range of energies. We also demonstrate that the phenomenon of particle spin depolarization in crystals provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magnetic moment of negatively-charged particles (e.g., beauty baryons), for which the channeling effect is hampered due to far more rapid dechanneling as compared to that for positively-charged particles. Channeling of particles in either straight or bent crystals with polarized nuclei could be used for polarization and the analysis thereof of high-energy particles.

  14. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so...... it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  15. Deliberative Teacher Education beyond Boundaries: Discursive Practices for Eliciting Gender Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine; Lang, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    This study uses boundary crossing in activity theory as one normative framework for opening a deliberative inquiry in new discursive spaces to elicit "gender awareness" in teachers' practices. We illustrate this framework by drawing from data in one European teacher education project. Seven case studies were conducted and data were…

  16. Eliciting ethical and social values in health technology assessment: A participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Despite a growing consensus that ethical and social values should be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA) processes, there exist a variety of methods for doing so. There is growing interest in involving citizens in policy development to ensure that decisions are legitimate, and reflect the broad social values of the public. We sought to bring these issues together by employing a participatory approach to elicit ethical and social values in HTA. Our primary objective was to elicit a set of ethical and social values from citizens that could be used to guide Ontario's HTA evidentiary review and appraisal process. A secondary objective was to explore the feasibility of using participatory approaches to elicit these values. A 14-person Citizens' Reference Panel on Health Technologies was established to provide input to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee in developing its recommendations. A mixed methods approach was used where informed, deliberative discussions were combined with pre- and post-questionnaires, which assessed the relative importance of various ethical and social values as well as their stability over time. Over the course of five meetings, panel members progressed toward the identification of a set of core values -universal access, choice and quality care. These values were consistently prioritized as the core values that should be considered in the evaluation of health technologies and ensuing recommendations. Sustained and deliberative methods, like a citizens' panel, offer a promising approach for eliciting ethical and social values into HTA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Collage Life Story Elicitation Technique: A Representational Technique for Scaffolding Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise in narrative therapy and inquiry is that life story telling is a mechanism by which experiences are rendered meaningful within some form of structure. However, narrative inquiry has to take cognisance of difficulties ensuing from discursive practices for different populations when eliciting their life stories. In this article I…

  18. Lexical Difficulty--Using Elicited Imitation to Study Child L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a post-hoc analysis of the influence of lexical difficulty of cue sentences on performance in an elicited imitation (EI) task to assess oral production skills for 645 child L2 English learners in instructional settings. This formed part of a large-scale investigation into effectiveness of foreign language teaching in Polish…

  19. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  20. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of Participant-Driven-Photo-Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-01-01

    A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines this ...

  1. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of the security of their IT assets. This is especially challenging in the presence of limited budgets and conflicting requirements. Here, we present Risk-Based Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (RiskREP), a method for managing IT security

  2. A framework for characterizing usability requirements elicitation and analysis methodologies (UREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Mannaert, H.

    2012-01-01

    Dedicated methodologies for the elicitation and analysis of usability requirements have been proposed in literature, usually developed by usability experts. The usability of these approaches by non-expert software engineers is not obvious. In this paper, the objective is to support developers and

  3. Scenario-based Requirements Elicitation in a Pain-teletreatment Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Shishkov, Boris; Cordeiro, J.; Ranchordas, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to elicit requirements in the domain of eHealth, in particular telemedicine treatment, that is in alignment with the evidence based working practice in medicine. In collaboration with ICT developers, medical professionals co-shape the intended system, which has to support

  4. Improving the Communication Skills of IS Developers during Requirements Elicitation Using Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurban, Mustafa H.; Austria, Richmond D.

