WorldWideScience

Sample records for solution selectively etches

  1. Selective Etching via Soft Lithography of Conductive Multilayered Gold Films with Analysis of Electrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment is designed to expose undergraduate students to the process of selective etching by using soft lithography and the resulting electrical properties of multilayered films fabricated via self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. Students fabricate a conductive film of gold on glass, apply a patterned resist using a polydimethylsiloxane…

  2. Selective photochemical dry etching of compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.

    1988-01-01

    When laser-driven etching of a semiconductor requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers, the etching quantum yield will be sensitive to the electronic properties of a specific semiconductor material. The band-gap energy of the semiconductor determines the minimum photon energy needed for carrier-driven etching since sub-gap photons do not generate free carriers. However, only those free carriers that reach the reacting surface contribute to etching and the ultimate carrier flux to the surface is controlled by more subtle electronic properties than the lowest-energy band gap. For example, the initial depth of carrier generation and the probability of carrier recombination between the point of generation and the surface profoundly influence the etching quantum yield. Appropriate manipulation of process parameters can provide additional reaction control based on such secondary electronic properties. Applications to selective dry etching of GaAs and related materials are discussed

  3. Etching characteristics of a CR-39 track detector at room temperature in different etching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to discover how the etching characteristics of CR-39 detectors change with varying conditions of the etching process. Measurements were made at room temperature in pure NaOH and KOH solutions; in different alcoholic KOH solutions (PEW solution, i.e. potassium hydroxide, ethyl alcohol, water); and in NaOH and KOH solutions containing different additives. The bulk etching rate of the detector (V B ) and the V (= V T /V B ) function, i.e. track to bulk etch rates ratio, for 6.1 MeV α-particles, were measured systematically. (author)

  4. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for selectively photochemically etching a semiconductor material. It comprises introducing at least one impurity into at least one selected region of a semiconductor material to be etched to increase a local impurity concentration in the at least one selected region relative to an impurity concentration in regions of the semiconductor material adjacent thereto, for reducing minority carrier lifetimes within the at least one selected region relative to the adjacent regions for thereby providing a photochemical etch-inhibiting mask at the at least one selected region; and etching the semiconductor material by subjecting the surface of the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction for selectively etching the regions of the semiconductor material adjacent the at least one selected region having the increase impurity concentration; wherein the step of introducing at least one impurity is performed so as not to produce damage to the at least one selected region before any etching is performed

  5. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial of Self-etching Adhesives and Selective Enamel Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, C E; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Giannini, M; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V(+)) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with each adhesive system and divided into two subgroups (n=28; etch and non-etch). All 112 cavities were restored with the nanohybrid composite Esthet.X HD. The clinical effectiveness of restorations was recorded in terms of retention, marginal integrity, marginal staining, caries recurrence, and postoperative sensitivity after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (modified United States Public Health Service). The Friedman test detected significant differences only after 18 months for marginal staining in the groups Clearfil SE non-etch (p=0.009) and Xeno V(+) etch (p=0.004). One restoration was lost during the trial (Xeno V(+) etch; p>0.05). Although an increase in marginal staining was recorded for groups Clearfil SE non-etch and Xeno V(+) etch, the clinical effectiveness of restorations was considered acceptable for the single-step and two-step self-etching systems with or without selective enamel etching in this 24-month clinical trial.

  6. Site-controlled fabrication of silicon nanotips by indentation-induced selective etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenning; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Xiao, Chen; Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Qian, Linmao

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the indentation-induced selective etching approach is proposed to fabricate site-controlled pyramidal nanotips on Si(100) surface. Without any masks, the site-controlled nanofabrication can be realized by nanoindentation and post etching in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The effect of indentation force and etching time on the formation of pyramidal nanotips was investigated. It is found that the height and radius of the pyramidal nanotips increase with the indentation force or etching time, while long-time etching can lead to the collapse of the tips. The formation of pyramidal tips is ascribed to the anisotropic etching of silicon and etching stop of (111) crystal planes in KOH aqueous solution. The capability of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by producing various tip arrays on silicon surface by selective etching of the site-controlled indent patterns, and the maximum height difference of these tips is less than 10 nm. The indentation-induced selective etching provides a new strategy to fabricate well site-controlled tip arrays for multi-probe SPM system, Si nanostructure-based sensors and high-quality information storage.

  7. Acid Solutions for Etching Corrosion-Resistant Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    New study characterized solutions for etching austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, and titanium alloys (annealed). Solutions recommended for use remove at least 0.4 mil of metal from surface in less than an hour. Solutions do not cause intergranular attack on metals for which they are effective, when used under specified conditions.

  8. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.; Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can

  9. Electrochemical regeneration of chrome etching solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Y.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    A metal surface is chromatized with a chromic acid solution to obtain a good adherence of polymer coatings. In this process Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The oxidation strength of the solution decreases during use. The chrome solution needs to be regenerated and purified. A new anode material,

  10. Selective dry etching of silicon containing anti-reflective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Shyam; Nolan, Andrew; Wang, Li; Karakas, Erdinc; Voronin, Sergey; Biolsi, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2018-03-01

    Multi-layer patterning schemes involve the use of Silicon containing Anti-Reflective Coating (SiARC) films for their anti-reflective properties. Patterning transfer completion requires complete and selective removal of SiARC which is very difficult due to its high silicon content (>40%). Typically, SiARC removal is accomplished through a non-selective etch during the pattern transfer process using fluorine containing plasmas, or an ex-situ wet etch process using hydrofluoric acid is employed to remove the residual SiARC, post pattern transfer. Using a non-selective etch may result in profile distortion or wiggling, due to distortion of the underlying organic layer. The drawbacks of using wet etch process for SiARC removal are increased overall processing time and the need for additional equipment. Many applications may involve patterning of active structures in a poly-Si layer with an underlying oxide stopping layer. In such applications, SiARC removal selective to oxide using a wet process may prove futile. Removing SiARC selectively to SiO2 using a dry etch process is also challenging, due to similarity in the nature of chemical bonds (Si - O) in the two materials. In this work, we present highly selective etching of SiARC, in a plasma driven by a surface wave radial line slot antenna. The first step in the process involves an in-situ modification of the SiARC layer in O2 plasma followed by selective etching in a NF3/H2 plasma. Surface treatment in O2 plasma resulted in enhanced etching of the SiARC layer. For the right processing conditions, in-situ NF3/H2 dry etch process demonstrated selectivity values greater than 15:1 with respect to SiO2. The etching chemistry, however, was sensitive to NF3:H2 gas ratio. For dilute NF3 in H2, no SiARC etching was observed. Presumably, this is due to the deposition of ammonium fluorosilicate layer that occurs for dilute NF3/H2 plasmas. Additionally, challenges involved in selective SiARC removal (selective to SiO2, organic

  11. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  13. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  14. Selective, electrochemical etching of a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Bhat, Ishwara B.; Chow, Tat-Sing

    2018-03-20

    Methods for facilitating fabricating semiconductor structures are provided which include: providing a multilayer structure including a semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer including a dopant and having an increased conductivity; selectively increasing, using electrochemical processing, porosity of the semiconductor layer, at least in part, the selectively increasing porosity utilizing the increased conductivity of the semiconductor layer; and removing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer with the selectively increased porosity from the multilayer structure. By way of example, the selectively increasing porosity may include selectively, anodically oxidizing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer of the multilayer structure.

  15. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-12

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can be used to fabricate a variety of features, including an electrode, an interconnect, a channel, a reservoir, a contact hole, a trench, a pad, or a combination thereof. A variety of devices fabricated according to the methods are also provided. In some aspects, capacitive humidity sensors are provided that can be fabricated according to the provided methods. The capacitive humidity sensors can be fabricated with intricate electrodes, e.g. having a fractal pattern such as a Peano curve, a Hilbert curve, a Moore curve, or a combination thereof.

  16. Silver ion mediated shape control of platinum nanoparticles: Removal of silver by selective etching leads to increased catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Michael E.; Yue, Yao; Habas, Susan E.; Rioux, Robert M.; Teall, Chelsea I.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-01-09

    A procedure has been developed for the selective etching of Ag from Pt nanoparticles of well-defined shape, resulting in the formation of elementally-pure Pt cubes, cuboctahedra, or octahedra, with a largest vertex-to-vertex distance of {approx}9.5 nm from Ag-modified Pt nanoparticles. A nitric acid etching process was applied Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica, as well as nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous solution. The characterization of the silica-supported particles by XRD, TEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements demonstrated that the structure of the nanoparticles and the mesoporous support remained conserved during etching in concentrated nitric acid. Both elemental analysis and ethylene hydrogenation indicated etching of Ag is only effective when [HNO{sub 3}] {ge} 7 M; below this concentration, the removal of Ag is only {approx}10%. Ethylene hydrogenation activity increased by four orders of magnitude after the etching of Pt octahedra that contained the highest fraction of silver. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the unsupported particles after etching demonstrated that etching does not alter the surface structure of the Pt nanoparticles. High [HNO{sub 3}] led to the decomposition of the capping agent, polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP); infrared spectroscopy confirmed that many decomposition products were present on the surface during etching, including carbon monoxide.

  17. Selective etching of n-type silicon in pn junction structure in hydrofluoric acid and its application in silicon nanowire fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiquan; Jin Zhonghe; Zheng Yangming; Ma Huilian; Wang Yuelin; Li Tie

    2008-01-01

    Boron is selectively implanted on the surface of an n-type silicon wafer to form a p-type area surrounded by an n-type area. The wafer is then put into a buffered oxide etch solution. It is found that the n-type area can be selectively etched without illumination, with an etching rate lower than 1 nm min -1 , while the p-type area can be selectively etched under illumination with a much higher etching rate. The possible mechanism of the etching phenomenon is discussed. A simple fabrication process of silicon nanowires is proposed according to the above phenomenon. In this process only traditional micro-electromechanical system technology is used. Dimensions of the fabricated nanowire can be controlled well. A 50 nm wide and 50 nm thick silicon nanowire has been formed using this method

  18. The etching of InP in HCl solutions : a chemical mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.

    1984-01-01

    The etch rate of InP in solutions of high HCl concentration was shown to be independent of the applied potential ina wide potential range negative with respect to the flatband value. Dissolution of the solid led to the formation of PH3.The etch rate, which was not mass-transport controlled, was

  19. Fabrication mechanism of friction-induced selective etching on Si(100) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Bingjun; Dong, Hanshan; Qian, Linmao; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2012-02-23

    As a maskless nanofabrication technique, friction-induced selective etching can easily produce nanopatterns on a Si(100) surface. Experimental results indicated that the height of the nanopatterns increased with the KOH etching time, while their width increased with the scratching load. It has also found that a contact pressure of 6.3 GPa is enough to fabricate a mask layer on the Si(100) surface. To understand the mechanism involved, the cross-sectional microstructure of a scratched area was examined, and the mask ability of the tip-disturbed silicon layer was studied. Transmission electron microscope observation and scanning Auger nanoprobe analysis suggested that the scratched area was covered by a thin superficial oxidation layer followed by a thick distorted (amorphous and deformed) layer in the subsurface. After the surface oxidation layer was removed by HF etching, the residual amorphous and deformed silicon layer on the scratched area can still serve as an etching mask in KOH solution. The results may help to develop a low-destructive, low-cost, and flexible nanofabrication technique suitable for machining of micro-mold and prototype fabrication in micro-systems.

  20. Enlarging the fission fragment tracks in glass detectors by etching in weak solutions of HF - a safe etchant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Sharma, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of etchant concentration and temperature on track revelation properties of soda glass detectors has been studied. Etch rate ratio, maximum observable diameter and the energy resolution of the fission fragment tracks of 252 Cf in glasses are increased when the samples are etched in 1.25 vol% HF as compared to higher concentrations of HF and other etching solutions. The critical angle of etching is found to decrease with decrease in etchant concentration. The activation energies for bulk etching and track etching have also been estimated. Better results were obtained by using lower etching temperatures. (author)

  1. The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by KOH anisotropic wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikida, M; Inagaki, N; Sasaki, H; Amakawa, H; Fukuzawa, K; Sato, K

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by anisotropic wet etching—which reduces a periodic corrugation, called 'scalloping', formed on the sidewalls of microstructures by the Bosch process in deep reactive-ion etching (D-RIE)—was investigated. In particular, the corrugation-removal mechanism was analyzed by using the etching rate distribution pattern, and two equations for predicting the corrugation-removal time by the etching were derived. A Si{1 0 0} wafer was first etched by D-RIE at a depth of 29.4 µm (60 cycles) to form the corrugation on the sidewall surface. The height and pitch of the corrugation were 196 and 494 nm, respectively. Selective removal of the corrugation by using 50% KOH (40 °C) was experimentally tried. The corrugation formed on Si{1 0 0} sidewall surfaces was gradually reduced in size as the etching progressed, and it was completely removed after 5 min of etching. Similarly, the corrugation formed on a Si{1 1 0} sidewall surface was also selectively removed by KOH etching (etching time: 3 min). The roughness value of the sidewall surface was reduced from 17.6 nm to a few nanometers by the etching. These results confirm that the corrugation-removal mechanism using anisotropic wet etching can be explained in terms of the distribution pattern of etching rate

  2. Bulk etching characteristics of CR-39 track detectors in hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da; Knoefel, T.M.J.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic study of the bulk etch rate of CR-39 track detectors in KOH and NaOH aqueous solutions is presented. A number of unirradiated and non-thermally treated CR-39 samples were chemically attacked in KOH and NaOH solutions of concentration and temperature in the range 2-10 N and 50-90 0 C, respectively. From measurements of the thickness of layers removed as a function of the etching time, the bulk etch rate υ β and the induction time T ο for surface removal were obtained for each etching condition. For both NaOH and KOH solution the activation energy of the process was derived as E = 0.76 ± 0.05 eV. It was observed that the induction time decreases both with increasing normality and temperature of the solution. (author) [pt

  3. The electrochemistry of InP in Br2/HBr solutions and its relevance to etching behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Damen, A.A.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Etch rate-potential curves of p-InP in HBr and Br2/HBr solutions in the dark and under illumination were correlated with current-potential curves. It was found that InP is etched via a "chemical" mechanism both by HBr and Br2. In aqueous HBr solutions InP is only etched at a significant rate at

  4. Electrochemistry in anisotropic etching of silicon in alkaline solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Q.D.

