WorldWideScience

Sample records for solution spray release

  1. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  2. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  3. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  4. Spray drying of silica microparticles for sustained release application with a new sol-gel precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-30

    A new precursor, tetrakis(2-methoxyethyl) orthosilicate (TMEOS) was used to fabricate microparticles for sustained release application, specifically for biopharmaceuticals, by spray drying. The advantages of TMEOS over the currently applied precursors are its water solubility and hydrolysis at moderate pH without the need of organic solvents or catalyzers. Thus a detrimental effect on biomolecular drug is avoided. By generating spray-dried silica particles encapsulating the high molecular weight model compound FITC-dextran 150 via the nano spray dryer Büchi-90, we demonstrated how formulation parameters affect and enable control of drug release properties. The implemented strategies to regulate release included incorporating different quantities of dextrans with varying molecular weight as well as adjusting the pH of the precursor solution to modify the internal microstructures. The addition of dextran significantly altered the released amount, while the release became faster with increasing dextran molecular weight. A sustained release over 35days could be achieved with addition of 60 kD dextran. The rate of FITC-Dextran 150 release from the dextran 60 containing particles decreased with higher precursor solution pH. In conclusion, the new precursor TMEOS presents a promising alternative sol-gel technology based carrier material for sustained release application of high molecular weight biopharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  6. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  7. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  8. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  9. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping, although this is an event of extremely low probability. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21 mole percent oxygen with humidity. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabatic pressure rise which peaks in several seconds. This analytical tool has indicated reasonable agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen and water vapor concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  10. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-10-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21% oxygen. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabtic pressure pulse peaking in a matter of seconds. This analytical tool has indicated good agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  11. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2014-01-23

    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen evolution from aluminium in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.-B.

    1982-01-01

    Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to conditions similar to BWR and PWR containment spray waters at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. BWR deionized water gives corrosion rates of at most 0.05 mm/year and hydrogen concentrations less than 0.1-1%. On the contrary PWR alkaline solutions give very high corrosion rates and hydrogen contents. (Auth.)

  13. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  14. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-07

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  15. Online characterization of nano-aerosols released by commercial spray products using SMPS–ICPMS coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losert, Sabrina; Hess, Adrian [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry (Switzerland); Ilari, Gabriele [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Electron Microscopy Center (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie von, E-mail: natalie.von.goetz@chem.ethz.ch; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [ETH Zürich Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticle-containing sprays are a critical class of consumer products, since human exposure may occur by inhalation of nanoparticles (NP) in the generated aerosols. In this work, the suspension and the released aerosol of six different commercially available consumer spray products were analyzed. Next to a broad spectrum of analytical methods for the characterization of the suspension, a standardized setup for the analysis of aerosol has been used. In addition, a new online coupling technique (SMPS–ICPMS) for the simultaneous analysis of particle size and elemental composition of aerosol particles has been applied. Results obtained with this new method were confirmed by other well-established techniques. Comparison of particles in the original suspensions and in the generated aerosol showed that during spraying single particles of size less than 20 nm had been formed, even though in none of the suspensions particles of size less than 280 nm were present (Aerosol size range scanned: 7–300 nm). Both pump sprays and propellant gas sprays were analyzed and both released particles in the nm size range. Also, both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays released NP. However, a trend was observed that spraying an aqueous suspension contained in a pump spray dispenser after drying resulted in bigger agglomerates than spraying organic suspensions in propellant gas dispensers.

  16. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  17. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 150 0 C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  18. Modulating protein release profiles by incorporating hyaluronic acid into PLGA microparticles Via a spray dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint

    2014-01-01

    with or without HA were prepared using a spray dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle. The effects of HA on the surface tension and the rheological behavior of the inner feed solution were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the resulting microparticles were characterized using scanning electron......: The present work demonstrates the potential of HA to modulate protein release profile from PLGA microparticle formulations produced via spray drying using 3-fluid nozzle....

  19. Experimental Assessment of Water Sprays Utilization for Controlling Hydrogen Sulfide Releases in Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported the utilization of water spray for controlling H2S release in a confined space, which is especially important in industry. A typical spray tower was modified to simulate the confined space for people's enterable routine operation (e.g., pump room, in which the dilution capacity of water sprays can also be evaluated. This work consists of two parts: the first part focuses on the influences of different operating conditions on chemical dilution capacities of water sprays in mechanisms; the second one is comparison between two nozzle configurations for evaluating their feasibilities of practical application. Water sprays express eligible performance for H2S release control even though their dilution capacity was weakened at high gaseous concentrations and rates of releases. The presence of Na2CO3 can significantly improve absorption effectiveness of H2S in water and the optimal Na2CO3 additive was found to be 1.0 g·L−1 in this test. Compared with Na2CO3, adjusting water flow rate may be an effective strategy in enhancing dilution capacity of water sprays due to the fact that larger flow rate led to both less dilution time (TD and dilution concentration (CD. Furthermore, multinozzle configuration is more efficient than single-nozzle configuration under the same water consumption.

  20. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  2. Aerial spraying to capture released radioactivity from NPP in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younus, Irfan; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Medard, Thiphaine [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The proposed strategy in this paper is the use of aqueous spray (water/foam) mixed with suitable chemical additives to capture, dissolve and stabilize the radioactive gases and aerosol particles released from leaked reactor containment and auxiliary building. The spray system can be approached to the leaked reactor building through the use of a truck with high rising cranes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, such as helicopters), aerostats, or by installing fixed piping structure around the containment building depending on the accident situation. Laboratory-scale experimental system was setup to examine the performance of such systems. The alkaline water (aqueous NaOH.Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and foam-based spray material (sodium lauryl sulphate) were used to examine capture efficiency of gaseous iodine and aerosol particles. The gaseous iodine and aerosol removal efficiency of foam-based spray is higher when compared with alkaline water-based spray. 2. The nozzle producing full cone spray provides the better removal efficiency than nozzle producing hollow cone spray patterns.

  3. Aerial spraying to capture released radioactivity from NPP in a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Irfan; Yim, Man Sung; Medard, Thiphaine

    2016-01-01

    The proposed strategy in this paper is the use of aqueous spray (water/foam) mixed with suitable chemical additives to capture, dissolve and stabilize the radioactive gases and aerosol particles released from leaked reactor containment and auxiliary building. The spray system can be approached to the leaked reactor building through the use of a truck with high rising cranes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, such as helicopters), aerostats, or by installing fixed piping structure around the containment building depending on the accident situation. Laboratory-scale experimental system was setup to examine the performance of such systems. The alkaline water (aqueous NaOH.Na_2S_2O_3) and foam-based spray material (sodium lauryl sulphate) were used to examine capture efficiency of gaseous iodine and aerosol particles. The gaseous iodine and aerosol removal efficiency of foam-based spray is higher when compared with alkaline water-based spray. 2. The nozzle producing full cone spray provides the better removal efficiency than nozzle producing hollow cone spray patterns.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Dousing Spray Trip on Radioactive Release in Pressure Tube Rupture Accident with Both End Fitting Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We analyzed the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip conditions on radioactive release. In terms of conservativeness, the set 1 trip would be more appropriate in RR analysis than set 2 trip, which is the general condition of RR analysis. Radioactive releases from the containment building is related to containment air pressure, which increases by the coolant discharge from loss of coolant accident and the actuation conditions of dousing spray and so on. In LOCA analysis, the dousing spray trip conditions are set for the analysis objectives; for peak pressure (PP), for pressure signal (PS), for radioactive release (RR) and etc. In RR analysis, we would determine the dousing spray trip condition to increase radioactive release to the public for conservatism. Therefore, we carried out the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip condition on radioactive release from containment building using GOTHIC and SMART program for CANDU.

  5. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagendorfer, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Hagendorfer@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Lorenz, Christiane, E-mail: Christiane.Lorenz@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: Ralf.Kaegi@eawag.ch; Sinnet, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Sinnet@eawag.c [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Switzerland); Gehrig, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Gehrig@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie V., E-mail: Natalie.vonGoetz@chem.ethz.ch; Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Scheringer@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Ludwig, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Ludwig@psi.c [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institue (Switzerland); Ulrich, Andrea, E-mail: Andrea.Ulrich@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  6. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  7. Modulating drug release from gastric-floating microcapsules through spray-coating layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li Lee

    Full Text Available Floating dosage forms with prolonged gastric residence time have garnered much interest in the field of oral delivery. However, studies had shown that slow and incomplete release of hydrophobic drugs during gastric residence period would reduce drug absorption and cause drug wastage. Herein, a spray-coated floating microcapsule system was developed to encapsulate fenofibrate and piroxicam, as model hydrophobic drugs, into the coating layers with the aim of enhancing and tuning drug release rates. Incorporating fenofibrate into rubbery poly(caprolactone (PCL coating layer resulted in a complete and sustained release for up to 8 h, with outermost non-drug-holding PCL coating layer serving as a rate-controlling membrane. To realize a multidrug-loaded system, both hydrophilic metformin HCl and hydrophobic fenofibrate were simultaneously incorporated into these spray-coated microcapsules, with metformin HCl and fenofibrate localized within the hollow cavity of the capsule and coating layer, respectively. Both drugs were observed to be completely released from these coated microcapsules in a sustained manner. Through specific tailoring of coating polymers and their configurations, piroxicam loaded in both the outer polyethylene glycol and inner PCL coating layers was released in a double-profile manner (i.e. an immediate burst release as the loading dose, followed by a sustained release as the maintenance dose. The fabricated microcapsules exhibited excellent buoyancy in simulated gastric fluid, and provided controlled and sustained release, thus revealing its potential as a rate-controlled oral drug delivery system.

  8. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  9. Microencapsulation of Bioactive Principles with an Airless Spray-Gun Suitable for Processing High Viscous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Cocchietto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs. Methods: the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle’s dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L and the range of practicable feed solution (FS viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. Results: according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. Conclusions: the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs

  10. Microencapsulation of bioactive principles with an airless spray-gun suitable for processing high viscous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchietto, Moreno; Blasi, Paolo; Lapasin, Romano; Moro, Chiara; Gallo, Davide; Sava, Gianni

    2013-11-19

    to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs). the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzle's dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release. according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications. the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery.

  11. Effect for Recovery of the Containment Spray System to the Release of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the perspective of the amount of Cs-137, the mass of Cs-137 correspondent with the 100TBq is calculated as 32g. However, during the severe accident, if the containment has been failed, it is generally expected that the mass of Cs-137 released to the environment is more than 1kg for most accident sequences So, the review and improvement of the PSA model in order to reduce containment failure frequency should be needed. Actually, the current PSA model is known to be constructed by the conservative assumptions, especially in the view point of Level 2 PSA model. Therefore, it is necessary to find this conservatism and to improve the Model using the reasonable assumptions. All of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years and this Accident Management Plan should have to meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs-137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. The containment spray system is the only facility that mitigates the containment over-pressurization in the operating nuclear power plants, such as Westinghouse type or OPR1000 type. In this study, the effects of the containment spray system recovery on the amount of Cesium released to the environment were analyzed. If the recovery of the containment spray system can be applied to the PSA model, it is expected that the containment failure frequency and also the amount of cesium released to the environment can be greatly reduced.

  12. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SUGURO, Atsushi; ISHIDA, Yuki; KAWAMURA, Akinobu; TAMURA, Miho; SATOH, Keisuke; TSUJIMURA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Tomomi; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  13. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Kawamura, Akinobu; Tamura, Miho; Satoh, Keisuke; Tsujimura, Misato; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level.

  14. Current Progress in Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying of Cermets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romnick Unabia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic and metal composites, known also as cermets, may considerably improve many material properties with regards to that of initial components. Hence, cermets are frequently applied in many technological fields. Among many processes which can be employed for cermet manufacturing, thermal spraying is one of the most frequently used. Conventional plasma spraying of powders is a popular and cost-effective manufacturing process. One of its most recent innovations, called solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS, is an emerging coating deposition method which uses homogeneously mixed solution precursors as a feedstock. The technique enables a single-step deposition avoiding the powder preparation procedures. The nanostructured coatings developed by SPPS increasingly find a place in the field of surface engineering. The present review shows the recent progress in the fabrication of cermets using SPPS. The influence of starting solution precursors, such as their chemistry, concentration, and solvents used, to the micro-structural characteristics of cermet coatings is discussed. The effect of the operational plasma spray process parameters such as solution injection mode to the deposition process and coatings’ microstructure is also presented. Moreover, the advantages of the SPPS process and its drawbacks compared to the conventional powder plasma spraying process are discussed. Finally, some applications of SPPS cermet coatings are presented to understand the potential of the process.

  15. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-01-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  16. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Mansouri, Shahnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); May, Bee K [School of Applied Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Chen, Xiaodong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University (China); Chen, Hui, E-mail: leather2088@sina.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Woo, Meng Wai, E-mail: meng.woo@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  17. Spray coating of microcontainers with eudragit using ferromagnetic shadow masks for controlled oral release of poorly water soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    (weak acid). The cavity of the drug-filled microcontainers were spray coated with a 2 wt% solution of either Eudragit S-100 (soluble below pH 5) or Eudragit L-100 (soluble above pH 6) in isopropanol. The spray coating process was performed using ferromagnetic shadow masks (380 μm) allowing for magnetic...... clamping to the substrate and therefore precise deposition of the polymer on the microcontainers to form a lid. The release of cinnarizine and amorphous furosemide salt from the coated microcontainers was performed in fasted biorelevant gastric (pH 1.6) and intestinal media (pH 6.5), respectively. RESULTS......: By use of the ferromagnetic shadow masks it was possible to deposit the Eudragit precisely and therefore possible to form a lid of the cavity of the microcontainers. The thickness of the Eudragit layer on the cavity of the microcontainers was approximately 8-10 μm for both types of Eudragit...

  18. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326°C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microencapsulation of Corn Wastewater (Nejayote) Phytochemicals by Spray Drying and Their Release Under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela-Castrejón, Javier; Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    Corn lime cooking generates a large amount of wastewater known as nejayote that is composed of suspended solids and solubilized phytochemicals. Spray drying can be an alternative to recover bioactive molecules, such as ferulic acid, from nejayote. Besides the yield, the physicochemical properties (solubility, water activity, pH, moisture, hygroscopicity, total phenolic content, and distribution of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids) of spray-dried nejayote powders were analyzed. The powders were obtained at 200 °C/100 °C or 150 °C/75 °C (inlet/outlet) air temperatures with the addition of maltodextrin (MD) or 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBCD) as encapsulating agents. Even when no carrier agent was used, a spray-dried nejayote powder was produced. The use of MD or HBCD as carrier increased the yield from 60.26% to 68.09% or 71.83%, respectively. As expected, a high inlet temperature (200 °C) allowed a satisfactory yield (>70%) and a low powder moisture (2.5%) desired by the industry. Water activity was reduced from 0.586 to 0.307 when HBCD was used in combination with a drying inlet temperature of 150 °C; and from 0.488 to 0.280 when the inlet temperature was set at 200 °C. Around 100% bioaccessibility of the compounds was observed after in vitro digestion. The addition of HBCD increased the release time (P spray drying technology to the corn industry to minimize their residues and reuse their by-products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  1. Spatio-temporal droplet size statistics in developing spray of starchy solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-07-01

    In the given research, the spray jet breakup of a modified starch solution was studied as a function of jet injection time and nozzle orifice diameter. The starch-urea-borax solution was prepared and tested with three axisymmetric full cone nozzles at service temperature of 80°C and the injection pressure of 5 bar. It is worth mentioning that no jet breakup was seen below these temperature and pressure values. The imaging studies on the time based spray evolution revealed monotonic increase in both; spray cone angle and tip penetration with an increase in injection time form 0-300 mm. Hereinafter, both parameters exhibited constants value over injection time. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of the droplet size revealed significant decrease in the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) along the spray centerline. However, a steady decrease in SMD was seen towards the spray boundary. For fixed injection time of 300 ms, the overall SMD was decreased from 112 to 71 µm at 60 mm downstream, from 102 to 64 µm at 100 mm downstream and from 85 to 61 µm at 140 mm downstream with an increase in orifice diameter from 1.19 to 1.59 mm.

  2. Investigation of factors affecting the stability of lysozyme spray dried from ethanol-water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    -ethanol mixtures. The effect of formulation additives (trehalose, Tween 20 and phosphate-buffered saline) and processing conditions (inlet temperature and storage time of lysozyme in the feed solution before the spray drying process) on the protein bioactivity was investigated. The results showed...

  3. Spray drying of poorly soluble drugs from aqueous arginine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojarinta, Rami; Lerminiaux, Louise; Laitinen, Riikka

    2017-10-30

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid mixtures have shown potential for improving the solid-state stability and dissolution behavior of amorphous drugs. In previous studies, however these mixtures have been produced mainly with small-scale preparation methods, or with methods that have required the use of organic solvents or other dissolution enhancers. In the present study, co-amorphous ibuprofen-arginine and indomethacin-arginine mixtures were spray dried from water. The mixtures were prepared at two drug-arginine molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2). The properties of the prepared mixtures were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and a 24h, non-sink, dissolution study. All mixtures exhibited a single glass transition temperature (T g ), evidence of the formation of homogenous single-phase systems. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed strong interactions (mainly salt formation) that account for the positive deviation between measured and estimated T g values. No crystallization was observed during a 1-year stability study in either 1:1 or 1:2 mixtures, but in the presence of moisture, handling difficulties were encountered. The formation of co-amorphous salts led to improved dissolution characteristics when compared to the corresponding physical mixtures or to pure crystalline drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  5. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes; Motta, Mariana Heldt; Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  6. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  7. Influence of pH of spray solution on optoelectronic properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodlur, R. M.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by the conventional spray pyrolysis technique. The pH of the spray solution is varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid. The effect of pH on the morphology, crystallinity and optoelectronic properties of these films is studied. The structural analysis showed all the films in the cubic phase. For the films with pH < 7 (acidic condition), the preferred orientation is along the (111) direction and for those with pH >7 (alkaline condition), the preferred orientation is along the (200) direction. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10 −4 Ω·cm (with carrier concentration = 5.1 × 10 20 cm −3 , mobility = 12.4 cm 2 /(V·s)) is observed for pH ≈ 12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70%. Thus, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of the spray solution without compromising the optical transparency. (paper)

  8. Effect of precursor solutions on ZnO film via solution precursor plasma spray and corresponding gas sensing performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. X.; Ma, Y. Z.; Zhao, Y. L.; Huang, J. B.; Wang, W. Z.; Moliere, M.; Liao, H. L.

    2017-08-01

    Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) as a novel thermal spray method was employed to deposit nano-structured ZnO thin film using different formulations of the precursor solution. This article focuses on the influence of the solution composition on the preferential orientation of crystal growth, on crystal size and surface morphology of the resulting ZnO films. The trend of preferential growth along (002) lattice plane of ZnO film was studied by slow scanning X-ray diffraction using a specific coefficient P(002). It appears that the thermal spray process promotes the buildup of ZnO films preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The shape of single particle tends to change from round shaped beads to hexagonal plates by increasing the volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent. Both cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies featuring high specific surface area and roughness were obtained through the SPPS process by varying solution composition. These ZnO films are hydrophobic with contact angle as high as 136°, which is seemingly associated with micro reliefs developing high surface specific area. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO films preferentially oriented along (002) face were tentatively predicted using the "first principle calculation method" and were compared with those of conventional films that are mainly oriented along the (101) face. The (002) face displays better hydrogen adsorption capability than the (101) face with much larger resulting changes in electrical resistance. In conclusion, the c-axis oriented ZnO films obtained through SSPS have favorable performances to be used as sensitive layer in gas sensing applications.

  9. Effect of spray-drying with organic solvents on the encapsulation, release and stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encina, Cristian; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Holgado, Francisca; Giménez, Begoña; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2018-10-15

    Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention. FO release profile in aqueous model was similar for all FO-microparticles, releasing only the surface FO, according to Higuchi model. Oxidative stability of FO significantly improved by spray-drying with MeOH, both in surface and encapsulated oil fractions. In conclusion, encapsulation of FO by solvent spray-drying can be proposed as an alternative technology for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Swelling behavior of γ-ray irradiated elastomers in boiling spray solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Toshiaki; Kusama, Yasuo; Ito, Masayuki; Okada, Sohei; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Yoshida, Kenzo

    1983-05-01

    Elastomers swelled significantly by water sorption during a simulated LOCA test, and this phenomenon could cause the deterioration of their mechanical and electrical properties. Many factors like as radiation, heat, the composition of spray solution, types of elastomers and their formulation, related to the phenomenon. A relationship between swelling properties of the formulation-known various elastomers and the pre-aging conditions such as radiation dose and thermal aging period was studied by measuring their swelling behaviors in boiling spray solution (water and chemical solution). All eight elastomers tested showed remarkable swelling with an increase of radiation dose when they irradiated in air. A swelling in boiling water was about twice of in chemical solution. Some types of Neoprene and Hypalons had an optimum swelling dose where they showed the maxima. Over this dose, the swelling ratio decreased with dose. When irradiated under vacuum, its swelling ratio became significantly lower than that of exposed in air. This attributed the swelling phenomena closely related to radiation oxidation degradation. (author)

  11. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins by spray drying and its controlled release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rangsadthong; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Soottitantawat, Apinan

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of the two isomers of citral (E-citral and Z-citral), components of lemongrass oil, was investigated within the confines of various cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) host molecules. Aqueous complex formation constants for E-citral with α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were determined to be 123, 185, and 204 L/mol, respectively, whereas Z-citral exhibited stronger affinities (157, 206, and 253 L/mol, respectively). The binding trend γ-CD > β-CD > α-CD is a reflection of the more favorable geometrical accommodation of the citral isomers with increasing cavity size. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil within CDs was undertaken through shaking citral:CD (1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 molar ratio) mixtures followed by spray drying. Maximum citral retention occurred at a 1:1 molar ratio with β-CD and α-CD demonstrating the highest levels of total E-citral and Z-citral retention, respectively. Furthermore, the β-CD complex demonstrated the slowest release rate of all inclusion complex powders.

  12. Kinetics of radiocesium released from contaminated soil by fertilizer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, P.N.; Wang, M.K.; Huang, P.M.; Wang, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the major artificial radionuclides found in environments; but the mechanisms behind fertilizer-induced 137 Cs desorption from soil remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms underlying the various cations and anions that cause Cs release from soil under acidic conditions. NH 4 H 2 PO 4 (1 M), 0.5 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 1 M NH 4 Cl, 1 M KCl or 1 M NaCl solutions were added to 137 Cs-contaminated soil. The power function model well described the short term 137 Cs desorption with the solutions. The rate coefficients for 137 Cs release from soil in NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , NH 4 Cl, and KCl solutions were 7.7, 7.3, 6.8, and 6.1 times higher than the rate observed in a NaCl solution, respectively. The NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solutions induced significantly greater 137 Cs release from the contaminated soil than the NH 4 Cl, KCl and NaCl solutions. After four times repeated extractions with the fertilizer solutions, the total amount of 137 Cs extracted by (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and NH 4 Cl solutions reached equilibrium, while that extracted using an NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solution continued to increase. The combined effect of phosphate and protons was the major mechanism behind 137 Cs release from contaminated soils, when an NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solution was used

  13. Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Borse, Pramod H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. ► Pure spinel phase ZnFe 2 O 4 porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. ► Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. ► The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. ► Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 2 O 4 film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of ∼1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  14. Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Leonardo; Han, Taewon T.; McGilvery, Catriona M.; Yang, Letao; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alexandra E.; Smith, Rachel; Chung, Kian Fan; Lioy, Paul J.; Zhang, Junfeng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-04-01

    The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product. The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products.

  15. The influence of spray-drying parameters on phase behavior, drug distribution, and in vitro release of injectable microspheres for sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Joke; Lenaerts, Maité; Scurr, David J; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-04-01

    For ternary solid dispersions, it is indispensable to characterize their structure, phase behavior, and the spatial distribution of the dispersed drug as this might influence the release profile and/or stability of these formulations. This study shows how formulation (feed concentration) and process (feed rate, inlet air temperature, and atomizing air pressure) parameters can influence the characteristics of ternary spray-dried solid dispersions. The microspheres considered here consist of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surface layer and an underlying polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) phase. A poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was molecularly dispersed in this matrix. Differences were observed in component miscibility, phase heterogeneity, particle size, morphology, as well as API surface coverage for selected spray-drying parameters. Observed differences are likely because of changes in the droplet generation, evaporation, and thus particle formation processes. However, varying particle characteristics did not influence the drug release of the formulations studied, indicating the robustness of this approach to produce particles of consistent drug release characteristics. This is likely because of the fact that the release is dominated by diffusion from the PVP layer through pores in the PLGA surface layer and that observed differences in the latter have no influence on the release. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Effect of precursor solutions on ZnO film via solution precursor plasma spray and corresponding gas sensing performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.X.; Ma, Y.Z.; Zhao, Y.L.; Huang, J.B.; Wang, W.Z.; Moliere, M.; Liao, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • C-axis preferential oriented grown ZnO films were firstly deposited via SPPS with different solutions. • ZnO films were hydrophobic due to cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies with high surface specific area. • Gas detecting performance of (002) plane oriented ZnO was predicted and compared by “first principle calculation method”. - Abstract: Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) as a novel thermal spray method was employed to deposit nano-structured ZnO thin film using different formulations of the precursor solution. This article focuses on the influence of the solution composition on the preferential orientation of crystal growth, on crystal size and surface morphology of the resulting ZnO films. The trend of preferential growth along (002) lattice plane of ZnO film was studied by slow scanning X-ray diffraction using a specific coefficient P_(_0_0_2_)_. It appears that the thermal spray process promotes the buildup of ZnO films preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The shape of single particle tends to change from round shaped beads to hexagonal plates by increasing the volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent. Both cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies featuring high specific surface area and roughness were obtained through the SPPS process by varying solution composition. These ZnO films are hydrophobic with contact angle as high as 136°, which is seemingly associated with micro reliefs developing high surface specific area. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO films preferentially oriented along (002) face were tentatively predicted using the “first principle calculation method” and were compared with those of conventional films that are mainly oriented along the (101) face. The (002) face displays better hydrogen adsorption capability than the (101) face with much larger resulting changes in electrical resistance. In conclusion, the c-axis oriented ZnO films obtained through SSPS have

  17. Effect of precursor solutions on ZnO film via solution precursor plasma spray and corresponding gas sensing performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.X., E-mail: zexin.yu@utbm.fr [Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Lab ICB, UMR 6303, Site UTBM, F-90010 Belfort (France); Ma, Y.Z., E-mail: yangzhou.ma@outlook.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan 243002 (China); Zhao, Y.L. [Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Lab ICB, UMR 6303, Site UTBM, F-90010 Belfort (France); Huang, J.B.; Wang, W.Z. [Key Lab of Safety Science of Pressurized System, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Moliere, M.; Liao, H.L. [Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Lab ICB, UMR 6303, Site UTBM, F-90010 Belfort (France)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • C-axis preferential oriented grown ZnO films were firstly deposited via SPPS with different solutions. • ZnO films were hydrophobic due to cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies with high surface specific area. • Gas detecting performance of (002) plane oriented ZnO was predicted and compared by “first principle calculation method”. - Abstract: Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) as a novel thermal spray method was employed to deposit nano-structured ZnO thin film using different formulations of the precursor solution. This article focuses on the influence of the solution composition on the preferential orientation of crystal growth, on crystal size and surface morphology of the resulting ZnO films. The trend of preferential growth along (002) lattice plane of ZnO film was studied by slow scanning X-ray diffraction using a specific coefficient P{sub (002).} It appears that the thermal spray process promotes the buildup of ZnO films preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The shape of single particle tends to change from round shaped beads to hexagonal plates by increasing the volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent. Both cauliflower and honeycomb-like surface morphologies featuring high specific surface area and roughness were obtained through the SPPS process by varying solution composition. These ZnO films are hydrophobic with contact angle as high as 136°, which is seemingly associated with micro reliefs developing high surface specific area. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO films preferentially oriented along (002) face were tentatively predicted using the “first principle calculation method” and were compared with those of conventional films that are mainly oriented along the (101) face. The (002) face displays better hydrogen adsorption capability than the (101) face with much larger resulting changes in electrical resistance. In conclusion, the c-axis oriented ZnO films obtained through SSPS have

  18. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  19. Mechanisms of iodine release from iodoapatite in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Immobilization of iodine-129 with waste forms in geological setting is challenging due to its extremely long half-life and high volatility in the environment. To evaluate the long-term performance of waste form, it is imperative to determine the release mechanism of iodine hosted in the waste form materials. This study investigated the iodine released from apatite structured waste form Pb9.85 (VO4)6 I1.7 to understand how diffusion and dissolution control the durability of apatite waste form. A standard semi-dynamic leach test was adopted in this study. Samples were exposed in fresh leachant periodically and the leachant was replaced after each interval. Each experiment was carried out in cap-sealed Teflon vessels under constant temperature (e.g. 90 °C). ICP-MS analysis on the reacted leachates shows that Pb and V were released constantly and congruently with the stoichiometric ratio of Pb/V. However, iodine release is incongruent and time dependent. The iodine release rate starts significantly higher than the corresponding stoichiometric value and gradually decreases, approaching the stoichiometric value. Therefore, a dual-mode mechanism is proposed to account for the iodine release from apatite, which is dominated by short-term diffusion and long-term dissolution processes. Additional tests show that the element release rates depend on a number of test parameters, including sample surface to solution volume ratio (m-1), interval (day), temperature (°C), and solution pH. This study provides a quantitative characterization of iodine release mechanism. The activation energy of iodine leaching 21±1.6 kJ/mol was obtained by varying the test temperature. At the test conditions of to neutral pH and 90 °C, the long-term iodine release rate 3.3 mg/(m2 • day) is projected by normalizing sample surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V) to 1.0 m-1 and interval to 1 day. These findings demonstrate i) the feasibility of our approach to quantify the release mechanism

  20. Series Solution for Steady Three-Dimensional Flow due to Spraying on Inclined Spinning Disk by Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Dinarvand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady three-dimensional flow of condensation or spraying on inclined spinning disk is studied analytically. The governing nonlinear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilizing the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown and the influence of Prandtl number on the heat transfer and Nusselt number is discussed in detail. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results. Unlike free surface flows on an incline, this through flow is highly affected by the spray rate and the rotation of the disk.