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of communication skills among Information Systems (IS) developers can be considered as a strategy to mitigate the risk of project failure during IS design. This paper addresses issues on various communication barriers normally encountered during its requirements elicitation (RE) stage. This study aims to adopt experiential learning…

  5. A Framework for Requirement Elicitation, Analysis, Documentation and Prioritisation under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Mladenov, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a pluralistic framework for coping with requirements in the early phases of design where there is lack of knowledge about a system, its architect and functions. The framework is used to elicit, analyze, document and prioritize the requirements. It embeds probabilistic approach and

  6. Elicited Bid Functions in a (a)Symmetric First-Price Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezanis-Christou, P.; Sadrieh, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments that examine bidding behavior in first-price sealed bid auctions with symmetric and asymmetric bidders.To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the

  7. Students' Affordance of Teleologic Explanations and Anthropomorphic Language in Eliciting Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study ascertains that the students' affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics is influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students' affordance of…

  8. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  9. Understanding the effect of adaptive preference elicitation methods on user satisfaction of a recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, B.P.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In a recommender system that suggests options based on user attribute weights, the method of preference elicitation (PE) employed by a recommender system can influence users' satisfaction with the system, as well as the perceived usefulness and the understandability of the system. Specifically, we

  10. The effect of preference elicitation methods on the user experience of a recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, B.P.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    To increase the user experience, preference elicitation methods used by recommender systems can be adapted to individual differences such as the level of expertise. However, we will show that the satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a recommender system also depends strongly on subtle variations

  11. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  12. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  13. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  14. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  15. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in leather and elicitation of eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Menne, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the content of Cr(VI) and soluble Cr(III) in leather and the ability of the leather to elicit eczema in chromium allergic patients. An array of chromium-tanned leather samples was analysed for the content of total Cr(VI) and sol...

  16. Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

  17. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Narasimhan, S.; Daffre, S.; Deponte, K.; Hovius, J.W.R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Bakhtiari, K.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Boder, E.T.; van Dam, A.P.; Fikrig, E.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary

  18. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  19. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  20. Motivating and achievement-eliciting pop-ups in online environments: A user experience perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Zondervan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop pop-up windows that motivate users and evoke a positive user experience. Several variants of achievement eliciting pop-ups were designed and tested on a real business-website. A pre-test examined the effectiveness of 24 combinations of pictures and

  1. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  2. Differences between Spontaneous and Elicited Expressive Communication in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between spontaneous and elicited expressive communication in Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who were nonverbal or had limited speech. Thirty-four children with autism (17 Australian and 17 Taiwanese children) participated in this study. Each participant was observed for 2…

  3. Promoting Parent and Child Physical Activity Together: Elicitation of Potential Intervention Targets and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lim, Clarise

    2018-01-01

    Promoting physical activities that involve both parents and their children would be very useful to the improved health and well-being of families, yet coactivity interventions have been particularly unsuccessful in past research. The purpose of this study was to elicit the salient parental beliefs about coactivity framed through theory of planned…

  4. Explaining Distortions in Utility Elicitation through the Rank-Dependent Model for Risky Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); A.M. Stiggelbout (Anne)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe standard gamble (SG) method has been accepted as the gold standard for the elicitation of utility when risk or uncertainty is involved in decisions, and thus for the measurement of utility in medical decisions. Unfortunately, the SG method is distorted by a general dislike for

  5. Grounded in the landscape: Eliciting farmers' understanding of soil and soil fertility, Mali (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to develop convincing messages and sustainable interventions, it is necessary to understand how farmers themselves perceive soil conditions and how these perceptions influence their soil management and land use decisions. This brief illustrates an ethno-scientific methodology for eliciting farmers' conceptualization of soil and soil fertility.

  6. Infection-derived lipids elicit a novel immune deficiency circuitry in arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumor necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties elicit the IMD signaling cascade remains unknown. Here, we disclose thoug...

  7. Pursenality : A photo-ethnographic method for self-elicitation and co-creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.W.; Mulder, I.J.; Best, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    The current work introduces pursenality, a photoethnographic method for self-elicitation and cocreation, which elaborates upon current photography methods used in (design) ethnography. In total 91 bachelor students in the 6th semester participated in a purse diary study and used the pursenality

  8. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  9. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...

  10. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A

    1998-01-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15 subj...