    2007-01-01

    Etching is the process of using an acidic or caustic chemical to cut into unprotected areas of a particular material. Initially used in the 15th century for decorating plate armor and sword blades, the metal surface (typically steel or copper) was first covered with a wax-like material. Part of the

  5. Isolating GaSb Membranes Grown Metamorphically on GaAs Substrates Using Highly Selective Substrate Removal Etch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, E. J.; Muniz, A. J.; Addamane, S. J.; Shima, D. M.; Hains, C. P.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2015-05-01

    The etch rates of NH4OH:H2O2 and C6H8O7:H2O2 for GaAs and GaSb have been investigated to develop a selective etch for GaAs substrates and to isolate GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs. The NH4OH:H2O2 solution has a greater etch rate differential for the GaSb/GaAs material system than C6H8O7:H2O2 solution. The selectivity of NH4OH:H2O2 for GaAs/GaSb under optimized etch conditions has been observed to be as high as 11,000 ± 2000, whereas that of C6H8O7:H2O2 has been measured up to 143 ± 2. The etch contrast has been verified by isolating 2- μm-thick GaSb epilayers that were grown on GaAs substrates. GaSb membranes were tested and characterized with high- resolution x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy.

  6. Fabrication of micromechanical structures on substrates selectively etched using a micropatterned ion-implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shizuka; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Ishikawa, Haruo; Ogiso, Hisato

    2001-01-01

    An advanced micromachining technique using ion implantation to modify materials was studied. Gold ion implantation into silicon decreased the etching rate when the silicon was etched in potassium hydroxide solution after the ion implantation; the implanted region remained, thus forming the microstructure. Observation of the cross-section of the resulting etched structure by transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure was made only from the ion-implanted region, and that gold was precipitated on the surface. To clarify the mechanism involved in the decrease in the etching rate, we varied the etching conditions. Our results show that precipitation of implanted gold on the surface decreased the etching rate, because solubility of gold is lower

  7. Characterization of selectively etched halloysite nanotubes by acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Daniel; Ferri, Jose M.; Ripoll, Laura; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Lopez-Martinez, Juan; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a type of naturally occurring inorganic nanotubes that are characterized by a different composition between their external and internal walls. The internal walls are mainly composed of alumina whilst external walls are composed of silica. This particular structure offers a dual surface chemistry that allows different selective surface treatments which can be focused on increasing the lumen, increasing porosity, etc. In this work, HNTs were chemically treated with different acids (sulphuric, acetic and acrylic acid), for 72 h at a constant temperature of 50 °C. As per the obtained results, the treatment with sulphuric acid is highly aggressive and the particular shape of HNTs is almost lost, with a remarkable increase in porosity. The BET surface area increases from 52.9 (untreated HNTs) up to 132.4 m2 g-1 with sulphuric acid treatment, thus showing an interesting potential in the field of catalysis. On the other hand, the treatment with acetic acid led to milder effects with a noticeable increase in the lumen diameter that changed from 13.8 nm (untreated HNTs) up to 18.4 nm which the subsequent increase in the loading capacity by 77.8%. The aluminium content was measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The final results using two systems, suggest a good correlation between the acid strength and the aluminium reduction. Consequently, is possible to conclude that new applications for HNTs can be derived from selective etching with acids. Sulphuric acid widens the potential of HNTs in the field of catalysis while weak acids such as acetic and acrylic acids give a controlled and homogeneous lumen increase with the corresponding increase in the loading capacity.

  8. Infinitely high etch selectivity during CH4/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) with photoresist mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Ko, J.H.; Park, M.S.; Lee, N.-E.

    2008-01-01

    Under certain conditions during ITO etching using CH 4 /H 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasmas, the etch rate selectivity of ITO to photoresist (PR) was infinitely high because the ITO films continued to be etched, but a net deposition of the α-C:H layer occurred on the top of the PR. Analyses of plasmas and etched ITO surfaces suggested that the continued consumption of the carbon and hydrogen in the deposited α-C:H layer by their chemical reaction with In and Sn atoms in the ITO resulting in the generation of volatile metal-organic etch products and by the ion-enhanced removal of the α-C:H layer presumably play important roles in determining the ITO etch rate and selectivity

  9. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effects of Mg doping on wet etching of N-polar GaN are illustrated and analysed. • Etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is purposed. • It is found that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN film. • N-polar p-GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10"1"7 cm"−"3 is obtained. - Abstract: KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10"1"7 cm"−"3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  10. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao, Degang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effects of Mg doping on wet etching of N-polar GaN are illustrated and analysed. • Etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is purposed. • It is found that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN film. • N-polar p-GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} is obtained. - Abstract: KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  11. Measurement of low neutron fluences with polycarbonate foils electrochemically etched with methyl alcohol-KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils was performed using a KOH solution with a high concentration of methyl alcohol under different conditions of field strength, frequency, temperature and etching time. These studies showed that the highest neutron sensitivity relative to the inherent background in the foil was obtained under the following etching conditions: 52 kV/cm, 1 kHz, 30 0 C, 30 min in a solution of 45 gm KOH + 80 cc CH 3 OH + 20 cc H 2 O. Under these conditions, 100 mrem of neutrons from a Ra-Be source gave 70 pits per cm 2 while background was 7 +- 3 pits per cm 2 (10 +- 5 mrem). The pit diameters were about 90 μm. This sensitivity (giving lowest measurable dose of 15 mrem) is quite sufficient for personnel neutron dosimetry applications and the size of the pits is large enough for easy counting using a microscope at magnification of 40X. (author)

  12. Integration, gap formation, and sharpening of III-V heterostructure nanowires by selective etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesoe, C.; Mølhave, Kristian; Larsen, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of heterostructure nanowires allows for the definition of narrow sections with specific semiconductor composition. The authors demonstrate how postgrowth engineering of III-V heterostructure nanowires using selective etching can form gaps, sharpening of tips, and thin sections...... lithography is used for deposition of catalyst particles on trench sidewalls and the lateral growth of III-V nanowires is achieved from such catalysts. The selectivity of a bromine-based etch on gallium arsenide segments in gallium phosphide nanowires is examined, using a hydrochloride etch to remove the III...

  13. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 ÿ 1017 cm⿿3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  14. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...

  15. Isolating GaSb membranes grown metamorphically on GaAs substrates using highly selective substrate removal etch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Center for High Technology Materials; Balakrishnan, Ganesh [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Center for High Technology Materials

    2017-02-24

    The etch rates of NH4OH:H2O2 and C6H8O7:H2O2 for GaAs and GaSb have been investigated to develop a selective etch for GaAs substrates and to isolate GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs. The NH4OH:H2O2 solution has a greater etch rate differential for the GaSb/GaAs material system than C6H8O7:H2O2 solution. The selectivity of NH4OH:H2O2 for GaAs/GaSb under optimized etch conditions has been observed to be as high as 11471 ± 1691 whereas that of C6H8O7:H2O2 has been measured up to 143 ± 2. The etch contrast has been verified by isolating 2 μm thick GaSb epi-layers that were grown on GaAs substrates. GaSb membranes were tested and characterized with high-resolution X-Ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Improving the robustness of a partial least squares (PLS) model based on pure component selectivity analysis and range optimization: Case study for the analysis of an etching solution containing hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngbok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University Haengdang-Dong, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hoeil [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University Haengdang-Dong, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hoeil@hanyang.ac.kr; Arnold, Mark A. [Optical Science and Technology Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2006-07-14

    Pure component selectivity analysis (PCSA) was successfully utilized to enhance the robustness of a partial least squares (PLS) model by examining the selectivity of a given component to other components. The samples used in this study were composed of NH{sub 4}OH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, a popular etchant solution in the electronic industry. Corresponding near-infrared (NIR) spectra (9000-7500 cm{sup -1}) were used to build PLS models. The selective determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} without influences from NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O was a key issue since its molecular structure is similar to that of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH also has a hydroxyl functional group. The best spectral ranges for the determination of NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were found with the use of moving window PLS (MW-PLS) and corresponding selectivity was examined by pure component selectivity analysis. The PLS calibration for NH{sub 4}OH was free from interferences from the other components due to the presence of its unique NH absorption bands. Since the spectral variation from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was broadly overlapping and much less distinct than that from NH{sub 4}OH, the selectivity and prediction performance for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration were sensitively varied depending on the spectral ranges and number of factors used. PCSA, based on the comparison between regression vectors from PLS and the net analyte signal (NAS), was an effective method to prevent over-fitting of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration. A robust H{sub 2}O{sub 2} calibration model with minimal interferences from other components was developed. PCSA should be included as a standard method in PLS calibrations where prediction error only is the usual measure of performance.

  17. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si_3N_4 and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions

  18. Determination of total fluoride in HF/HNO3/H2SiF6 etch solutions by new potentiometric titration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Wenke; Acker, Jörg; Gräber, Iris

    2007-03-30

    In the photovoltaic industry the etching of silicon in HF/HNO(3) solutions is a decisive process for cleaning wafer surfaces or to produce certain surface morphologies like polishing or texturization. With regard to cost efficiency, a maximal utilisation of etch baths in combination with highest quality and accuracy is strived. To provide an etch bath control realised by a replenishment with concentrated acids the main constituents of these HF/HNO(3) etch solutions including the reaction product H(2)SiF(6) have to be analysed. Two new methods for the determination of the total fluoride content in an acidic etch solution based on the precipitation titration with La(NO(3))(3) are presented within this paper. The first method bases on the proper choice of the reaction conditions, since free fluoride ions have to be liberated from HF and H(2)SiF(6) at the same time to be detected by a fluoride ion-selective electrode (F-ISE). Therefore, the sample is adjusted to a pH of 8 for total cleavage of the SiF(6)(2-) anion and titrated in absence of buffers. In a second method, the titration with La(NO(3))(3) is followed by a change of the pH-value using a HF resistant glass-electrode. Both methods provide consistent values, whereas the analysis is fast and accurate, and thus, applicable for industrial process control.

  19. Influence of external magnetic field on the etching of a steel ball in an aqueous solution of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ilchenko M.; Yu, Gorobets O.; Bondar, I.A.; Gaponov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of change of shape of a steel ball was revealed as a result of its etching in an aqueous solution of nitric acid under influence of an external magnetic field. The elongation of a ferromagnetic ball was observed along the direction of an external magnetic field while etching took place uniformly in all the directions without magnetic field application. The steel ball etching in a magnetic field is characterized by formation of three cylindrically symmetric regions with different etching rates and surface structures, divided from each other by clear borders (namely, the pole, equator and transition regions are formed). The non-monotone dependences of etching rate, surface structure of a sample and sample shape after etching on an external magnetic field are observed.

  20. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukfeh, M I; Storm, K; Hansen, A; Thelander, C; Hinze, P; Beyer, A; Weimann, T; Samuelson, L; Tornow, M

    2014-11-21

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor-liquid-solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10-60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap.

  1. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukfeh, M I; Hansen, A; Tornow, M; Storm, K; Thelander, C; Samuelson, L; Hinze, P; Weimann, T; Beyer, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor–liquid–solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10–60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap. (paper)

  2. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Norton, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: dnort@mse.ufl.edu; Selvamanickam, Venkat [IGC-SuperPower, LLC, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature.

  3. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2006-01-01

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature

  4. Surface Passivation of CdZnTe Detector by Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral resolution of room temperature nuclear radiation detectors such as CdZnTe is usually limited by the presence of conducting surface species that increase the surface leakage current. Studies have shown that the leakage current can be reduced by proper surface preparation. In this study, we try to optimize the performance of CdZnTe detector by etching the detector with hydrogen peroxide solution as function of concentration and etching time. The passivation effect that hydrogen peroxide introduces have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurement on both parallel strips and metal-semiconductor-metal configurations. The improvements on the spectral response of Fe-55 and 241Am due to hydrogen peroxide treatment are presented and discussed.

  5. Defect-selective dry etching for quick and easy probing of hexagonal boron nitride domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinke; Lee, Joohyun; Park, Sangwoo; Woo, Hwi Je; Lee, Sungjoo; Song, Young Jae

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a new method to selectively etch the point defects or the boundaries of as-grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films and flakes in situ on copper substrates using hydrogen and argon gases. The initial quality of the chemical vapor deposition-grown hBN films and flakes was confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different gas flow ratios of Ar/H2 were then employed to etch the same quality of samples and it was found that etching with hydrogen starts from the point defects and grows epitaxially, which helps in confirming crystalline orientations. However, etching with argon is sensitive to line defects (boundaries) and helps in visualizing the domain size. Finally, based on this defect-selective dry etching technique, it could be visualized that the domains of a polycrystalline hBN monolayer merged together with many parts, even with those that grew from a single nucleation seed.