  1. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Bessho, Takeshi [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kang, Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method.

  2. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan; Bessho, Takeshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method

  3. A study on the decontamination of insoles colonized by Trichophyton rubrum: effect of terbinafine spray powder 1% and terbinafine spray solution 1%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuilhade de Chauvin, M

    2012-07-01

    Shoes worn with bare feet function as a fungal reservoir and lead to persistent dermatophytosis. This study was designed to evaluate two formulations of terbinafine (1% spray powder or solution) to treat the insoles of shoes colonized by skin scales infected with Trichophyton rubrum and to determine the contact time necessary to achieve decontamination. Infected skin scales weighing 0.5 g, taken from the feet of patients with confirmed T. rubrum infection, was dispersed onto insoles pre-moistened with sterile saline solution (to mimic perspiration). Three types of insole were tested (felt, latex, leather). After inoculation, insoles were placed separately in new cardboard boxes at ambient temperature, and re-humidified with sterile normal saline solution for 48 h before being treated; untreated insoles served as controls. Scales were scraped off at 48 h or 96 h, and dropped into tubes of Sabouraud agar, incubated at 27°C and examined at 3 and 6 weeks. Cultures from all control insoles showed numerous T. rubrum colonies. In contrast, cultures from all insoles treated with a single application of terbinafine 1% spray solution or powder, and taken after 48 h or 96 h contact with the product, remained sterile at 3 weeks and 6 weeks. This study demonstrated the successful treatment of insoles colonized by T. rubrum-infected skin scales. Terbinafine 1% spray solution and powder showed good efficacy; the dermatophyte could no longer be cultured 48 h after a single application of terbinafine. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Spray-combustion synthesis: efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P H; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-03-17

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations.

  5. Controlling Microstructure of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Prepared from Suspensions and Solutions by Plasma Spraying with High Feed Rates.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, Radek; Medřický, Jan; Tesař, Tomáš; Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Lukáč, František; Illková, Ksenia; Hlína, Michal; Chráska, Tomáš; Sokołowski, P.; Curry, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2017), s. 1787-1803 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : hybrid plasma torch * microstructure * solution * precursor spraying * suspension spraying * thermal barrier * coatings (TBCs) * water-stabilized plasma * yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007/s11666-017-0622-x

  6. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V_2O_5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium oxide (V_2O_5) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl_3 in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V_2O_5 film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  7. Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnou, Panagiota; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Cooper, Carl S; Malkov, Andrei V; Walls, John M; Bowers, Jake W

    2016-05-18

    Solution processing of semiconductors, such as CuInSe2 and its alloys (CIGS), can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of thin film solar cells. Despite the recent success of solution deposition approaches for CIGS, toxic reagents such as hydrazine are usually involved, which introduce health and safety concerns. Here, we present a simple and safer methodology for the preparation of high-quality CuIn(S, Se)2 absorbers from metal sulfide solutions in a diamine/dithiol mixture. The solutions are sprayed in air, using a chromatography atomizer, followed by a postdeposition selenization step. Two different selenization methods are explored resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 8%.

  8. Some remarks on hydrogen release from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, S.

    1980-01-01

    After a survey of the literature on generalisable statements on β, γ-radiolysis of water and salty solutions, an attempt is made to summarize and evaluate existing measurements in connection with the formation of H 2 in nitrous fission product solutions (or corresponding simulates). It is seen that laboratory experiments with such fission products show rather uniform and plausible G(H 2 )-values in the region -3 . It is also seen, however, that G(H 2 )-values and steady H 2 -release rates are not suitable to describe technical systems (HAW stores). Either H 2 is carried away by purge air or it is, in a non-operating system, consumed again in situ, obviously by back reactions. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of Solution Molarity, Substrate Temperature and Spray Time on The Structural and Optical Properties Of ZnO Thin Films Deposited By Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Hashem, H. M.; El-Sayed, S. M.; Ashour, A.H.; Abdel-Haleem, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate and air as the carrier gas. Effects of solution molarity, substrate temperature and spray time on films properties were investigated. All films deposited were characterized using X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and UV-VIS transmission spectrophotometry for optical properties. According to the analytical method, the type of crystal lattice was found to be hexagonal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the films deposited were polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The values of lattice constant, grain size, micro strain and dislocation density of all samples were calculated. In addition, Optical behaviors of film samples were analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 350-800 nm. The UV-VIS spectroscopy shows the high transparency of ZnO films in the UV region. An optimization of the films has been carried out to determine the best preparation conditions.

  10. A study on post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahariar, G. M. H.; Wardana, M. K. A.; Lim, O. T.

    2018-04-01

    The post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems was numerically investigated in a constant volume chamber using STAR CCM+ CFD code. The turbulence flow was modelled by realizable k-ε two-layer model together with standard wall function and all y+ treatment was applied along with two-layer approach. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the modelling of multi phase flow. Urea water solution (UWS) was injected onto the heated wall for the wall temperature of 338, 413, 473, 503 & 573 K. Spray development after impinging on the heated wall was visualized and measured. Droplet size distribution and droplet evaporation rates were also measured, which are vital parameters for the system performance but still not well researched. Specially developed user defined functions (UDF) are implemented to simulate the desired conditions and parameters. The investigation reveals that wall temperature has a great impact on spray development after impingement, droplet size distribution and evaporation. Increasing the wall temperature leads to longer spray front projection length, smaller droplet size and faster droplet evaporation which are preconditions for urea crystallization reduction. The numerical model and parameters are validated comparing with experimental data.

  11. Superhydrophobic ceramic coating: Fabrication by solution precursor plasma spray and investigation of wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengyun; Coyle, Thomas W; Pershin, Larry; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2018-03-16

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are often created by fabricating suitable surface structures from low-surface-energy organic materials using processes that are not suitable for large-scale fabrication. Rare earth oxides (REO) exhibit hydrophobic behavior that is unusual among oxides. Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) deposition is a rapid, one-step process that can produce ceramic coatings with fine scale columnar structures. Manipulation of the structure of REO coatings through variation in deposition conditions may allow the wetting behavior to be controlled. Yb 2 O 3 coatings were fabricated via SPPS. Coating structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, digital optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The static water contact angle and roll-off angle were measured, and the dynamic impact of water droplets on the coating surface recorded. Superhydrophobic behavior was observed; the best coating exhibited a water contact angle of ∼163°, a roll-off angle of ∼6°, and complete droplet rebound behavior. All coatings were crystalline Yb 2 O 3 , with a nano-scale roughness superimposed on a micron-scale columnar structure. The wetting behaviors of coatings deposited at different standoff distances were correlated with the coating microstructures and surface topographies. The self-cleaning, water flushing and water jetting tests were conducted and further demonstrated the excellent and durable hydrophobicity of the coatings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo release of bupivacaine from subcutaneously administered oily solution. Comparison with in vitro release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Joergensen, Stig; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2002-01-01

    A non-randomized cross-over study was performed with bupivacaine HCl (5 mg x ml(-1)) aqueous solution and bupivacaine free base (4.44 mg x ml(-1)) in Viscoleo/castor oil 2:1 (v/v) administered s.c. to male Wistar rats. Plasma levels were analyzed by LC-MS. Plasma profiles obtained after...... administration of oily solution showed a prolonged bupivacaine release with lower peak plasma levels as compared to administration of an aqueous formulation applied in the same compartment. t(1/2), t(max), C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) for the aqueous solution were 63+/-8 min, 19+/-16 min, 194+/-46 ng x ml(-1......) and 25,000+/-3000 ng min x ml(-1), respectively, while the corresponding data for the oil solution were 368+/-89 min, 334+/-186 min, 36+/-25 ng x ml(-1) and 25,000+/-6000 ng x min x ml(-1). The present data indicate the potential of designing an oil formulation of bupivacaine with a prolonged local...

  13. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Georgiev Dragoev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P0.05. According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0±0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  14. A rich solution spray as a refining method in a small capacity, single effect, solar assisted absorption machine with the pair NH3/H2O: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.F.; Collares-Pereira, M.; Ziegler, F.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia vapour refining is a common procedure in ammonia-water absorption machines. A solar assisted single effect absorption machine that uses the pair ammonia-water was developed and tested. Its desorber has a built-in adiabatic refining column constituted by a rich solution spray. The refining method proved its feasibility. The spray provided a more or less constant ammonia vapour enrichment of about 1% which is enough for the working temperature ranges of this type of machine. It was also verified that the refining effect of the spray is almost independent of the refrigerant vapour and solution mass flow rates

  15. Synthesis of complex oxides with garnet structure by spray drying of an aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeenko, A. V.; Larionova, T. V.; Klimova-Korsmik, O. G.; Starykh, R. V.; Galkin, V. V.; Tolochko, O. V.

    2017-04-01

    The use of spray drying to obtain powders of complex oxides with a garnet structure has demonstrated. The processes occurring during heating of the synthesized oxide-salt product, leading to the formation of a material with a garnet structure, have been investigated using DTA, TGA, XPS, and XRD. It has been shown that a single-phase garnet structure of system (Y x Gd(3- x))3Al5O12 can be synthesized over the entire range of compositions.

  16. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  17. Development and Characterization of Sodium Hyaluronate Microparticle-Based Sustained Release Formulation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Prepared by Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun J; Kim, Chan W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a sodium hyaluronate microparticle-based sustained release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH) prepared by spray-drying. Compared to freeze-drying, spray-dried SR-rhGH showed not only prolonged release profiles but also better particle property and injectability. The results of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that no aggregate was detected, and dimer was just about 2% and also did not increase with increase of inlet temperature up to 150 °C. Meanwhile, the results of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that related proteins increased slightly from 4.6% at 100 °C to 6.3% at 150 °C. Thermal mapping test proved that product temperature did not become high to cause protein degradation during spray-drying because thermal energy was used for the evaporation of surface moisture of droplets. The structural characterization by peptide mapping, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and circular dichroism revealed that the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of rhGH in SR-rhGH were highly comparable to those of reference somatropin materials. The biological characterization by rat weight gain and cell proliferation assays provided that bioactivity of SR-rhGH was equivalent to that of native hGH. These data establish that spray-dried SR-rhGH is highly stable by preserving intact rhGH and hyaluronate microparticle-based formulation by spray-drying can be an alternative delivery system for proteins. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Y2O3-MgO Nano-Composite Synthesized by Plasma Spraying and Thermal Decomposition of Solution Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie Kenechukwu

    This research aims to identify the key feedstock characteristics and processing conditions to produce Y2O3-MgO composite coatings with high density and hardness using solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes, and also, to explore the phenomena involved in the production of homogenized nano-composite powders of this material system by thermal decomposition of solution precursor mixtures. The material system would find potential application in the fabrication of components for optical applications such as transparent windows. It was shown that a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and the resultant formation of highly dense particles upon pyrolysis are critical precursor characteristics for the deposition of dense and hard Y2O3-MgO coatings by SPPS. Using these principles, a new Y2O3-MgO precursor solution was developed, which yielded a coating with Vickers hardness of 560 Hv. This was a considerable improvement over the hardness of the coatings obtained using conventional solution precursors, which was as low as 110 Hv. In the thermal decomposition synthesis process, binary solution precursor mixtures of: yttrium nitrate (Y[n]) or yttrium acetate (Y[a]), with magnesium nitrate (Mg[n]) or magnesium acetate (Mg[a]) were used in order to study the effects of precursor chemistry on the structural characteristics of the resultant Y2O3-MgO powders. The phase domains were coarse and distributed rather inhomogeneously in the materials obtained from the Y[n]Mg[n] and Y[a]Mg[a] mixtures; finer and more homogeneously-distributed phase domains were obtained for ceramics produced from the Y[a]Mg[n] and Y[n]Mg[a] mixtures. It was established that these phenomena were related to the thermal characteristics for the decomposition of the precursors and their effect on phase separation during oxide crystallization. Addition of ammonium acetate to the Y[n[Mg[n] mixture changed the endothermic process to exothermic

  19. Efficacy, tolerability and consumer acceptability of terbinafine topical spray versus terbinafine topical solution: a phase IIa, randomised, observer-blind, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marc; Evans, Charles; Muddle, Andrew; Turner, Rob; Lim, Sian; Reed, Jessica; Traynor, Matt

    2013-10-01

    Tinea pedis is one of the world's most prevalent dermatophyte infections. MedSpray™ tinea pedis 1 % w/w (topical spray) is a novel, easy-to-use propellant-based spray formulation containing 1 % w/w terbinafine, requiring no manipulation at the site of infection. This is in contrast to the only formulation currently approved in Europe for single application (none are approved in the USA for single use), which is Lamisil(®) Once 1 % w/w (topical solution), containing 1 % w/w terbinafine hydrochloride, which requires manipulation on the affected area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and consumer acceptability of a topical spray versus a topical solution in the treatment of tinea pedis. This study is a phase IIa, randomised, observer-blind, non-inferiority comparative study of the topical spray compared with the topical solution over a 12-week study period. The study was conducted at Bioskin GmbH, Hamburg and Berlin. Patients (n = 120) who presented with the presence of interdigital tinea pedis caused by dermatophytes on one or both feet were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned between the two treatment groups. Either the topical spray or the topical solution was administered by the study nurse and consisted of a single application (equivalent to 20 mg of terbinafine per foot) on day 1 of the study. No further applications were made for the duration of the study. The hypothesis formulated before commencement of the study was that the topical spray would prove to be non-inferior to the topical solution. Efficacy assessments, including clinical signs and symptoms, mycology and microscopy were performed at baseline and 1, 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. The rate of mycological cure at week 1 was statistically equivalent for both treatments. There was a significant reduction in the overall clinical score as assessed by the Physician's Global Assessment of signs and symptoms for both treatment groups. The topical

  20. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Montavon, G; Lima, R S; Marple, B R

    2011-01-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  1. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Montavon, G.; Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2011-03-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  2. Dry washing: the solution for contaminated liquid effluent releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'homme, D.; Trambouze, P.

    1998-01-01

    The release of wash water used for contaminated garments poses an ever-increasing problem on nuclear sites. Even though the radioactivity is low, it mixes with organic compounds, thus polluting a large quantity of liquid effluents. In many cases, several thousands of m 3 /year per nuclear site are produced, which at times represents more than 30% of the volume of total releases. The conventional dry cleaning process is not a viable option, given that repeated washing cause clothes to fade and the odors are rot removed completely. In order to eliminate releases, STMI has developed, after several years of research with the Technological University of Compiegne, France, a solvent dry washing process for garments used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  3. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles.

  4. Electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells having electrolytes made by suspension and solution precursor plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M.; Kuhn, J.; Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes were deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). The electrolytes were evaluated for permeability, microstructure, and electrochemical performance. With SPS, three different suspensions were tested to explore the influence of powder size distribution and liquid properties. Electrolytes made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 2.6 μm were more gas-tight than those made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 0.6 μm. A peak open circuit voltage of 1.00 V was measured at 750 °C with a cell with an electrolyte made from a suspension of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The use of a flammable suspension liquid was beneficial for improving electrolyte conductivity when using lower energy plasmas, but the choice of liquid was less important when using higher energy plasmas. With SPPS, peak electrolyte conductivities were comparable to the peak conductivities of the SPS electrolytes. However, leak rates through the SPPS electrolytes were higher than those through the electrolytes made from suspensions of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The electrochemical test data on SPPS electrolytes are the first reported in the literature.

  5. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  6. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  7. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

  8. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  9. Effects of laser remelting on microstructures and immersion corrosion performance of arc sprayed Al coating in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ze; Zhang, Donghui; Yan, Baoxu; Kong, Dejun

    2018-02-01

    An arc sprayed aluminum (Al) coating on S355 steel was processed using a laser remelting (LR). The microstructures, chemical element composition, and phases of the obtained Al coating were analyzed using a field mission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively, and the residual stresses were measured using an X-ray diffraction stress tester. The immersion corrosion tests and potentiodynamic polarization of Al coating in 3.5% NaCl solution were performed to investigate the effects of LR on its immersion corrosion behaviors, and the corrosion mechanism of Al coating was also discussed. The results show that the arc sprayed Al coating is composed of Al phase, while that by LR is composed of Al-Fe and AlO4FeO6 phases, and the porosities and cracks in the arc sprayed Al coating are eliminated by LR, The residual stress of arc sprayed Al coating is -5.6 ± 18 MPa, while that after LR is 137.9 ± 12 MPa, which deduces the immersion corrosion resistance of Al coating. The corrosion mechanism of arc sprayed Al coating is pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion, while that by LR is uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The corrosion potential of arc sprayed Al coating by LR shifts positively, which improves its immersion corrosion resistance.

  10. Properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using different precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Reguig, B.A.; Khelil, A. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Benchouk, K. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Bernede, J.C. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France)], E-mail: Jean-Christian.Bernede@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-07-15

    NiO thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using a perfume atomizer to grow the aerosol. The influence of the precursor, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel hydroxide hexahydrate (Ni(OH){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel sulfate tetrahydrate (NiSO{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O), on the thin films properties has been studied. In the experimental conditions used (substrate temperature 350 deg. C, precursor concentration 0.2-0.3 M, etc.), pure NiO thin films crystallized in the cubic phase can be achieved only with NiCl{sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursors. These films have been post-annealed at 425 deg. C for 3 h either in room atmosphere or under vacuum. If all the films are p-type, it is shown that the NiO films conductivity and optical transmittance depend on annealing process. The properties of the NiO thin films annealed under room atmosphere are not significantly modified, which is attributed to the fact that the temperature and the environment of this annealing is not very different from the experimental conditions during spray deposition. The annealing under vacuum is more efficient. This annealing being proceeded in a vacuum no better than 10{sup -2} Pa, it is supposed that the modifications of the NiO thin film properties, mainly the conductivity and optical transmission, are related to some interaction between residual oxygen and the films.

  11. Influence of Surface Pretreatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Cold-Sprayed Nickel Coatings in Acidic Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Zorawski, Wojciech; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna; Makrenek, Medard; Goral, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion resistance of the cold-sprayed nickel coatings deposited on the Ni surface (substrate) without and with abrasive grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was investigated. The corundum powder with different grain sizes was used. The corrosive environment contained an acidic chloride solution. The mechanism of the corrosion of nickel was suggested and discussed. Corrosion electrochemical parameters were determined by electrochemical methods. The corrosion effect of a nickel coating depends on the grain size used to prepare the substrate. The nickel coating after the medium grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was found to be the most corrosion resistant. However, the smallest resistance on the corrosion effect should be attributed to the nickel coating on the substrate after the coarse grit-blasting treatment.

  12. Stacking layered structure of polymer light emitting diodes prepared by evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution for improving carrier balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Youichi; Shakutsui, Masato; Fujita, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with staking layered structures are prepared by the evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution (ESDUS) method, which has enabled forming a polymer layer onto another polymer layer even if both polymers are soluble in a solvent used for the preparation. By this method, polymers having various HOMO and LUMO levels can be stacked as a hole transport layer, an emitting layer and an electron transport layer as commonly employed in small molecule-based organic light emitting diodes. Here we demonstrated that a PLED having a tri-layer structure using three kinds of polymers showed significant improvement in quantum efficiency compared with those having a single or bi-layer structure of corresponding polymers.

  13. Swelling kinetics of spray-dried chitosan acetate assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and their relation to drug release kinetics of chitosan matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanbutta, Kampanart; Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Yoshihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide; Nunthanid, Jurairat

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess in situ swelling behaviors of spray-dried chitosan acetate (CSA) in 0.1N HCl, pH 6.8 and pH 5.0 Tris-HCl buffers. The in vitro drug releases from CSA matrix tablets containing the model drugs, diclofenac sodium and theophylline were investigated in all media using USP-4 apparatus. The effect of chitosan molecular weight, especially in pH 6.8 Tris-HCl, was also studied. In 0.1N HCl, the drug release from the matrix tablets was the lowest in relation to the highest swelling of CSA. The swelling kinetics in Tris-HCl buffers are Fickian diffusion according to their best fit to Higuchi's model as well as the drug release kinetics in all the media. The high swelling rate (k(s)(')) was found to delay the drug release rate (k'). The linear relationship between the swelling and fractions of drug release in Tris-HCl buffers was observed, indicating an important role of the swelling on controlling the drug release mechanism. Additionally, CSA of 200 and 800 kDa chitosan did not swell in pH 6.8 Tris-HCl but disintegrated into fractions, and the drug release from the matrix tablets was the highest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2 and Al(OH3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating.

  15. Ion release from magnesium materials in physiological solutions under different oxygen tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Drücker, Heiko; Laipple, Daniel; Vogt, Carla; Stekker, Michael; Hort, Norbert; Willumeit, Regine

    2012-01-01

    Although magnesium as degradable biomaterial already showed clinical proof of concepts, the design of new alloys requires predictive in vitro methods, which are still lacking. Incubation under cell culture conditions to obtain "physiological" corrosion may be a solution. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of different solutions, addition of proteins and of oxygen availability on the corrosion of different magnesium materials (pure Mg, WE43, and E11) with different surface finishing. Oxygen content in solution, pH, osmolality and ion release were determined. Corrosion led to a reduction of oxygen in solution. The influence of oxygen on pH was enhanced by proteins, while osmolality was not influenced. Magnesium ion release was solution-dependent and enhanced in the initial phase by proteins with delayed release of alloying elements. The main corrosion product formed was magnesium carbonate. Therefore, cell culture conditions are proposed as first step toward physiological corrosion.

  16. Spray-dried HPMC microparticles of Indomethacin: Impact of drug-polymer ratio and viscosity of the polymeric solution on dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanazi, Fars K.; El-Badry, M.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric microparticles prepared by spray-drying techniques were investigated to enhance the dissolution rate of indomethacin (IM) in comparison with conventional microparticles prepared by co-precipitation solid dispersion method. Drug-polymer ratios and viscosity of polymeric solutions as potential factors were used in order to enhance the dissolution rate of IM. Spray-drying technique was used for preparing of microparticles using aqueous suspension of IM in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer solution. The effect of drug-polymer ratios on dissolution rates of IM was studied in simulating intestinal medium. IM was analyzed spectrophotometrically at λ =320nm. For each drug-polymer ratios, low and high viscosity polymeric solutions were prepared and their impacts on the dissolution of IM were observed. Microparticles were morphologically characterized by optical microscopy. The interaction between IM and HPMC was studied by differential scanning caloremetry (DSC) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Spherical fluffy microparticles of IM were obtained using HPMC. It was observed that the prepared spray-dried microparticles significantly increase the dissolution rate of IM. The increase in dissolution rates was achieved with drug: polymer ratios 1: 1 as well as 1:2 and interestingly, the decrease in drug content in ratio exceeding 1:2 resulted in reduction in dissolution rates. Also, with all drug-polymer ratios, the low viscosity polymeric solutions gave the higher dissolution rates. In conclusion, HPMC microparticles loaded with IM were prepared by spray drying-technique and the potential of this technique to enhance the dissolution was studied. The findings indicate that the dissolution profile of IM microparticles prepared by spray -drying technique relied on drug-polymer ratios and viscosity of polymeric solutions. (author)

  17. Contribution of electro-spray mass spectrometry to the study of the organic species and metal-ligand complexes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, L.; Piveteau, B.

    2000-01-01

    Electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has quickly become a versatile method of qualitative analysis of a wide variety of species in solution. This technique (with positive and negative ionization modes) is used to analyze organic solutions in the frame of the DIAMEX process. Degraded solvent had been studied without any preliminary sample treatment (separation or derivation) and neutral complexes 'uranyl nitrate - malonamide' had been observed. (authors)

  18. Effect of NaCl Solution Spraying on Fatigue Lives of Smooth and Slit Specimens of 0.37% Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Chobin; Ferdous, Md. Shafiul; Shimabukuro, Akimichi; Murdani, Anggit

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life and growth rate are affected by experimental conditions. A corrosive environment can be created in a laboratory by means of dropping salt water onto the specimen surface, spraying chloride mist into the experimental chamber, etc. In the case of smooth specimens of some metals, fatigue life is shortened and the fatigue limit disappears under such corrosive experimental conditions. In this study, the effects of intermittent spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist on corrosion fatigue behavior were investigated. The material used was 0.37% carbon steel. This is called JIS S35C in Japan. Spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist attacked the surface layer of the specimen. It is well known that the pitting, oxidation-reduction reaction, etc. affect the fatigue strength of metals in a corrosive environment. We carried out corrosion fatigue tests with smooth specimens, holed specimens and slit specimens. Then the effects of such specimen geometry on the fatigue strength were investigated when the NaCl solution-mist was sprayed onto the specimen surface. In the case of lower stress amplitude application in slit specimens, the fatigue life in a corrosive atmosphere was longer than that in the open air. It is discussed that the behavior is related to the crack closure which happens when the oxide builds up and clogs the crack or slit.

  19. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  20. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  1. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  2. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M., E-mail: na2013bil@gmail.com [Iraqi Ministry of Education, Anbar (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl{sub 3} in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  3. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  4. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoskins, Daniel L.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Separators are used to protect cathodes from biofouling and to avoid electrode short-circuiting, but they can adversely affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. A spray method was used to apply a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) separator to the cathode. Power densities were unaffected by the PVA separator (339 ± 29 mW/m2), compared to a control lacking a separator in a low conductivity solution (1mS/cm) similar to wastewater. Power was reduced with separators in solutions typical of laboratory tests (7-13 mS/cm), compared to separatorless controls. The PVA separator produced more power in a separator assembly (SEA) configuration (444 ± 8 mW/m2) in the 1mS/cm solution, but power was reduced if a PVA or wipe separator was used in higher conductivity solutions with either Pt or activated carbon catalysts. Spray and cast PVA separators performed similarly, but the spray method is preferred as it was easier to apply and use.