  11. Elicitation Techniques: Getting People to Talk about Ideas They Don't Usually Talk About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. These tasks are particularly useful for exploring topics that may be difficult to discuss in formal interviews, such as those that involve sensitive issues or rely on tacit knowledge. Elicitation…

  12. N-acetylcysteine manipulation fails to elicit an increase in glutathione in a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2018-01-01

    and vegetable shortening, at two different concentrations (100 and 400 mg/kg), with the appropriate controls and shams, under controlled laboratory settings. We found that NAC failed to elicit an increase in GSH over three time periods and concluded that NAC is not an effective method to enhance GSH levels...

  13. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  14. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gyte.edu.tr; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan); Kargın, Elif Orhan [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov ave. 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus)

    2015-06-14

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS{sub 2} (TlInS{sub 2}:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS{sub 2}:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS{sub 2}:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS{sub 2}:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS{sub 2}:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles

  15. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS2 layered semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS 2 (TlInS 2 :La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS 2 :La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS 2 :La. Thermal treatments of TlInS 2 :La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10 −14 cm 2 , corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS 2 :La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10 −16 cm 2 were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles, which are originated from the charged B5

  16. Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

  17. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Multiple scattering effects on the Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR) measured during CaPE by a Ka-band air-borne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshio; Meneghini, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Air-borne radar measurements of thunderstorms were made as part of the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification) experiment in Florida in July 1991. The radar has two channels, X-band (10 GHz) and Ka-band (34.5 GHz), and is capable of measuring cross-polarized returns as well as co-polarized returns. In stratiform rain, the cross-polarized components can be observed only at the bright band region and from the surface reflection. The linear depolarization ratios (LDR's) measured at X-band and Ka-band at the bright band are nearly equal. In convective rain, however, the LDR in Ka-band often exceeds the X-band LDR by several dB, and sometimes by more than 10 dB, reaching LDR values of up to -5 dB over heavy convective rain. For randomly oriented hydrometeors, such high LDR values cannot be explained by single scattering from non-spherical scattering particles alone. Because the LDR by single backscatter depends weakly on the wavelength, the difference between the Ka-band and X-band LDR's suggests that multiple scattering effects prevail in the Ka-band LDR. In order to test this inference, the magnitude of the cross-polarized component created by double scattering was calculated using the parameters of the airborne radar, which for both frequencies has beamwidths of 5.1 degrees and pulse widths of 0.5 microsecond. Uniform rain beyond the range of 3 km is assumed.

  19. Membrane depolarization-induced RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activation and sustained contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Hayato; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Shoji, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K+-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431–40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K+-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K+-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 µM). Genistein (10 µM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca2+ transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 µM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 µM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K+ stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K+ stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K+ stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ∼55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K+. Ca2+ sensitization, myosin light chain phosphatase, RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase PMID:24133693

  20. Influence of the vehicle on elicitation of contact allergic reactions to acrylic compounds in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkner, B; Niklasson, B

    1984-11-01

    Many factors can influence the elicitation of hypersensitivity reactions in guinea pigs and humans. The effect which the vehicle might have on the test response in guinea pigs sensitized with various acrylic compounds, using the "guinea pig maximization test", has been investigated. A marked decrease in the number of positive animals was seen when acetone was used as test vehicle, compared to petrolatum. The same result was seen with alcohol as vehicle, when neopentyl glycol diacrylate (NPGDA) was used as an acrylic monomer model. The patch test locations on the guinea pig flank, also affected the test response. Half of the animals did not react when challenged near the abdomen, compared to a test site near the back. By means of HPLC-analysis, the possible adsorption of the acrylic monomer to the aluminium chamber or filter paper disc, was analysed. Our findings did not indicate that adsorption occurs. A decrease in the amount of acrylic monomer in the chamber with increasing time, was noted. There was a marked difference in the monomer residue between solutions with (darkness) and without (daylight) inhibitor. The monomer decrease was also more affected by an aluminium surface than a glass or filter paper surface. Aluminium oxide probably enhances the polymerization process. The discrepancy between the test results in this study, when petrolatum and acetone were used as test vehicles, is due to a polymerization process of the acrylic compounds. Thus, the petrolatum vehicle probably prevents polymerization of the acrylic monomer.