  6. A quick method for maintaining the molarity of NaOH solution during continuous etching of CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E.U.; Husaini, S.N.; Malik, F.; Sajid, M.; Karim, S.; Qureshi, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to investigate the physio-chemical changes that occurred in the 6 M NaOH solution after etching CR-39 (Pershore and Homalite) detectors, each for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 h. Various physical parameters like concentration, electrical conductivity (EC) and density of the solutions have been measured after each etching interval. Results have been discussed in the light of stoichiometrical equation for the interaction of CR-39 with NaOH. It is found that the concentration, EC and the density of the solution, in which CR-39 has been etched, increase linearly with respect to the etching time. The inter-relationship of EC-concentration and density-concentration suggest that the concentration of the etchant can be maintained at certain desired value by adjusting the corresponding value of EC or density, measured through non-destructive and quick methods

  7. Selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures using parylene-C as mask

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; Zhao, Yiyuan; de Boer, Meint J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    This abstract describes an application of an easy and straightforward method for selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures, which is developed by our group. The application in this abstract is the protection of the buried-oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer against

  8. Selective etching of injection molded zirconia-toughened alumina: Towards osseointegrated and antibacterial ceramic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, Quentin; Caravaca, Carlos; Meille, Sylvain; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme; Biotteau-Deheuvels, Katia; Kuntz, Meinhard; Chandrawati, Rona; Herrmann, Inge K; Spicer, Christopher D; Stevens, Molly M; Anglada, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds. In this work, we developed an integrated strategy aiming to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces. The micro-topography was controlled by injection molding. Meanwhile a novel process involving the selective dissolution of zirconia (selective etching) was used to produce nano-roughness and interconnected nanoporosity. Potential utilization of the porosity for loading and delivery of antibiotic molecules was demonstrated, and the impact of selective etching on mechanical properties and hydrothermal stability was shown to be limited. The combination of injection molding and selective etching thus appears promising for fabricating a new generation of ZTA components implantable in direct contact with bone. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is the current gold standard for the fabrication of orthopedic ceramic components. In the present work, we propose an innovative strategy to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces: we demonstrate that injection molding allows a flexible design of surface micro-topography and can be combined with selective etching, a novel process that induces nano-roughness and surface interconnected porosity without the need for coating, avoiding reliability issues. These surface modifications have the

  9. Atomic Layer Etching of Silicon to Solve ARDE-Selectivity-Profile-Uniformity Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingmei; Ranjan, Alok; Ventzek, Peter; Koshiishi, Akira

    2014-10-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, dry etch faces more and more challenges. Minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer are met by trading off one requirement against another. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Self-limiting processes like atomic layer etching (ALE) promise a way to escape the problem of balancing trade-offs. ALE was realized in the mid-1990s but the industrial implementation has been slow. In recent years interest in ALE has revived. We present how ARDE, bowing/selectivity trade-offs may be overcome by varying radical/ion ratio, byproduct re-deposition. We overcome many of the practical implementation issues associated with ALE by precise passivation process control. The Monte Carlo Feature Profile Model (MCFPM) is used to illustrate realistic scenarios built around an Ar/Cl2 chemistry driven etch of Si masked by SiO2. We demonstrate that ALE can achieve zero ARDE and infinite selectivity. Profile control depends on careful management of the ion energies and angles. For ALE to be realized in production environment, tight control of IAD is a necessary. Experimental results are compared with simulation results to provide context to the work.

  10. Electro-regeneration of Ce(IV) in real spent Cr-etching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Te-San; Huang, Kuo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An electrochemical process is used to regenerate Ce(IV) in real (hazardous) spent TFT-LCD Cr-etching solutions. • The Ce(IV) yield on tested anodes was in order BDD > Pt > DSA. • A Neosepta CMX separator was better than Nafion ones to be used in the process. • The activation energy on Pt was 10.7 kJ/mol. • The obtained parameters are useful to design reactors for 100% Ce(IV) regeneration in real spent Cr-etching solutions. -- Abstract: This paper presents the electro-regeneration of Ce(IV) in real (hazardous) spent thin-film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD) Cr-etching solutions. In addition to Ce(III) > Ce(IV) in diffusivity, a quasi-reversible behavior of Ce(III)/Ce(IV) was observed at both boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Pt disk electrodes. The Ce(IV) yield on Pt increased with increasing current density, and the best current efficiency (CE) was obtained at 2 A/2.25 cm 2 . The performance in terms of Ce(IV) yield and CE of tested anodes was in order BDD > Pt > dimensional stable anode (DSA). At 2 A/2.25 cm 2 on Pt and 40 °C for 90 min, the Ce(IV) yield, CE and apparent rate constant (k) for Ce(III) oxidation were 81.4%, 21.8% and 3.17 × 10 −4 s −1 , respectively. With the increase of temperature, the Ce(IV) yield, CE, and k increased (activation energy = 10.7 kJ/mol), but the specific electricity consumption decreased. The Neosepta CMX membrane was more suitable than Nafion-117 and Nafion-212 to be used as the separator of the Ce(IV) regeneration process. The obtained parameters are useful to design divided batch reactors for the Ce(IV) electro-regeneration in real spent Cr-etching solutions

  11. Passivation of mechanically polished, chemically etched and anodized zirconium in various aqueous solutions: Impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elenien, G.M.; Abdel-Salam, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    Zirconium and its alloys are finding increasing applications especially in water-cooled nuclear reactors. Because of the fact that zirconium is electronegative (E 0 = -1.529V) its corrosion resistance in aqueous solutions is largely determined by the existence of a thin oxide film on its surface. The structure and properties of this film depend in the first place on the method of surface pre-treatment. This paper presents an experimental study of the nature of the oxide film on mechanically polished, chemically etched and anodized zirconium. Ac impedance measurements carried out in various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions show that the film thickness depends on the method of surface pre-treatment and the type of electrolyte solution. The variation of the potential and impedance during anodization of zirconium at low current density indicates that the initial stages of polarization consist of oxide build-up at a rate dependent on the nature of the electrode surface and the electrolyte. Oxygen evolution commences at a stage where oxide thickening starts to decline. The effect of frequency on the measured impedance indicates that the surface reactivity, and hence the corrosion rate, decreases in the following order: mechanically polished > chemically etched > anodized

  12. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  13. Mechanisms and selectivity for etching of HfO2 and Si in BCl3 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunyu; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have investigated plasma etching of HfO 2 , a high dielectric constant material, and poly-Si in BCl 3 plasmas. Etching rates were measured as a function of substrate temperature (T s ) at several source powers. Activation energies range from 0.2 to 1.0 kcal/mol for HfO 2 and from 0.8 to 1.8 kcal/mol for Si, with little or no dependence on source power (20-200 W). These low activation energies suggest that product removal is limited by chemical sputtering of the chemisorbed Hf or Si-containing layer, with a higher T s only modestly increasing the chemical sputtering rate. The slightly lower activation energy for HfO 2 results in a small improvement in selectivity over Si at low temperature. The surface layers formed on HfO 2 and Si after etching in BCl 3 plasmas were also investigated by vacuum-transfer x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A thin boron-containing layer was observed on partially etched HfO 2 and on poly-Si after etching through HfO 2 films. For HfO 2 , a single B(1s) feature at 194 eV was ascribed to a heavily oxidized species with bonding similar to B 2 O 3 . B(1s) features were observed for poly-Si surfaces at 187.6 eV (B bound to Si), 189.8 eV, and 193 eV (both ascribed to BO x Cl y ). In the presence of a deliberately added 0.5% air, the B-containing layer on HfO 2 is largely unaffected, while that on Si converts to a thick layer with a single B(1s) peak at 194 eV and an approximate stoichiometry of B 3 O 4 Cl

  14. Selective etching characteristics of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in laser thermal lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Geng, Yongyou; Wu, Yiqun

    2012-01-01

    In the current work, the etching selectivity of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in laser thermal lithography is reported for the first time. Film phase change induced by laser irradiation and etching selectivity to crystalline and amorphous states in different etchants, including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, ammonium sulfide and ammonium hydroxide, are investigated. The results indicated that ammonium sulfide solvent (2.5 mol/L) had excellent etching selectivity to crystalline and amorphous states of the AgInSbTe film, and the etching characteristics were strongly influenced by the laser power density and laser irradiation time. The etching rate of the crystalline state of the AgInSbTe film was 40.4 nm/min, 20 times higher than that of the amorphous state under optimized irradiation conditions (power density: 6.63 mW/μm 2 and irradiation time: 330 ns), with ammonium sulfide solvent (2.5 mol/L) as etchant. The step profile produced in the selective etching was clear, and smooth surfaces remained both on the step-up and step-down with a roughness of less than 4 nm (10 x 10 μm). The excellent performance of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in selective etching is significant for fabrication of nanostructures with super-resolution in laser thermal lithography. (orig.)

  15. Nanoporous polymeric nanofibers based on selectively etched PS-b-PDMS block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Gokcen B; Buyukserin, Fatih; Morris, Michael A; Demirel, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional nanoporous polymeric nanofibers have been fabricated within an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by a facile approach based on selective etching of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) domains in polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) block copolymers that had been formed within the AAO template. It was observed that prior to etching, the well-ordered PS-b-PDMS nanofibers are solid and do not have any porosity. The postetched PS nanofibers, on the other hand, had a highly porous structure having about 20-50 nm pore size. The nanoporous polymeric fibers were also employed as a drug carrier for the native, continuous, and pulsatile drug release using Rhodamine B (RB) as a model drug. These studies showed that enhanced drug release and tunable drug dosage can be achieved by using ultrasound irradiation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Selective Etching of Silicon in Preference to Germanium and Si0.5Ge0.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahles, Christopher F; Choi, Jong Youn; Wolf, Steven; Kummel, Andrew C

    2017-06-21

    The selective etching characteristics of silicon, germanium, and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 subjected to a downstream H 2 /CF 4 /Ar plasma have been studied using a pair of in situ quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). At 50 °C and 760 mTorr, Si can be etched in preference to Ge and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 , with an essentially infinite Si/Ge etch-rate ratio (ERR), whereas for Si/Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 , the ERR is infinite at 22 °C and 760 mTorr. XPS data showed that the selectivity is due to the differential suppression of etching by a ∼2 ML thick C x H y F z layer formed by the H 2 /CF 4 /Ar plasma on Si, Ge, and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 . The data are consistent with the less exothermic reaction of fluorine radicals with Ge or Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 being strongly suppressed by the C x H y F z layer, whereas, on Si, the C x H y F z layer is not sufficient to completely suppress etching. Replacing H 2 with D 2 in the feed gas resulted in an inverse kinetic isotope effect (IKIE) where the Si and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 etch rates were increased by ∼30 times with retention of significant etch selectivity. The use of D 2 /CF 4 /Ar instead of H 2 /CF 4 /Ar resulted in less total carbon deposition on Si and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 and gave less Ge enrichment of Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 . These results are consistent with the selectivity being due to the differential suppression of etching by an angstrom-scale carbon layer.

  17. Mechanisms for plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} gate stacks with Si selectivity and photoresist trimming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeb, Juline; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    To minimize leakage currents resulting from the thinning of the insulator in the gate stack of field effect transistors, high-dielectric constant (high-k) metal oxides, and HfO{sub 2} in particular, are being implemented as a replacement for SiO{sub 2}. To speed the rate of processing, it is desirable to etch the gate stack (e.g., metal gate, antireflection layers, and dielectric) in a single process while having selectivity to the underlying Si. Plasma etching using Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} mixtures effectively etches HfO{sub 2} while having good selectivity to Si. In this article, results from integrated reactor and feature scale modeling of gate-stack etching in Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} plasmas, preceded by photoresist trimming in Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas, are discussed. It was found that BCl{sub n} species react with HfO{sub 2}, which under ion impact, form volatile etch products such as B{sub m}OCl{sub n} and HfCl{sub n}. Selectivity to Si is achieved by creating Si-B bonding as a precursor to the deposition of a BCl{sub n} polymer which slows the etch rate relative to HfO{sub 2}. The low ion energies required to achieve this selectivity then challenge one to obtain highly anisotropic profiles in the metal gate portion of the stack. Validation was performed with data from literature. The effect of bias voltage and key reactant probabilities on etch rate, selectivity, and profile are discussed.

  18. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Seon [Sungshin University, Dept. of Interdisciplinary ECO Science, Seoul, 142-732 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m{sup 3} of copper and 1.35 kg/m{sup 3} of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching

  19. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  20. Ion-Exchange-Induced Selective Etching for the Synthesis of Amino-Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica for Elevated-High-Temperature Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jian; Lu, Shanfu; Zhu, Haijin; Aili, David; De Marco, Roland; Xiang, Yan; Forsyth, Maria; Li, Qingfeng; Jiang, San Ping

    2017-09-20

    As differentiated from conventional synthetic processes, amino-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica (NH 2 -HMS) has been synthesized using a new and facile strategy of ion-exchange-induced selective etching of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH 2 -meso-silica) by an alkaline solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and in situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveal that ion-exchange-induced selective etching arises from the gradient distribution of OH - in the NH 2 -meso-silica nanospheres. Moreover, the ion-exchange-induced selective etching mechanism is verified through a successful synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica. After infiltration with phosphotungstic acid (PWA), PWA-NH 2 -HMS nanoparticles are dispersed in the poly(ether sulfone)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PES-PVP) matrix, forming a hybrid PWA-NH 2 -HMS/PES-PVP nanocomposite membrane. The resultant nanocomposite membrane with an optimum loading of 10 wt % of PWA-NH 2 -HMS showed an enhanced proton conductivity of 0.175 S cm -1 and peak power density of 420 mW cm -2 at 180 °C under anhydrous conditions. Excellent durability of the hybrid composite membrane fuel cell has been demonstrated at 200 °C. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of the facile synthetic strategy in the fabrication of NH 2 -HMS with controlled mesoporous structure for application in nanocomposite membranes as a technology platform for elevated-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  1. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamaya, Tadafumi

    2005-01-01

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width

  2. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Masahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: seo@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamaya, Tadafumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-11-10

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width.