  5. The Influence of Polyethylene Glycol Solution on the Dissolution Rate of Sustained Release Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Michael; Holland, Michael G; Englich, Ulrich; Wojcik, Susan M; Grant, William D; Leitner, Erich

    2016-12-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a management option for overdose of medications poorly adsorbed to activated charcoal, with modified release properties, or for body packers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a mixture of ethylene oxide polymers of varying molecular weight. PEG with an average molecular weight of 3350 g/mol is used for WBI. PEG electrolyte lavage solution has been shown in vitro to hasten the dissolution of acetaminophen. The impact of PEG on the pharmacokinetics of extended release pharmaceuticals is unknown. Lower average molecular weight PEG mixtures are used as solvents and excipients. We sought to investigate the impact of PEG on the release of morphine from several extended release morphine formulations. An in vitro gastric model was developed. To test the validity of our model, we first investigated the previously described interaction of ethanol and Avinza®. Once demonstrated, we then investigated the effect of PEG with several extended release morphine formulations. In the validation portion of our study, we confirmed an ethanol Avinza® interaction. Subsequently, we did not observe accelerated release of morphine from Avinza® or generic extended release morphine in the presence of PEG. The use of PEG for gastric decontamination following ingestion of these extended release morphine formulations is unlikely to accelerate morphine release and aggravate intoxication.

  6. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Lu, Hongbin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Yu, Wencong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA > BCP-1-BSA > BCP-2-BSA > HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion. - Highlights: • Solution combustion method was an efficient way to produced CaP powders. • Ca/P (molar) ratios provided a favorable control in the different proportions of phase composition. • BSA release rate varied depending on the phase composition of the CaP particles. • Two kinetic models were chosen to simulate the release kinetics of the drugs from CaP carriers.

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Torkzaban, Saeed; Leij, Feike; Simunek, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and kinetic, and two-site kinetic models were developed to describe various rates of colloid release. These models were subsequently applied to experimental colloid release datasets to investigate the influence of variations in ionic strength (IS), pH, cation exchange, colloid size, and water velocity on release. Various combinations of equilibrium and/or kinetic release models were needed to describe the experimental data depending on the transient conditions and colloid type. Release of Escherichia coli D21g was promoted by a decrease in solution IS and an increase in pH, similar to expected trends for a reduction in the secondary minimum and nanoscale chemical heterogeneity. The retention and release of 20nm carboxyl modified latex nanoparticles (NPs) were demonstrated to be more sensitive to the presence of Ca(2+) than D21g. Specifically, retention of NPs was greater than D21g in the presence of 2mM CaCl2 solution, and release of NPs only occurred after exchange of Ca(2+) by Na(+) and then a reduction in the solution IS. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional interaction energy calculations to describe colloid retention and release, and point to the need to consider other interactions (e.g., Born, steric, and/or hydration forces) and/or nanoscale heterogeneity. Temporal changes in the water velocity did not have a large influence on the release of D21g for the examined conditions. This insensitivity was likely due to factors that reduce the applied hydrodynamic torque and/or increase the resisting adhesive torque; e.g., macroscopic roughness and grain-grain contacts. Our analysis and models improve our understanding and ability to describe the amounts

  8. Porous PDMS structures for the storage and release of aqueous solutions into fluidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Peter; Baratchi, Sara; Szydzik, Crispin; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2017-07-11

    Typical microfluidic systems take advantage of multiple storage reservoirs, pumps and valves for the storage, driving and release of buffers and other reagents. However, the fabrication, integration, and operation of such components can be difficult. In particular, the reliance of such components on external off-chip equipment limits their utility for creating self-sufficient, stand-alone microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a porous sponge made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is fabricated by templating microscale water droplets using a T-junction microfluidic structure. High-resolution microscopy reveals that this sponge contains a network of pores, interconnected by small holes. This unique structure enables the sponge to passively release stored solutions very slowly. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the sponge can be used for the passive release of stored solutions into narrow channels and circular well plates, with the latter used for inducing intracellular calcium signalling of immobilised endothelial cells. The release rate of stored solutions can be controlled by varying the size of interconnecting holes, which can be easily achieved by changing the flow rate of the water injected into the T-junction. We also demonstrate the active release of stored liquids into a fluidic channel upon the manual compression of the sponge. The developed PDMS sponge can be easily integrated into complex micro/macro fluidic systems and prepared with a wide array of reagents, representing a new building block for self-sufficient microfluidic systems.

  9. Tritium release of titan-tritium layers in air, aqueous solutions and living organisms of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, J.; Feher, I.; Mate, L.; Varga, L.

    1978-01-01

    Samples containing 400-1100 MBq (10-30 mCi) tritium were prepared and the effect of storage time on tritium release was followed. In 250 days one thousandth of the tritium was released in aqueous solution; in air the ratio of release per hour fell in the range of 10 -6 -10 -7 . Ti-T plates with different storage times were surgically placed in the abdomen of rats. Their tritium release dropped with time and the activity appearing in the circulation was lower than that of plates with 5-6 orders of magnitude. Checking the tritium incorporation of neutron generator operators it must be held in mind that only a minor part of tritium can be detected by the measurement of the tritium content of urine. (author)

  10. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  11. The Influence of Ammonium Sulphate added to the Spray Solution of Calcium Carbonate-Containing Glyphosate and Nicosulfuron on Barnyardgrass and Velvetleaf Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamal hajmohamadnia

    2016-09-01

    the above, basic experiments carried out as the influence of adding ammonium sulphate to spray solution of calcium carbonate-containing glyphosate and nicosulfuron on barnyardgrass and velvetleaf control. Materials and Methods: Four experiments were performed as factorial arrangement of treatments 6×2 based on completely randomized design with six replications (+six control pots for each weed species at Research Greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010. Factors were included different concentrations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3; Merck, Germany of water in spray tank at six levels 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm in deionized water (w/v in combination with 0 (-AMS or 3 kg/ha (+AMS ammonium sulphate (Merck, Germany as adjuster the hardness. Glyphosate (Roundup® and nicosulfuron (Cruse® herbicides were applied post emergent at 385 and 550 mL ha-1 as commercial products (158 and 22 g ai ha-1; based on ED50 outcome preliminary test (12, recpectively at the 3-4 leaf stage of the weeds (barnyardgrass and velvetleaf in a spray volume of 250 L ha-1. Four weeks after treatment, survival, plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of weeds (% control were calculated. The data of experiment were subjected to ANOVA using MSTATC software. Means of the treatments were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at α = 0.05. Also, based on the distribution of data, regression analysis was used as linear, two, and third-degree polynomial by EXCEL 2007. Results and Discussion: The results showed a significant reduction (p≤0.01 for survival, plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of weeds (% control with addition of calcium carbonate in spray tank of glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides, but this effect was not similar. So that, 500 ppm Ca2+ to the nicosulfuron spray solution compared with its absence increased barnyardgrass and velvetleaf biomass (% control 16 and 50%, respectively. The corresponding values for glyphosate were 78 and 51

  12. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Corrosion characteristics of thermal sprayed coating of stainless alloys in chloride solution; Taishoku gokin yosha himaku no enkabutsu yoekichu ni okeru fushoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Tokyo Metallikon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Y. [Kitamura Technical Consultant Office, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to develop a thermal sprayed coating of environment interruption type that can be sprayed at sites, electrochemical discussions, SEM observation, and EPMA surface analysis were performed on corrosion characteristics in chloride solution of coatings of SUS 304, 316 and Hastelloy C thermally sprayed onto test pieces made of structural steel SS400, as well as the effect of improvement in corrosion resistance by means of a coating reforming treatment. The following conclusions were obtained: the degradation in corrosion resistance of the coatings is attributable to increase in anodic solubility due to appearance of innumerable crevices as a result of deposited particles forming porous structure and due to drop of Cr content in the matrix caused by generation of oxides on the surface of the crevices, by which the corrosion progresses in the form of crevice corrosion; and denseness of the passive coating is lost on the surface of the deposited particles, accelerating the cathodic reaction. A suitable means that could be used practically in chloride solution would be a method to use a material with less crevice susceptibility such as Hastelloy C as a base material, and seal the crevice structure with epoxy resin, etc. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. New process of the preparation of catalyzed gas diffusion electrode for PEM fuel cells based on ultrasonic direct solution spray reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, K.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a newly developed process for in-situ catalyst deposition on gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This process has the potential to reduce the number of steps for catalyzed GDE fabrication. In addition, the process offers economic advantages for the fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a home-made catalyst maker with ultrasonic spray method was used to prepare a solution of the carbon supported platinum catalyst on the GDL. The sprayed catalyst powder consisted of carbon support. The catalyst particles did not prevent gas flow channels on the GDL. The catalyst layer was shown to be located only on the top surface of the GDL and was not packed into its flow channel. Results of Cross-section SEM image, crystallization, micro structure and electro-catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction were also discussed. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    , and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties...... such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate......), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts...

  16. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  17. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthora roreri, known commonly as “monilia”, has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. Fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Trichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma. Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of moniliainfection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p<0.05 in only 35d, ascompared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1 500kg dried beans/ha by 198kg/ha up to 1 698kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110ha plantation by 21 780kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal

  18. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  19. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  20. 3He release characteristics of metal tritides and scandium--tritium solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.G.; Kass, W.J.; Beavis, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    Tritides of such metals as Sc, Ti, and Er are useful materials for determining the effects of He accumulation in metallic solids, for example, CTR first wall materials. Such effects include lattice strain and gross deformation which are related to 3 He retention and ultimate release. Long term gas release studies have indicated that, during the early life of a metal ditritide, a large fraction of the 3 He is retained in the solid. At more advanced ages, the 3 He release rate becomes comparable to the generation rate. Statistical analysis of the data indicates that the acceleration in 3 He release rate depends on accumulated 3 He concentration rather than strictly on age. 3 He outgassing results are presented for thin films of ScT 2 , TiT 2 , and ErT 2 , and the critical 3 He concentrations are discussed in terms of a percolation model. Phase transformations which occur on tritide formation cast some doubt on the validity of extrapolating results obtained for metal tritides to predictions regarding the accumulation of helium in metals. Sc is unique among the early transition and rare-earth metals in that the metal exhibits a very high room temperature T solubility (T/Sc = 0.4) with no phase transformation. Indeed, even the lattice parameters of the hcp Sc lattice are only minimally changed by T solution. Single crystal ScT/sub 0.3/ samples in two crystallographic orientations were obtained. Using a very sensitive technique, 3 He emission was measured from both these samples, as well as from fine-grained thin film Sc--T solid solution samples (ScT/sub 0.3-0.4/). The fine-grained film samples release 3 He at 2-3 percent of the generation rate, while the emission rate from the single-crystal samples is approximately 0.05 percent of the generation rate, indicating a strong grain size effect

  1. Preoperational assessment of solute release from waste rock at proposed mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapakko, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling to estimate solute release from waste rock at proposed mines is described. • Components of the modeling process are identified and described. • Modeling inputs required are identified and described. • Examples of data generated and their application are presented. • Challenges inherent to environmental review are identified. - Abstract: Environmental assessments are conducted prior to mineral development at proposed mining operations. Among the objectives of these assessments is prediction of solute release from mine wastes projected to be generated by the proposed mining and associated operations. This paper provides guidance to those engaged in these assessments and, in more detail, provides insights on solid-phase characterization and application of kinetic test results for predicting solute release from waste rock. The logic guiding the process is consistent with general model construction practices and recent publications. Baseline conditions at the proposed site are determined and a detailed operational plan is developed and imposed upon the site. Block modeling of the mine geology is conducted to identify the mineral assemblages present, their masses and compositional variations. This information is used to select samples, representative of waste rock to be generated, that will be analyzed and tested to describe characteristics influencing waste rock drainage quality. The characterization results are used to select samples for laboratory dissolution testing (kinetic tests). These tests provide empirical data on dissolution of the various mineral assemblages present as waste rock. The data generated are used, in conjunction with environmental conditions, the proposed method of mine waste storage, and scientific and technical principles, to estimate solute release rates for the operational scale waste rock. Common concerns regarding waste rock are generation of acidic drainage and release of heavy metals and sulfate. Key solid

  2. Development of a novel and customizable two-solution mixing type spray nozzle for one-step preparation of nanoparticle-containing microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yusuke; Takahashi, Norimitsu; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Masashi; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Production of drug nanoparticles is an effective strategy to enhance solubility and oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. The handling of drug nanoparticles has been an important issue in drug formulation because nanoparticles easily aggregate each other and redispersion of these particles is very difficult. In the present study, we developed a unique two-solution mixing type spray nozzle that can prepare drug nanoparticles in microparticles in one step without any common solvent and surfactant, and then, the prepared formulation were evaluated. Ethylcellulose (EC) and mannitol (MAN) were used as a model polymer of water-insoluble compound and a water-soluble carrier, respectively. We characterized the EC/MAN microparticles produced by the novel spray nozzle when customizing the nozzle parts to mix EC and MAN solution. Relatively smaller EC nanoparticles (customizable parts in the nozzle. In addition, the core of EC nanoparticles (<50 nm) was also observed by atomic force microscopy. We also found that the mixing time in the nozzle parts affected the size and the standard deviation of EC nanoparticles. These results suggest that the size of EC nanoparticles in MAN microparticles is controllable by using this unique nozzle. After all, we could prepare MAN microparticles containing EC nanoparticles in one step by using the novel nozzle. The drug/MAN microparticles formulation produced by the nozzle may be useful for the handling of drug nanoparticles.

  3. Fabrication of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles released in solution using a block copolymer template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcrette, Mélissa; Ortiz, Guillermo; Tallegas, Salomé; Joisten, Hélène; Tiron, Raluca; Baron, Thierry; Hou, Yanxia; Lequien, Stéphane; Bsiesy, Ahmad; Dieny, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a fabrication process of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles released in solution, based on combined ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. The process involves the use of a self-assembled PS-PMMA block copolymer formed on a sacrificial layer. Such an approach was so far mostly explored for the preparation of patterned magnetic media for ultrahigh density magnetic storage. It is here extended to the preparation of released monodisperse nanoparticles for biomedical applications. A special sacrificial layer had to be developed compatible with the copolymer self-organization. The resulting nanoparticles exhibit very narrow size dispersion (≈7%) and can be good candidates as contrast agents for medical imaging i.e. magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic particle imaging. The approach provides a great freedom in the choice of the particles shapes and compositions. In particular, they can be made of biocompatible magnetic material.

  4. Fabrication of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles released in solution using a block copolymer template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcrette, Mélissa; Ortiz, Guillermo; Joisten, Hélène; Dieny, Bernard; Tallegas, Salomé; Baron, Thierry; Bsiesy, Ahmad; Tiron, Raluca; Hou, Yanxia; Lequien, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a fabrication process of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles released in solution, based on combined ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. The process involves the use of a self-assembled PS-PMMA block copolymer formed on a sacrificial layer. Such an approach was so far mostly explored for the preparation of patterned magnetic media for ultrahigh density magnetic storage. It is here extended to the preparation of released monodisperse nanoparticles for biomedical applications. A special sacrificial layer had to be developed compatible with the copolymer self-organization. The resulting nanoparticles exhibit very narrow size dispersion (≈7%) and can be good candidates as contrast agents for medical imaging i.e. magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic particle imaging. The approach provides a great freedom in the choice of the particles shapes and compositions. In particular, they can be made of biocompatible magnetic material. (paper)

  5. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    buffer is used as release media. Generally, the initial release of the drug salt from in situ suspensions occurred faster as compared to conventional suspensions, probably due to incomplete precipitation of the drug salt, and hence formation of supersaturated solutions where the rate of release......A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...... indicated that the release of drug salt in deionized water was predominantly limited by the diffusion across the membrane whereas it is essentially dissolution rate controlled in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.40). Thus, the in vitro model appears to have a potential in formulation screening when phosphate...

  6. Feasibility and preliminary safety of nitric oxide releasing solution as a treatment for bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Gilly; Martins, James; Sheridan, Michael P; Leemhuis, Jonathan; Thompson, James; Miller, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Nitric oxide-releasing solution (NORS) is a liquid formulation that releases nitric oxide, a broad spectrum antimicrobial, single electron nitroxide radical. This solution was investigated as a potential antimicrobial treatment for bovine mastitis (BM). Three experiments were performed: a) NORS' effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro model; b) NORS' effect on milk obtained from dairy cows showing symptoms of clinical mastitis; and c) the consequences of administering NORS to healthy milking cattle using a dose-escalating in vivo study. Metabolite concentrations were estimated in their blood for methaemoglobin and nitrite; also, milk nitrite concentration and somatic cell count (SCC) were measured to study possible mammary gland inflammation following treatment. NORS lowered the bacterial concentration in all infected samples, in a time- and milk-diluted dependant fashion. Blood methemoglobin concentrations following treatment were all within the normal range for cattle. However, blood and milk nitrite concentrations increased initially but, during the next 24 h, returned to normal range, as did SCC, without any clinical signs of mammary gland inflammation. NORS, if shown to be effective, could be an alternative treatment for mastitis with a shorter clearance time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 3He release characteristics of metal tritides and scandium--tritium solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.G.; Kass, W.J.; Beavis, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    Tritides of such metals as scandium, titanium, and erbium are useful materials for determining the effects of helium accumulation in metallic solids, for example, CTR first wall materials. Such effects include lattice strain and gross deformation, as reported elsewhere, which are related to 3 He retention and ultimate release. Long term gas release studies have indicated that, during the early life of a metal ditritide, a large fraction of the 3 He is retained in the solid. At more advanced ages (2 to 4 years, depending on the parent metal), the 3 He release rate becomes comparable to the generation rate. Statistical analysis of the data indicates that the acceleration in 3 He release rate depends on accumulated 3 He concentration rather than strictly on age. 3 He outgassing results are presented for thin films of ScT 2 , TiT 2 , and ErT 2 , and the critical 3 He concentrations are discussed in terms of a percolation model. Phase transformations which occur on tritide formation cast some doubt on the validity of extrapolating results obtained for metal tritides to predictions regarding the accumulation of helium in metals. Scandium is unique among the early transition and rare-earth metals in that the metal exhibits a very high room temperature tritium solubility (T/Sc = 0.4) with no phase transformation. Indeed, even the lattice parameters of the hcp scandium lattice are only minimally changed by tritium solution, and we have succeeded in obtaining single crystal ScT 0 . 3 samples in two crystallographic orientations. Using a very sensitive technique, we have measured 3 He emission from both these samples, as well as from fine-grained thin film scandium-tritium solid solution samples (ScT 0 . 3 - 0 . 4 ). The fine-grained film samples release 3 He at 2 to 3 percent of the generation rate, while the emission rate from the single-crystal samples is approximately 0.05 percent of the generation rate, indicating a strong grain size effect

  8. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  9. Effect of Laser Remelting on Friction-Wear Behaviors of Cold Sprayed Al Coatings in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A cold sprayed Al coating on S355 structural steel was processed using a laser remelting (LR. The surface and cross-section morphologies, chemical compositions, and phases of as-obtained Al coating before and after LR were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, and X-ray diffractometer (XRD, respectively, and their hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester. The friction-wear behaviors of Al coating before and after LR in 3.5% NaCl solution were conducted to simulate the sand and gravel scouring on its surface in seawater, the effects of wear loads and speeds on the tribological properties of Al coating were analyzed, and the wear mechanisms under different wear loads and speeds were also discussed. The results show that the Al coating after LR is primarily composed of an Al phase and its hardness is 104.66 HV, increasing 54.70 HV than the cold sprayed Al coating. The average coefficient of friction (COF of cold sprayed Al coating at the wear load of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 N is 0.285, 0.239, and 0.435, respectively, while that after LR is 0.243, 0.227, and 0.327, respectively, decreased by 14.73%, 5.02% and 24.83% compared to the cold sprayed Al coating. The wear rate of cold sprayed Al coating at the wear load of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 N is 1.60 × 10−4, 2.36 × 10−4, and 2.40 × 10−4 mm3/m·N, respectively, while that after LR is 1.59 × 10−4, 1.70 × 10−4, and 1.94 × 10–4 mm3/m·N, respectively, decreased by 1%, 32%, and 23%, respectively, indicating that LR has high anti-friction performance. Under the wear load action of 1.0 N, the average COF of laser remelted Al coating at the wear speeds of 300, 400 and 500 times/min is 0.294, 0.279, and 0.239, respectively, and the corresponding wear rate is 1.06 × 10−4, 1.24 × 10−4, and 1.70 × 10−4 mm3/m·N, respectively. The wear mechanism of cold sprayed Al coating is primarily corrosion wear at the loads of 0.5 and 1.0 N, and

  10. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h

  11. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  12. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    , and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties...... such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate......Intermolecular interaction phenomena occurring between endogenous compounds, such as proteins and bile salts, and electrospun compounds are so far unreported, despite the exposure of fibers to such biorelevant compounds when applied for biomedical purposes, e.g., tissue engineering, wound healing...

  13. Techniques to limit gaseous releases in case of reactor accident. Choice criteria - present solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Lavie, Jean-Marie

    1964-10-01

    Within the frame of the study of radiological risks associated with a reactor accident in order to define the required responses, this study comprises, on the one hand, an analysis of the different accident types in order to select typical accidents, and on the other hand, a site-based analysis to define the maximum admissible radioactivity release for a given site. The determination of minimum required coefficient of risk reduction results from a compromise between the choice of reactor configuration type and the efficiency of purification devices, while taking into account minimum characteristics of the enclosure mechanical strength, local release conditions, and nature of gaseous effluents to be processed. After a review of available containment techniques, the author applies this analysis method to the different French reactor types. He gives a brief description of adopted solutions for the most typical French reactors in terms of characteristics of venting and filtration devices. As data quality is a crucial requirement, the author outlines the need for further studies regarding fission product emission and transfer, the purification of gaseous effluents and their diffusion in the atmosphere [fr

  14. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Lay-Grindler, Elisa; Kesler, Olivera

    2014-02-01

    Nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes were fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) and incorporated into metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A power density of 0.45 W cm-2 at 0.7 V and a peak power density of 0.52 W cm-2 at 750 °C in humidified H2 was obtained, which are the first performance results reported for an SOFC having an anode fabricated by SPPS. The effects of solution composition, plasma gas composition, and stand-off distance on the composition of the deposited Ni-YSZ coatings by SPPS were evaluated. It was found that the addition of citric acid to the aqueous solution delayed re-solidification of NiO particles, improving the deposition efficiency and coating adhesion. The composition of the deposited coatings was found to vary with torch power. Increasing torch power led to coatings with decreasing Ni content, as a result of Ni vaporizing in-flight at stand-off distances less than 60 mm from the torch nozzle exit.

  15. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  16. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  17. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the characterization of complexes 'ligand - metallic cations' in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthon, Laurence; Zorz, Nicole; Lagrave, Stephanie; Gannaz, Benoit; Hill, Clement [CEA-Marcoule DEN-DRCP-SCPS-LCSE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste reprocessing, separation processes of minor actinides from fission products are developed by Cea. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the 'ligand/metallic cation' complexes, formed in the organic phases are characterized by electro-spray-mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS). This paper deals with the extraction of lanthanides (III) and americium (III) cations by an organic phase composed of a malonamide or / and a dialkyl phosphoric acid, diluted in an aliphatic diluent. For the dialkyl phosphoric acid, Ln(DEHP){sub 3}(HDEHP){sub 3} complexes are observed and in the presence of a large excess of Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, dinuclear species are also observed. For the malonamide extractant, it appears that the complexes formed in the organic phase are of the Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}D{sub x} type, with 2 {<=} x {<=} 4: their distributions depend on the ratio [Ln]/[DMDOHEMA]. When the two extractants are present in the organic phase, mixed 'Ln-malonamide-dialkyl phosphoric acid' species are observed. The influence of several parameters, such as extractant concentration, solute concentration, aqueous acidity and the nature of the cations (lanthanides or americium) are studied. (authors)

  19. Synthesis of high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder by spray-freezing/freeze-drying a solution with two carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Shida, Kenji; Liao, Jinsun; Fukui, Takehisa; Matsuda, Motohide

    2017-09-01

    Li2FeSiO4 is a promising cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. Spray-freezing/freeze-drying, a practical process reported for the synthesis of various ceramic powders, is applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders and high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders are successfully synthesized by using starting solutions containing both Indian ink and glucose as carbon sources followed by heating. The synthesized composite powders have a unique structure, composed of Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticles coated with a thin carbon layer formed by the carbonization of glucose and carbon nanoparticles from Indian ink. The carbon layer enhances the electrochemical reactivity of the Li2FeSiO4, and the carbon nanoparticles play a role in the formation of electron-conducting paths in the cathode. The composite powders deliver an initial discharge capacity of 195 and 137 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1 C, respectively, without further addition of conductive additive. The discharge capacity at 1 C is 72 mAh g-1 after the 100th cycle, corresponding to approximately 75% of the capacity at the 2nd cycle.

  20. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S

    2004-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs{sup +} and/or Sr{sup 2+} sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  1. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  2. Effect of solution composition on anatase to rutile transformation of sprayed TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juma, Albert Owino, E-mail: albert.juma@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Acik, Ilona Oja [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mikli, Valdek [Chair of Semiconductor Materials Technology, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mere, Arvo; Krunks, Malle [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2015-11-02

    Acetylacetone is used as a chelating agent for titanium(IV) isopropoxide to inhibit hydrolysis and stabilize the precursor solution. The effect of the molar ratio between titanium(IV) isopropoxide and acetylacetone of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 in the precursor solution on the morphological, structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin film was investigated. These properties were studied using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis spectroscopy as a function of the molar ratios for the as-deposited thin films and films annealed at temperatures of 700, 800 and 950 °C. Mixed anatase and rutile phases were detected after annealing at 800 °C for 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios and at 700 °C for 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios. The optical band gap decreased from 3.45 to 3.02 eV with an increase in the annealing temperature in agreement with corresponding structural changes. - Highlights: • The grain sizes of TiO{sub 2} thin films could be varied over the range of 20 to 210 nm. • TTIP and AcacH ratio affects the transformation process from anatase to rutile. • TiO{sub 2} bandgap decreased from 3.45 to 3.02 eV with an increase in annealing temperature.

  3. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and...

  4. Detection of contaminant plumes released from landfills : Numerical versus analytical solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.; Hensbergen, A.T.; Elfeki, A.M.M.; Dekking, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Contaminant leaks released from landfills are a threat to groundwater quality. The groundwater monitoring systems installed in the vicinity of such facilities are vital. In this study the detection probability of a contaminant plume released from a landfill has been investigated by means of both a

  5. A three-dimensional semi-analytical solution for predicting drug release through the orifice of a spherical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Ospina, Juan

    2016-07-25

    Three-dimensional solute transport was investigated for a spherical device with a release hole. The governing equation was derived using the Fick's second law. A mixed Neumann-Dirichlet condition was imposed at the boundary to represent diffusion through a small region on the surface of the device. The cumulative percentage of drug released was calculated in the Laplace domain and represented by the first term of an infinite series of Legendre and modified Bessel functions of the first kind. Application of the Zakian algorithm yielded the time-domain closed-form expression. The first-order solution closely matched a numerical solution generated by Mathematica(®). The proposed method allowed computation of the characteristic time. A larger surface pore resulted in a smaller effective time constant. The agreement between the numerical solution and the semi-analytical method improved noticeably as the size of the orifice increased. It took four time constants for the device to release approximately ninety-eight of its drug content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of radiation-induced base release from nucleosides in alkaline solution: essential role of the O.- radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, M.L.; Schuchmann, M.N.; Sonntag, C. von

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pH on base release in the γ-radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated solutions of a number of nucleosides (including uridine, 3-methyluridine, 2', 3' -O-isopropylidene-uridine, and adenosine) has been investigated. For all these nucleosides, independent of the base or sugar moiety, base release is very low at pH below 10 (G∼(0.3-0.7) x 10 -7 mol J -1 ), but increases drastically to G∼(3-4) x 10 -7 mol J -1 at pH ≥ 13. It is concluded that the increase in base release at high pH is caused by the increasing participation of O .- , which, unlike . OH, attacks the nucleosides preferentially at their sugar moieties, and is not due to an OH - -induced radical transfer from the base to the sugar moiety. (author)

  7. Metal-organic framework tethering PNIPAM for ON-OFF controlled release in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Shunjiro; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-05-21

    A smart metal-organic framework (MOF) exhibiting controlled release was achieved by modification with a thermoresponsive polymer (PNIPAM) via a surface-selective post-synthetic modification technique. Simple temperature variation readily switches "open" (lower temperature) and "closed" (higher temperature) states of the polymer-modified MOF through conformational change of PNIPAM grafted onto the MOF, resulting in controlled release of the included guest molecules such as resorufin, caffeine, and procainamide.