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  2. Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was unequivocally identified as asthmagens in BN-rats. • The elicitation response on BAL-PMN was threshold-dose dependent. • The elicitation of asthma-like responses follow a concentration × time-relationship. • The human-equivalent dose–response was duplicated in rats. • The derived occupational exposure level (OEL) matches current standards. - Abstract: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration × time (C × t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C × t; one used a variable C (C var ) and constant t (t const ), the other a constant C (C const ) and variable t (t var ). The selection of the ''minimal irritant'' C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The C const × t var regimen yielded the most conclusive dose–response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold

  3. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Modelling Processes through Engagement with Model Eliciting Activities with a Technological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh M.; Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh

    2015-01-01

    Engaging mathematics students with modelling activities helps them learn mathematics meaningfully. This engagement, in the case of model eliciting activities, helps the students elicit mathematical models by interpreting real-world situation in mathematical ways. This is especially true when the students utilize technology to build the models.…

  5. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited sign...82. Epub 2003 Jul 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-media...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  6. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  7. Kerr generalized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs

  8. Photo elicitation interviews as a way of accessing primary school students' attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine Karen; Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    explores the potential of photo-elicitation interviews as a qualitative path to affect. This particular type of interview is shaped as conversations about self-produced images of mathematics. When conducting the photo elicitation interviews, researchers also introduce their own photographs......The identification of the right prompts, to which young children can respond easily, is a challenge to researchers, even more so when it comes to studies of affect (McDonough and Sullivan, 2014). Attempting to capture 3rd grade students’ verbalized perspectives on mathematics, this study also...... into the interview context, along with the photographs of the child's experiences. Both serve as the basis for a child-directed interview (Clark, 1999)....

  9. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  10. A Comparison of Active and Passive Virtual Reality Exposure Scenarios to Elicit Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.

  11. Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

  12. Eliciting change in at-risk elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.

  13. Elicitation and use of expert judgment in performance assessment for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Hora, S.C.; Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents the concept of formalizing the elicitation and use of expert judgment in the performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories in deep geologic formations. The report begins with a discussion of characteristics (advantages and disadvantages) of formalizing expert judgment examples of previous uses of expert judgment in radioactive waste programs, criteria that can assist in deciding when to formalize expert judgment, and the relationship of formal use of expert judgment to data collection and modeling. The current state of the art with respect to the elicitation, use, and communication of formal expert judgment is presented. The report concludes with a discussion on potential applications of formal expert judgment in performance assessment of HLW repositories. 93 refs

  14. No association between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene polymorphisms and experimentally elicited social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coren L Apicella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684. Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and behavior in either of the games. CONCLUSION: We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant.

  15. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  16. Radiochromic liquid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Culp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A radiochromic solution which is sensitive to small dosages of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation is described. It consists of a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent with enough organic acid added to make the solution at least slightly acidic and responds to radiation by permanently changing color. Up to one half of the solution by weight can be replaced by a second solution of an aromatic solvent and an organic fluor. Another modification of the invention is a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent having an aromatic group, an organic fluor, and enough organic acid to make the solution at least slightly acidic. (author)

  17. Drug-elicited systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis - update and possible pathomechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    . A heterogeneous clinical picture, in combination with limited insight to its pathomechanisms, makes such systemic reactions an area in need of further study. This article summarizes knowledge about systemic dermatitis elicited by drugs, with a special emphasis on possible pathomechanisms. A list of putative...... be misleading because skin contact is not a prerequisite, we suggest that the term 'systemic allergic dermatitis' should be used in the future Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  18. Registered report: Tumour micro-environment elicits innate resistance to RAF inhibitors through HGF secretion

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: David Blum, Samuel LaBarge, The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology†* ### Abstract The [Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology](https://osf.io/e81xl/wiki/home/) seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from “Tumour micro-environment elicits innate res...

  19. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Marta (Ferrer García); Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Pla Sanjuanelo, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical samp...

  20. Using task analysis to improve the requirements elicitation in health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of task analysis within the design process of a Web-based information system for managing clinical information in hemophilia care, in order to improve the requirements elicitation and, consequently, to validate the domain model obtained in a previous phase of the design process (system analysis). The use of task analysis in this case proved to be a practical and efficient way to improve the requirements engineering process by involving users in the design process.