  3. Simple and robust near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution using Teflon tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Sanghee; Ryu, Kyungtag; Cho, Soohwa; Chung, Hoeil; Namkung, Hankyu

    2006-01-01

    The ability to monitor etching solutions using a spectroscopy directly through existing Teflon lines in electronic industries is highly beneficial and offers many advantages. A monitoring method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) measurements with Teflon tubing as a sample container for the quantification of components in the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and water. Measurements were reproducible and it was possible to use the same calibration model for different Teflon tubings. Even though partial least squares (PLS) calibration performance was slightly degraded for Teflon cells when compared to quartz cells of the similar pathlength, the calibration data correlated well with reference data. The robustness of Teflon-based NIR measurement was evaluated by predicting the spectra of 10 independent samples that were collected using five different Teflon tubes. Although, two Teflon tubes were visually less transparent than the other three, there was no significant variation in the standard error of predictions (SEPs) among the five Teflon tubes. Calibration accuracy was successfully maintained and highly repeatable prediction results were achieved. This study verifies that a Teflon-based NIR measurement is reliable for the monitoring of etching solutions and it can be successfully integrated into on-line process monitoring

  4. Characterization of stain etched p-type silicon in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogoda, A.S., E-mail: awad_mogoda@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmad, Y.H.; Badawy, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Stain etching of p-Si in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4} was investigated. {yields} The electrical conductivity of the etched Si surfaces was measured using impedance technique. {yields} Scanning electron microscope and energy disperse X-ray were used to analyze the etched surfaces. {yields} Etching in aqueous HF solution containing HNO{sub 3} led to formation of a porous silicon layer. {yields} The formation of the porous silicon layer in HF/KMnO{sub 4} was accompanied by deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} on the pores surfaces. - Abstract: Stain etching of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid solutions containing nitric acid or potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent has been examined. The effects of etching time, oxidizing agent and HF concentrations on the electrochemical behavior of etched silicon surfaces have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An electrical equivalent circuit was used for fitting the impedance data. The morphology and the chemical composition of the etched Si surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, respectively. A porous silicon layer was formed on Si etched in HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3}, while etching in HF solutions containing KMnO{sub 4} led to the formation of a porous layer and simultaneous deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} inside the pores. The thickness of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} layer increases with increasing the KMnO{sub 4} concentration and decreases as the concentration of HF increases.

  5. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  6. Angular dependence of Si3N4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO2 to Si3N4 at different bias voltages in a high-density C4F8 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Kwan; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of Si 3 N 4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 on ion-incident angles was studied for different bias voltages in a high-density C 4 F 8 plasma. A Faraday cage and specially designed substrate holders were used to accurately control the angles of incident ions on the substrate surface. The normalized etch yield (NEY), defined as the etch yield obtained at a given ion-incident angle normalized to that obtained on a horizontal surface, was unaffected by the bias voltage in Si 3 N 4 etching, but it increased with the bias voltage in SiO 2 etching in the range of -100 to -300 V. The NEY changed showing a maximum with an increase in the ion-incident angle in the etching of both substrates. In the Si 3 N 4 etching, a maximum NEY of 1.7 was obtained at 70 deg. in the above bias voltage range. However, an increase in the NEY at high ion-incident angles was smaller for SiO 2 than for Si 3 N 4 and, consequently, the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 decreased with an increase in the ion-incident angle. The etch selectivity decreased to a smaller extent at high bias voltage because the NEY of SiO 2 had increased. The characteristic changes in the NEY for different substrates could be correlated with the thickness of a steady-state fluorocarbon (CF x ) film formed on the substrates

  7. Comparison of damage introduced into GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures using selective dry etch recipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R T; Luxmoore, I J; Houston, P A; Ranalli, F; Wang, T; Parbrook, P J; Uren, M J; Wallis, D J; Martin, T

    2009-01-01

    A SiCl 4 /SF 6 dry etch plasma recipe is presented giving a selectivity of 14:1 between GaN and AlGaN. Using a leakage test structure, which enables bulk and surface leakage components to be identified independently, the optimized recipe is compared to an un-etched sample and devices recessed using a Cl 2 /Ar/O 2 -based plasma chemistry. Devices etched using the SiCl 4 /SF 6 recipe demonstrated reduced bulk and surface leakage currents when operated over a wide range of temperatures. Consequently the SiCl 4 /SF 6 recipe is identified as most suitable for the fabrication of gate recessed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

  8. UV-assisted selective chemical etching of relief gratings in Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, C; Pissadakis, S [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Vasilika Vouton, PO Box 1527, Heraklion 71 110, GREECE (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The patterning of sub-micron periodicity Bragg reflectors in Er/Yb-codoped IOG1, phosphate glass is demonstrated. A high yield patterning technique is presented, wherein high volume damage is induced into the glass matrix by exposure to intense UV radiation, and subsequently a chemical development in a strong acid selectively etches the exposed areas. The grating reflectors were fabricated by employing an elliptical Talbot interferometer and the output of a 213nm, 150ps frequency quintupled Nd:YAG laser. The grating depth of the etched relief pattern in time was measured at fixed time intervals and the dependence is presented in upon the etching time and exposure conditions. The gratings fabricated are examined by atomic and scanning electron microscopy for revealing the topology of the relief structure. Gratings with period of the order of 500nm were fabricated, having a maximum depth of 60nm.

  9. Optimization of some electrochemical etching parameters for cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Annis; Gammage, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical etching of fast neutron induced recoil particle tracks in cellulose derivatives and other polymers provides an inexpensive and sensitive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry. A study of the shape, clarity, and size of the tracks in Transilwrap polycarbonate indicated that the optimum normality of the potassium hydroxide etching solution is 9 N. Optimizations have also been attempted for cellulose nitrate, triacetate, and acetobutyrate with respect to such electrochemical etching parameters as frequency, voltage gradient, and concentration of the etching solution. The measurement of differential leakage currents between the undamaged and the neutron damaged foils aided in the selection of optimum frequencies. (author)

  10. Electrodeposited Ni nanowires-track etched P.E.T. composites as selective solar absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhwa, R.; Sone, B.; Kotsedi, L.; Madjoe, R.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    This contribution reports on the structural, optical and morphological properties of nanostructured flexible solar-thermal selective absorber composites for low temperature applications. The candidate material in the system is consisting of electrodeposited nickel nano-cylinders embedded in track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host membrane of pore sizes ranging between 0.3-0.8µm supported by conductive nickel thin film of about 0.5µm. PET were irradiated with 11MeV/u high charged xenon (Xe) ions at normal incidence. The tubular and metallic structure of the nickel nano-cylinders within the insulator polymeric host forms a typical ceramic-metal nano-composite "Cermet". The produced material was characterized by the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural characterization to determine preferred crystallographic structure, and grain size of the materials; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine surface morphology, particle size, and visual imaging of distribution of structures on the surface of the substrate; Atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize surface roughness, surface morphology, and film thickness, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance, then to determine solar absorption

  11. Porous CrN thin films by selectively etching CrCuN for symmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2018-03-18

    Transition metal nitrides are regarded as a new class of excellent electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors due to their superior chemical stability and excellent electrical conductivity. We synthesize successfully the porous CrN thin films for binder-free supercapacitor electrodes by reactive magnetron co-sputtering and selective chemical etching. The porous CrN thin film electrodes exhibit high-capacitance performance (31.3 mF cm−2 at 1.0 mA cm−2) and reasonable cycling stability (94% retention after 20000 cycles). Moreover, the specific capacitance is more than two-fold higher than that of the CrN thin film electrodes in previous work. In addition, a symmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum energy density of 14.4 mWh cm−3 and a maximum power density of 6.6 W cm−3 is achieved. These findings demonstrate that the porous CrN thin films will have potential applications in supercapacitors.

  12. Porous CrN thin films by selectively etching CrCuN for symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binbin; Mei, Gui; Liang, Hanfeng; Qi, Zhengbing; Zhang, Dongfang; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal nitrides are regarded as a new class of excellent electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors due to their superior chemical stability and excellent electrical conductivity. We synthesize successfully the porous CrN thin films for binder-free supercapacitor electrodes by reactive magnetron co-sputtering and selective chemical etching. The porous CrN thin film electrodes exhibit high-capacitance performance (31.3 mF cm-2 at 1.0 mA cm-2) and reasonable cycling stability (94% retention after 20000 cycles). Moreover, the specific capacitance is more than two-fold higher than that of the CrN thin film electrodes in previous work. In addition, a symmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum energy density of 14.4 mWh cm-3 and a maximum power density of 6.6 W cm-3 is achieved. These findings demonstrate that the porous CrN thin films will have potential applications in supercapacitors.

  13. Rapid prototyping of 2D glass microfluidic devices based on femtosecond laser assisted selective etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Il; Kim, Jeongtae; Koo, Chiwan; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Choi, Jiyeon

    2018-02-01

    Microfluidics technology which deals with small liquid samples and reagents within micro-scale channels has been widely applied in various aspects of biological, chemical, and life-scientific research. For fabricating microfluidic devices, a silicon-based polymer, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane), is widely used in soft lithography, but it has several drawbacks for microfluidic applications. Glass has many advantages over PDMS due to its excellent optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, difficulties in fabrication of glass microfluidic devices that requires multiple skilled steps such as MEMS technology taking several hours to days, impedes broad application of glass based devices. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and optical prototyping of a glass microfluidic device by using femtosecond laser assisted selective etching (LASE) and femtosecond laser welding. A microfluidic droplet generator was fabricated as a demonstration of a microfluidic device using our proposed prototyping. The fabrication time of a single glass chip containing few centimeter long and complex-shaped microfluidic channels was drastically reduced in an hour with the proposed laser based rapid and simple glass micromachining and hermetic packaging technique.

  14. Crystallographic dependent in-situ CBr4 selective nano-area etching and local regrowth of InP/InGaAs by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Kulkova, Irina; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    Selective area etching and growth in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on nano-scale structures have been examined. Using different mask orientations, crystallographic dependent etching of InP can be observed when carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is used as an etchant. Scanning...

  15. Preparation of fluorescent mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles via selective etching for combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Song, Hao; Wang, Yue; Yu, Chengzhong

    2015-07-01

    Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy.Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02769a

  16. Highly selective etching of silicon nitride to physical-vapor-deposited a-C mask in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CH2F2/H2 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kwon, B. S.; Heo, W.; Jung, C. R.; Park, J. S.; Shon, J. W.; Lee, N.-E.

    2010-01-01

    A multilevel resist (MLR) structure can be fabricated based on a very thin amorphous carbon (a-C) layer ( congruent with 80 nm) and Si 3 N 4 hard-mask layer ( congruent with 300 nm). The authors investigated the selective etching of the Si 3 N 4 layer using a physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) a-C mask in a dual-frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma etcher by varying the process parameters in the CH 2 F 2 /H 2 /Ar plasmas, viz., the etch gas flow ratio, high-frequency source power (P HF ), and low-frequency source power (P LF ). They found that under certain etch conditions they obtain infinitely high etch selectivities of the Si 3 N 4 layers to the PVD a-C on both the blanket and patterned wafers. The etch gas flow ratio played a critical role in determining the process window for infinitely high Si 3 N 4 /PVD a-C etch selectivity because of the change in the degree of polymerization. The etch results of a patterned ArF photoresisit/bottom antireflective coating/SiO x /PVD a-C/Si 3 N 4 MLR structure supported the idea of using a very thin PVD a-C layer as an etch-mask layer for the Si 3 N 4 hard-mask pattern with a pattern width of congruent with 80 nm and high aspect ratio of congruent with 5.

  17. High aspect ratio micro tool manufacturing for polymer replication using mu EDM of silicon, selective etching and electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Bissacco, Giuliano; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    Mass fabrication of polymer micro components with high aspect ratio micro-structures requires high performance micro tools allowing the use of low cost replication processes such as micro injection moulding. In this regard an innovative process chain, based on a combination of micro electrical di...... discharge machining (mu EDM) of a silicon substrate, electroforming and selective etching was used for the manufacturing of a micro tool. The micro tool was employed for polymer replication by means of the injection moulding process....

  18. Quantifying the Sub-Cellular Distributions of Gold Nanospheres Uptaken by Cells through Stepwise, Site-Selective Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Younan; Huo, Da

    2018-04-10

    A quantitative understanding of the sub-cellular distributions of nanoparticles uptaken by cells is important to the development of nanomedicine. With Au nanospheres as a model system, here we demonstrate, for the first time, how to quantify the numbers of nanoparticles bound to plasma membrane, accumulated in cytosol, and entrapped in lysosomes, respectively, through stepwise, site-selective etching. Our results indicate that the chance for nanoparticles to escape from lysosomes is insensitive to the presence of targeting ligand although ligand-receptor binding has been documented as a critical factor in triggering internalization. Furthermore, the presence of serum proteins is shown to facilitate the binding of nanoparticles to plasma membrane lacking the specific receptor. Collectively, these findings confirm the potential of stepwise etching in quantitatively analyzing the sub-cellular distributions of nanoparticles uptaken by cells in an effort to optimize the therapeutic effect. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO{sub 2} ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO{sub 2} from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to SiO{sub 2} ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO{sub 2} to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as compared to Si

  20. Selective laser-induced photochemical dry etching of semiconductors controlled by ion-bombardment-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    When a photochemical dry etching process requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers in the chemical reaction, it is sensitive to the electronic properties of the semiconductor. For such solid-excitation-based dry etching processes, the balance between reaction and carrier recombination rates determines the practical utility of a particular reaction for device fabrication. The distance from the surface at which the photocarriers are generated by light adsorption is determined by the absorption coefficient. In the absence of an external bias potential, only those carriers formed within a diffusion length of the surface space-charge region will have an opportunity to drive the dry etching reaction. When the absorption coefficient is high, most of the photons generate carriers within a diffusion length from the surface space-charge region, and the etching rate is largely determined by the balance between the rate of the carrier-driven reaction and the surface recombination velocity. When the recombination rate of free carriers in the bulk of the semiconductor is high, the effective diffusion length is reduced and fewer of the carriers generated in the subsurface region ever reach the surface. An important effect of ion bombardment is the creation of many lattice defects that increase the rate of recombination of electrons and holes. When a sufficient number of defects, which act as recombination sites, are formed during ion implantation, the recombination of photogenerated carriers at these defects in the subsurface region can greatly reduce the number of carriers which can reach the surface and drive a photochemical etching reaction

  1. Response of CR-39 to 0.9–2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, F. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mianji, F., E-mail: fmianji@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, M. [Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ansarinejad, A. [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94–2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  2. Response of CR-39 to 0.9-2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, F.; Mianji, F.; Faghihi, R.; Taheri, M.; Ansarinejad, A.