  8. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  9. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  10. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  12. Workload control and order release : A lean solution for make-to-order companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurer, M.; Stevenson, M.; Silva, C.; Land, M.J.; Fredendall, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting throughput from variance is the key to achieving lean. Workload control (WLC) accomplishes this in complex make-to-order job shops by controlling lead times, capacity, and work-in-process (WIP). However, the concept has been dismissed by many authors who believe its order release

  13. Ruthenium release from thermally overheated nitric acid solution containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate and sodium nitrate to solidify

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo; Ueda, Yasuyuki; Enokida, Youichi [Nuclear Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648603 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Radioactive ruthenium (Ru) is one of the dominant elemental species released into the environment from a fuel reprocessing plant in a hypothetical design accident due to its relatively higher fission yield and longer half-life. After the hypothetical accident assuming the loss of all electric power and cooling functions, high-level liquid waste (HLLW) may be overheated by the energetic decays of many fission products in it, and Ru may be oxidized to the volatile tetroxide, RuO{sub 4}, which is released through the off-gas pathway. At a reprocessing plant in Japan, alkaline solution from the solvent scrubbing stream is sometimes mixed with the HLLW followed by vitrification, which can be influenced by the addition of sodium nitrate to a simulated HLLW containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate that was experimentally evaluated on a small scale using the overheated nitric acid solution of 2 mol/dm{sup 3}, which was kept at 180 Celsius degrees in a glass evaporator placed in a thermostatic bath. The release fraction of Ru increased by approximately 30% by the addition of sodium nitrate. This may be partially explained by the existence of relatively highly concentrated nitrate ions in the liquid phase that oxidize the ruthenium species to RuO{sub 4} during the drying process. (authors)

  14. Effect of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} powder addition in the precursor solution on the properties of cathode films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Caio Luis Santos; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: clssilva@ufba.br, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Cinetica e Catalise; Gama, Leonardo Marques; Paes Junior, Herval Ramos, E-mail: leonardo.m.gama@gmail.com, E-mail: herval@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados; Santos, Jacqueline Amanda Figueiredo dos; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias, E-mail: jac.amanda28@gmail.com, E-mail: rosanazd@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais e Pilhas a Combustivel

    2017-01-15

    Films of lanthanum strontium manganite, LSM (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}) were deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by different methods aiming to establish the most suitable route to prepare cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Samples were obtained by using a solution of lanthanum, strontium and manganese nitrates or a dispersion of the LSM powder in this solution. Both commercial and synthesized LSM powders were used, the last one obtained by amorphous citrate method. The films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates prepared by uniaxial and isostatic pressing. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and two-probe conductivity measurements. The area specific resistance and relaxation to cathodic activation were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The substrate obtained by uniaxial pressing and the commercial LSM produced films with the highest amount of surface cracks. The film obtained from the suspension showed area specific resistance and activation energy lower than the other produced from the solution. For both samples, the cathodic activation process resulted in an initial reduction of the total resistance of around 20%, the sample produced from the suspension being more resistant to relaxation. Therefore, the LSM suspension is more suitable than the salts solution for preparing films by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates to obtain efficient cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  15. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  16. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

    2010-01-01

    Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption......(III) release. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Ce(III) adsorbed on magnetite. When Fe-oxides were synthesized by air oxidation of Fe(II) solutions at pH 7, GR(Na,SO4) played a catalytic role in the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by O-2, removing more than 90% of the dissolved Ce. Transmission electron...

  17. Cold Heat Release Characteristics of Solidified Oil Droplet-Water Solution Latent Heat Emulsion by Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    The present work investigates the cold heat-release characteristics of the solidified oil droplets (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K)/water solution emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air bubbles-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method is selected for the cold heat-results from the solidified oil droplet-emulsion layer. This type of direct-contact method results in the high thermal efficiency. The diameter of air bubbles in the emulsion increases as compared with that in the pure water. The air bubbles blown from a nozzle show a strong mixing behavior during rising in the emulsion. The temperature effectiveness, the sensible heat release time and the latent heat release time have been measured as experimental parameters. The useful nondimensional emulsion level equations for these parameters have been derived in terms of the nondimensional emalsion level expressed the emulsion layer dimensions, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and heat capacity ratio.

  18. Intricacies of Using Kevlar and Thermal Knives in a Deployable Release System: Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso C.; Hair, Jason H.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of Kevlar cord and thermal knives in a deployable release system produces a number of issues that must be addressed in the design of the system. This paper proposes design considerations that minimize the major issues, thermal knife failure, Kevlar cord relaxation, and the measurement of the cord tension. Design practices can minimize the potential for thermal knife laminate and element damage that result in failure of the knife. A process for in-situ inspection of the knife with resistance, rather than continuity, checks and 10x zoom optical imaging can detect damaged knives. Tests allow the characterization of the behavior of the particular Kevlar cord in use and the development of specific pre-stretching techniques and initial tension values needed to meet requirements. A new method can accurately measure the tension of the Kevlar cord using a guitar tuner, because more conventional methods do not apply to arimid cords such as Kevlar.

  19. Intricacies of Using Kevlar Cord and Thermal Knives in a Deployable Release System: Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Hair, Jason H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of Kevlar cord and thermal knives in a deployable release system produces a number of issues that must be addressed in the design of the system. This paper proposes design considerations that minimize the major issues, thermal knife failure, Kevlar cord relaxation, and the measurement of the cord tension. Design practices can minimize the potential for thermal knife laminate and element damage that result in failure of the knife. A process for in-situ inspection of the knife with resistance, rather than continuity, checks and 10x zoom optical imaging can detect damaged knives. Tests allow the characterization of the behavior of the particular Kevlar cord in use and the development of specific prestretching techniques and initial tension values needed to meet requirements. A new method can accurately measure the tension of the Kevlar cord using a guitar tuner, because more conventional methods do not apply to arimid cords such as Kevlar.

  20. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded PLGA microparticles via spray-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas

    2013-01-01

    ) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. METHODS: Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties...... and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). RESULTS: Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent...

  1. Aqueous dissolution of silver iodide and associated iodine release under reducing conditions with FeCl2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Imamura, Toshitaka; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Kato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Asano, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    An empirical and analytical study was performed on the aqueous dissolution of silver iodide (AgI) to release iodine under reducing conditions with Fe 2+ in order to understand the fundamental chemical and/or physical behavior of potential radioactive iodine waste forms under geological disposal conditions. Aqueous dissolution tests of AgI powder in FeCl 2 solutions (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M) were performed in a glove box purged with a gas mixture (Ar + 5% H 2 ). The test results showed that AgI dissolves to release iodine at extremely slow rates, being controlled by a diffusion process in any FeCl 2 solution. The comparison with thermodynamic calculations based on redox equilibria suggested that the AgI dissolution proceeds by redox reaction between Ag + and Fe 2+ ; however, it was far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. These results suggested that the form of AgI itself has a potential to immobilize iodine for a long time even under the disposal conditions. Solid-phase analysis for the reacted AgI by using SEM/EDS showed a certain amount of silver (maybe metallic silver) precipitated at the surface. On the basis of these results and discussion, a potential mechanism for the actual AgI dissolution was proposed as follows. The AgI dissolution proceeds by redox reaction between Ag + and Fe 2+ to release I - , which results in the precipitation of metallic silver as a reduction product of Ag + at the AgI surface to form a thin layer covering the AgI surface. The silver layer evolves to be protective against the transport of reactant species, by which the further dissolution to reach the equilibrium is suppressed. Consequently, the dissolution proceeds at extremely slow rates, being controlled by a diffusion process. (author)

  2. The system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water. Extraction by water in spray and packed columns from uranyl nitrate-either solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.

    1960-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the one published in Chemical Engineering Progress. Symposium Series, 50, n. 12, 127 (1954). New runs for spray columns, are given and other concentrations in uranyl nitrate for the packed columns. New correlations for the overall H.T.U. are also given. The individual H.T.U. have been grapycally calculated and show that the film resistances have similar values, being independent of the concentration of the ether phase. (Author) 24 refs

  3. Direct spray drying and microencapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri from slurry fermentation with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, M; Göpel, A; Beermann, C

    2013-10-01

    Formulations of dietary probiotics have to be robust against process conditions and have to maintain a sufficient survival rate during gastric transit. To increase efficiency of the encapsulation process and the viability of applied bacteria, this study aimed at developing spray drying and encapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri with whey directly from slurry fermentation. Lactobacillus reuteri was cultivated in watery 20% (w/v) whey solution with or without 0·5% (w/v) yeast extract supplementation in a submerged slurry fermentation. Growth enhancement with supplement was observed. Whey slurry containing c. 10(9)  CFU g(-1) bacteria was directly spray-dried. Cell counts in achieved products decreased by 2 log cycles after drying and 1 log cycle during 4 weeks of storage. Encapsulated bacteria were distinctively released in intestinal milieu. Survival rate of encapsulated bacteria was 32% higher compared with nonencapsulated ones exposed to artificial digestive juice. Probiotic L. reuteri proliferate in slurry fermentation with yeast-supplemented whey and enable a direct spray drying in whey. The resulting microcapsules remain stable during storage and reveal adequate survival in simulated gastric juices and a distinct release in intestinal juices. Exploiting whey as a bacterial substrate and encapsulation matrix within a coupled fermentation and spray-drying process offers an efficient option for industrial production of vital probiotics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  5. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  6. The molecular properties of biochar carbon released in dilute acidic solution and its effects on maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingling; Drosos, Marios; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Savy, Davide; Todisco, Daniele; Vinci, Giovanni; Pan, Genxing; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-15

    It is not yet clear whether the carbon released from biochar in the soil solution stimulates biological activities. Soluble fractions (AQU) from wheat and maize biochars, whose molecular content was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, 13 C and 1 H NMR, and high-resolution ESI-IT-TOF-MS, were separated in dilute acidic solution to simulate soil rhizospheric conditions and their effects evaluated on maize seeds germination activity. Elongation of maize-seeds coleoptile was significantly promoted by maize biochar AQU, whereas it was inhibited by wheat biochar AQU. Both AQU fractions contained relatively small heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, whose structures were accounted by their spectroscopic properties. Point-of-Zero-Charge (PZC) values and van Krevelen plots of identified masses of soluble components suggested that the dissolved carbon from maize biochar behaved as humic-like supramolecular material capable to adhere to seedlings and deliver bioactive molecules. These findings contribute to understand the biostimulation potential of biochars from crop biomasses when applied in agricultural production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  8. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  10. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  11. Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Cristiane RD; Durli, Taís L.; Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Raffin, Renata P.; Bender, Eduardo A.; Beck, Ruy CR; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Guterres, Sílvia S.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% ( w/ v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation.

  12. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol (DPPE-PEG microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenach SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samantha A Meenach,1,2 Frederick G Vogt,3 Kimberly W Anderson,2,4 J Zach Hilt,2,4 Ronald C McGarry,5Heidi M Mansour1,41Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Drug Development Division, University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, KY; 2Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Analytical Sciences, Product Development, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA; 4Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 5Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol (PEGylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated

  13. Adição simultânea de sulfato de amônio e ureia à calda de pulverização do herbicida glyphosate Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando soluções de ureia (U; 5 g L-1, sulfato de amônio (SA; 15 g L-1 ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 foram utilizadas como veículo de pulverização. Aos 28 dias após aplicação, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento, foram necessários 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50 quando água sem adjuvantes foi usada como veículo de pulverização. Para obtenção dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando solução de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A redução na dose oriunda da combinação de glyphosate e U+SA também foi observada para controles de 80% (C80. No segundo experimento, a adição de U+SA à calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1, igualando-o à aplicação da maior dose (720 g ha-1 sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficácia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1; ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1 or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1 were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curves (first trial, 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50 when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80. In the second trial, the addition of U

  14. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun

    2018-05-18

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  15. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun; Shi, Yusuf; Chang, Jian; Li, Renyuan; Ong, Chi Siang; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  16. Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio Luis N. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IN, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Durao, Diamantino G. [Universidade Lusiada, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling. (orig.)

  17. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  18. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  19. Spherical Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesized by spray drying from a different kind of solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Zhenjiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Zhixing, E-mail: zhixingwang163@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wu Feixiang; Guo Huajun; Li Xinhai; Xiong Xunhui [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The precursor powders comprise hollow particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} acts as coordination agent that reacts with the Ti to form a large anion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders can be synthesized at a low temperature of 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spherical Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders show excellent electrochemical performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hope our work will be helpful for other research groups. - Abstract: High energy density Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders comprising of spherical nanocrystalline are synthesized by spray drying followed by solid-state calcination. The influences of Li/Ti atomic ratios (0.784, 0.800, 0.816, and 0.832) on the performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are investigated by means of Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Galvanostatic cell cycling, as well as Ac impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that, when the spray-drying precursors at the Li/Ti molar ratio of 0.816 are calcined at 700 Degree-Sign C for 16 h in air, a pure LTO phase with a lithium-excess composition is obtained, which shows the best properties. Between 1.0 and 2.5 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}), the initial discharge capacities of the powder are 174, 168, 163, 153, and 136 mAhg{sup -1} at a constant current density of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 C, respectively. After 100 cycles, the discharge capacities of the LTO powders remain 97, 95, and 99% of initial discharge capacities at current densities of 1, 2, and 5 C, respectively.

  20. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  2. Optimization of the Automated Spray Layer-by-Layer Technique for Thin Film Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    air- pumped spray-paint cans 17,18 to fully automated systems using high pressure gas .7’ 19 This work uses the automated spray system previously...spray solutions were delivered by ultra high purity nitrogen gas (AirGas) regulated to 25psi, except when examining air pressure effects . The PAH solution...polyelectrolyte solution feed tube, the resulting Venturi effect causes the liquid solution to be drawn up into the airbrush nozzle, where it is

  3. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627

  6. Assessment of spray deposition with water-sensitive paper cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial distributions of spray droplets discharged from an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent paper (AP) and water-sensitive paper (WSP) targets at several distances from the sprayer. Spray solutions, containing a fluorescent tracer, were discharged from two size nozzles to achiev...

  7. Instant release fraction and matrix release of high burn-up UO{sub 2} spent nuclear fuel: Effect of high burn-up structure and leaching solution composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano-Purroy, D., E-mail: Daniel.serrano-purroy@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Clarens, F.; Gonzalez-Robles, E. [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Barcelona (Spain); Glatz, J.P.; Wegen, D.H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pablo, J. de [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, I.; Gimenez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Esparza, A. [ENRESA, C/Emilio Vargas 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Two weak points in Performance Assessment (PA) exercises regarding the alteration of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are the contribution of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) and the effect of High Burn-Up Structure (HBS). This manuscript focuses on the effect of HBS in matrix (long term) and instant release of a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) SNF irradiated in a commercial reactor with a mean Burn-Up (BU) of 60 GWd/tU. In order to study the HBS contribution, two samples from different radial positions have been prepared. One from the centre of the SNF, labelled CORE, and one from the periphery, enriched with HBS and labelled OUT. Static leaching experiments have been carried out with two synthetic leaching solutions: bicarbonate (BIC) and Bentonitic Granitic Groundwater (BGW), and in all cases under oxidising conditions. IRF values have been calculated from the determined Fraction of Inventory in Aqueous Phase (FIAP). In all studied cases, some radionuclides (RN): Rb, Sr and Cs, have shown higher release rates than uranium, especially at the beginning of the experiment, and have been considered as IRF. Redox sensitive RN like Mo and Tc have been found to dissolve slightly faster than uranium and further studies might be needed to confirm if they can also be considered part of the IRF. Most of the remaining studied RN, mainly actinides and lanthanides, have been found to dissolve congruently with the uranium matrix. Finally, Zr, Ru and Rh presented lower release rates than the matrix. Higher matrix release has been determined for CORE than for OUT samples showing that the formation of HBS might have a protective effect against the oxidative corrosion of the SNF. On the contrary, no significant differences have been observed between the two studied leaching solutions (BIC and BGW). Two different IRF contributions have been determined. One corresponding to the fraction of inventory segregated in the external open grain boundaries, directly available to water and

  8. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded plga microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Foged, Camilla; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative to understand the particle formation mechanisms when designing advanced nano/microparticulate drug delivery systems. We investigated how the solvent power and volatility influence the texture and surface chemistry of celecoxib-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent power of the feed solution. An obvious burst release was observed for the microparticles prepared by the feed solutions with the highest amount of poor solvent for PLGA. TGA analysis revealed distinct drying kinetics for the binary mixtures. The particle formation process is mainly governed by the PLGA precipitation rate, which is solvent-dependent, and the migration rate of celecoxib molecules during drying. The texture and surface chemistry of the spray-dried PLGA microparticles can therefore be tailored by adjusting the solvent composition.

  9. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  10. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  11. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  12. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  13. Particle size distribution of aerosols sprayed from household hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based and silicone-based compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Japan has published safety guideline on waterproof aerosol sprays. Furthermore, the Aerosol Industry Association of Japan has adopted voluntary regulations on waterproof aerosol sprays. Aerosol particles of diameter less than 10 µm are considered as "fine particles". In order to avoid acute lung injury, this size fraction should account for less than 0.6% of the sprayed aerosol particles. In contrast, the particle size distribution of aerosols released by hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based or silicone-based compounds have not been investigated in Japan. Thus, the present study investigated the aerosol particle size distribution of 16 household hand-pump sprays. In 4 samples, the ratio of fine particles in aerosols exceeded 0.6%. This study confirmed that several hand-pump sprays available in the Japanese market can spray fine particles. Since the hand-pump sprays use water as a solvent and their ingredients may be more hydrophilic than those of aerosol sprays, the concepts related to the safety of aerosol-sprays do not apply to the hand pump sprays. Therefore, it may be required for the hand-pump spray to develop a suitable method for evaluating the toxicity and to establish the safety guideline.

  14. Preparation of high quality spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films using dilute di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premalal, E.V.A., E-mail: vikum777@gmail.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Dematage, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kaneko, S. [SPD Laboratory Inc, Hi-Cube 3-1-7, Wajiyama, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Konno, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared, at different substrate temperatures, using dilute precursor solutions of di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (0.1 M DBTDA) by varying the F{sup -} concentration in the solution. It is noticed that conductivity of FTO film is increasing by increasing the fluorine amount in the solution. Morphology of SEM image reveals that grain size and its distribution are totally affected by the substrate temperature in which conductivity is altered. Among these FTO films, the best film obtained gives an electronic conductivity of 31.85 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, sheet resistance of 4.4 {Omega}/{open_square} ({rho} = 3.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm) with over 80% average normal transmittance between the 400 and 800 nm wavelength range. The best FTO film consists of a large distribution of grain sizes from 50 nm to 400 nm range and the optimum conditions used are 0.1 M DBTDA, 0.3 M ammonium fluoride, in a mixture of propan-2-ol and water, at 470 Degree-Sign C substrate temperature. The large distribution of grain sizes can be easily obtained using low DBTDA concentration ({approx} 0.1 M or less) and moderate substrate temperature (470 Degree-Sign C). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer F-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) thin films prepared using di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (DBTDA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substrate temperature and DBTDA concentration affect grain size and distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large distribution of grain sizes can optimize the conductivity of FTO film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 0.1 M DBTDA, substrate temperature of 470 Degree-Sign C allows a large grain size distribution.

  15. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  16. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  18. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  19. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities in coffee plants sprayed with sucrose solution Atividade de invertases e sacarose sintase em plantas de cafeeiro pulverizadas com solução de sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One management practice of which the efficiency has not yet been scientifically tested is spraying coffee plants with diluted sucrose solutions as a source of carbon for the plant. This paper evaluates the effect of foliar spraying with sugar on the endogenous level of carbohydrates and on the activities of invertase and sucrose synthase in coffee (Coffea arabica L. seedlings with reduced (low and high (normal levels of carbon reserve. The concentrations used were 0.5 and 1.0% sucrose, and water as a control. The use of sucrose at 1.0% caused an increase in the concentration of total soluble sugars in depauperate plants, as well as increased the activity of the following enzymes: cell wall and vacuole acid invertase, neutral cytosol invertase and sucrose synthase. In plants with high level of carbon reserve, no increments in total soluble sugar levels or in enzymatic activity were observed. Regardless of treatments or plants physiological state, no differences in transpiration or stomatal conductance were observed, demonstrating the stomatal control of transpiration. Photosynthesis was stimulated with the use of 0.5 and 1.0 % sucrose only in depauperate plants. Coffee seedling spraying with sucrose is only efficient for depauperate plants, at the concentration of 1.0%.Uma prática cuja eficiência não foi ainda comprovada cientificamente, é a pulverização dos cafeeiros com solução diluída de sacarose, como fonte de carbono para as plantas. Este trabalho visou estudar o efeito da pulverização de açúcar via folha nos teores endógenos de carboidratos e na atividade das enzimas invertases e sacarose sintase em mudas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. com baixo (baixo e alto (normal nível de reservas de carbono. As pulverizações ocorreram nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1% de sacarose utilizando-se água como testemunha. A aplicação de sacarose a 1% aumentou a concentração de açúcares solúveis totais (AST em plantas depauperadas, como

  20. Femtosecond Mid-Infrared Study of the Aqueous Solution Photochemistry of a CO-Releasing Molecule (CORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzschneider U.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet irradiation of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs in water eventually leads to the loss of several carbon monoxide ligands.We show for an exemplary manganese tricarbonyl CORM that only one ligand is photolyzed off on an ultrafast timescale and that some molecules may undergo geminate recombination.

  1. Tannic acid promotes ion release of copper oxide nanoparticles: Impacts from solution pH change and complexation reactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yang; Pan, Bo; Gao, Guoqian; Liu, Ying; Liu, Siqian; Liang, Ni; Zhou, Dandan; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of applications in which copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used, may lead to potential release of CuO NPs into the environment. However, the impact of natural organic matters on the behavior and fate of CuO NPs in aquatic media is still largely unknown. In this study,

  2. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  3. Relative bioavailability of diclofenac potassium from softgel capsule versus powder for oral solution and immediate-release tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Girish; Biswal, Shibadas; Bhad, Prafulla; Chen, Yuming; Salunke, Atish; Winter, Serge; Wagner, Robert; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of diclofenac potassium 50 mg administered as a soft gelatin capsule (softgel capsule), powder for oral solution (oral solution), and tablet was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by noncompartmental methods. The median time to achieve peak plasma concentrations of diclofenac was 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 hours with the softgel capsule, oral solution, and tablet formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf, and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the oral solution formulation were 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95), respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the tablet formulation were 1.04 (1.00-1.08) and 1.67 (1.43-1.96), respectively. In conclusion, the exposure (AUC) of diclofenac with the new diclofenac potassium softgel capsule formulation was comparable to that of the existing oral solution and tablet formulations. The peak plasma concentration of diclofenac from the new softgel capsule was 67% higher than the existing tablet formulation, whereas it was 15% lower in comparison with the oral solution formulation. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  5. Sustained-release diclofenac potassium-loaded solid lipid microparticle based on solidified reverse micellar solution: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Salome Amarachi; Attama, Anthony Amaechi; Builders, Philip F; Onunkwo, Godswill C

    2013-01-01

    To formulate sustained-release diclofenac potassium-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS) and to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties. SRMS consisting of mixtures of Phospholipon® 90H and Softisan® 154 were used to formulate diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs. Characterization based on the particle size and morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) were carried out on the SLMs. In vitro release was carried out in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5). Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic properties were studied using rats. Maximum EE% of 95%, 94% and 93% were obtained for SLMs formulated with SRMS 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. In vitro release showed about 85-90% drug release at 13 h. Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs showed good anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective properties. Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs based on SRMS could be used orally or parenterally under controlled conditions, for once daily administration.

  6. Strand breaks, base release and post-irradiation changes in DNA γ-irradiated in dilute O2-saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.; Kuo, I.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of DNA in dilute O 2 -saturated aqueous solution releases free bases and damaged bases from the macromolecule. The yields of these products were measured after column chromatographic separation. For double stranded DNA the immediate yield of bases varies from G = 0.012 for cytosine to G = 0.033 for adenine. The yields of released bases increase with post-irradiation time (the majority of the increase occurs in the first 2 hrs.) to yields in the range of G = 0.07 +- 0.012. Yields of two released damaged thymine radiation products from γ-irradiated 3 H thymine labelled DNA also increased with post-irradiation time. Strand breaks were measured in γ-irradiated single stranded DNA the initial yield G = 0.02 was low but increased with time to G = 0.07. No direct correlation between strand-break production and release of low molecular weight products is possible. The findings are discussed in terms of damage to DNA in vivo and its enzymatic repair

  7. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  8. Stoichiometry and superconductive properties of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the stoichiometry and the superconducting characteristics of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis on the spraying solution composition and the deposition conditions is reported. It has been found that a proper optimization of the starting materials concentration in the spraying solution results in superconducting films with zero resistance temperature of 91 K and a transition to superconducting state within a 3 K range. X-ray diffraction and resistance vs temperature measurements have been used to monitor the crystal composition and the conductive characteristics of the films as a function of the spraying solution composition and the deposition parameters

  9. Deposition and release kinetics of nano-TiO2 in saturated porous media: Effects of solution ionic strength and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, Itzel G.; Darnault, Christophe J.G.; Khodadoust, Amid P.; Bogdan, Dorin

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation, transport and deposition kinetics (i.e. attachment and release) of TiO 2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) were investigated as a function of ionic strength and the presence of anionic (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS) and non-ionic (Triton X-100) surfactants in 100% critical micelle concentration (CMC). The electrolyte concentration of the suspensions dictated the kinetic stability of nano-TiO 2 thus influencing the transport and retention of the nanoaggregates in the saturated porous medium. With increasing ionic strength, the interaction between approaching nano-TiO 2 and nano-TiO 2 already deposited onto collectors surfaces seemed to be more favorable than the interaction between approaching nano-TiO 2 and bare collectors surfaces. The abrupt and gradual reduction in electrolyte concentration during the flushing cycles of the column experiments induced the release of previously deposited nano-TiO 2 suggesting attachment of nano-TiO 2 through secondary energy minimum. Highlights: ► This study focuses on aggregation, transport and deposition kinetics of nano-TiO 2 . ► Ionic strength and surfactants impact nano-TiO 2 transport in saturated porous media. ► Previously deposited nano-TiO 2 serve as preferential sites for subsequent deposition. ► Changes in solution chemistry cause nanodeposits to release a portion of nano-TiO 2 . -- Previously deposited nano-TiO 2 serve as preferential sites for subsequent deposition and changes in solution chemistry cause nanodeposits to release a portion of nano-TiO 2

  10. Decontamination Procedure for Sorghum and Coffee Leaves Sprayed With Zinc and a Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Caione, Gustavo; Guirra, Ana Paula Pires Maciel; Prado, Renato de Mello; Klar, Antonio Evaldo

    2014-01-01

    Decontaminating leaf samples from crops sprayed with pesticides and nutrient solutions is important for foliar analysis. This study evaluated the effect of different washing methods in coffee and sorghum foliage that had been sprayed with zinc (with or without surfactant). The plants were sprayed with a 3 g L-1 zinc sulfate solution, with and without surfactant. Seven days later, leaves were collected and washed. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 2 x 3 + 2 factorial, with thre...

  11. An asymptotic analytical solution to the problem of two moving boundaries with fractional diffusion in one-dimensional drug release devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Chen; Xu Mingyu

    2009-01-01

    We set up a one-dimensional mathematical model with a Caputo fractional operator of a drug released from a polymeric matrix that can be dissolved into a solvent. A two moving boundaries problem in fractional anomalous diffusion (in time) with order α element of (0, 1] under the assumption that the dissolving boundary can be dissolved slowly is presented in this paper. The two-parameter regular perturbation technique and Fourier and Laplace transform methods are used. A dimensionless asymptotic analytical solution is given in terms of the Wright function

  12. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  14. Release of the Diclofenac Sodium by Nanofibers of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Obtained from Electrospinning and Solution Blow Spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Andrade Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fibers are explored as a new system for controlled drug delivery. Novel techniques capable of obtaining polymer nanofibers have been reported in the literature. They include solution blow spinning (SBS, which is a technique to produce polymer nanofibers in the same range as electrospinning, using pressurized gas instead of high voltage. The present study investigates release characteristics of diclofenac sodium encapsulated at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20% w/v in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV nanofibers made by electrospinning and SBS and determines the drug’s effect on fiber morphology and structural properties. PHBV nanofibers were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and the release profile was examined via UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both electrospinning and SBS encapsulated diclofenac sodium in PHBV membranes efficiently and effectively. The profile of the in vitro release of diclofenac sodium was dependent on drug concentration and temperature. The drug reduced crystallinity and increased flexibility.

  15. From solid to liquid: assessing the release of organic matter into soil solution in response to land-use conversion in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jason; Gross, Cole; Dwivedi, Pranjal; Bernardi, Rodolpho; Guerrini, Irae; Harrison, Rob; Butman, David

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in freshwater research indicate that roughly double the quantity of carbon is exported from soils to streams and rivers than was previously estimated, and that the age of carbon exported from major rivers globally increases with greater human disturbance in the watershed. This implies that human land-use can release old, previously mineral-associated C into solution with subsequent export to groundwater and ultimately freshwater systems where terrestrial organic matter is either mineralized to CO2, stored in aquatic sediments, or exported to the ocean. Consequently, it is important to understand the mechanisms that cause the release of SOM that is mineral-bound into solution in response to human disturbance and land-use change. Research methods have been established to examine both the fast turnover, dissolved pool of soil organic matter (SOM), as well as the slow turnover, mineral-associated pool. However, to better characterize the response of the total SOM pool to disturbance, it is necessary to understand the interactions between these functional pools by examining them both simultaneously. This study seeks to examine the interaction between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bulk SOM throughout the soil profile in response to conversion of Brazilian Cerrado (savannah forest) to Eucalyptus plantation forest on the same soil type. The water-extractable organic matter was obtained from soil samples down to 150 cm, characterized using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, and carbon-dated. Simultaneously, bulk mineral soil samples were analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon content and age, and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. SOM spectra were obtained by washing subsamples with sodium hypochlorite and subtracting the subsequent mineral matrix spectra from bulk soil spectra. Preliminary results show that microbial biomass decreases much more quickly with depth than DOM, suggesting that C released into solution from deeper

  16. Solutions to the cocktail party problem in insects: selective filters, spatial release from masking and gain control in tropical crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne K D Schmidt

    Full Text Available Insects often communicate by sound in mixed species choruses; like humans and many vertebrates in crowded social environments they thus have to solve cocktail-party-like problems in order to ensure successful communication with conspecifics. This is even more a problem in species-rich environments like tropical rainforests, where background noise levels of up to 60 dB SPL have been measured.Using neurophysiological methods we investigated the effect of natural background noise (masker on signal detection thresholds in two tropical cricket species Paroecanthus podagrosus and Diatrypa sp., both in the laboratory and outdoors. We identified three 'bottom-up' mechanisms which contribute to an excellent neuronal representation of conspecific signals despite the masking background. First, the sharply tuned frequency selectivity of the receiver reduces the amount of masking energy around the species-specific calling song frequency. Laboratory experiments yielded an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of -8 dB, when masker and signal were broadcast from the same side. Secondly, displacing the masker by 180° from the signal improved SNRs by further 6 to 9 dB, a phenomenon known as spatial release from masking. Surprisingly, experiments carried out directly in the nocturnal rainforest yielded SNRs of about -23 dB compared with those in the laboratory with the same masker, where SNRs reached only -14.5 and -16 dB in both species. Finally, a neuronal gain control mechanism enhances the contrast between the responses to signals and the masker, by inhibition of neuronal activity in interstimulus intervals.Thus, conventional speaker playbacks in the lab apparently do not properly reconstruct the masking noise situation in a spatially realistic manner, since under real world conditions multiple sound sources are spatially distributed in space. Our results also indicate that without knowledge of the receiver properties and the spatial release mechanisms the

  17. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  18. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  19. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  20. Measurement of Ambient Air Motion of D. I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Masahisa; Isshiki, Seiji; Yoshizaki, Takuo; Nishida, Keiya

    Ambient air velocity distributions in and around a D. I. gasoline spray were measured using a combination of LIF and PIV techniques. A rhodamine and water solution was injected into ambient air to disperse the fine fluorescent liquid particles used as tracers. A fuel spray was injected into the fluorescent tracer cloud and was illuminated by an Nd: YAG laser light sheet (532nm). The scattered light from the spray droplets and tracers was cut off by a high-pass filter (>560nm). As the fluorescence (>600nm) was transmitted through the high-pass filter, the tracer images were captured using a CCD camera and the ambient air velocity distribution could be obtained by PIV based on the images. This technique was applied to a D. I. gasoline spray. The ambient air flowed up around the spray and entered into the tail of the spray. Furthermore, the relative velocity between the spray and ambient air was investigated.

  1. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  2. UO2 leaching and radionuclide release modelling under high and low ionic strength solution and oxidation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the UO 2 dissolution under oxidizing conditions has been studied in order to compare these results to those obtained with spent fuel. Two different leaching solutions have been used, one with a high ionic strength trying to simulate the conditions expected in a saline repository and the other at low ionic strength much appropriate to granitic environments. In both cases, the dissolution has been studied studied as a function of pH, redox potential, oxidants, complexing agents, particle size as well as the experimental methodology. Results can be summarized as follows: a) The UO 2 dissolution is rather independent on ionic strength. b) Dissolution rates can be explained in general independent on the oxidant as: Log R=3DK [oxidant] Surface solid evolution is very important to understand the dissolution/oxidation mechanism of UO 2 . d) Under oxidizing conditions, the dissolution is H+ and HCO 3 promoted. e) In carbonate medium, both UO 2 and spent fuel dissolution rates are very similar, while in a non-complexing medium, spent fuel dissolution rate is much higher than the UO 2 one. This fact seems to indicate that radiolysis is much important non-complexing media. (Author)

  3. Effect of injection pressure on heat release rate and emissions in CI engine using orange skin powder diesel solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, K.; Nagarajan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of injection pressure on the combustion process and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Orange Skin Powder Diesel Solution (OSPDS). Earlier investigation by the authors revealed that 30% OSPDS was optimum for better performance and emissions. In the present investigation the injection pressure was varied with 30% OSPDS and the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were compared with those of diesel fuel. The different injection pressures studied were 215 bar, 235 bar and 255 bar. The results showed that the cylinder pressure with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar fuel injection pressure, was higher than that of diesel fuel as well as at other injection pressures. Similarly, the ignition delay was longer and with shorter combustion duration with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar injection pressure. The brake thermal efficiency was better at 235 bar than that of other fuel injection pressures with OSPDS and lower than that of diesel fuel. The NO x emission with 30% OSPDS was higher at 235 bar. The hydrocarbon and CO emissions were lower with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar. The smoke emission with 30% OSPDS was marginally lower at 235 bar and marginally higher at 215 bar than for diesel fuel. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine operating on the test fuels at 235 bar injection pressure were better than other injection pressures

  4. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  5. COMBUSTION HEAT RELEASE RATE ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINE WITH SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF DEE-H2O SOLUTION - A VIBRATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANA MURTHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the combustion propensity of single cylinder direct injection engine fueled with palm kernel methyl ester (PKME, which is non- edible oil and a secondary co-injection of saturated Diethyl ether (DEE with water. DEE along with water is fumigated through a high pressure nozzle fitted to the inlet manifold of the engine and the flow rate of the secondary injection was electronically controlled. DEE is known to improve the cold starting problem in engines when used in straight diesel fuel. However, its application in emulsion form is little known. Experimental results show that for 5% DEE- H2O solution injection, occurrence of maximum net heat release rate is delayed due to controlled premixed combustion, which normally helped in better torque conversion when the piston is in accelerated mode. Vibration measurements in the frequency range of 900Hz to 1300Hz revealed that a new mode of combustion has taken place with different excitation frequencies.

  6. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  7. Differential pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium for oral solution vs immediate-release tablets from a randomized trial: effect of fed and fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuiping; Bujanover, Shay; Kareht, Stephanie; Rapoport, Alan M

    2015-02-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics of, and food effect on, diclofenac potassium delivered as an oral solution vs an immediate-release tablet. Diclofenac potassium for oral solution is the only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved as monotherapy for the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura in adults 18 years of age or older. It is formulated with potassium bicarbonate as a buffering agent to raise the pH and consequently increase the aqueous solubility of diclofenac in the acidic environment of the stomach following oral administration. The dosage is 50 mg of powdered diclofenac potassium dissolved in 1 to 2 ounces (30 to 60 mL) of water prior to administration, with dosing time in relation to food intake not specified - this was the case for the pivotal efficacy and safety trials in subjects with acute migraine attacks in which the primary endpoints were achieved. For acute treatment of migraine attacks, rapid onset of pain relief is desirable and is likely related to a rapid appearance of an effective concentration of the drug in the systemic circulation. The rate at which an orally administered drug reaches the blood is affected by both its formulation and the presence of food in the stomach. The present study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 2 formulations of diclofenac potassium, an immediate-release tablet and an oral solution, and to ascertain the effect of food. This was an open-label, randomized, single-center, crossover trial in healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized using computer-generated list to 1:1:1:1 ratio. They received a single 50-mg dose of diclofenac potassium in 4 sequences (ABCD, BADC, CDBA, and DCAB) during each of the 4 treatment periods. The 4 treatments were: A, oral solution fasting; B, tablet fasting; C, oral solution fed; and D, tablet fed. There was a ≥7-day washout period between dosing. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were taken for up to 12 hours post-dose and

  8. [Study on Xinyueshu spray drying assisted with copovidone and its effect on powder property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  11. Fundamental Study on the Effect of Spray Parameters on Characteristics of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to elucidate the effects of the important spray characteristics on the surface morphology and light absorbance of spray-on P3HT:PCBM thin-films, used as an active layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs. Spray coating or deposition is a viable scalable technique for the large-scale, fast, and low-cost fabrication of solution-processed solar cells, and has been widely used for device fabrication, although the fundamental understanding of the underlying and controlling parameters, such as spray characteristics, droplet dynamics, and surface wettability, is still limited, making the results on device fabrication not reproducible and unreliable. In this paper, following the conventional PSC architecture, a PEDOT:PSS layer is first spin-coated on glass substrates, followed by the deposition of P3HT:PCBM using an automatic ultrasonic spray coating system, with a movable nozzle tip, to mimic an industrial manufacturing process. To gain insight, the effects of the spray carrier air pressure, the number of spray passes, the precursor flow rate, and precursor concentration are studied on the surface topography and light absorbance spectra of the spray-on films. Among the results, it is found that despite the high roughness of spray-on films, the light absorbance of the film is satisfactory. It is also found that the absorbance of spray-on films is a linear function of the number of spray passes or deposition layers, based on which an effective film thickness is defined for rough spray-on films. The effective thickness of a rough spray-on P3HT:PCBM film was found to be one-quarter of that of a flat film predicted by a simple mass balance.

  12. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  13. Modification of the solid-state nature of sulfathiazole and sulfathiazole sodium by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.

  14. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  15. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  16. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  17. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electro-spray of high viscous liquids for producing mono-sized spherical alginate beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Moghadam; Mohsen Samimi; Abdolreza Samimi; Mohamad Khorram

    2008-01-01

    Alginate beads, often used for controlled release of enzymes and drugs, are usually produced by spraying sodium alginate liquid into a gelling agent using mechanical vibration nozzle or air jet. In this work an alternative method of electro-spray was employed to form droplets with desired size from a highly viscous sodium alginate solution using constant DC voltage. The droplets were then cured in a calcium chloride solution. The main objective was to produce mono-sized beads from such a highly viscous and non-Newtonian liquid (1000-5000 mPa s). The effects of nozzle diameter, flow rate and concentration of liquid on the size of the beads were investigated. Among the parameters studied, voltage had a pronounced effect on the size of beads as compared to flow rate zzle diameter and concentration of alginate liquid. The size of beads was reduced to a minimum value with increasing the voltage in the range of 0-10 kV. At the early stages of voltage increase (I.e. Up to about 4 kV), the rate of size reduction was relatively low, while the dripping mode dominated. However, in the middle part of the range of applied voltage, where the rate of size reduction was high (I.e. About 4-7 kV), an unstable transition occurred between dripping and jetting. At the end part of the range (I.e. 7-10 kV) jet mode of spray was observed. Increasing the height of fall of the droplets was found to improve the sphericity of the beads, because of the increased time of flight for the droplets. This was especially identifiable at higher concentrations of the alginate liquid (I.e. 3 w/v%)

  19. [Preparation of citrulline microspheres by spray drying technique for colonic targeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, S; Zerrouk, N; Lassoued, M-A; Tsapis, N; Chaumeil, J-C; Sfar, S

    2014-03-01

    Citrulline is an amino acid that becomes essential in situations of intestinal insufficiency such as short bowel syndrome. It is therefore interesting to provide the patients with dosage forms for routing citrulline to the colon. The aim of this work is to formulate microspheres of citrulline for colonic targeting by the technique of spray drying. Eudragit(®) FS 30D was selected as polymer to encapsulate citrulline using the spray drying technique. Citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D were dissolved in water and ethanol, respectively. The aqueous and the ethanolic solutions were then mixed in 1:2 (v/v) ratio. Microspheres were obtained by nebulizing the citrulline-Eudragit(®) FS 30D solution using a Mini spray dryer equipped with a 0.7mm nozzle. The microspheres have been formulated using citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D. The size distribution of microspheres was determined by light diffraction. The morphology of the microspheres was studied by electron microscopy. Manufacturing yields, encapsulation rate and dissolution profiles were also studied. The microspheres obtained had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and a homogeneous size except for the microspheres containing the highest concentration of polymer (90 %). The formulation showed that the size and morphology of the microspheres are influenced by the polymer concentration. Manufacturing yields were about 51 % but encapsulation rate were always very high (above 90 %). The in vitro dissolution study showed that the use of the Eudragit(®) FS 30D under these conditions is not appropriate to change the dissolution profile of the citrulline. This technique has led to the formulation of microspheres with good physical properties in terms of morphology and size. The compression of the microspheres should help to control citrulline release for colonic targeting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the...

  1. Numerical model of sprayed air cooled condenser coupled to refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.; Macchi-Tejeda, H.; Fournaison, L.; Guilpart, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because of technological, economic and environmental constraints, many refrigeration and air conditioning units are equipped with a simple air cooled condenser. Spraying the condenser seems to be an original solution to improve the energetic performances of such systems. To characterise this energetic benefit, a semi-local mathematical model was developed and applied to a refrigerating machine with and without spraying its air cooled condenser. It is found that, compared to a dry air cooled condenser, both the calorific capacity and machine COP increase by 13% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that a spray flow rate threshold occurs. It should not be exceeded to assure an effective and rational spray use

  2. Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary...... administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment....

  3. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs. Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easily control transmittance of the photoelectrode through the multiple spray coating process. This work mainly used a dispersant with help of ultrasonic oscillation to prepare the required nano-TiO2 solution and then sprayed it on the ITO glasses. In this work, a motor-operated conveyor belt was built to transport the ITO glasses automatically for multiple spray coating and drying alternately. Experiments used transmittance of the photoelectrode as a fabrication parameter to analyze photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. The influencing factors of the photoelectrode transmittance during fabrication are the spray flow rate, the spray distance, and the moving speed of the conveyor belt. The results show that DSSC with the photoelectrode transmittance of ca. 68.0 ± 1.5% and coated by the spray coating technique has the best photoelectric conversion efficiency in this work.

  4. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  5. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  6. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  7. Influence of Sodium Alginate on Hypoglycemic Activity of Metformin Hydrochloride in the Microspheres Obtained by the Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate microspheres with metformin hydrochloride were prepared by the spray drying method in order to improve residence time of drug in the stomach. Nine formulations (F1–F9 with various drug : polymer ratio (1 : 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1 and different sodium alginate concentration (1%, 2%, and 3% were evaluated for size, morphology, drug loading, Zeta potential, and swelling degree. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile, and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. Optimal formulation characterized by the highest drug loading was formulation F6 (drug : polymer ratio 2 : 1 and 2% alginate solution. Based on glucose uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and α-amylase inhibition tests, it could be concluded that alginate microspheres enhance hypoglycemic activity of metformin hydrochloride evaluated in vitro. Designed microspheres are promising as alternative, multicompartment dosage form for metformin hydrochloride delivery.

  8. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  9. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  11. Physico-chemical aspects of radionuclide removal under accident conditions in nuclear power plants by means of containment-building spray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, M.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on industrial spray solutions, their thermal and radiation stability, drop effects, and the corrosion behaviour of reactor and containment materials. From the hitherto known spray experiments it may be concluded that (1) spray solutions can be used for the effective decontamination of the containment atmosphere in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident, (2) the spray efficiency for the removal of gaseous and volatile fission products can be assessed by means of simplified model considerations, (3) further work is necessary to optimize the technology of the spray process. (author)

  12. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  13. Thermal decomposition of uranylnitrate by the Spray-Dryer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildhagen, G.R.S.; Silva, G.C. da

    1988-01-01

    The proposal of this work consist in the thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate solutions by the Spray-Dryer process aiming the production of highly reactive fluidized UO 3 , adequate for the use in posterior of reduction to UO 2 and hydrofluorination to UF 4 , in a fluidized bed for the obtention of UF 6 in the cicle of nuclear fuels. (author) [pt

  14. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M T; Kaario, O T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  15. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  16. DNS Study of the Ignition of n-Heptane Fuel Spray under HCCI Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Rutland, Christopher J.

    2004-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the mixing and auto-ignition processes of n-heptane fuel spray in a turbulent field using a skeletal chemistry mechanism with 44 species and 112 reactions. For the solution of the carrier gas fluid, we use the Eulerian method, while for the fuel spray, the Lagrangian method is used. We use an eighth-order finite difference scheme to calculate spacial derivatives and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme for the time integration. The initial gas temperature is 926 K and the initial gas pressure is 30 atmospheres. The initial global equivalence ratio based on the fuel concentration is around 0.4. The initial droplet diameter is 60 macrons and the droplet temperature is 300 K. Evolutions of averaged temperature, species mass fraction, heat release and reaction rate are presented. Contours of temperature and species mass fractions are presented. The objective is to understand the mechanism of ignition under Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions, aiming at providing some useful information of HCCI combustion, which is one of the critical issues to be resolved.

  17. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  18. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  19. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called antihistamines. It works by blocking the effects of histamine, a substance in the ... first time, point the applicator away from your face. then press down and release the pump five ...

  20. Sumatriptan Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals from being sent to the brain, and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... toes shortness of breath swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat difficulty breathing or swallowing ...

  1. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of drugs called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the pump for the ...

  2. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals from being sent to the brain, and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... toes shortness of breath swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat difficulty breathing or swallowing ...

  3. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the pump for the ...

  4. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  5. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  6. Controlled release of linalool using nanofibrous membranes of poly(lactic acid) obtained by electrospinning and solution blow spinning: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The controlled-release of natural plant oils such as linalool is of interest in therapeutics, cosmetics, and antimicrobial and larvicidal products. The present study reports the release characteristics of linalool encapsulated at three concentrations (10, 15 and 20 wt.%) in poly(lactic acid) nanofib...

  7. The influence of spray properties on intranasal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mow Yee; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Su, Wei-Chung; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-01-01

    While numerous devices, formulations, and spray characteristics have been shown to influence nasal deposition efficiency, few studies have attempted to identify which of these interacting factors plays the greatest role in nasal spray deposition. The deposition patterns of solutions with a wide range of surface tensions and viscosities were measured using an MRI-derived nasal cavity replica. The resulting spray plumes had angles between 29 degrees and 80 degrees and contained droplet sizes (D(v50)) from 37-157 microm. Each formulation contained rhodamine 590 as a fluorescent marker for detection. Administration angles of 30 degrees , 40 degrees , or 50 degrees above horizontal were tested to investigate the role of user technique on nasal deposition. The amount of spray deposited within specific regions of the nasal cavity was determined by disassembling the replica and measuring the amount of rhodamine retained in each section. Most of the spray droplets were deposited onto the anterior region of the model, but sprays with small plume angles were capable of reaching the turbinate region with deposition efficiencies approaching 90%. Minimal dependence on droplet size, viscosity, or device was observed. Changes in inspiratory flow rate (0-60 L/min) had no significant effect on turbinate deposition efficiency. Both plume angle and administration angle were found to be important factors in determining deposition efficiency. For administration angles of 40 degrees or 50 degrees , maximal turbinate deposition efficiency (30-50%) occurred with plume angles of 55-65 degrees , whereas a 30 degrees administration angle gave an approximately 75% deposition efficiency for similar plume angles. Deposition efficiencies of approximately 90% could be achieved with plume angles deposition efficiency, while many other spray parameters, including particle size, have relatively minor influences on deposition within the nasal cavity.

  8. Effects of Sea-Surface Waves and Ocean Spray on Air-Sea Momentum Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Song, Jinbao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of sea-surface waves and ocean spray on the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) at different wind speeds and wave ages were investigated. An MABL model was developed that introduces a wave-induced component and spray force to the total surface stress. The theoretical model solution was determined assuming the eddy viscosity coefficient varied linearly with height above the sea surface. The wave-induced component was evaluated using a directional wave spectrum and growth rate. Spray force was described using interactions between ocean-spray droplets and wind-velocity shear. Wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients were calculated for low to high wind speeds for wind-generated sea at different wave ages to examine surface-wave and ocean-spray effects on MABL momentum distribution. The theoretical solutions were compared with model solutions neglecting wave-induced stress and/or spray stress. Surface waves strongly affected near-surface wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients at low to moderate wind speeds. Drag coefficients and near-surface wind speeds were lower for young than for old waves. At high wind speeds, ocean-spray droplets produced by wind-tearing breaking-wave crests affected the MABL strongly in comparison with surface waves, implying that wave age affects the MABL only negligibly. Low drag coefficients at high wind caused by ocean-spray production increased turbulent stress in the sea-spray generation layer, accelerating near-sea-surface wind. Comparing the analytical drag coefficient values with laboratory measurements and field observations indicated that surface waves and ocean spray significantly affect the MABL at different wind speeds and wave ages.

  9. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  10. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  11. Spray Drying as a Reliable Route to Produce Metastable Carbamazepine Form IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Rebecca A; Bhardwaj, Rajni M; Brown, Cameron J; Briggs, Naomi E B; Dunn, Jaclyn; Robertson, John; Nordon, Alison; Florence, Alastair J

    2017-07-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the treatment of epilepsy that can form at least 5 polymorphic forms. Metastable form IV was originally discovered from crystallization with polymer additives; however, it has not been observed from subsequent solvent-only crystallization efforts. This work reports the reproducible formation of phase pure crystalline form IV by spray drying of methanolic CBZ solution. Characterization of the material was carried out using diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In situ Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the spray-dried product during the spray drying process. This work demonstrates that spray drying provides a robust method for the production of form IV CBZ, and the combination of high supersaturation and rapid solid isolation from solution overcomes the apparent limitation of more traditional solution crystallization approaches to produce metastable crystalline forms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Craye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin–lysine (SVS-LYS at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a “spring and parachute” effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS. In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  13. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Laitinen, Riikka

    2015-12-03

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a "spring and parachute" effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions) was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS). In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  14. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciąg Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO32 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 – 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 – 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  15. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  16. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  17. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  18. Spray freeze drying to produce a stable Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol containing inulin-based solid dispersion powder suitable for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Dirk-Jan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Dickhoff, Bastiaan H J; Elli, Marco N A; Visser, Marinella R; Zijlstra, Gerrit S; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether spray freeze drying produces an inhalable solid dispersion powder in which Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is stabilised. Solutions of THC and inulin in a mixture of tertiary butanol (TBA) and water were spray freeze dried. Drug loads varied

  19. Presence of electrostatically adsorbed polysaccharides improves spray drying of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayse; Özçelik, Beraat; Sramek, Martin; Gibis, Monika; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    functional components. However, maintaining their stability in aqueous dispersion represents a challenge for their commercialization. Spray drying may promise a solution to that problem. However, prior to this study spray drying of liposomes often led to the loss of structural integrity. Results of this study suggest that spray drying might be used to produce commercially feasible liposomal powders if proper combinations of adsorbing and nonadsorbing polymers are used in the liquid precursor system. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effect of laser induced plasma ignition timing and location on Diesel spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser plasma ignition is applied to a direct injection Diesel spray, compared with auto-ignition. • Critical local fuel/air ratio for LIP provoked ignition is obtained. • The LIP system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. • Varying LIP position along spray axis directly affects Ignition-delay. • Premixed combustion is reduced both by varying position and delay of the LIP ignition system. - Abstract: An experimental study about the influence of the local conditions at the ignition location on combustion development of a direct injection spray is carried out in an optical engine. A laser induced plasma ignition system has been used to force the spray ignition, allowing comparison of combustion’s evolution and stability with the case of conventional autoignition on the Diesel fuel in terms of ignition delay, rate of heat release, spray penetration and soot location evolution. The local equivalence ratio variation along the spray axis during the injection process was determined with a 1D spray model, previously calibrated and validated. Upper equivalence ratios limits for the ignition event of a direct injected Diesel spray, both in terms of ignition success possibilities and stability of the phenomena, could been determined thanks to application of the laser plasma ignition system. In all laser plasma induced ignition cases, heat release was found to be higher than for the autoignition reference cases, and it was found to be linked to a decrease of ignition delay, with the premixed peak in the rate of heat release curve progressively disappearing as the ignition delay time gets shorter. Ignition delay has been analyzed as a function of the laser position, too. It was found that ignition delay increases for plasma positions closer to the nozzle, indicating that the amount of energy introduced by the laser induced plasma is not the only parameter affecting combustion initiation, but local equivalence ratio

  1. Impact of nanocrystal spray deposition on inorganic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Troy K; Yoon, Woojun; Foos, Edward E; Tischler, Joseph G

    2014-05-28

    Solution-synthesized inorganic cadmium telluride nanocrystals (∼4 nm; 1.45 eV band gap) are attractive elements for the fabrication of thin-film-based low-cost photovoltaic (PV) devices. Their encapsulating organic ligand shell enables them to be easily dissolved in organic solvents, and the resulting solutions can be spray-cast onto indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass under ambient conditions to produce photoactive thin films of CdTe. Following annealing at 380 °C in the presence of CdCl2(s) and evaporation of metal electrode contacts (glass/ITO/CdTe/Ca/Al), Schottky-junction PV devices were tested under simulated 1 sun conditions. An improved PV performance was found to be directly tied to control over the film morphology obtained by the adjustment of spray parameters such as the solution concentration, delivery pressure, substrate distance, and surface temperature. Higher spray pressures produced thinner layers (spray-cast Schottky devices rivaled those prepared by conventional spin-coating, showing Jsc = 14.6 ± 2.7 mA cm(-2), Voc = 428 ± 11 mV, FF = 42.8 ± 1.4%, and Eff. = 2.7 ± 0.5% under 1 sun illumination. This optimized condition of CdTe spray deposition was then applied to heterojunction devices (ITO/CdTe/ZnO/Al) to reach 3.0% efficiency after light soaking under forward bias. The film thickness, surface morphology, and light absorption were examined with scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  2. Comparative Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Air-Plasma-Sprayed Ca2SiO4 and Al2O3 Coatings in Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ca2SiO4 coating was sprayed on stainless steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the as-sprayed coating was studied in salt water. At the same time, Al2O3 coatings were produced by air-plasma-sprayed technology as comparison. Immersion test was carried out to evaluate the protection performance of coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS plots were also analyzed. The results indicated that Ca2SiO4 coatings showed a better protection performance than Al2O3 coatings. During the immersion, various calcium carbonate crystals appeared on the surface of Ca2SiO4 coatings. Ca(OH2 was released from Ca2SiO4 coatings into NaCl aqueous solution, increasing the alkalinity, which is in favor of the formation of passivation film, and thus improves the corrosion resistance. Ca2SiO4 coatings became denser after immersion due to the fact that the pores and micro cracks were filled with hydration products i.e., hydrated calcium silicate (C–S–H gel. On the contrary, the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings became loose and obvious rusty spots were observed on the surface after the immersion test.