    2016-03-01

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94-2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  3. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  4. Dislocation-free etching figures in crystals of CdxHg1-xTe solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholina, E.N.; Khazieva, R.A.; Bursak, S.S.; Nevskij, O.B.; Filatov, A.V.; Popovyan, G.Eh.; Suslov, E.V.; Prijmak, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of chemical etching, etching figures formed in areas distributed over Cd x Hg 1-x Te crystal with increased content of impurities consisting of Si,Al,Na,K,Cl,Fe,Ti,Mg and S mainly are revealed. The size of impurity inclusions is >1μm, that is why they cannot be detected either by optical microscopy or local microroentgenospectral analysis. Formation and distribution of impurity inclusions are obviously defined by only the concentration of impurity atoms in the melt. The shape of etching figures does not depend on crystallographical orientation of the crystal-matrix

  5. Highly selective SiO2 etching over Si3N4 using a cyclic process with BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miyako; Kuwahara, Kenichi

    2018-06-01

    A cyclic process for highly selective SiO2 etching with atomic-scale precision over Si3N4 was developed by using BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries. This process consists of two alternately performed steps: a deposition step using BCl3 mixed-gas plasma and an etching step using CF4/Ar mixed-gas plasma. The mechanism of the cyclic process was investigated by analyzing the surface chemistry at each step. BCl x layers formed on both SiO2 and Si3N4 surfaces in the deposition step. Early in the etching step, the deposited BCl x layers reacted with CF x radicals by forming CCl x and BF x . Then, fluorocarbon films were deposited on both surfaces in the etching step. We found that the BCl x layers formed in the deposition step enhanced the formation of the fluorocarbon films in the CF4 plasma etching step. In addition, because F radicals that radiated from the CF4 plasma reacted with B atoms while passing through the BCl x layers, the BCl x layers protected the Si3N4 surface from F-radical etching. The deposited layers, which contained the BCl x , CCl x , and CF x components, became thinner on SiO2 than on Si3N4, which promoted the ion-assisted etching of SiO2. This is because the BCl x component had a high reactivity with SiO2, and the CF x component was consumed by the etching reaction with SiO2.

  6. Etching in microsystem technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Microcomponents and microdevices are increasingly finding application in everyday life. The specific functions of all modern microdevices depend strongly on the selection and combination of the materials used in their construction, i.e., the chemical and physical solid-state properties of these materials, and their treatment. The precise patterning of various materials, which is normally performed by lithographic etching processes, is a prerequisite for the fabrication of microdevices.The microtechnical etching of functional patterns is a multidisciplinary area, the basis for the etching p

  7. Metal-assisted chemical etch porous silicon formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2004-09-14

    A thin discontinuous layer of metal such as Au, Pt, or Au/Pd is deposited on a silicon surface. The surface is then etched in a solution including HF and an oxidant for a brief period, as little as a couple seconds to one hour. A preferred oxidant is H.sub.2 O.sub.2. Morphology and light emitting properties of porous silicon can be selectively controlled as a function of the type of metal deposited, Si doping type, silicon doping level, and/or etch time. Electrical assistance is unnecessary during the chemical etching of the invention, which may be conducted in the presence or absence of illumination.

  8. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  9. Anodic processes in the chemical and electrochemical etching of Si crystals in acid-fluoride solutions: Pore formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulin, V. P.; Ulin, N. V.; Soldatenkov, F. Yu., E-mail: f.soldatenkov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    in the crystal on the pore size and structure are discussed. The concepts developed in the study can consistently account for experimental facts characterizing the etching of silicon crystals with various electrical parameters under various conditions providing the anodic polarization of crystals in HF-containing solutions.

  10. Etching process optimization using NH{sub 4}Cl aqueous solution to texture ZnO:Al films for efficient light trapping in flexible thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S., E-mail: susanamaria.fernandez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM and Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Electronica, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J.J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-02

    0.5 {mu}m-thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited at 100 Degree-Sign C on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited films were compact and dense, showing grain sizes of 32.0 {+-} 6.4 nm and resistivities of (8.5 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm. The average transmittance in the visible wavelength range of the structure ZnO:Al/PET was around 77%. The capability of a novel two-step chemical etching using diluted NH{sub 4}Cl aqueous solution to achieve efficient textured surfaces for light trapping was analyzed. The results indicated that both the aqueous solution and the etching method resulted appropriated to obtain etched surfaces with a surface roughness of 32 {+-} 5 nm, haze factors at 500 nm of 9% and light scattering at angles up to 50 Degree-Sign . To validate all these results, a commercially ITO coated PET substrate was used for comparison.

  11. Measurement of bulk etch rates for poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate (PADC) and cellulose nitrate in a broad range of concentration and temperature of NaOH etching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsdorf, D.; Hunger, M.; Starke, S.; Weickert, F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the dependence of the bulk etch rate v B for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) on the concentration c and the temperature T of the NaOH etching solution has been studied for material types PADC and cellulose nitrate. As commonly applied exponents of PADC and cellulose nitrate material, the commercial products CR-39 and LR-115 were investigated. The concentration and temperature have been varied in the ranges 0.5moll -1 -1 and 313 -1 and T between 313 and 333K for cellulose nitrate, respectively. The application of a simple Arrhenius-law of chemical reactions fails in the interpretation of the dependence on the concentration. A constant activation energy cannot describe the behaviour of v B (c,T) over the whole range of concentration. To understand the deviation, more qualified models treating the superposition of chemical and physical processes including reaction kinetics and material transport phenomena by diffusion have to be developed and tested

  12. DREM: Infinite etch selectivity and optimized scallop size distribution with conventional photoresists in an adapted multiplexed Bosch DRIE process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bingdong; Leussink, Pele; Jensen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    The quest to sculpture materials as small and deep as possible is an ongoing topic in micro- and nanofabrication. For this, the Bosch process has been widely used to achieve anisotropic silicon microstructures with high aspect ratio. Reactive ion etching (RIE) lag is a phenomenon in which etch ra...

  13. Selective Laser Sintering And Melting Of Pristine Titanium And Titanium Ti6Al4V Alloy Powders And Selection Of Chemical Environment For Etching Of Such Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigations described in this article is to present a selective laser sintering and melting technology to fabricate metallic scaffolds made of pristine titanium and titanium Ti6Al4V alloy powders. Titanium scaffolds with different properties and structure were manufactured with this technique using appropriate conditions, notably laser power and laser beam size. The purpose of such elements is to replace the missing pieces of bones, mainly cranial and facial bones in the implantation treatment process. All the samples for the investigations were designed in CAD/CAM (3D MARCARM ENGINEERING AutoFab (Software for Manufacturing Applications software suitably integrated with an SLS/SLM system. Cube-shaped test samples dimensioned 10×10×10 mm were designed for the investigations using a hexagon-shaped base cell. The so designed 3D models were transferred to the machine software and the actual rapid manufacturing process was commenced. The samples produced according to the laser sintering technology were subjected to chemical processing consisting of etching the scaffolds’ surface in different chemical mediums. Etching was carried out to remove the loosely bound powder from the surface of scaffolds, which might detach from their surface during implantation treatment and travel elsewhere in an organism. The scaffolds created were subjected to micro- and spectroscopic examinations

  14. Wet etching mechanism and crystallization of indium-tin oxide layer for application in light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shui-Hsiang; Kong, Hsieng-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Chen, Guan-Yu

    2018-01-01

    In the article, we describe the etching mechanism of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film, which was wet-etched using a solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3). The etching mechanism is analyzed at various etching durations of ITO films by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and selective area diffraction (SAD) analysis. In comparison with the crystalline phase of SnO2, the In2O3 phase can be more easily transformed to In3+ and can form an inverted conical structure during the etching process. By adjusting the etching duration, the residual ITO is completely removed to show a designed pattern. This is attributed to the negative Gibbs energy of In2O3 transformed to In3+. The result also corresponds to the finding of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis that the Sn/In ratio increases with increasing etching duration.

  15. Effects of the Addictives on Etching Characteristics of Aluminum Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Jang, J.M.; Chi, C.S. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D.C. [Sungnam Polytechnic, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Oh, H.J. [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of additives in the HCI etching solution on etching behaviors of aluminium foil as dielectric film for electrolytic capacitors were investigated. The etch pits formed in 1M hydrochloric acid containing ethylene glycol as an additive contain more fine and homogeneous etch tunnels compared to thoese in 1 M hydrochloric acid only, which led to the increase in the effective internal surface area of aluminum foil. After anodizing of aluminum foil etched in etching solutions, the LCR meter results have shown that the capacitance of dielectric film etched in hydrochloric acid with ethylene glycol was increased remarkably compared to that etched in hydrochloric acid only. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Etching characteristics of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH with addition of hydroxylamine for the fabrication of bulk micromachined MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. V. Narasimha; Swarnalatha, V.; Pal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Anisotropic wet etching is a most widely employed for the fabrication of MEMS/NEMS structures using silicon bulk micromachining. The use of Si{110} in MEMS is inevitable when a microstructure with vertical sidewall is to be fabricated using wet anisotropic etching. In most commonly employed etchants (i.e. TMAH and KOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) exhibits higher etch rate and provides improved anisotropy between Si{111} and Si{110} planes. In the manufacturing company, high etch rate is demanded to increase the productivity that eventually reduces the cost of end product. In order to modify the etching characteristics of KOH for the micromachining of Si{110}, we have investigated the effect of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in 20 wt% KOH solution. The concentration of NH2OH is varied from 0 to 20% and the etching is carried out at 75 °C. The etching characteristics which are studied in this work includes the etch rates of Si{110} and silicon dioxide, etched surface morphology, and undercutting at convex corners. The etch rate of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH + 15% NH2OH solution is measured to be four times more than that of pure 20 wt% KOH. Moreover, the addition of NH2OH increases the undercutting at convex corners and enhances the etch selectivity between Si and SiO2.

  17. Selective Acid Etching Improves the Bond Strength of Universal Adhesive to Sound and Demineralized Enamel of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    To evaluate the influence of enamel condition and etching strategy on bond strength of a universal adhesive in primary teeth. Thirty-six primary molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6) according to the enamel condition (sound [S] and demineralized [DEM]/cariogenic challenge by pH cycling prior to restorative procedures) and adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]) used in either etch-and-rinse (ER) or selfetching (SE) mode, with Clearfil SE Bond as the self-etching control. The adhesives were applied to flat enamel surfaces and composite cylinders (0.72 mm2) were built up. After 24-h storage in water, specimens were subjected to the microshear test. Bond strength (MPa) data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Significant differences were found considering the factors adhesive system (p = 0.003) and enamel condition (p = 0.001). Demineralized enamel negatively affected the bond strength, with μSBS values approximately 50% lower than those obtained for sound enamel. SBU performed better in etch-and-rinse mode, and the bond strength found for SBU applied in self-etching mode was similar to that of CSE. Enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to primary enamel. Demineralized primary enamel results in lower bond strength.

  18. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotropic and anisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how one can calculate the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, track profile and track contour. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (orig.)

  19. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotopic and unisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, the track profile and the track contour can be calculated. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (author)

  20. Synchrotron radiation stimulated etching of SiO sub 2 thin films with a Co contact mask for the area-selective deposition of self-assembled monolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    2003-01-01

    The area-selective deposition of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was demonstrated on a pattern structure fabricated by synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated etching of a SiO sub 2 thin film on the Si substrate. The etching was conducted by irradiating the SiO sub 2 thin film with SR through a Co contact mask and using a mixture of SF sub 6 + O sub 2 as the reaction gas. The SR etching stopped completely at the SiO sub 2 /Si interface. After the SR etching, the Si surface and the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask were evaluated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A dodecene SAM was deposited on the Si surface, and trichlorosilane-derived SAMs (octadecyltrichlorosilane, and octenyltrichlorosilane) were deposited on the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask. The structure of the deposited SAMs showed a densely packed and well-ordered molecular architecture, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. (author)

  1. Vertically contacting ultrathin semiconductor nanomembranes by rolled-up metallic contacts incorporating selective etching techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Dominic J.; Bof Bufon, Carlos Cesar; Deneke, Christoph [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); TU Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Merging modern self-assembly techniques with well established top-down processing methods is paving the way for more sophisticated device generations in the future. Nanomembranes, composed of many different material classes, have already been shown to provide the necessary framework for a diverse range of structures and devices incorporating wrinkling, buckling, folding and rolling of thin films. In the past decade, an elegant symbiosis of bottom-up and top-down methods has emerged to fabricate hybrid layer systems incorporating the controlled release and rearrangement of inherently strained layers. Using selective III-V etchants in combination with inherently strained layers we are able to fabricate structures which allow us to contact through single and multi-material semiconductor nanomembrane creating many devices in parallel and on the original semiconductor substrate. We demonstrate this technique by creating hybrid superconducting junctions created by sandwiching the semiconductor nanomembrane between two superconducting contacts. Using solely optical lithography techniques we are able to form junctions with lateral dimensions of a few micrometers and a semiconductor barrier thickness of down to 5 nm.