  3. Effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the aerosol performance and stability of spray-dried lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co...... the spray drying process. The enzymatic activities of the spray-dried lysozyme showed no significant impact of ethanol; however, the lysozyme enzymatic activity was ca. 25% lower compared to the starting material. In conclusion, the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent in the spray drying feed for lysozyme......-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed...

  4. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  5. Optimization of Pesticide Spraying Tasks via Multi-UAVs Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Task allocation is the key factor in the spraying pesticides process using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, and maximizing the effects of pesticide spraying is the goal of optimizing UAV pesticide spraying. In this study, we first introduce each UAV’s kinematic constraint and extend the Euclidean distance between fields to the Dubins path distance. We then analyze the two factors affecting the pesticide spraying effects, which are the type of pesticides and the temperature during the pesticide spraying. The time window of the pesticide spraying is dynamically generated according to the temperature and is introduced to the pesticide spraying efficacy function. Finally, according to the extensions, we propose a team orienteering problem with variable time windows and variable profits model. We propose the genetic algorithm to solve the above model and give the methods of encoding, crossover, and mutation in the algorithm. The experimental results show that this model and its solution method have clear advantages over the common manual allocation strategy and can provide the same results as those of the enumeration method in small-scale scenarios. In addition, the results also show that the algorithm parameter can affect the solution, and we provide the optimal parameters configuration for the algorithm.

  6. Spray-on transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    Transdermal drug delivery possesses superior advantages over other routes of administration, particularly minimizing first-pass metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery is challenged by the barrier nature of skin. Numerous technologies have been developed to overcome the relatively low skin permeability, including spray-on transdermal systems. A transdermal spray-on system (TSS) usually consists of a solution containing the drug, a volatile solvent and in many cases a chemical penetration enhancer. TSS promotes drug delivery via the complex interplay between solvent evaporation and drug-solvent drag into skin. The volatile solvent carries the drug into the upper layers of the stratum corneum, and as the volatile solvent evaporates, an increase in the thermodynamic activity of the drug occurs resulting in an increased drug loading in skin. TSS is easily applied, delivering flexible drug dosage and associated with lower incidence of skin irritation. TSS provides a fast-drying product where the volatile solvent enables uniform drug distribution with minimal vehicle deposition on skin. TSS ensures precise dose administration that is aesthetically appealing and eliminates concerns of residual drug associated with transdermal patches. Furthermore, it provides a better alternative to traditional transdermal products due to ease of product development and manufacturing.

  7. Production of cocrystals in an excipient matrix by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; Serrano, Dolores R; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Norris, Brid A; Healy, Anne Marie

    2018-01-30

    Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential to reduce the number of unit operations which are required to produce a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. by eliminating blending with excipient). Sulfadimidine (SDM), a poorly water soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4ASA), a hydrophilic molecule, were used as model drug and coformer respectively to form cocrystals by spray drying in the presence of a third component (excipient). The solubility of the cocrystal in the excipient was measured using a thermal analysis approach. Trends in measured solubility were in agreement with those determined by calculated Hansen Solubility Parameter (HSP) values. The ratio of cocrystal components to excipient was altered and cocrystal formation at different weight ratios was assessed. Cocrystal integrity was preserved when the cocrystal components were immiscible with the excipient, based on the difference in Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP). For immiscible systems (difference in HSP > 9.6 MPa 0.5 ), cocrystal formation occurred even when the proportion of excipient was high (90% w/w). When the excipient was partly miscible with the cocrystal components, cocrystal formation was observed post spray drying, but crystalline API and coformer were also recovered in the processed powder. An amorphous dispersion was formed when the excipient was miscible with the cocrystal components even when the proportion of excipient used as low (10% w/w excipient). For selected spray dried cocrystal-excipient systems an improvement in tableting characteristics was observed, relative to equivalent physical mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voort, D. D. van der, E-mail: d.d.v.d.voort@tue.nl; Water, W. van de; Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Heijst, G. J. F. van [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maes, N. C. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Dam, N. J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lamberts, T. [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (∼1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383 K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.

  9. Optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Araiza, J.J.; Falcony, C.; Garcia, M.

    2002-01-01

    The optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrates are reported. The films were deposited from a spraying solution of zirconium acetylacetonate in N,N-dimethylformamide using an ultrasonic mist generator on (100) Si substrates. The substrate temperature during deposition was in the range of 400 to 600 grad C. Deposition rates up to 16 A/sec were obtained depending on the spraying solution concentration and on the substrate temperature. A refraction index of the order of 2.0 was measured on these films by ellipsometry. The electrical characteristics of the films were determined from the capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. The addition of water mist during the spraying deposition process was also studied in the characteristics of the films. (Authors)

  10. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  11. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  12. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of adsorption properties of alumina produced by vacuum spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustaleva, K; Voronova, G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper nanopowders obtained by vacuum spray method were studied. The phase composition of the obtained powders is γ - Al 2 O 3 . Obtained nanopowders have specific surface area about 200 m 2 /g. Adsorptive properties of these powders were studied by static adsorption from solutions. The anionic dye eosin was selected as adsorbate. It has been found that the powders obtained by vacuum spray method have significant capacity to adsorb eosin. (paper)

  14. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  15. Modification of TiO(2) nanotube surfaces by electro-spray deposition of amoxicillin combined with PLGA for bactericidal effects at surgical implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    To fabricate the antibiotic-releasing coatings on TiO(2) nanotube surfaces for wide applications of implant and bone plate in medical and dental surgery, the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures was found. FE-SEM, ESD and FT-IR were used for confirming deposition of amoxicillin/PLGA on the TiO(2) surface. Also, the elution of amoxicillin/PLGA in a TiO(2) nanotube surface was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The bactericidal effect of amoxicillin on the TiO(2) nanotube surface was evaluated by using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were observed by WST assay using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. The results indicated that the TiO(2) nanotube surface controlled by electro-spray deposition time with amoxicillin/PLGA solution could provide a high bactericidal effect against S. aureus by the bactericidal effect of amoxicillin, as well as good osteoblast cell proliferation at the TiO(2) nanotube surface without toxicity. This study used electro-spray deposition (ESD) methodology to obtain amoxicillin deposition in nanotube structures of TiO(2) and found the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures.

  16. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  17. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  18. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  19. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  20. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  1. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  2. Stability of extemporaneously prepared preservative-free prochlorperazine nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K

    2018-01-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared preservative-free prochlorperazine 5-mg/mL nasal spray was evaluated. The preservative-free prochlorperazine nasal spray was prepared by adding 250 mg of prochlorperazine edisylate to 50 mL of citrate buffer in a low-density polyethylene nasal spray bottle. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated using the major degradant prochlorperazine sulfoxide and by performing forced-degradation studies. For chemical stability studies, 3 100-μL samples of the preservative-free prochlorperazine from 5 nasal spray bottles stored at room temperature were collected at days 0, 20, 30, 45, and 60 and were assayed in triplicate using the stability-indicating HPLC method. Microbiological testing involved antimicrobial effectiveness testing based on United States Pharmacopeia ( USP ) chapter 51 and quantitative microbiological enumeration of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and mold based on USP chapter 61. Samples for microbiological testing were collected at days 0, 30, and 60. The stability-indicating HPLC method clearly identified the degradation product prochlorperazine sulfoxide without interference from prochlorperazine. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial prochlorperazine concentration for the 60-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, pH, and viscosity in any sample. There was no growth of bacteria, yeast, and mold for 60 days in all samples tested. An extemporaneously prepared preservative-free nasal spray solution of prochlorperazine edisylate 5 mg/mL was physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable for 60 days when stored at room temperature in low-density polyethylene bottles. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of cheese whey for biomass production and spray drying of probiotic lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology).

  4. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  5. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-10

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  6. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  7. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  8. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  9. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  10. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  11. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  12. Radiation chemistry of DNA. II. Strand breaks and sugar release by. gamma. -irradiation of DNA in aqueous solution. The effect of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, M; Schulte-Frohlinde, D; von Sonntag, C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlenchemie

    1975-11-01

    From ..gamma..-irradiated oxygenated aqueous solutions of DNA, 2-deoxy-tetrodialdose (1) and 2-deoxy-pentos-4-ulose (2) have been isolated as free sugars. The formation of 1 indicates that in the presence of oxygen the DNA strand is not only broken by mere phosphate ester cleavage but also by C-C-bond rupture in the sugar moiety. Such a process has not been encountered in deoxygenated solutions so far. The mechanism for the formation of 1 is discussed.

  13. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  14. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by fused yeast: Study of cations release and biosorption mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hua; He Baoyan; Peng Hui; Ye Jinshao; Yang Feng; Zhang Na

    2008-01-01

    Biosorption of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by a fused yeast from Candida tropicalis and Candida lipolytica under varying range of pH, initial metal concentration and reaction time was investigated. Net cation release and Cr removal reached 2.000 mmol/l and 81.37% when treating 20 mg/l Cr(VI) at pH 2 with 25 mg/l biomass for 30 min, while for Ni were 0.351 mmol/l and 64.60%, respectively. Trace metal elements such as Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn played active role in biosorption as important ingredients of functional enzymes. Cr(VI) was reduced to less toxic Cr(III) and chelated with extracellular secretions, and further accumulated inside the cells. For Ni biosorption, however, largely a passive uptake process influenced by ion gradient led to lower adsorption capacity and cations release. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis indicated that amide and pyridine on cells were involved in binding with Cr, but for Ni, bound-OH and nitro-compounds were the main related functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed that considerable amounts of metals precipitated on cell surface when dealing with high concentration metals

  16. Synthesis of human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor and two omission analogs by segment-coupling method in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, J.; Westphal, M.; Li, C.H. (Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco, USA)

    1984-01-01

    The human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) peptides (GlyS/sup 15/)-GRF-(1-15) (IV), trifluoroacetyl-GRF-(20-44) (VI), trifluoroacetyl-GRF-(18-44) (VIII), and trifluoroacetyl-GRF-(16-44) (X) were synthesized by the solidphase method. Each of the peptides was reacted with citraconic anhydride and the trifluoroacetyl group was removed by reaction with 10% hydrazine in water. The citraconylated GRF-(1-15) peptide was coupled to the (20-44), (18-44) or (16-44) peptides by reaction with silver nitrate/N-hydroxysuccinimide to give GRF-(1-15)-(20-44) (XII), GRF-(1-15)-(18-44) (XIII), or GRF-(1-44), respectively. GRF-(1-44) was shown to stimulate the release of rat growth hormone from rat pituitary cells with an ED/sub 50/=8.8 x 10/sup -11/M. Peptides XII and XIII were inactive, either as agonists or as antagonists of the action of GRF-(1-44).

  17. Glass dissolution at 20, 40, 70 and 90 C: Short-term effects of solution chemistry and long-term Na release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakel, A.J.; Ebert, W.L.; Strachan, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of a borosilicate glass containing 20 mass 5 Na 2 O was assessed using static dissolution tests. This glass (LD6-5412) is representative of high Na glasses that may be used to stabilize Hanford low-level radioactive waste. The normalized mass loss (NL) decreases as NL(Na) ∼ NL(B) > NL(Si) in 20 and 40 C for tests conducted at glass surface area to leachant volume (S/V) ratio of 10 m -1 , and decreases as NL(Na) > NL(B) ∼ NL(Si) in 90 C tests conducted at 10 m -1 and in all tests conducted at higher S/V. The difference in the corrosion behavior is probably caused by the influence of dissolved glass components in the leachates. The NL(Na) is greater than the NL(B) or NL(Si) in all the tests conducted. Results from long-term tests at 2,000 m -1 show that the preferential release of Na persists for longer than one year at all temperatures and indicate that Na is released from this glass by an ion exchange process

  18. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying; Obtencao e caracterizacao de microparticulas de quitosana / propranolol por spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da, E-mail: ednaldogn@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  19. Preparation of polymer-organo clay nano composites through the spray drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, Paulo R.A.; Pessan, Luiz A.; Carvalho, Antonio J.F. de; Vidotti, Suel E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work was the study and preparation of polymer nano composites with montmorillonite organo clays (MMT) through the spray drying process. A new technique was proposed and tested to obtaining polymer nano composites, based on the use of the spray drying process to produce a nano composite with high clay content. The process consisted of the following stages: clay intercalation in water solution, with after addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and a hydro soluble polyester ionomer (GEROLPS20) as exfoliation agents; spray drying the mixture obtained; incorporation powder in EVOH, PET e PP matrix. The effects of exfoliation agent on morphological and thermal properties of the nano composites were studied by XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TGA. The results demonstrate that the process of spray drying is an innovative way to obtain a nano composite with high clay content. (author)

  20. High-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors prepared by spray-drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nakano, T.; Goth, S.; Shimotomai, M.

    1988-01-01

    A spray-drying method has been worked out to prepare the superconducting oxide YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ by using aqueous solution of acetates of the component metals. Spray-dried powders have shown to be very reactive and full calcination has been easily attained at 900 0 C for 12 hrs. The density of the ceramics sintered at 950 0 C for 12 hrs has reached a value of 98% of the theoretical density. The resistivity of the spray-dry processed sample is 150μΩ-cm at the onset temperature and the residual resistivity extrapolated to O K is almost zero. It is also found that degradation of the superconducting state by application of magnetic field is much improved for the spray-dry processed samples

  1. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  2. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  3. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  4. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings * biomedical * electronics * energy generation * functional coatings * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  5. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  6. New trends in the kitchen: propellants assessment of edible food aerosol sprays used on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, V; Smith, F; Augsburger, M

    2014-01-01

    New products available for food creations include a wide variety of "supposed" food grade aerosol sprays. However, the gas propellants used cannot be considered as safe. The different legislations available did not rule any maximum residue limits, even though these compounds have some limits when used for other food purposes. This study shows a preliminary monitoring of propane, butane and dimethyl ether residues, in cakes and chocolate after spraying, when these gases are used as propellants in food aerosol sprays. Release kinetics of propane, butane and dimethyl ether were measured over one day with sprayed food, left at room temperature or in the fridge after spraying. The alkanes and dimethyl ether analyses were performed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/thermal conductivity detection, using monodeuterated propane and butane generated in situ as internal standards. According to the obtained results and regardingthe extrapolations of the maximum residue limits existing for these substances, different delays should be respected according to the storage conditions and the gas propellant to consume safely the sprayed food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral Flurbiprofen Spray for Posttonsillectomy Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Togay; Gul, Fatih; Yalciner, Gokhan; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Bercin, Sami; Kiris, Muzaffer

    2016-07-01

    Tonsillectomy is still one of the most common surgical procedures, but there exists no standard guideline for pain management after tonsillectomy. Our aim is to determine whether oral spray of flurbiprofen reduces pain and has an influence on other morbid outcomes following tonsillectomy. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled. Patients at Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. This study was performed on 84 patients (45 in flurbiprofen group, 39 in placebo group) who underwent tonsillectomy. The patients were randomly chosen, and each used oral spray of flurbiprofen 3 times daily or placebo solution at the same regimen. Efficacy was assessed by changes in Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Data were collected at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 for pain, bleeding, and healing. Data for Mallampati scores were also collected. There were no significant difference between groups with respect to the demographic data. The flurbiprofen group had statistically significant lower pain scores at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (P = .000, P = .002, P = .001, P = .000, respectively). On days 3 and 7, pain scores were significantly different between different Mallampati groups (P = .049, P = .015, respectively). The flurbiprofen group required less analgesic than the placebo group during the study period on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (P = .001, P = .001, P = .03, P = .001, respectively). Healing and side effects were not significantly different between the groups. In this study, topical use of flurbiprofen may reduce posttonsillectomy pain without any evidence of additional complications. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  8. Effect of the number of calcium chloride sprays on 'Jonagold' apple quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effect of frequency of calcium chloride (CaCl2 sprays on 'Jonagold' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. quality. The experiment was carried out in 1996-1998 in the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice. Apple trees were grafied on M.26 rootstock and planted in 1992 at a distance of 4 x 2 m on a sandy loam soil with high available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents. Four experimental treatments were applied: (i three sprays with CaCl2 solutions at 2, 10 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (ii six sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (iii nine sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom and (iv control plot - trees unsprayed with CaCl2. The results showed that fruit Ca concentration increased with the number of CaCl2 sprays during the growing season. Apples nine-times sprayed with CaCl2 solutions were smaller, less mature at harvest and after storage, had lower titratable acidity and soluble solids contents after storage and were less sensitive to bitter pit, internal breakdown and Gloeosporium-rot compared to other treatments; however these effects were influenced by the growing season. Six CaCl2 sprays only in one year of the study increased fruit firmness after storage, fruit resistance to bitter pit and internal breakdown. Three CaCl2 sprays decreased bitter pit incidence; however this effect was found only in one investigated year.

  9. Temperature-assisted solute focusing with sequential trap/release zones in isocratic and gradient capillary liquid chromatography: Simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize the development of a method to enhance temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF) called two-stage TASF. A new instrument was built to implement two-stage TASF consisting of a linear array of three independent, electronically controlled Peltier devices (thermoelectric coolers, TECs). Samples are loaded onto the chromatographic column with the first two TECs, TEC A and TEC B, cold. In the two-stage TASF approach TECs A and B are cooled during injection. TEC A is heated following sample loading. At some time following TEC A’s temperature rise, TEC B’s temperature is increased from the focusing temperature to a temperature matching that of TEC A. Injection bands are focused twice on-column, first on the initial TEC, e.g. single-stage TASF, then refocused on the second, cold TEC. Our goal is to understand the two-stage TASF approach in detail. We have developed a simple yet powerful digital simulation procedure to model the effect of changing temperature in the two focusing zones on retention, band shape and band spreading. The simulation can predict experimental chromatograms resulting from spatial and temporal temperature programs in combination with isocratic and solvent gradient elution. To assess the two-stage TASF method and the accuracy of the simulation well characterized solutes are needed. Thus, retention factors were measured at six temperatures (25–75 °C) at each of twelve mobile phases compositions (0.05–0.60 acetonitrile/water) for homologs of n-alkyl hydroxylbenzoate esters and n-alkyl p-hydroxyphenones. Simulations accurately reflect experimental results in showing that the two-stage approach improves separation quality. For example, two-stage TASF increased sensitivity for a low retention solute by a factor of 2.2 relative to single-stage TASF and 8.8 relative to isothermal conditions using isocratic elution. Gradient elution results for two-stage TASF were more encouraging. Application of two-stage TASF

  10. Equations for estimating stand establishment, release, and thinning costs in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Olson; Allen L. Lundgren; Dietmar Rose

    1978-01-01

    Equations for estimating project costs for certain silvicultural treatments in the Lake States have been developed from project records of public forests. Treatments include machine site preparation, hand planting, aerial spraying, prescribed burning, manual release, and thinning.

  11. Application of pulse combustion technology in spray drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zbicinski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.

  12. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  13. Control of As and Ni releases from a uranium mill tailings neutralization circuit: Solution chemistry, mineralogy and geochemical modeling of laboratory study results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, John [MWH Americas, Inc., 1801 California Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)], E-mail: john.j.mahoney@mwhglobal.com; Slaughter, Maynard [Earth Science, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639 (United States); Langmuir, Donald [Hydrochem Systems Corp., P.O. Box 23257, Silverthorne, CO 80498 (United States); Rowson, John [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., P.O. Box 9204, Saskatoon, SK, S7K 3X5 (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Processing U ores in the JEB Mill of the McClean Lake Operation in northern Saskatchewan produces spent leaching solutions (raffinates) with pH {<=} 1.5, and As and Ni concentrations up to 6800 and 5200 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Bench-scale neutralization experiments (pH 2-8) were performed to help optimize the design of mill processes for reducing As and Ni concentrations in tailings and raffinates to {<=}1 mg L{sup -1} prior to their disposal. Precipitate mineralogy determined by chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, EM, XM and EXAFS methods, included gypsum (the dominant precipitate), poorly crystalline scorodite (precipitated esp. from pH 2-4), annabergite, hydrobasaluminite, ferrihydrite, green rust II and theophrastite. The As was mostly in scorodite with smaller amounts in annabergite and trace As adsorbed and/or co-precipitated, probably by ferrihydrite. Geochemical modeling indicated that above pH 2, the ion activity product (IAP) of scorodite lies between the solubility products of amorphous and crystalline phases (log K{sub sp} = -23.0 and -25.83, respectively). The IAP decreases with increasing pH, suggesting that the crystallinity of the scorodite increases with pH. Forward geochemical models support the assumption that during neutralization, particles of added base produce sharp local pH gradients and disequilibrium with bulk solutions, facilitating annabergite and theophrastite precipitation.

  14. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  16. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  17. Nutritional quality of new food products released into the Australian retail food market in 2015 - is the food industry part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Sheree A; Olstad, Dana Lee; Woods, Julie L

    2018-02-07

    Food manufacturers have made public statements and voluntary commitments, such as the Healthier Australia Commitment (HAC), to improve the nutritional quality of foods. However, limited information about the nutritional quality or healthfulness of new products makes it difficult to determine if manufacturers are doing this. The purpose of this study was to assess the healthfulness of new food products released into the Australian retail market in 2015, and whether those companies who were HAC members released healthier food options compared to non-HAC members. This cross-sectional study assessed the healthfulness of all new retail food products launched in Australia in 2015 as indexed in Mintel's Global New Products Database. Healthfulness was assessed using three classification schemes: Healthy Choices Framework Victoria, Australian Dietary Guidelines and NOVA Food Classification System. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests described and compared the number and proportions of new foods falling within each of the food classification schemes' categories for companies that were and were not HAC members. In 2015, 4143 new food products were launched into the Australian market. The majority of new products were classified in each schemes' least healthy category (i.e. red, discretionary and ultra-processed). Fruits and vegetables represented just 3% of new products. HAC members launched a significantly greater proportion of foods classified as red (59% vs 51% for members and non-members, respectively) discretionary (79% vs 61%), and ultra-processed (94% vs 81%), and significantly fewer were classified as green (8% vs 15%), core foods (18% vs 36%) and minimally processed (0% vs 6%) (all p food market in 2015 were classified in each of three schemes' least healthy categories. A greater proportion of new products launched by companies that publicly committed to improve the nutritional quality of their products were unhealthy, and a lower proportion were healthy

  18. Effects of coflow temperature and composition on ethanol spray flames in hot-diluted coflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia Rodrigues, H.; Tummers, M.J.; Veen, E.H. van; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive experimental study of spray flames in hot-diluted coflow. • Application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman in spray flames. • Identification of relevant phenomena determining the lift-off behavior of spray flames in hot-diluted coflow. - Abstract: Ethanol pressure-swirl sprays issuing in a hot-diluted oxidizer coflow with different temperature and composition were studied. The bulk coflow temperature was varied together with the oxygen volume fraction. The bulk coflow temperature was changed from 1480 K to 1225 K and the oxygen volume fraction from 7.1% to 10.1%. The liquid mass flow rates were chosen to yield spray flames with nearly identical Weber number. Laser Doppler anemometry, phase Doppler anemometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were applied in the spray region and the coflow inlet. The current measurements provide a thorough description of the spray structure, droplet dispersion and gas temperature fields as well as a comprehensive database useful for validation of numerical models. Visual observations of the flame luminescence reveal that the lift-off height depends on the liquid mass flow rates as well as the coflow conditions. The lift-off height is shown to increase for lower coflow temperatures and higher liquid mass flow rates. It is found that lift-off behavior depends on the droplet convective, vaporization and chemical time scales prior to ignition. Phase Doppler anemometry results indicate that the droplet mean size and velocity distribution close to the atomizer are not influenced by the coflow conditions. A flame-front develops at the outer region of the spray where a low density of large droplets are present. A significant number of peak temperatures samples above 2000 K is observed at this location. Decrease of the coflow temperature leads to a reduction of the local peak temperatures. Closer to the center axis, the local mixture composition becomes increasingly rich and the heat-release is lower than

  19. In vitro fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and detonation gun sprayed (DGUN) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates has been compared in air and in buffered Ringer's solution. There was an increase in the surface microcracking and bulk porosity of both types of coating tested in air. After 1 million cycles in Ringer's solution the VPS coatings had completely delaminated from their substrates. In contrast the DGUN coatings retained their integrity when tested up to 10 million cycles but were beginning to show signs of delamination at the interface.

  20. Formation of hydrotalcite coating on the aluminum alloy 6060 in spray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Coatings with the composition of Li-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite were formed on the Al alloy 6060 using a spray system. The coatings consist of crystals with a typical hydrotalcite structure. Dense, uniform and blade-like flakes cover completely the surface of the Al substrate. The coatings display a multi......-layer structure with average thickness of ∼1000 nm. The hydrotalcite-coated samples performed better than those without coatings in salt-spray and filiform-corrosion tests, and further treatment involving sealing with a Mg acetate solution and dipping in a H2O2 + Ce-based solution improved the corrosion...

  1. Testing of a new dense gas approach in the Lagrangian Dispersion Model SPRAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortarini, Luca; Alessandrini, Stefano; Ferrero, Enrico; Anfossi, Domenico; Manfrin, Massimiliano

    2013-04-01

    A new original method for the dispersion of a positively and negatively buoyant plume is proposed. The buoyant pollutant movement is treated introducing a fictitious scalar inside the Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Model SPRAY. The method is based on the same idea of Alessandrini and Ferrero (Phys. A 388:1375-1387, 2009) for the treatment of a background substance entrainment into the plume. In this application, the fictitious scalar is the density and momentum difference between the plume portions and the environment air that naturally takes into account the interaction between the plume and the environment. As a consequence, no more particles than those inside the plume have to be released to simulate the entrainment of the background air temperature. In this way the entrainment is properly simulated and the plume sink is calculated from the local property of the flow. This new approach is wholly Lagrangian in the sense that the Eulerian grid is only used to compute the propriety of a portion of the plume from the particles contained in every cell. No equation of the bulk plume is solved on a fixed grid. To thoroughly test the turbulent velocity field calculated by the model, the latter is compared with a water tank experiment carried out in the TURLAB laboratory in Turin (Italy). A vertical density driven current was created releasing a saline solution (salt and water) in a water tank with no mean flow. The experiment reproduces in physical similarity, based on the density Froud number, the release of a dense gas in the planetary boundary layer and the Particle Image Velocimetry technique has been used to analyze the buoyancy generated velocity field. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the measurements gives a deep insight to the problems of the bouncing of the dense gas and of the creation of the outflow velocity at the ground.

  2. Potential effects of the fire protection system sprays at Browns Ferry on fission product transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczyk, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The fire protection system (FPS) sprays within any nuclear plant are not intended to mitigate radioactive releases to the environment resulting from severe core-damage accidents. However, it has been shown here that during certain postulated severe accident scenarios at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, the functioning of FPS sprays could have a significant impact on the radioactive releases. Thus the effects of those sprays need to be taken into account for realistic estimation of source terms for some accident scenarios. The effects would include direct ones such as cooling of the reactor building atmosphere and scrubbing of radioactivity from it, as well as indirect effects such as an altered likelihood of hydrogen burning and flooding of various safety-related pumps in the reactor building basement. Thus some of the impacts of the sprays would be beneficial with respect to mitigating releases to the environment but some others might not be. The effects of the FPS would be very scenario dependent with a wide range of potential effects often existing for a given accident sequence. Any generalization of the specific results presented here for Browns Ferry to other nuclear plants must be done cautiously, as it appears from a preliminary investigation that the relevant physical and operational characteristics of FPS spray systems differ widely among even otherwise apparently similar plants. Likewise the standby gas treatment systems, which substantially impact the effects of the FPS, differ significantly among plants. More work for both Mark I plants and other plants, BWRs and PWRs alike, is indicated so the potential effects of FPS spray systems during severe accidents can be at least ball-parked for more realistic accident analyses

  3. Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Shun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

  4. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  5. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  7. Local Intraarterial Thrombolysis: In Vitro Comparison Between Automatic and Manual Pulse-Spray Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, Jens J.; Freymann, Christina; Hoppe, Martin; Thiel, Thomas; Wagner, H. Joachim; Barth, Klemens H.; Klose, Klaus J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Manual and automatic pulse-spray infusion techniques are compared in vitro to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolysis and the distribution of urokinase and saline solution within thrombus using a pulse-spray catheter. Methods: A pulse-spray catheter was introduced into a human thrombus within a stenotic flow model. Automatic and manual pulsed infusion of urokinase and automatic pulsed infusion of saline solution were compared. To quantify the efficacy of thrombolysis, pressure gradients were recorded proximal and distal to the thrombus and during the course of infusion. Distribution of infused urokinase was assessed radiographically. Results: The fastest and most homogeneous dissolution of the thrombus was achieved with automatic pulsed infusion of urokinase, shown by decreasing transthrombotic pressure gradients (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon, matched pairs). Manual pulsed infusion of urokinase or saline solution resulted in inhomogeneous thrombus dissolution and delayed thrombolysis. Conclusion: Application of automatic pulse-spray injectors seems beneficial for more effective and homogeneous intraarterial pulse-spray thrombolysis when compared with conventional manual pulsed technique

  8. Simple and double microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus with chitosan using spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela A. Flores-Belmont

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus that had been simple or double spray dried using chitosan to cause microencapsulation and which had been exposed to model gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the study also determined the physicochemical properties of the powder containing the microencapsulated probiotic.Chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:15 or 1:25 solutions were inoculated with 1012 cfu mL-1 of L. acidophilus, for simple microencapsulation. The different solutions were dried using a spray dryer with an inlet air temperature of 130°C and a solution flux of 4.8 g min-1. A two-step process was used for the double microencapsulation. In the first step, the probiotic was added to a gelatin-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then spray dried; for the second step, the microencapsulated probiotic was added to a chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then it was spray dried again.With the simple microencapsulated probiotic, a microbial reduction of 7 log cycles was obtained. With the double microencapsulated probiotic only 3 log reductions were achieved. The double microencapsulated probiotic thus demonstrated greater resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The powders produced were shown to have water activity values of 0.176 - 0.261 at 25 °C and moisture content of 0.8 – 1.0%, which are characteristic of spray dried products. The bulk density was significantly (p < 0.05 lower (300 kg m-3 for simple than for double (400 kg m-3 microencapsulated probiotic powders. Solubility and dispersibility of the powder microcapsules were better at lower pH values.Double microencapsulation using a process of spray drying is therefore recommended for probiotics, thus exploiting chitosan’s insolubility in water, which can be applied for the of development food products.

  9. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  10. Evaluation of cross-linked chitosan microparticles containing acyclovir obtained by spray-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulzer, Hellen Karine; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Parize, Alexandre Luis; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Laranjeira, Mauro Cesar Marghetti

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain microparticles containing acyclovir (ACV) and chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate using the spray-drying technique. The resultant system was evaluated through loading efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro release and stability studies. The results obtained indicated that the polymer/ACV ratio influenced the final properties of the microparticles, with higher ratios giving the best encapsulation efficiency, dissolution profiles and stability. The DSC and XRPD analyses indicated that the ACV was transformed into amorphous form during the spray-drying process

  11. Defect-Free Large-Area (25 cm2 Light Absorbing Perovskite Thin Films Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Habibi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the commercialization of the perovskite solar cell technology. Using an automated spray coater, the film thickness and roughness were optimized by controlling the solution concentration and substrate temperature. For the first time, the surface tension, contact angle, and viscosity of mixed halide perovskite dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF are reported as a function of the solution concentration. A low perovskite solution concentration of 10% was selected as an acceptable value to avoid crystallization dewetting. The determined optimum substrate temperature of 150 °C, followed by annealing at 100 °C render the highest perovskite precursor conversion, as well as the highest possible droplet spreading, desired to achieve a continuous thin film. The number of spray passes was also tuned to achieve a fully-covered film, for the condition of the spray nozzle used in this work. This work demonstrates that applying the optimum substrate temperature decreases the standard deviation of the film thickness and roughness, leading to an increase in the quality and reproducibility of the large-area spray-on films. The optimum perovskite solution concentration and the substrate temperature are universally applicable to other spray coating systems.

  12. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  13. Influence of coating defects on the corrosion behavior of cold sprayed refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Rao, A. Arjuna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Long duration immersion tests reveal inhomogeneous weight losses. • The weight loss for different coatings are well corroborated with the coating defects. • Chemical and micro structural analysis elucidates the reason behind the in homogeneous performance of different type of cold sprayed coatings. • In cold sprayed titanium, formation of oxide along the inter-splat boundary hinders the aggressive attack of the medium. - Abstract: The defects in the cold sprayed coatings are critical in the case of corrosion performances of the coatings in aggressive conditions. To understand the influence of coating defects on corrosion, immersion tests have been carried out in HF solution for the cold sprayed and heat treated Titanium, Tantalum and Niobium coatings. Long duration immersion tests reveal inhomogeneous weight losses of the samples prepared at different heat treatment conditions. The weight loss for different coatings has been well corroborated with the coating defects and microstructures. Chemical and micro structural analysis elucidates the reason behind the inhomogeneous performance of different type of cold sprayed coatings in corrosion medium. In the case of cold sprayed titanium, formation of stable oxide along the inter-splat boundary hinders the aggressive attack of the corrosion medium which is not so in other cases.

  14. Microstructure evolution during spray rolling and heat treatment of 2124 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Industrial Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2050 (United States)], E-mail: kevin.mchugh@inl.gov; Lin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Johnson, S.B.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Lavernia, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Spray rolling is a strip-casting technology that combines elements of spray forming and twin-roll casting. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, quenching the resultant droplets in flight, and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets and conduction heat transfer at the rolls rapidly remove the metal's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly-solidified strip. Spray rolling operates at a higher solidification rate than conventional twin-roll casting and is able to process a broader range of alloys at high production rates. A laboratory-scale strip caster was constructed and used to evaluate the interplay of processing parameters and strip quality for strips up to 200 mm wide and 1.6-6.4 mm thick. This paper examines microstructure evolution during spray rolling and explores how gas-to-metal mass flow ratio influences the microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-rolled 2124 Al. The influences of solution heat treatment and cold rolling on grain structure and constituent particle spheroidization are also examined.

  15. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency. Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure conditions (2-5 kPa inside the drying chamber. The products obtained in the two systems were characterized and compared for particle size distribution, moisture content, water activity, bulk density and solubility in water. The processes yields were also evaluated and compared. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed the production of larger, more soluble and less dense particles than those obtained in the conventional configuration of the equipment, resulting in drier and, therefore, with lower water activity particles. Thus, the use of the vacuum spray dryer as a drying technique may be an alternative for the production of powder rich in thermosensitive compounds.

  16. Suspension Flame Spray Construction of Polyimide-Copper Layers for Marine Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiaomin; Suo, Xinkun; Gong, Yongfeng; Li, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Individual capsule-like polyimide splats have been fabricated by suspension flame spray, and the polyimide splat exhibits hollow structure with an inner pore and a tiny hole on its top surface. Enwrapping of 200-1000-nm copper particles inside the splats is accomplished during the deposition for constrained release of copper for antifouling performances. Antifouling testing of the coatings by 24-h exposure to Escherichia coli-containing artificial seawater shows that the Cu-doped splat already prohibits effectively attachment of the bacteria. The prohibited adhesion of bacteria obviously impedes formation and further development of bacterial biofilm. This capsulated splat with releasing and loading of copper biocides results in dual-functional structures bearing both release-killing and contact-killing mechanisms. The suspension flame spray route and the encapsulated structure of the polyimide-Cu coatings would open a new window for designing and constructing marine antifouling layers for long-term applications.

  17. Improvement of wear resistance of machine elements by plasma spraying followed by hardening in the chlorine-barium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.V.; Stepanov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the mathematical model, allowing to choose the optimal regime of sprayed coating hardening in the BaCl 2 salt melt. The method of hardening of machine elements by spraying wear resistance coatings of the Ni-Cr-B-Si alloys is described. It is established that diffusion heating followed by coating melting in the BaCl 2 solution increases the adhesion of sprayed layer to substrate metal. The formation of intermediate intermetallic compounds of the Ni 3 Si and Ni 3 Fe types takes place as a result of diffusion of interacting material atoms and valence electron joining

  18. Nanosecond and femtosecond mass spectroscopic analysis of a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kamikado, Toshiya; Okuno, Yoshishige; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The spray-jet molecular beam apparatus enabled us to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules under high vacuum from a sprayed mist of sample solutions. The apparatus has been used in spectroscopic studies and as a means of molecular beam deposition. We analyzed the molecular beam, consisting of non-volatile, solvent, and carrier-gas molecules, by using femtosecond- and nanosecond- laser mass spectroscopy. The information thus obtained provided insight into the molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

  19. Influence of nature of the substrate in the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmenschlager, C.M.; Malfatti, C.F.; Bergmann, C.P.; Neagu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spray pyrolysis technique consist in spraying a precursor solution on a heated substrate. In the last few decades this process has attracted much attention because of its versatility. Controlling the parameters is possible to produce dense or porous film. Spray pyrolysis has been applied to obtain several materials such as electrodes or electrolytes for SOFC, semiconductors, materials for solar cells and so on. However, some behaviors such as Leidenfrost effect have been poorly considered and it may affect the coating quality. This work aims to evaluate the influence of the substrate and how Leidenfrost effect affects the coating by spray pyrolysis. To achieve this goal yttria-stabilized zirconia solutions made with different solvents were deposited on different substrates at different temperatures. These coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that there is a limit temperature which is related to properties of the solvent and the surface of the substrates where films are continuous. (author)

  20. Improvement of the inlet system for the spray-jet technique for use in spectroscopic studies and molecular deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    We previously developed a molecular beam apparatus with a spray-jet technique in order to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules in vacuum from the sprayed mist of a sample solution. The apparatus is for use in spectroscopic studies or a means of molecular deposition. The spray-jet inlet system consisted of an ultrasonic nebulizer, an inlet chamber and a pulsed nozzle. In the present paper, further improvements to the spray-jet inlet system are reported. The main improvement is the introduction of a pneumatic nebulizer to replace the previous ultrasonic nebulizer. The efficiency of molecular beam generation was evaluated on the basis of the signal intensity of the resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass (REMPI-TOFMS) spectra for a Rhodamine B/methanol solution and the amount of sample consumed. The introduction of the pneumatic nebulizer increased the efficiency by a factor of 20

  1. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  2. Retention of Polyphenolic Species in Spray-Dried Blackberry Extract Using Mannitol as a Thermoprotectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Repko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1–S3 were compared to solutions of S1–S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying. PMID:24892214

  3. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  4. Summary of the Blackmo 88 spray experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Miller; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus; D. E. Anderson; K. Mierzejewski

    1991-01-01

    The Blackmo 88 spray trial experiment was conducted for two primary purposes: To quantify the effects of local micrometeorological processes, in and near the canopy, on the deposition patterns of aerially applied BT in a mature oak forest; To generate a data set containing simultaneous measurements of spray deposition and detailed micrometeorology, in a canopy of known...

  5. Improved bonding strength of bioactive cermet Cold Gas Spray coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, M; Concustell, A; Dosta, S; Cinca, N; Cano, I G; Guilemany, J M

    2014-12-01

    The fabrication of cermet biocompatible coatings by means Cold Gas Spray (CGS) provides prosthesis with outstanding mechanical properties and the required composition for enhancing the bioactivity of prosthetic materials. In this study, hydroxyapatite/Titanium coatings were deposited by means of CGS technology onto titanium alloy substrates with the aim of building-up well-bonded homogeneous coatings. Powders were blended in different percentages and sprayed; as long as the amount of hydroxyapatite in the feedstock increased, the quality of the coating was reduced. Besides, the relation between the particle size distribution of ceramic and metallic particles is of significant consideration. Plastic deformation of titanium particles at the impact eased the anchoring of hard hydroxyapatite particles present at the top surface of the coating, which assures the looked-for interaction with the cells. Coatings were immersed in Hank's solution for 1, 4 and 7 days; bonding strength value was above 60 MPa even after 7 days, which enhances common results of HAp coatings obtained by conventional thermal spray technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  7. Photoluminescence of spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikli Valdek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photoluminescence of highly structured ZnO layers comprising well-shaped hexagonal rods is presented. The ZnO rods (length 500-1,000 nm, diameter 100-300 nm were grown in air onto a preheated soda-lime glass (SGL or ITO/SGL substrate by low-cost chemical spray pyrolysis method using zinc chloride precursor solutions and growth temperatures in the range of 450-550°C. We report the effect of the variation in deposition parameters (substrate type, growth temperature, spray rate, solvent type on the photoluminescence properties of the spray-deposited ZnO nanorods. A dominant near band edge (NBE emission is observed at 300 K and at 10 K. High-resolution photoluminescence measurements at 10 K reveal fine structure of the NBE band with the dominant peaks related to the bound exciton transitions. It is found that all studied technological parameters affect the excitonic photoluminescence in ZnO nanorods. PACS: 78.55.Et, 81.15.Rs, 61.46.Km

  8. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  9. Chemical pleurodesis using mistletoe extracts via spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy for management of malignant pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Tae Hwa; Lee, Geewon; Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Min Ki

    2017-01-01

    We present three cases of successful chemical pleurodesis with a liquid solution of mistletoe extract using a spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy. The medical thoracoscopy was performed in all presented cases to remove pleural effusion and conduct chemical pleurodesis to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. A spray catheter was used to instil the mistletoe extract evenly into the pleural cavity, and there were no pleurodesis?related complications. Respiratory symptoms caused ...

  10. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  11. Influences of spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of stainless steel layers coated on carbon steel by plasma spray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Kyong An; Lee, Sang Dong; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Shur, Dong Soo; Kim, Joung Soo

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel powders were sprayed on the grit-blasted SM45C carbon steel substrates using a plasma spray method. The influences of the spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of the layers coated on the carbon steel were investigated. Corrosion behavior of the layers were analyzed by the anodic polarization tests in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl + 0.01 M NaOH solution at 80 deg C. The surface roughness and porosity were observed to decrease with decreasing the particle size. The surface hardness of the coating was always higher than that of the matrix, SM45C, implying that the higher resistance of the coating to erosion-corrosion than that of matrix, and increased as the spray power and the spray distance increase. Stainless steel coats showed more corrosion resistance than the carbon steel did, due to their passivity. The corrosion resistance of the coats, however, were inferior to that of the bulk stainless steels due to the inherent defects formed in the coats. The defects such as rough surface and pores provided the occluded sites favorable for the initiation of localized corrosion, resulting in the conclusion that finer the powder is, higher the corrosion resistance is. And the Cr oxides formation resulting in Cr depletion around the oxides reduced the corrosion resistance of the coats. (author)

  12. Microcontainers as an oral delivery system for spray dried cubosomes containing ovalbumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric...... microcontainers intended as an oral drug delivery system. The cubosomes consisted of commercial glyceryl monooleate, Dimodan®, containing OVA and were surrounded with a dextran shell prepared by spray drying. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm that cubosomes were formed after hydration of the spray dried precursor...... the cubosomes and microcontainers occurred at pH 6.8, releasing 44.1±5.6% of the OVA in 96h. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the 'dry' particles possessed an internal ordered lipid structure (lamellar and inverse micellar phase) by virtue of a small amount of residual water, and after...

  13. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation. PMID:24039397

  14. Absorption of airborne molecular iodine by water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.F.; Wichner, R.P.; Baumgarten, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model, I2WASH, which accounts for the effect of hydrolysis reactions between molecular iodine and water, has been developed to predict the rate of removal of gaseous molecular iodine by water sprays. It has been shown that the hydrolysis reactions can affect the concentration driving force of mass transfer for molecular iodine absorption. Thus, factors that affect the hydrolysis kinetics, such as spray solution pH, iodine concentration, and temperature, should be considered in the design of a well-based absorption model. The described model also includes the effects of spray drop-size distribution, convective heat transfer, droplet evaporation or water condensation, decay heating, and ventilation air flow through the containment. The model was originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1985 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Sequence Analysis program and has been improved to assist in a comprehensive probability risk assessment of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Results obtained using the model are compared with those of the Containment Systems Experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) in 1970. An improvement over the earlier model is indicated at room temperatures, but accuracy decreases as the temperature rises. The decreased agreement at high temperature is partially due to an incomplete knowledge of the temperature effects on iodine hydrolysis reactions. The results of the I2WASH model for a postulated catastrophic accident at SRP show that ∼85% of the molecular iodine will be captured by the sprays at a buffered pH of 10.0, and ∼52% will be captured at a buffered pH of 7.0. The model is believed to be a significant improvement over (and more realistic than) other models

  15. Applicability of fan spray nozzles to stripping insoluble gases from viscous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, H.H.; Johnson, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Fan spray nozzle stripping appears to be a practical technique for separating dilute volatile solutes from nonvolatile solvents. In particular this technique can be used to strip molecular tritium and tritium fluoride at extremely small concentration (in the parts per million range) from molten salts used as blanket materials in a fusion reactor. Under adjusted operating conditions of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle, a high percentage of the theoretically maximum achievable stripping would take place from the expanding sheet of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle and before it breaks up. Although the only available experimental data are for aqueous solutions, a new theoretical analysis of the fan spray sheet demonstrates the applicability of this technique to nonaqueous liquids. The equation derived from this analysis relates the theoretically achievable mass transfer efficiency to the properties of the liquid flowing through the fan spray nozzle and to the operating conditions of the nozzle. Any fluid with viscosity higher than or equal to that of water would be expected to follow this equation as long as a fan-shaped sheet is formed under the operating conditions of the nozzle

  16. Linear Stability Analysis of Laminar Premixed Fuel-Rich Double-Spray Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weinberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stability of a double-spray premixed flame formed when both fuel and oxidizer are initially present in the form of sprays of evaporating liquid droplets. To simplify the inherent complexity that characterizes the analytic solution of multi-phase combustion processes, the analysis is restricted to fuel-rich laminar premixed double-spray flames, and assumes a single-step global chemical reaction mechanism. Steady-state solutions are obtained and the sensitivity of the flame temperature and the flame propagating velocity to the initial liquid fuel and/or oxidizer loads are established. The stability analysis revealed an increased proneness to cellular instability induced by the presence of the two sprays, and for the fuel-rich case considered here the influence of the liquid oxidizer was found to be more pronounced than that of the liquid fuel. Similar effects were noted for the neutral pulsating stability boundaries. The impact of unequal latent heats of vaporization is also investigated and found to be in keeping with the destabilizing influence of heat loss due to droplet evaporation. It should be noted that as far as the authors are aware no experimental evidence is available for (at least validation of the predictions. However, they do concur in a general and reasonable fashion with independent experimental evidence in the literature of the behavior of single fuel spray laminar premixed flames.

  17. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  18. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de

    2017-01-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  19. Experimental Investigation of Effect on Hydrate Formation in Spray Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction condition on hydrate formation were conducted in spray reactor. The temperature, pressure, and gas volume of reaction on hydrate formation were measured in pure water and SDS solutions at different temperature and pressure with a high-pressure experimental rig for hydrate formation. The experimental data and result reveal that additives could improve the hydrate formation rate and gas storage capacity. Temperature and pressure can restrict the hydrate formation. Lower temperature and higher pressure can promote hydrate formation, but they can increase production cost. So these factors should be considered synthetically. The investigation will promote the advance of gas storage technology in hydrates.

  20. Model to predict inhomogeneous protein-sugar distribution in powders prepared by spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2016-01-01

    A protein can be stabilized by spray drying an aqueous solution of the protein and a sugar, thereby incorporating the protein into a glassy sugar matrix. For optimal stability, the protein should be homogeneously distributed inside the sugar matrix. The aim of this study was to develop a model that

  1. Effect of precursor concentration and spray pyrolysis temperature upon hydroxyapatite particle size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In the synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by spray pyrolysis, control of the particle size was investigated by varying the initial concentration of the precursor solution and the pyrolysis temperature. Calcium phosphate solutions (Ca/P ratio of 1.67) with a range of concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L were prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate in deionized water and subsequently adding nitric acid. Hydroxyapatite powders were then synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 900°C and at 1500°C, using these calcium phosphate precursor solutions, under the fixed carrier gas flow rate of 10 L/min. The particle size decreased as the precursor concentration decreased and the spray pyrolysis temperature increased. Sinterability tests conducted at 1100°C for 1 h showed that the smaller and denser the particles were, the higher the relative densities were of sintered hydroxyapatite disks formed from these particles. The practical implication of these results is that highly sinterable small and dense hydroxyapatite particles can be synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis using a low-concentration precursor solution and a high pyrolysis temperature under a fixed carrier gas flow rate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co...

  3. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  4. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  5. Materials as inherent ignition sources for dust explosions during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenband, V. van den; Maaijer, M. de; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    During spray drying where a solution is dispersed in small droplets through a nozzle the liquid evaporates by means of hot air. In a large number of these processes organic materials are processed so three out of four factors for dust explosions to occur are already present. The only thing missing

  6. Characterization of deposition from nasal spray devices using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Julia S; Segal, Rebecca A; Asgharian, Bahman; Wong, Brian A; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Southall, Jeremy P; Dickens, Colin J; Brace, Geoff; Miller, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy adult male. Eighteen commercially available nasal sprays were analyzed for spray characteristics using laser diffraction, high-speed video, and high-speed spark photography. Steadystate, inspiratory airflow (15 L/min) and particle transport were simulated under measured spray conditions. Simulated deposition efficiency and spray behavior were consistent with previous experimental studies, two of which used nasal replica molds based on this nasal geometry. Deposition fractions (numbers of deposited particles divided by the number released) of 20- and 50-microm particles exceeded 90% in the anterior part of the nose for most simulated conditions. Predicted particle penetration past the nasal valve improved when (1) the smaller of two particle sizes or the lower of two spray velocities was used, (2) the simulated nozzle was positioned 1.0 rather than 0.5 or 1.5 cm into the nostril, and (3) inspiratory airflow was present rather than absent. Simulations also predicted that delaying the appearance of normal inspiratory airflow more than 1 sec after the release of particles produced results equivalent to cases in which no inspiratory airflow was present. These predictions contribute to more effective design of drug delivery devices through a better understanding of the effects of nasal airflow and spray characteristics on particle transport in the nose.

  7. α- and β-Carotene Stability During Storage of Microspheres Obtained from Spray-Dried Microencapsulation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Marzena Anna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the stability of carotenes (α- and β-carotene in oil solutions with their stability when spray-dried encapsulation is applied. The carotenes were isolated from carrot. A storage test was subsequently performed. The stability of carotenes in oil solutions was determined with the HPLC method. The color of the samples was also analyzed. The oil solutions of carotenes were microencapsulated with the spray-drying method. A mixture of gum Arabic and maltodextrin was used as a matrix.

  8. Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE SHELL MATERIAL IN THE MICROCAPSULES FORMATION BY SPRAY DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRÁNDIZ Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process of entrapment, packaging or immobilizing an active (core material, which can be in the state of solid, liquid or gas, within a more stable, protective secondary (wall material that can be released at controlled rates under specific conditions. There are several microencapsulation techniques such as: spray drying, spray cooling/chilling, freeze drying, extrusion, fluidized bed coating, coacervation, liposome entrapment, coextrusion, interfacial polymerization, radical polymerization, molecular inclusion in cyclodextrins, etc. Spray drying has been commonly applied due to their simplicity process, wide availability of equipment facilities, significant merits in terms of reductions in product volume, easy of handling, etc. In the spray drying process the wall materials (shells and their properties are parameters to be considered to achieve proper encapsulation of the active ingredients (core materials. Some commonly used wall materials and their properties related to spray drying encapsulation, including proteins, carbohydrates, and other materials, or mixtures of some of them. Proper encapsulation of the active ingredient (core is essential to achieve this active material protecting the outer. The aim of this work is encapsulated an essential oil, sage oil, using two differet wall materials in order to determine which is the best wall material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been used in order to know the microcapsules morphology. Core, Shell, Gum Arabic, Alginate, Sage oil, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  10. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  11. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  12. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Agglomerated novel spray-dried lactose-leucine tailored as a carrier to enhance the aerosolization performance of salbutamol sulfate from DPI formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos; Kaialy, Waseem; Chen, Qiao; Commandeur, Daniel; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2017-12-19

    Spray-drying allows to modify the physicochemical/mechanical properties of particles along with their morphology. In the present study, L -leucine with varying concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% w/v) were incorporated into lactose monohydrate solution for spray-drying to enhance the aerosolization performance of dry powder inhalers containing spray-dried lactose-leucine and salbutamol sulfate. The prepared spray-dried lactose-leucine carriers were analyzed using laser diffraction (particle size), differential scanning calorimetry (thermal behavior), scanning electron microscopy (morphology), powder X-ray diffraction (crystallinity), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (interaction at molecular level), and in vitro aerosolization performance (deposition). The results showed that the efficacy of salbutamol sulfate's aerosolization performance was, in part, due to the introduction of L -leucine in the carrier, prior to being spray-dried, accounting for an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of salbutamol sulfate from spray-dried lactose-leucine (0.5% leucine) in comparison to all other carriers. It was shown that all of the spray-dried carriers were spherical in their morphology with some agglomerates and contained a mixture of amorphous, α-lactose, and β-lactose. It was also interesting to note that spray-dried lactose-leucine particles were agglomerated during the spray-drying process to make coarse particles (volume mean diameter of 79 to 87 μm) suitable as a carrier in DPI formulations.

  15. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  16. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  17. Spray drying of budesonide, formoterol fumarate and their composites-II. Statistical factorial design and in vitro deposition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajber, L; Corrigan, O I; Healy, A M

    2009-02-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing spray drying parameters on the production of a budesonide/formoterol fumarate 100:6 (w/w) composite. The systems were spray dried as solutions from 95% ethanol/5% water (v/v) using a Büchi 191-Mini Spray Dryer. A 2(5-1) factorial design study was undertaken to assess the consequence of altering spray drying processing variables on particle characteristics. The processing parameters that were studied were inlet temperature, spray drier airflow rate, pump rate, aspirator setting and feed concentration. Each batch of the resulting powder was characterised in terms of thermal and micromeritic properties as well as an in vitro deposition by twin impinger analysis. Overall, the parameter that had the greatest influence on each response investigated was production yield - airflow (higher airflow giving greater yields), median particle size - airflow (higher airflow giving smaller particle sizes) and Carr's compressibility index - feed concentration (lower feed concentration giving smaller Carr's indices). A six- to seven-fold difference in respirable fraction can be observed by changing the spray drying process parameters. The co-spray dried composite system which displayed best in vitro deposition characteristics, showed a 2.6-fold increase in respirable fraction in the twin impinger experiments and better dose uniformity compared with the physical mix of micronised powders.

  18. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  19. Numerical simulation of the internal stresses of thick tungsten coating deposited by vacuum plasma spraying on copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salito, A.; Tului, M.; Casadei, F.