  2. Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te with Group IV and/or V elements. The etchant was selected from the literature and was composed of sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, and deionized water and the types of chalcogenide glass for study were As2S3 and As24S38Se38. The main goals here were to obtain a single variable etch rate curve of etch depth per time versus NaOH overall solution concentration in M and to see the difference in etch rate between a given etchant when used on the different chalcogenide stoichiometries. Upon completion of these two goals, future studies will begin to explore creating complex, integrated photonic devices via these methods.

  3. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  4. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  5. Surface passivation of mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals by selective etching for improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Qiang; Zhang, Mian; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhenda

    2017-06-08

    In recent years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the research of halide perovskites because of their important optoelectronic applications, including photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and lasers. The most pressing question concerns the stability of these materials. Here faster degradation and PL quenching are observed at higher iodine content for mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(Br x I 1-x ) 3 nanocrystals, and a simple yet effective method is reported to significantly enhance their stability. After selective etching with acetone, surface iodine is partially etched away to form a bromine-rich surface passivation layer on mixed-halide perovskite nanocrystals. This passivation layer remarkably stabilizes the nanocrystals, making their PL intensity improved by almost three orders of magnitude. It is expected that a similar passivation layer can also be applied to various other kinds of perovskite materials with poor stability issues.

  6. Study of surfactant-added TMAH for applications in DRIE and wet etching-based micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Shikida, M.; Sato, K.; Pal, P.; Amakawa, H.; Hida, H.; Fukuzawa, K.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, etching anisotropy is evaluated for a number of different crystallographic orientations of silicon in a 0.1 vol% Triton-X-100 added 25 wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution using a silicon hemisphere. The research is primarily aimed at developing advanced applications of wet etching in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The etching process is carried out at different temperatures in the range of 61-81 °C. The etching results of silicon hemisphere and different shapes of three-dimensional structures in {1 0 0}- and {1 1 0}-Si surfaces are analyzed. Significantly important anisotropy, different from a traditional etchant (e.g. pure KOH and TMAH), is investigated to extend the applications of the wet etching process in silicon bulk micromachining. The similar etching behavior of exact and vicinal {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} planes in TMAH + Triton is utilized selectively to remove the scalloping from deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) etched profiles. The direct application of the present research is demonstrated by fabricating a cylindrical lens with highly smooth etched surface finish. The smoothness of a micro-lens at different locations is measured qualitatively by a scanning electron microscope and quantitatively by an atomic force microscope. The present paper provides a simple and effective fabrication method of the silicon micro-lens for optical MEMS applications.

  7. Rapid reagent-less on-line H2O2 quantification in alkaline semiconductor etching solution, Part 2: Nephelometry application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Roumen; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Valdez, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    A simple and rapid reagent less nephelometric method for on-line H 2 O 2 quantification in semiconductors etching solutions was developed, optimized, characterized and validated. The intensity of the light scattered by the oxygen gas suspension resulted from H 2 O 2 catalytic decomposition by immobilized MnO 2 was registered as analytical response. The influences of the light wave length, the agitation rate, the temperature and the catalyst surface area on the response amplitude were studied and optimization was done. The achieved linear concentration range from 10 to 150mmolL -1 at 0.9835 calibration curve correlation coefficient, precision from 3.65% to 0.95% and response time from 35 to 20s respectively, at sensitivity of 8.01µAmmol -1 L and LOD of 2.9mmolL -1 completely satisfy the semiconductor industry requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proportion quantitative analysis and etching of {110} planes on tungsten single crystal coating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Rende, E-mail: dallasbiam@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Corrosion and Protection for Aviation Material, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Tan, Chengwen; Yu, Xiaodong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Tungsten single crystal and poly crystal were treated by electrolytic etching in a 3% by weight solution of NaOH in distilled water. The method for determining the proportion of {110} planes and characteristic morphology on the coating surface after electrolytic etching were investigated using EBSD and auto-focusing microscope. Then the optimization of process parameters for electrolytic etching is achieved. In order to compare the effect of process parameters, three process parameters were selected for the tungsten single crystal electrolytic etching. Through analyzing the change of {110} planes' proportion, we found that when the coatings are etched with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min, {110} planes can be exposed in the greatest degree that can reach 61.4% on tubular surfaces. The proposed approach greatly improves the proportion of {110} planes relative to the original surface. - Highlights: • Tungsten single/poly crystals treated by electrolytic etching in solution of NaOH. • The {110} planes have the lower surface free energy than {112}. • Some {112} planes etched firstly, the {110} planes exposed at last during etching. • {110} planes exposed to the greatest extent with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min.

  9. Polarity-inverted lateral overgrowth and selective wet-etching and regrowth (PILOSWER) of GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dongsoo; Jue, Miyeon; Kim, Donghoi; Kim, Hwa Seob; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kim, Chinkyo

    2018-03-07

    On an SiO 2 -patterned c-plane sapphire substrate, GaN domains were grown with their polarity controlled in accordance with the pattern. While N-polar GaN was grown on hexagonally arranged circular openings, Ga-polar GaN was laterally overgrown on mask regions due to polarity inversion occurring at the boundary of the circular openings. After etching of N-polar GaN on the circular openings by H 3 PO 4 , this template was coated with 40-nm Si by sputtering and was slightly etched by KOH. After slight etching, a thin layer of Si left on the circular openings of sapphire,but not on GaN, was oxidized during thermal annealing and served as a dielectric mask during subsequent regrowth. Thus, the subsequent growth of GaN was made only on the existing Ga-polar GaN domains, not on the circular openings of the sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed no sign of threading dislocations in this film. This approach may help fabricating an unholed and merged GaN film physically attached to but epitaxially separated from the SiO 2 -patterned sapphire.

  10. Optical ridge waveguides preserving the thermo-optic features in LiNbO3 crystals fabricated by combination of proton implantation and selective wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-24

    We report on a new, simple method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in a z-cut LiNbO3 wafer by using proton implantation and selective wet etching. The measured modal field is well confined in the ridge waveguide region, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulation. With thermal annealing treatment at 400 degrees C, the propagation loss of the ridge waveguides is determined to be as low as approximately 0.9 dB/cm. In addition, the measured thermo-optic coefficients of the waveguides are in good agreement with those of the bulk, suggesting potential applications in integrated photonics.

  11. Process for etching zirconium metallic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panson, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a process for etching of zirconium metallic articles formed from zirconium or a zirconium alloy, wherein the zirconium metallic article is contacted with an aqueous hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid etching bath having an initial ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid and an initial concentration of hydrofluoric and nitric acids, the improvement, is described comprising: after etching of zirconium metallic articles in the bath for a period of time such that the etching rate has diminished from an initial rate to a lesser rate, adding hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid to the exhausted bath to adjust the concentration and ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid therein to a value substantially that of the initial concentration and ratio and thereby regenerate the etching solution without removal of dissolved zirconium therefrom; and etching further zirconium metallic articles in the regenerated etching bath

  12. On the existence of continuous selections of solution and reachable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We prove that the map that associates to the initial value the set of solutions to the Lipschitzian Quantum Stochastic Differential Inclusion (QSDI) admits a selection continuous from the locally convex space of stochastic processes to the adapted and weakly absolutely continuous space of solutions. As a corollary, we show ...

  13. Etching conditions and shape of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Shuichi

    1979-01-01

    The etching effect of hydrogen fluoride (HF) solution of 5%, 10%, 20% and 46% was investigated, using the perlite dug out at Wada-toge, Japan. They were studied by the progressive etching at 30 deg C, after the perlite was subjected to thermal neutron irradiation for 8 hours in the research reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy of St. Paul (Rikkyo) University. Observation was performed mainly by replica, and false tracks, which are difficult to be judged whether they are the tracks or not, didn't appear as far as this experiment was concerned. Measurements of etch-pits and track density were carried out. The results of these investigations were considered and analyzed to describe them in five sections. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Regarding the ease of etch-pit observation and the adjustment of etching time, etching with 5% HF solution is most advantageous among four solutions of 5, 10, 20 and 46% HF. (2) The measurement of track density is more affected by the difference in counting criteria than the difference in etching conditions. The data on the size of etch-pits are required to discuss the problems of track density and counting efficiency. (3) If linear tracks are to be observed using hydrogen fluoride, it is necessary to investigate the etching characteristics with the solution of lower concentration. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. A benchmark of co-flow and cyclic deposition/etch approaches for the selective epitaxial growth of tensile-strained Si:P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Veillerot, M.; Prévitali, B.

    2017-10-01

    We have compared co-flow and cyclic deposition/etch processes for the selective epitaxial growth of Si:P layers. High growth rates, relatively low resistivities and significant amounts of tensile strain (up to 10 nm min-1, 0.55 mOhm cm and a strain equivalent to 1.06% of substitutional C in Si:C layers) were obtained at 700 °C, 760 Torr with a co-flow approach and a SiH2Cl2 + PH3 + HCl chemistry. This approach was successfully used to thicken the sources and drains regions of n-type fin-shaped Field Effect Transistors. Meanwhile, the (Si2H6 + PH3/HCl + GeH4) CDE process evaluated yielded at 600 °C, 80 Torr even lower resistivities (0.4 mOhm cm, typically), at the cost however of the tensile strain which was lost due to (i) the incorporation of Ge atoms (1.5%, typically) into the lattice during the selective etch steps and (ii) a reduction by a factor of two of the P atomic concentration in CDE layers compared to that in layers grown in a single step (5 × 1020 cm-3 compared to 1021 cm-3).

  15. Effect of input power and gas pressure on the roughening and selective etching of SiO2/Si surfaces in reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, X. X.; Huang, X. Z.; Tam, E.; Ostrikov, K.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the application low-temperature plasmas for roughening Si surfaces which is becoming increasingly important for a number of applications ranging from Si quantum dots to cell and protein attachment for devices such as 'laboratory on a chip' and sensors. It is a requirement that Si surface roughening is scalable and is a single-step process. It is shown that the removal of naturally forming SiO 2 can be used to assist in the roughening of the surface using a low-temperature plasma-based etching approach, similar to the commonly used in semiconductor micromanufacturing. It is demonstrated that the selectivity of SiO 2 /Si etching can be easily controlled by tuning the plasma power, working gas pressure, and other discharge parameters. The achieved selectivity ranges from 0.4 to 25.2 thus providing an effective means for the control of surface roughness of Si during the oxide layer removal, which is required for many advance applications in bio- and nanotechnology.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of a nanometer-sized optical fiber electrode based on selective chemical etching for scanning electrochemical/optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Sho; Ueda, Akio; Niwa, Osamu; Suzuki, Koji

    2006-03-15

    We have already reported a method for fabricating ultramicroelectrodes (Suzuki, K. JP Patent, 2004-45394, 2004). This method is based on the selective chemical etching of optical fibers. In this work, we undertake a detailed investigation involving a combination of etched optical fibers with various types of tapered tip (protruding-shape, double- (or pencil-) shape and triple-tapered electrode) and insulation with electrophoretic paint. Our goal is to establish a method for fabricating nanometer-sized optical fiber electrodes with high reproducibility. As a result, we realized pencil-shaped and triple-tapered electrodes that had radii in the nanometer range with high reproducibility. These nanometer-sized electrodes showed well-defined sigmoidal curves and stable diffusion-limited responses with cyclic voltammetry. The pencil-shaped optical fiber, which has a conical tip with a cone angle of 20 degrees , was effective for controlling the electrode radius. The pencil-shaped electrodes had higher reproducibility and smaller electrode radii (r(app) etched optical fiber electrodes. By using a pencil-shaped electrode with a 105-nm radius as a probe, we obtained simultaneous electrochemical and optical images of an implantable interdigitated array electrode. We achieved nanometer-scale resolution with a combination of scanning electrochemical microscopy SECM and optical microscopy. The resolution of the electrochemical and optical images indicated sizes of 300 and 930 nm, respectively. The neurites of living PC12 cells were also successfully imaged on a 1.6-microm scale by using the negative feedback mode of an SECM.

  17. Study on ECR dry etching and selective MBE growth of AlGaN/GaN for fabrication of quantum nanostructures on GaN (0001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to form AlGaN/GaN quantum wire (QWR) network structures on patterned GaN (0001) substrates by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Substrate patterns were prepared along - and -directions by electron cyclotron resonance assisted reactive-ion beam etching (ECR-RIBE) process. Selective growth was possible for both directions in the case of GaN growth, but only in the -direction in the case of AlGaN growth. A hexagonal QWR network was successfully grown on a hexagonal mesa pattern by combining the -direction and two other equivalent directions. AFM observation confirmed excellent surface morphology of the grown network. A clear cathodoluminescence (CL) peak coming from the embedded AlGaN/GaN QWR structure was clearly identified

  18. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  19. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Black silicon method X: a review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: an in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H V; de Boer, M J; Unnikrishnan, S; Louwerse, M C; Elwenspoek, M C

    2009-03-01

    An intensive study has been performed to understand and tune deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) processes for optimum results with respect to the silicon etch rate, etch profile and mask etch selectivity (in order of priority) using state-of-the-art dual power source DRIE equipment. The research compares pulsed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. Bosch technique) and mixed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. cryostat technique). In both techniques, an inhibitor is added to fluorine-based plasma to achieve directional etching, which is formed out of an oxide-forming (O2) or a fluorocarbon (FC) gas (C4F8 or CHF3). The inhibitor can be introduced together with the etch gas, which is named a mixed-mode DRIE process, or the inhibitor can be added in a time-multiplexed manner, which will be termed a pulsed-mode DRIE process. Next, the most convenient mode of operation found in this study is highlighted including some remarks to ensure proper etching (i.e. step synchronization in pulsed-mode operation and heat control of the wafer). First of all, for the fabrication of directional profiles, pulsed-mode DRIE is far easier to handle, is more robust with respect to the pattern layout and has the potential of achieving much higher mask etch selectivity, whereas in a mixed-mode the etch rate is higher and sidewall scalloping is prohibited. It is found that both pulsed-mode CHF3 and C4F8 are perfectly suited to perform high speed directional etching, although they have the drawback of leaving the FC residue at the sidewalls of etched structures. They show an identical result when the flow of CHF3 is roughly 30 times the flow of C4F8, and the amount of gas needed for a comparable result decreases rapidly while lowering the temperature from room down to cryogenic (and increasing the etch rate). Moreover, lowering the temperature lowers the mask erosion rate substantially (and so the mask selectivity improves). The pulsed-mode O2 is FC-free but shows only tolerable anisotropic results at -120 °C. The

  1. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  2. Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this publication are to identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies; summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and offer a systematic approach for selecting the best matching solution. This publication covers the management of radioactive waste from all nuclear operations, including waste generated from research reactors, power reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle activities including high level waste (HLW) arising from reprocessing and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (SFW), as well as low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) arising from the production and use of radionuclides in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research.