    1998-01-01

    Several Divertor components in the new generation of nuclear fusion reactors need to be protected against ion sputtering. Particularly copper based (Cu) material is very sensitive to this sputtering process. A solution to overcome such component wear and plasma contamination is to protect the copper substrate with a thick tungsten (W) functional coating. The main difficulty to produce such components is the significant difference in the coating thermomechanical properties between W and Cu. The Vacuum Plasma Spraying coating process (VPS) is a very flexible new economical way to find a solution to the above problem. To optimise the adhesion and stress release properties between the Cu-alloy substrate and the W coating, it is possible to deposit an interlayer as a bond coat between both materials. The aim of this study is to determine the maximum of the residual stresses located between the Cu substrate and the W coating using finite element analysis. The results have been used to select different types of bond coat for the experimental development of thick W coating (>3 mm) on to mock-ups for the Divertor Channel of the ITER project. (author)

  20. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  1. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  2. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  3. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  4. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  5. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  6. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  7. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  8. Effects of membrane composition on release of model hydrophilic compound from osmotic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, N; Ozalp, Y; Ozkan, Y

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface-active agents in different types and concentrations, added into the coating solution, on release of model hydrophilic compound have been examined. For this purpose, the tablets, prepared with the use of methylene blue as a model substance, were coated by spray coating technique with cellulose acetate solution containing polyethylene glycol 400 as a plasticizer. In addition, cetylpyridinium chloride as cationic surface-active agent and sodium lauryl sulphate as anionic surface-active agent were added into coating solution in different concentrations. After creating a delivery orifice by a microdrill on the tablets, release of model hydrophilic compound was tested by the USP paddle method. The data obtained were evaluated according to the different kinetics and the mechanism of release from the preparations was examined. The surface properties of the coating material were investigated by scanning electron microscope taken before and after the contact with medium fluid, as well as the mechanical properties by tensile tests. In conclusion, it has been found that the cationic surface active agent, cetylpyridinium chloride reduced the lag time, observed during the release of model hydrophilic compound, as a result of its enhancing effect on wettability of tablets by reducing the contact angle between the medium fluid and the coating material. On the other hand, the anionic surface active agent, sodium lauryl sulphate has been inactivated possibly due to the interaction with model hydrophilic compound that has cationic properties and/or substances contained in membrane composition; thus, the lag time has not decreased and furthermore, a significant decrease in the delivery rate of model hydrophilic compound has been observed.

  9. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  11. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  12. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  13. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  15. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  16. The potential role of sea spray droplets in facilitating air-sea gas transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, E. L.; Vlahos, P.; Monahan, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    For over 30 years, air-sea interaction specialists have been evaluating and parameterizing the role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea gas exchange. To our knowledge, no one, however, has studied the mirror image process of whether sea spray droplets can facilitate air-sea gas exchange. We are therefore using theory, data analysis, and numerical modeling to quantify the role of spray on air-sea gas transfer. In this, our first formal work on this subject, we seek the rate-limiting step in spray-mediated gas transfer by evaluating the three time scales that govern the exchange: τ air , which quantifies the rate of transfer between the atmospheric gas reservoir and the surface of the droplet; τ int , which quantifies the exchange rate across the air-droplet interface; and τ aq , which quantifies gas mixing within the aqueous solution droplet.

  17. Effect of post annealing treatment on electrochromic properties of spray deposited niobium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujawar, S.H.; Inamdar, A.I.; Betty, C.A.; Ganesan, V.; Patil, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. During deposition of the films various process parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain well adherent and transparent films. The films prepared were further annealed and effect of post annealing on the structural, morphological, optical and electrochromic properties was studied. Structural and morphological characterizations of the films were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical properties of the niobium oxide thin films were studied by using cyclic-voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry

  18. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  19. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  20. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  1. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  2. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  3. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  4. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  5. Ketorolac Tromethamine Spray Prevents Postendotracheal-Intubation-Induced Sore Throat after General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  6. Mechanical Performance of Cold-Sprayed A357 Aluminum Alloy Coatings for Repair and Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petráčková, K.; Kondás, J.; Guagliano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-sprayed coatings made of A357 aluminum alloy, a casting alloy widely used in aerospace, underwent set of standard tests as well as newly developed fatigue test to gain an information about potential of cold spray for repair and additive manufacturing of loaded parts. With optimal spray parameters, coating deposition on substrate with smooth surface resulted in relatively good bonding, which can be further improved by application of grit blasting on substrate's surface. However, no enhancement of adhesion was obtained for shot-peened surface. Process temperature, which was set either to 450 or 550 °C, was shown to have an effect on adhesion and cohesion strength, but it does not influence residual stress in the coating. To assess cold spray perspectives for additive manufacturing, flat tensile specimens were machined from coating and tested in as-sprayed and heat-treated (solution treatment and aging) condition. Tensile properties of the coating after the treatment correspond to properties of the cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy. Finally, fatigue specimen was proposed to test overall performance of the coating and coating's fatigue limit is compared to the results obtained on cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy.

  7. Effect of emulsification and spray-drying microencapsulation on the antilisterial activity of transcinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Lejmi, Raja; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Dumas, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Thanh, Mai Le; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Spray-dried redispersible transcinnamaldehyde (TC)-in-water emulsions were prepared in order to preserve its antibacterial activity; 5% (w/w) TC emulsions were first obtained with a rotor-stator homogeniser in the presence of either soybean lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. These emulsions were mixed with a 30% (w/w) maltodextrin solution before feeding a spray-dryer. The antibacterial activity of TC alone, TC emulsions with and without maltodextrin before and after spray-drying were assayed by monitoring the growth at 30 °C of Listeria innocua in their presence and in their absence (control). Whatever the emulsifier used, antilisterial activity of TC was increased following its emulsification. However, reconstituted spray-dried emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate had a higher antibacterial activity suggesting that they better resisted to spray-drying. This was consistent with observation that microencapsulation efficiencies were 27.6% and 78.7% for emulsions stabilised by lecithin and sodium caseinate, respectively.

  8. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  9. Sealing of thermally-sprayed stainless steel coatings against corrosion using nickel electroplating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaipat Koiprasert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc spraying (EAS is one of the thermal spray techniques used for restoration and to providecorrosion resistance. It can be utilized to build up coatings to thicknesses of several millimeters, It is easy to use on-site. Most importantly, the cost of this technique is lower than other thermal spraying techniques thatmay be suitable for part restoration. A major disadvantage associated with the electric arc sprayed coating is its high porosity, which can be as high as 3-8% making it not appropriate for use in immersion condition. This work was carried out around the idea of using electroplating to seal off the pore of the EAS coating, with an aim to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating in immersion condition. This research compared the corrosion behavior of a stainless steel 316 electric arc sprayed coating in 2M NaOH solution at 25oC. It was found that the Ni plating used as sealant can improve the corrosion resistance of the EAS coating. Furthermore, the smoothened and plated stainless steel 316 coating has a better corrosion resistance than the plated EAS coating that was not ground to smoothen the surface before plating.

  10. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  11. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  12. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  13. Current Status of Superheat Spray Modeling With NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzan, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of liquid fuel behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA's supersonics project office initiative on high altitude emissions, we have undertaken an effort to assess the accuracy of various existing CFD models used in the modeling of superheated sprays. As a part of this investigation, we have completed the implementation of a modeling approach into the national combustion code (NCC), and then applied it to investigate the following three cases: (1) the validation of a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle, (2) the differences between two superheat vaporization models were studied based on both hot and cold flow calculations of a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, (3) the spray characteristics generated by a single-element LDI (Lean Direct Injector) experiment were studied to investigate the differences between superheat and non-superheat conditions. Further details can be found in the paper.

  14. Volume reduction of reactor wastes by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Three simulated low-level reactor wastes were dried using a spray dryer-baghouse system. The three aqueous feedstocks were sodium sulfate waste characteristic of a BWR, boric acid waste characteristic of a PWR, and a waste mixture of ion exchange resins and filter aid. These slurries were spiked with nonradioactive iron, cobalt, and manganese (representing corrosion products) and nonradioactive cesium and iodine (representing fission products). The throughput for the 2.1-m-diameter spray dryer and baghouse system was 160-180 kg/h, which is comparable to the requirements for a full-scale commercial installation. A free-flowing, dry product was produced in all of the tests. The volume reduction factor ranged from 2.5 to 5.8; the baghouse decontamination factor was typically in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 . Using an overall system decontamination factor of 10 6 , the activity of the off-gas was calculated to be one to two orders of magnitude less than the nuclide release limit of the major active species, Cs-137

  15. Preparation of polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles by spray drying and assessment of their instrumental bitterness-masking effect using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Moeko; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    The development of taste-masking technologies for foods and drugs is essential because it would enable people to consume and receive healthy and therapeutic effect without distress. In the current study, in order to develop a novel method to prepare nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing bitter nanoparticles) in only one step, by using spray drying, a two-solution mixing nozzle-equipped spray dryer that we previously reported was used. The nanocomposite particles with or without poorly water-soluble polymers prepared using our spray-drying technique were characterized. (1) The organic solution containing quinine, a model of bitter compound and poorly water-soluble polymers and (2) sugar alcohol (mannitol) aqueous solution were separately flown in tubes and two solutions were spray dried through two-solution type spray nozzle to prepare polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles. Mean diameters of nanoparticles, taste-masking effect and dissolution rate of quinine were evaluated. The results of taste masking by taste sensor suggested that the polymer (Eudragit EPO, Eudragit S100 or Ethyl cellulose)-blended quinine nanocomposite particles exhibited marked masking of instrumental quinine bitterness compared with the quinine nanocomposite particles alone. Quinine nanocomposite formulations altered the quinine dissolution rate, indicating that they can control intestinal absorption of quinine. These results suggest that polymer-blended quinine composite particles prepared using our spray-drying technique are useful for masking bitter tastes in the field of food and pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  17. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, G.C.; Klein, J.F.; Lander, R.D.; Thompson, H.C.; Trapani, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  18. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  20. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  1. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  2. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  3. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  4. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying, whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM, respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead, application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants. Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most

  5. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  6. Quantification of sauter mean diameter in diesel sprays using scattering-absorption extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gabrielle L; Magnotti, Gina M; Knox, Benjamin W; Genzale, Caroline L; Matusik, Katarzyna E; Duke, Daniel J; Powell, Christopher F; Kastengren, Alan L

    2017-05-18

    Quantitative measurements of the primary breakup process in diesel sprays are lacking due to a range of experimental and diagnostic challenges, including: high droplet number density environments, very small characteristic drop size scales (~1-10 μm), and high characteristic velocities in the primary breakup region (~600 m/s). Due to these challenges, existing measurement techniques have failed to resolve a sufficient range of the temporal and spatial scales involved and much remains unknown about the primary atomization process in practical diesel sprays. To gain a better insight into this process, we have developed a joint visible and x-ray extinction measurement technique to quantify axial and radial distributions of the path-integrated Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and Liquid Volume Fraction (LVF) for diesel-like sprays. This technique enables measurement of the SMD in regions of moderate droplet number density, enabling construction of the temporal history of drop size development within practical diesel sprays. The experimental campaign was conducted jointly at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Argonne National Laboratory using the Engine Combustion Network “Spray D” injector. X-ray radiography liquid absorption measurements, conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, quantify the liquid-fuel mass and volume distribution in the spray. Diffused back-illumination liquid scattering measurements were conducted at Georgia Tech to quantify the optical thickness throughout the spray. By application of Mie-scatter equations, the ratio of the absorption and scattering extinction measurements is demonstrated to yield solutions for the SMD. This work introduces the newly developed scattering-absorption measurement technique and highlights the important considerations that must be taken into account when jointly processing these measurements to extract the SMD. These considerations include co-alignment of measurements taken at different institutions

  7. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  8. Thermal spray coating for corrosion under insulation (CUI) prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Razak, Khalil Abdul; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Lah, Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the predominant issues affecting process of Oil and Gas and Petrochemical industries. CUI refers to external corrosion, but it is difficult to be detected as the insulation cover masks the corrosion problem. One of the options to prevent CUI is by utilizing the protective coating systems. Thermal spray coating (TSC) is an advanced coating system and it shows promising performance in harsh environment, which could be used to prevent CUI. However, the application of TSC is not attractive due to the high initial cost. This work evaluates the potential of TSC based on corrosion performance using linear polarization resistance (LPR) method and salt spray test (SST). Prior to the evaluation, the mechanical performance of TSC was first investigated using adhesion test and bend test. Microstructure characterization of the coating was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The LPR test results showed that low corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/years was obtained for TSC in compared to the bare steel especially at high temperature of 80 °C, where usually normal coating would fail. For the salt spray test, there was no sign of corrosion products especially at the center (fully coated region) was observed. From SEM images, no corrosion defects were observed after 336 hours of continuous exposure to salt fog test. This indicates that TSC protected the steel satisfactorily by acting as a barrier from a corrosive environment. In conclusion, TSC can be a possible solution to minimize the CUI in a long term. Further research should be done on corrosion performance and life cycle cost by comparing TSC with other conventional coating technology.

  9. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  10. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  11. Layered lipid microcapsules for mesalazine delayed-release in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Gaia; Corace, Giuseppe; Cavallari, Cristina; Rodriguez, Lorenzo; Buttini, Francesca; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

    2011-12-15

    The goal was to make available a delayed-release dosage form of mesalazine to be dispersed in water to facilitate swallowing in adults and children. Mesalazine microparticles containing carnauba wax were prepared by spray-congealing technique. A second step of spray-congealing of carnauba microparticles dispersed in liquefied stearic acid gave rise to mesalazine lipid microcapsules in which several carnauba microparticles remained embedded as cores in a reservoir structure. In order to favor their water dispersion, the lipid microcapsules were dry coated by tumbling them with different ratios of mannitol/lecithin microparticles prepared by spray-drying. Release rate measurements showed a delayed-release behavior, in particular a pH-dependence with less than 10% of drug released in acidic medium and complete release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 in 4-5h. The layering with hydrophilic excipient microparticles allowed manufacturing of a pH-dependent dosage form suitable for extemporaneous oral use in adults and children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water. Extraction by water in spray and packed columns from uranyl nitrate-either solutions; El sistema nitrato de uranilo-eter dietilico-agua, extraccion de nitrato de uranilo con agua a partir de disoluciones etereas en columnas de pulverizacion y de relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Luina, A; Gutierrez Jodra, L

    1960-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the one published in Chemical Engineering Progress. Symposium Series, 50, n. 12, 127 (1954). New runs for spray columns, are given and other concentrations in uranyl nitrate for the packed columns. New correlations for the overall H.T.U. are also given. The individual H.T.U. have been grapycally calculated and show that the film resistances have similar values, being independent of the concentration of the ether phase. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  15. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  16. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  17. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  18. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  19. Regional deposition of nasal sprays in adults: A wide ranging computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Milad; Wachtel, Herbert; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H

    2018-05-01

    The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of 7 realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on computed tomography images. Deposition in 6 regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location. Penetration of nasal spray particles through the airway geometries represented unintended lung exposure. Penetration was found to be relatively insensitive to injection velocity, but highly sensitive to particle size. Penetration remained at or above 30% for particles exceeding 10 μm in diameter for several airway geometries studied. Deposition in the turbinates, viewed as desirable for both local and systemic nasal drug delivery, was on average maximized for particles ranging from ~20 to 30 μm in diameter, and for low to zero injection velocity. Similar values of particle diameter and injection velocity were found to maximize deposition in the olfactory region, a potential target for nose-to-brain drug delivery. However, olfactory deposition was highly variable between airway geometries, with maximum olfactory deposition ranging over 2 orders of magnitude between geometries. This variability is an obstacle to overcome if consistent dosing between subjects is to be achieved for nose-to-brain drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L. growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L. presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a randomized block experiment with six treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of lambda-cyhalothrin application (1.5 g a.i. 100 L-1 water with a surfactant (0.03% v v-1 at spray volumes of 100, 200, 268, 382 and 488 L ha-1 and one control (without spray. Pest infestation was assessed by counting symptomatic fruits for further percentage calculation. Five treatments with five replications were developed to evaluate spraying performance. These treatments consisted of an aqueous solution with a Brilliant Blue tracer at 0.15% (p v-1 and a surfactant at 0.03% (v v-1, using the same spray volumes as the first experiment. Qualitative assessments were performed on water-sensitive paper cards and were quantified through tracer deposit levels on leaves. Spray volumes between 100 and 382 L ha-1 with lambda-cyhalothrin were efficient to control Cerconota anonella in the pinecone crop, providing good quality application.

  1. The effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x powder characteristics on thick coatings prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiopoulos, E.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2000-01-01

    The development of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x plasma sprayed coatings on metal substrates can be very useful for applications such as targets for thin-film deposition techniques (sputtering, laser ablation, ion assisted deposition) or magnetic shielding, due to the brittle nature of bulk superconductors. The plasma spraying technique is very flexible and can be used for manufacturing components with a large variety of geometries. This technique requires the use of powders with good rheological characteristics. In this study, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x powders were produced by using the conventional solid-state reaction route and also by spray drying a solution of nitrate precursors. Both powders, as well as mixtures of them, were plasma sprayed to develop coatings on stainless-steel substrates, with the aim of studying the effect of the feedstock powder characteristics on the coating properties. It was found that by optimizing the plasma spraying conditions, good quality coatings could be obtained. However, the powder morphology and homogeneity significantly affect the coating quality. More homogeneous powders lead to better results, the spray-dried powder being the best because of its enhanced rheological properties and good morphology. (author)

  2. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  3. Design and performance of atomizing nozzles for spray calcination of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.A.; Stout, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    A key aspect of high-level liquid-waste spray calcination is waste-feed atomization by using air atomizing nozzles. Atomization substantially increases the heat transfer area of the waste solution, which enhances rapid drying. Experience from the spray-calciner operations has demonstrated that nozzle flow conditions that produce 70-μ median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required for small-scale spray calciners (drying capacity less than 80 L/h). For large-scale calciners (drying capacity greater than 300 L/h), nozzle flow conditions that produce 100-μ median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required. Mass flow ratios of 0.2 to 0.4, depending on nozzle size, are required for proper operation of internal-mix atomizing nozzles. Both internal-mix and external-mix nozzles have been tested at PNL. Due to the lower airflow requirements and fewer large droplets produced, the internal-mix nozzle has been chosen for primary development in the spray calciner program at PNL. Several nozzle air-cap materials for internal-mix nozzles have been tested for wear resistance. Results show that nozzle air caps of stainless steel and Cer-vit (a machineable glass ceramic) are suceptible to rapid wear by abrasive slurries, whereas air caps of alumina and reaction-bonded silicon nitride show only slow wear. Longer-term testing is necessary to determine more accurately the actual frequency of nozzle replacement. Atomizing nozzle air caps of alumina are subject to fracture from thermal shock, whereas air caps of silicon nitride and Cer-vit are not. Fractured nozzles are held in place by the air-cap retaining ring and continue to atomize satisfactorily. Therefore, fractures caused by thermal shocking do not necessarily result in nozzle failure

  4. Bactericidal Effects of HVOF-Sprayed Nanostructured TiO2 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B.; Peppler, M.; Lima, R. S.; McDonald, A.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been shown to exhibit photocatalytic bactericidal activity. This preliminary study focused on examining the photocatalytic activity of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The surfaces of the nanostructured TiO2 coatings were lightly polished before addition of the bacterial solution. Plates of P. aeruginosa were grown, and then suspended in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The concentration of bacteria used was determined by a photo-spectrometer, which measured the amount of light absorbed by the bacteria-filled solution. This solution was diluted and pipetted onto the coating, which was exposed to white light in 30-min intervals, up to 120 min. It was found that on polished HVOF-sprayed coatings exposed to white light, 24% of the bacteria were killed after exposure for 120 min. On stainless steel controls, approximately 6% of the bacteria were not recovered. These preliminary results show that thermal-sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings exhibited photocatalytic bactericidal activity with P. aeruginosa.

  5. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  6. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  7. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  8. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  9. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  10. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  11. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  12. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  13. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  14. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  15. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  16. Process to decontaminate a superficial soil layer contaminated with radioactive particles and decontaminating solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Mary, N.

    1993-01-01

    The process consists to dissolve a micronised powder of anionic and crosslinked polyacrilamide, to spray the obtained decontamination solution on the floor to be traited allowing to dry to form a dry polyacrilamide film, to rehydrate the film by spraying with water and to recover the film bonded to the floor particles and the polluting particles by cleaning means. 1 fig

  17. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0095 Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Final Report 11/26/2016...DATES COVERED (From - To)  20 Mar 2013 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT...NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4024 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Yukiharu Uraoka 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.   WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  19. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, M.; Jordanov, M.; Denev, J.; Markov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

  20. Plasma-sprayed tantalum/alumina cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.M.

    1977-12-01

    Cermets of tantalum and alumina were fabricated by plasma spraying, with the amount of alumina varied from 0 to 65 percent (by volume). Each of four compositions was then measured for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, strength and strain to failure decreased with increasing alumina content: 62 MPa for 100 percent Ta to 19 MPa for 35 v percent Ta. A maximum of 0.1 percent strain was observed for the sprayed 100 percent Ta specimens. The coefficient of thermal expansion measured for the pure Ta was 6.2 (10 -6 )/K

  1. Spraying of Crops with Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sima, Per; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1985-01-01

    A frame experiment was carried out in 1983 to test the effect of foliar application of selenate and selenite and the effect of simultaneous addition of a micronutrient solution on the Se concentration of barley and potatoes. In general, selenate was the more effective; however, both forms of Se p...

  2. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Peck, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    spray. A second spray cycle was begun in December 1997, targeted to start before the annual Mediterranean fruit fly population increase. The sprays were continued until early February 1998, after which a weekly release of sterile Mediterranean fruit flies was started and was planned to continue through mid-June, 1998. Here, we describe the 1997-1998 large area phloxine B protein bait spray programme in southwestern Guatemala. We present the catch results of traps monitored throughout the weekly spray programme, as well as trap catch results from the initial ten weeks of sterile fly release which followed the spray programme. Additionally, we discuss issues which may affect the success of large area suppression programmes which target Mediterranean fruit fly or other tephritid fruit fly species using xanthene dye protein bait sprays

  3. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  4. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  5. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  7. Numerical Modeling of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekdemir, C.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study is presented on the modeling of fuel sprays in diesel engines. The objective of this study is in the first place to accurately and efficiently model non-reacting diesel spray formation, and secondly to include ignition and combustion. For that an efficient 1D Euler-Euler spray model [21] is

  8. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  9. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr; Cho, Kuk, E-mail: kukcho@pusan.ac.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying.

  10. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Cho, Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying

  11. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  12. ''Spray'' drying unit for spent ion-exchange resins sludges and radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raibaud, J.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure consisting in drying radwaste either in liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution for volume Reduction. Technicatome presents an experimental spray drying station for 50 kg/hr, using the LEAFLASH process, developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches. This process, used at full scale in a large number of branches in industry, is applicable to the drying of various materials: bead type ion-echange resins, powered ion exchange resins, centrifuge sludges, filter sludges, evaporator bottoms [fr

  13. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Optically passive thin films of CeO2–TiO2 mixed oxides with molar ratio of Ce/Ti of 0.05 were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) on a glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Precur- sor solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)2·6H2O) and titanium ...

  14. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumporn Nikom

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

  15. Spray impingement on a wall in the context of the upper airways

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Weynans , Lisl

    2008-01-01

    9 pages; ESAIM proceedings; We here address the modelling of an aerosol hitting the walls of the airways or an endotracheal tube used for a mechanical ventilation, and the possible creation of secondary droplets that may follow. We present a kinetic modelling of the spray-wall interaction and propose a boundary term that takes into account the possible formation of secondary droplets. Next we answer the following question: when, modelling the delivery of solute therapeutic aerosols, is it nec...

  16. Innovative approach to produce submicron drug particles by vibrational atomization spray drying: influence of the type of solvent and surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durli, T L; Dimer, F A; Fontana, M C; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Guterres, S S

    2014-08-01

    Spray drying is a technique used to produce solid particles from liquid solutions, emulsions or suspensions. Buchi Labortechnik developed the latest generation of spray dryers, Nano Spray Dryer B-90. This study aims to obtain, directly, submicron drug particles from an organic solution, employing this equipment and using dexamethasone as a model drug. In addition, we evaluated the influence of both the type of solvent and surfactant on the properties of the powders using a 3(2) full factorial analysis. The particles were obtained with high yields (above 60%), low water content (below 2%) and high drug content (above 80%). The surface tension and the viscosity were strongly influenced by the type of solvent. The highest powder yields were obtained for the highest surface tension and the lowest viscosity of the drug solutions. The use of ionic surfactants led to higher process yields. The laser diffraction technique revealed that the particles deagglomerate into small ones with submicrometric size, (around 1 µm) that was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the raw materials in the spray-dried powders was verified by calorimetric analysis. Thus, it was possible to obtain dexamethasone submicrometric particles by vibrational atomization from organic solution.

  17. In situ spray deposition of cell-loaded, thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel coatings for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivaner Kara, Meryem O; Ekenseair, Adam K

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the efficacy of creating cellular hydrogel coatings on warm tissue surfaces through the minimally invasive, sprayable delivery of thermoresponsive liquid solutions was investigated. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based (pNiPAAm) thermogelling macromers with or without addition of crosslinking polyamidoamine (PAMAM) macromers were synthesized and used to produce in situ forming thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel systems. The effect of solution and process parameters on hydrogel physical properties and morphology was evaluated and compared to poly(ethylene glycol) and injection controls. Smooth, fast, and conformal hydrogel coatings were obtained when pNiPAAm thermogelling macromers were sprayed with high PAMAM concentration at low pressure. Cellular hydrogel coatings were further fabricated by different spraying techniques: single-stream, layer-by-layer, and dual stream methods. The impact of spray technique, solution formulation, pressure, and spray solution viscosity on the viability of fibroblast and osteoblast cells encapsulated in hydrogels was elucidated. In particular, the early formation of chemically crosslinked micronetworks during bulk liquid flow was shown to significantly affect cell viability under turbulent conditions compared to injectable controls. The results demonstrated that sprayable, in situ forming hydrogels capable of delivering cell populations in a homogeneous therapeutic coating on diseased tissue surfaces offer promise as novel therapies for applications in regenerative medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2383-2393, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A comparative study of the effect of spray drying and hot-melt extrusion on the properties of amorphous solid dispersions containing felodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmah, Osama; Tabbakh, Rami; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant

    2014-02-01

    To compare the properties of solid dispersions of felodipine for oral bioavailability enhancement using two different polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying. Felodipine solid dispersions were prepared by HME and spray drying techniques. PVP and HPMCAS were used as polymer matrices at different drug : polymer ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3). Detailed characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution profiles were evaluated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Stability of different solid dispersions was studied under accelerated conditions (40°C/75% RH) over 8 weeks. Spray-dried formulations were found to release felodipine faster than melt extruded formulations for both polymer matrices. Solid dispersions containing HMPCAS exhibited higher drug release rates and better wettability than those produced with a PVP matrix. No significant differences in stability were observed except with HPMCAS at a 1 : 1 ratio, where crystallization was detected in spray-dried formulations. Solid dispersions of felodipine produced by spray drying exhibited more rapid drug release than corresponding melt extruded formulations, although in some cases improved stability was observed for melt extruded formulations. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Effects of sodium citrate and acid citrate dextrose solutions on cell counts and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Carlos E; Álvarez, María E; Carmona, Jorge U

    2015-03-14

    There is a lack information on the effects of the most commonly used anticoagulants for equine platelet rich plasmas (PRPs) elaboration on cell counts and growth factor release from platelet rich gels (PRGs). The aims of this study were 1) to compare the effects of the anticoagulants sodium citrate (SC), acid citrate dextrose solution A (ACD-A) and ACD-B on platelet (PLT), leukocyte (WBC) and on some parameters associated to platelet activation including mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) between whole blood, pure PRP (P-PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)) and platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB) concentrations in supernatants from pure PRG (P-PRG), platelet-poor gel (PPG), P-PRP lysate (positive control) and plasma (negative control); 3) to establish the possible correlations between all the studied cellular and molecular parameters. In all cases the three anticoagulants produced P-PRPs with significantly higher PLT counts compared with whole blood and PPP. The concentrations of WBCs were similar between P-PRP and whole blood, but significantly lower in PPP. The type of anticoagulant did not significantly affect the cell counts for each blood component. The anticoagulants also did not affect the MPV and PDW parameters. Independently of the anticoagulant used, all blood components presented significantly different concentrations of PDGF-BB and TGF-β(1). The highest growth factor (GF) concentrations were observed from P-PRP lysates, followed by PRG supernatants, PPP lysates, PPG supernatants and plasma. Significant correlations were observed between PLT and WBC counts (ρ = 0.80), PLT count and TGF-β(1) concentration (ρ = 0.85), PLT count and PDGF-BB concentration (ρ = 0.80) and PDGF-BB and TGF-β(1) concentrations (ρ = 0.75). The type of anticoagulant was not correlated with any of the variables evaluated. The anticoagulants did not

  20. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: megdi.eltayeb@sustech.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: a.harker@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.