  3. Black silicon method X: a review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: an in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H V; De Boer, M J; Unnikrishnan, S; Louwerse, M C; Elwenspoek, M C

    2009-01-01

    An intensive study has been performed to understand and tune deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) processes for optimum results with respect to the silicon etch rate, etch profile and mask etch selectivity (in order of priority) using state-of-the-art dual power source DRIE equipment. The research compares pulsed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. Bosch technique) and mixed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. cryostat technique). In both techniques, an inhibitor is added to fluorine-based plasma to achieve directional etching, which is formed out of an oxide-forming (O 2 ) or a fluorocarbon (FC) gas (C 4 F 8 or CHF 3 ). The inhibitor can be introduced together with the etch gas, which is named a mixed-mode DRIE process, or the inhibitor can be added in a time-multiplexed manner, which will be termed a pulsed-mode DRIE process. Next, the most convenient mode of operation found in this study is highlighted including some remarks to ensure proper etching (i.e. step synchronization in pulsed-mode operation and heat control of the wafer). First of all, for the fabrication of directional profiles, pulsed-mode DRIE is far easier to handle, is more robust with respect to the pattern layout and has the potential of achieving much higher mask etch selectivity, whereas in a mixed-mode the etch rate is higher and sidewall scalloping is prohibited. It is found that both pulsed-mode CHF 3 and C 4 F 8 are perfectly suited to perform high speed directional etching, although they have the drawback of leaving the FC residue at the sidewalls of etched structures. They show an identical result when the flow of CHF 3 is roughly 30 times the flow of C 4 F 8 , and the amount of gas needed for a comparable result decreases rapidly while lowering the temperature from room down to cryogenic (and increasing the etch rate). Moreover, lowering the temperature lowers the mask erosion rate substantially (and so the mask selectivity improves). The pulsed-mode O 2 is FC-free but shows only tolerable anisotropic results at

  4. Highly selective and sensitive paper-based colorimetric sensor using thiosulfate catalytic etching of silver nanoplates for trace determination of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyo, Sudkate; Siangproh, Weena; Apilux, Amara; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2015-03-25

    A novel, highly selective and sensitive paper-based colorimetric sensor for trace determination of copper (Cu(2+)) ions was developed. The measurement is based on the catalytic etching of silver nanoplates (AgNPls) by thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)). Upon the addition of Cu(2+) to the ammonium buffer at pH 11, the absorption peak intensity of AuNPls/S2O3(2-) at 522 nm decreased and the pinkish violet AuNPls became clear in color as visible to the naked eye. This assay provides highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) over other metal ions (K(+), Cr(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), As(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), Al(3+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Hg(2+) and Bi(3+)). A paper-based colorimetric sensor was then developed for the simple and rapid determination of Cu(2+) using the catalytic etching of AgNPls. Under optimized conditions, the modified AgNPls coated at the test zone of the devices immediately changes in color in the presence of Cu(2+). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1.0 ng mL(-1) by visual detection. For semi-quantitative measurement with image processing, the method detected Cu(2+) in the range of 0.5-200 ng mL(-1)(R(2)=0.9974) with an LOD of 0.3 ng mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to detect Cu(2+) in the wide range of real samples including water, food, and blood. The results were in good agreement according to a paired t-test with results from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Interrelated temperature dependence of bulk etch rate and track length saturation time in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azooz, A.A.; Al-Jubbori, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New empirical parameterization of CR-39 bulk etch rate. • Bulk etch rates measurements using two different methods give consistent results. • Temperature independence of track saturation length. • Two empirical relation between bulk etch rate and temperature are suggested. • Simple inverse relation between bulk etch rate and track saturation time. -- Abstract: Experimental measurements of the etching solution temperature dependence of bulk etch rate using two independent methods revealed a few interesting properties. It is found that while the track saturation length is independent of etching temperature, the etching time needed to reach saturation is strongly temperature-dependent. It is demonstrated that there is systematic simple inverse relation between track saturation time, and etching solution temperature. In addition, and although, the relation between the bulk etch rate and etching solution temperature can be reasonably described by a modified form of the Arrhenius equation, better fits can be obtained by another equation suggested in this work

  6. Dependence of wet etch rate on deposition, annealing conditions and etchants for PECVD silicon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Longjuan; Zhu Yinfang; Yang Jinling; Li Yan; Zhou Wei; Xie Jing; Liu Yunfei; Yang Fuhua

    2009-01-01

    The influence of deposition, annealing conditions, and etchants on the wet etch rate of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride thin film is studied. The deposition source gas flow rate and annealing temperature were varied to decrease the etch rate of SiN x :H by HF solution. A low etch rate was achieved by increasing the SiH 4 gas flow rate or annealing temperature, or decreasing the NH 3 and N2 gas flow rate. Concentrated, buffered, and dilute hydrofluoric acid were utilized as etchants for SiO 2 and SiN x :H. A high etching selectivity of SiO 2 over SiN x :H was obtained using highly concentrated buffered HF.

  7. Preliminary Analysis and Selection of Mooring Solution Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Delaney, Martin

    This report covers a preliminary analysis of mooring solutions candidates for four large floating wave energy converters. The work is part of the EUDP project “Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters” and is the outcome of "Work Package 3: Preliminary Analysis". The report further...... compose the "Milestone 4: Report on results of preliminary analysis and selection of final candidates. The report is produced by Aalborg University with input from the partner WECs Floating Power Plant, KNSwing, LEANCON and Wave Dragon. Tension Technology International (TTI) has provided a significant...

  8. Considerations on the selection and prioritization of information security solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of guidelines that can be used for prescribing a methodology or a detailed process for selecting and prioritizing security projects or solutions. It is based on the idea that costs of security solutions should be justified by their contribution to ensuring adequate protection of information resources in the organization which implements them. The article reviews general issues of security risks and costs, arguing the need for explicit consideration of information resources security requirements in order to validate decisions concerning security projects implementation. In such an approach, security requirements of information resources are used as a reference system to quantify the benefits and limitations of security solutions defined as alternative or complementary responses to certain security risks as their implementation faces budget constraints.

  9. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  10. Fabrication of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Using a Boron Etch-Stop Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Sandborg-Olsen, Filip; Engholm, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    wt% potassium hydroxide solution with isopropyl alcohol added to increase the etch selectivity to the highly doped boron layer. The resulting plate thickness uniformity is estimated from scanning electron micrographs to a mean value of 2.00μm±2.5%. The resonant frequency in air for a 1-D linear CMUT...

  11. Dry etching technologies for reflective multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Kase, Yoshihisa; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio; Iwami, Munenori

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a highly integrated methodology for patterning Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) mask, which has been highlighted for the lithography technique at the 14nm half-pitch generation and beyond. The EUV mask is characterized as a reflective-type mask which is completely different compared with conventional transparent-type of photo mask. And it requires not only patterning of absorber layer without damaging the underlying multi reflective layers (40 Si/Mo layers) but also etching multi reflective layers. In this case, the dry etch process has generally faced technical challenges such as the difficulties in CD control, etch damage to quartz substrate and low selectivity to the mask resist. Shibaura Mechatronics ARESTM mask etch system and its optimized etch process has already achieved the maximal etch performance at patterning two-layered absorber. And in this study, our process technologies of multi reflective layers will be evaluated by means of optimal combination of process gases and our optimized plasma produced by certain source power and bias power. When our ARES™ is used for multilayer etching, the user can choose to etch the absorber layer at the same time or etch only the multilayer.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: TaN wet etch for application in dual-metal-gate integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Wet-etch etchants and the TaN film method for dual-metal-gate integration are investigated. Both HF/HN O3/H2O and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions can etch TaN effectively, but poor selectivity to the gate dielectric for the HF/HNO3/H2O solution due to HF being included in HF/HNO3/H2O, and the fact that TaN is difficult to etch in the NH4OH/H2O2 solution at the first stage due to the thin TaOxNy layer on the TaN surface, mean that they are difficult to individually apply to dual-metal-gate integration. A two-step wet etching strategy using the HF/HNO3/H2O solution first and the NH4OH/H2O2 solution later can fully remove thin TaN film with a photo-resist mask and has high selectivity to the HfSiON dielectric film underneath. High-k dielectric film surfaces are smooth after wet etching of the TaN metal gate and MOSCAPs show well-behaved C-V and Jg-Vg characteristics, which all prove that the wet etching of TaN has little impact on electrical performance and can be applied to dual-metal-gate integration technology for removing the first TaN metal gate in the PMOS region.

  13. Naturally selecting solutions: the use of genetic algorithms in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems.

  14. Wet etching rates of InGaZnO for the fabrication of transparent thin-film transistors on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Chienliu; Shih, Wen-Pin; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The wet etch process for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO or a-InGaZnO) by using various etchants is reported. The etch rates of a-IGZO, compared to another indium-based oxides including indium gallium oxide (IGO), indium zinc oxide (IZO), and indium tin oxide (ITO), are measured by using acetic acid, citric acid, hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid, and aqua ammonia as etchants, respectively. In our experimental results, the etch rate of the transparent oxide semiconductor (TOS) films by using acid solutions ranked accordingly from high to low are IZO, IGZO, IGO and ITO. Comparatively, the etch rate of the TOS films by using alkaline ammonia solution ranked from high to low are IGZO, IZO, IGO and ITO, in that order. Using the proposed wet etching process with high etch selectivity, bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a-IGZO channels and Y 2 O 3 gate-insulators were fabricated by radio-frequency sputtering on plastic substrates. The wet etch processed TFT with 30 μm gate length and 120 μm gate width exhibits a saturation mobility of 46.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , a threshold voltage of 1.3 V, a drain current on-off ratio > 10 6 , and subthreshold gate voltage swing of 0.29 V decade -1 . The performance of the TFTs ensures the applicability of the wet etching process for IGZO to electronic devices on organic polymer substrates.

  15. ALGORITHM OF SELECTION EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REPROFILING OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLJUK A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem.Non-compliance requirements of today's industrial enterprises, which were built during the Soviet period, as well as significant technical progress, economic reform and transition to market principles of performance evaluation leading to necessity to change their target and functionality. The technical condition of many industrial buildings in Ukraine allows to exploit them for decades.Redesigning manufacturing enterprises allows not only to reduce the cost of construction, but also to obtain new facilities in the city. Despite the large number of industrial buildings that have lost their effectiveness and relevance, as well as a significant investor interest in these objects, the scope of redevelopment in the construction remains unexplored. Analysis researches on the topic. The problem of reconstruction of industrial buildings considered in Topchy D. [3], Travin V. [9], as well as in the work of other scientists. However, there are no rules in regulatory documents and system studies for improving the organization of the reconstruction of buildings at realigning. The purpose of this work is the development an algorithm of actions for selection of effective organizational decisions at the planning stage of a reprofiling project of industrial buildings. The proposed algorithm allows you to select an effective organizational and technological solution for the re-profiling of industrial buildings, taking into account features of the building, its location, its state of structures and existing restrictions. The most effective organizational solution allows realize the reprofiling project of an industrial building in the most possible short terms and with the lowest possible use of material resources, taking into account the available features and restrictions. Conclusion. Each object has a number of unique features that necessary for considering at choosing an effective reprofiling variant. The developed algorithm for selecting

  16. Comparative study of resist stabilization techniques for metal etch processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerry; Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates resist stabilization techniques as they are applied to a metal etch application. The techniques that are compared are conventional deep-UV/thermal stabilization, or UV bake, and electron beam stabilization. The electron beam tool use din this study, an ElectronCure system from AlliedSignal Inc., ELectron Vision Group, utilizes a flood electron source and a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are compared with respect to a metal etch process. In this study, two types of resist are considered for stabilization and etch: a g/i-line resist, Shipley SPR-3012, and an advanced i-line, Shipley SPR 955- Cm. For each of these resist the effects of stabilization on resist features are evaluated by post-stabilization SEM analysis. Etch selectivity in all cases is evaluated by using a timed metal etch, and measuring resists remaining relative to total metal thickness etched. Etch selectivity is presented as a function of stabilization condition. Analyses of the effects of the type of stabilization on this method of selectivity measurement are also presented. SEM analysis was also performed on the features after a compete etch process, and is detailed as a function of stabilization condition. Post-etch cleaning is also an important factor impacted by pre-etch resist stabilization. Results of post- etch cleaning are presented for both stabilization methods. SEM inspection is also detailed for the metal features after resist removal processing.

  17. Selective Recovery Of Copper From Solutions After Bioleaching Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on selective extraction of copper from solution after bioleaching grounded printed circuit boards (PCBs using LIX 860N-IC were conducted. The effect of LIX 860N-IC concentration, phase ratio and influence of initial pH value of aqueous phase on the extraction of copper and iron was examined. It was found that the extraction rate of copper increases with the LIX 860N-IC concentration. Best results of Cu extraction (98 % were achieved with extractant concentration of 5 % and pH 1.9. Higher pH value of aqueous phase (pH=2.4 is conducive to the simultaneous effect of Fe co-extraction.

  18. Continuous selections of set of mild solutions of evolution inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Anguraj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of continuous selections of the set valued map $xio mathcal{S}(xi$ where $mathcal{S}(xi$ is the set of all mild solutions of the evolution inclusions of the form $$displaylines{ dot{x}(t in A(tx(t+int_0^tK(t,sF(s,x(sds cr x(0=xi ,quad tin I=[0,T], }$$ where $F$ is a lower semi continuous set valued map Lipchitzean with respect to $x$ in a separable Banach space $X$, $A$ is the infinitesimal generator of a $C_0$-semi group of bounded linear operators from $X$ to $X$, and $K(t,s$ is a continuous real valued function defined on $Iimes I$ with $tgeq s$ for all $t,sin I$ and $xi in X$.

  19. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  20. Preparation of Track Etch Membrane Filters Using Polystyrene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewsaenee, Jerawut; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Supaphol, Pitt; Visal-athaphand, Pinpan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Polystyrene nuclear track etch membrane filters was prepared by exposed 13 .m thin film polystyrene with fission fragment. Nuclear latent track was enlarged to through hole on the film by etching with 80 o C 40% H 2 SO 4 with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution for 6-10 hour. The hole size was depend on concentration of etching solution and etching time with 1.3-3.4 .m hole diameter. The flow rate test of water was 0.79-1.56 mm cm-2 min-1 at 109.8-113.7 kPa pressure

  1. Inductively coupled plasma etching of III-V antimonides in BCl3/SiCl4 etch chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Janardhanan, P.E.; Sulima, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaSb using BCl 3 /SiCl 4 etch chemistry has been investigated. The etch rates were studied as a function of bias power, inductively coupled plasma source power, plasma chemistry and chamber pressure. The etched surfaces remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. The knowledge gained in etching GaSb was applied to etching AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb in order to fabricate heterojunction phototransistors. As expected, InGaAsSb etch rate was much lower compared to the corresponding value for GaSb, mainly due to the relatively low volatility of indium chlorides. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb was close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based mid-infrared laser diodes. The surface roughness and the etch profile were examined for the etched GaSb, AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb samples using scanning electron microscope. The high etch rates achieved (∼ 4 μm/min) facilitated deep etching of GaSb. A single layer, soft mask (AZ-4903 photoresist) was used to etch GaSb, with etch depth ∼ 90 μm. The deep dry etching of GaSb has many important applications including etching substrate windows for backside-illuminated photodetectors for the mid-infrared wavelength range

  2. Directional Etching of Silicon by Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-02-01

    We report directional etching of nanostructures (nanochannels and nanotrenches) into the Si(100) substrates in aqueous HF and H2O2 solution by lithographically defined Ag patterns (nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanorings). The Effect of Ag/Si interface oxide on the directional etching has been studied by etching Ag/SiOx/Si samples of known interface oxide thickness. Based on high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging and TEM-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the Ag/Si interfaces, we propose that maintenance of the sub-nanometer oxide at the Ag/Si interfaces and Ag-Si interaction are the key factors which regulate the directional etching of Si.

  3. Effect of pre-etching on sealing ability of two current self-etching adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Khosravi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the effect of phosphoric acid etching on microleakage of two current self-etching adhesives on enamel margins in comparison to a conventional total- etch system. Methods: Sixty buccal class V cavities were made at the cemento-enamel junction with beveled enamel margins of extracted human premolar teeth and randomly divided into five groups (12 specimens in each group. Group 1 was applying with Clearfil SE bond, Group 2 with 35% phosphoric acid etching of enamel margins plus Clearfil SE bond, Group3 with I bond, Group 4 with 35% phosphoric acid etching of enamel margins plus I bond and Group5 with Scotchbond multi-purpose. All groups restored with a composite resins. After 24 hours storage with 100% humidity, the samples were thermocycled, immersed in a dye solution and sectioned buccoligually and enamel margins microleakage were evaluated on a scale of 0 to 2. Results: The differences between Groups 1 & 3 and Groups 3 & 4 were significant (P<0.05 but no significant differences between Groups1 & 2 or 1 & 5 were observed. Conclusion: The findings suggest that all-in-one adhesive systems need pre-etching enamel margins with phosphoric acid for effectively seal. Key words: Self-Etching Adhesives, Microleakage, Enamel, Total-Etch system

  4. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  5. Influence factors on etching rate of PET nuclear pore membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhenzhong; Wu Zhendong; Liang Haiying; Ju Wei; Chen Dongfeng; Fu Yuanyong; Qu Guopu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nuclear pore membrane is a kind of liquid filtration material manufactured by irradiation and chemical etching. Various conditions in etch process have a great influence on etch rate. Purpose: The influence factors of concentration and temperature of etch solution and the irradiation energy of heavy ions on etch rate was studied. Methods: Four layers of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films were stacked together and were irradiated with 140-MeV 32 S ions at room temperature under vacuum conditions. Utilizing conductivity measurement technique, the electrical current changes through the u:radiated PET film were monitored during etching, from which the breakthrough time and therefore the track etching rate was calculated. Results: The results show that there is an exponential correlation between etch rate and temperature, and a linear correlation between etch rate and concentration. The track etching rate increases linearly with energy loss rate. Empirical formula for the bulk etching rate as a function of etchant concentration and temperature was also established via fitting of measurements. Conclusion: It is concluded that by using 1.6-MeV·u -1 32 S ions, PET nuclear pore membrane with cylindrical pore shape can be prepared at 85℃ with etchant concentration of l mol·L -1 . (authors)

  6. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  7. Plasma etching of patterned tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssila, S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma etching of tungsten is discussed from the viewpoint of thin film structure and integrated circuit process engineering. The emphasis is on patterned tungsten etching for silicon device and X-ray mask fabrication. After introducing tungsten etch chemistries and mechanisms, microstructural aspects of tungsten films (crystal structure, grain size, film density, defects, impurities) in relation to etching are discussed. Approaches to etch process optimization are presented, and the current state-of-the-art of patterned tungsten etching is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  9. Cyclic etching of tin-doped indium oxide using hydrogen-induced modified layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akiko; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    The rate of etching of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and the effects of a hydrogen-induced modified layer on cyclic, multistep thin-layer etching were investigated. It was found that ITO cyclic etching is possible by precisely controlling the hydrogen-induced modified layer. Highly selective etching of ITO/SiO2 was also investigated, and it was suggested that cyclic etching by selective surface adsorption of Si can precisely control the etch rates of ITO and SiO2, resulting in an almost infinite selectivity for ITO over SiO2 and in improved profile controllability.

  10. SU-F-R-10: Selecting the Optimal Solution for Multi-Objective Radiomics Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z; Folkert, M; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evidential reasoning approach for selecting the optimal solution from a Pareto solution set obtained by a multi-objective radiomics model for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Methods: In the multi-objective radiomics model, both sensitivity and specificity are considered as the objective functions simultaneously. A Pareto solution set with many feasible solutions will be resulted from the multi-objective optimization. In this work, an optimal solution Selection methodology for Multi-Objective radiomics Learning model using the Evidential Reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed to select the optimal solution from the Pareto solution set. The proposed SMOLER method used the evidential reasoning approach to calculate the utility of each solution based on pre-set optimal solution selection rules. The solution with the highest utility was chosen as the optimal solution. In SMOLER, an optimal learning model coupled with clonal selection algorithm was used to optimize model parameters. In this study, PET, CT image features and clinical parameters were utilized for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Results: Total 126 solution sets were generated by adjusting predictive model parameters. Each Pareto set contains 100 feasible solutions. The solution selected by SMOLER within each Pareto set was compared to the manually selected optimal solution. Five-cross-validation was used to evaluate the optimal solution selection accuracy of SMOLER. The selection accuracies for five folds were 80.00%, 69.23%, 84.00%, 84.00%, 80.00%, respectively. Conclusion: An optimal solution selection methodology for multi-objective radiomics learning model using the evidential reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed. Experimental results show that the optimal solution can be found in approximately 80% cases.

  11. SU-F-R-10: Selecting the Optimal Solution for Multi-Objective Radiomics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z; Folkert, M; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an evidential reasoning approach for selecting the optimal solution from a Pareto solution set obtained by a multi-objective radiomics model for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Methods: In the multi-objective radiomics model, both sensitivity and specificity are considered as the objective functions simultaneously. A Pareto solution set with many feasible solutions will be resulted from the multi-objective optimization. In this work, an optimal solution Selection methodology for Multi-Objective radiomics Learning model using the Evidential Reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed to select the optimal solution from the Pareto solution set. The proposed SMOLER method used the evidential reasoning approach to calculate the utility of each solution based on pre-set optimal solution selection rules. The solution with the highest utility was chosen as the optimal solution. In SMOLER, an optimal learning model coupled with clonal selection algorithm was used to optimize model parameters. In this study, PET, CT image features and clinical parameters were utilized for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Results: Total 126 solution sets were generated by adjusting predictive model parameters. Each Pareto set contains 100 feasible solutions. The solution selected by SMOLER within each Pareto set was compared to the manually selected optimal solution. Five-cross-validation was used to evaluate the optimal solution selection accuracy of SMOLER. The selection accuracies for five folds were 80.00%, 69.23%, 84.00%, 84.00%, 80.00%, respectively. Conclusion: An optimal solution selection methodology for multi-objective radiomics learning model using the evidential reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed. Experimental results show that the optimal solution can be found in approximately 80% cases.

  12. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  13. Dry etching of thin chalcogenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Kiril [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Gergo; Vassilev, Venceslav, E-mail: kpetkov@clf.bas.b [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon plasmas (pure and mixtures with Ar) were used to investigate the changes in the etching rate depending on the chalcogenide glasses composition and light exposure. The experiments were performed on modified commercial HZM-4 vacuum equipment in a diode electrode configuration. The surface microstructure of thin chalcogenide layers and its change after etching in CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasmas were studied by SEM. The dependence of the composition of As-S-Ge, As-Se and multicomponent Ge-Se-Sb-Ag-I layers on the etching rate was discussed. The selective etching of some glasses observed after light exposure opens opportunities for deep structure processing applications.

  14. The effect of a zinc–tin-oxide layer used as an etch-stopper layer on the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) using zinc–tin-oxide (ZTO) as the etch-stopper layer, the so-called dual-active-layered ZTO/IGZO TFT (DALZI TFT). The DALZI TFT can use a low-cost back-channel-etch structure because of the high chemical stability of the upper ZTO layer. The DALZI TFT exhibited only a threshold voltage shift of −1.86 V under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) conditions (stress time = 1000 s), while the unpassivated IGZO TFT suffered from a threshold voltage shift of −19.59 V under NBIS conditions (stress time = 1000 s). The superior bias stress stability of the DALZI TFT is attributed not only to the densification effect by the multi-stacking process but also to the lower sensitivity to ambient gases (e.g., oxygen and water vapour) due to the low oxygen vacancy in the upper ZTO layer. (paper)

  15. Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Kornblit, Avinoam [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The field of plasma etching is reviewed. Plasma etching, a revolutionary extension of the technique of physical sputtering, was introduced to integrated circuit manufacturing as early as the mid 1960s and more widely in the early 1970s, in an effort to reduce liquid waste disposal in manufacturing and achieve selectivities that were difficult to obtain with wet chemistry. Quickly, the ability to anisotropically etch silicon, aluminum, and silicon dioxide in plasmas became the breakthrough that allowed the features in integrated circuits to continue to shrink over the next 40 years. Some of this early history is reviewed, and a discussion of the evolution in plasma reactor design is included. Some basic principles related to plasma etching such as evaporation rates and Langmuir–Hinshelwood adsorption are introduced. Etching mechanisms of selected materials, silicon, silicon dioxide, and low dielectric-constant materials are discussed in detail. A detailed treatment is presented of applications in current silicon integrated circuit fabrication. Finally, some predictions are offered for future needs and advances in plasma etching for silicon and nonsilicon-based devices.

  16. Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Kornblit, Avinoam

    2013-01-01

    The field of plasma etching is reviewed. Plasma etching, a revolutionary extension of the technique of physical sputtering, was introduced to integrated circuit manufacturing as early as the mid 1960s and more widely in the early 1970s, in an effort to reduce liquid waste disposal in manufacturing and achieve selectivities that were difficult to obtain with wet chemistry. Quickly, the ability to anisotropically etch silicon, aluminum, and silicon dioxide in plasmas became the breakthrough that allowed the features in integrated circuits to continue to shrink over the next 40 years. Some of this early history is reviewed, and a discussion of the evolution in plasma reactor design is included. Some basic principles related to plasma etching such as evaporation rates and Langmuir–Hinshelwood adsorption are introduced. Etching mechanisms of selected materials, silicon, silicon dioxide, and low dielectric-constant materials are discussed in detail. A detailed treatment is presented of applications in current silicon integrated circuit fabrication. Finally, some predictions are offered for future needs and advances in plasma etching for silicon and nonsilicon-based devices

  17. Particle precipitation in connection with KOH etching of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Christensen, Carsten; Pedersen, Casper

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show that the precipi......This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show...... that the precipitation is independent of KOH etching time, but that the amount of deposited material varies with dopant type and dopant concentration. The experiments also suggest that the precipitation occurs when the silicon wafers are removed from the KOH etching solution and not during the etching procedure. When...... not removed, the iron oxide particles cause etch pits on the Si surface when later processed and exposed to phosphoric acid. It has been found that the particles can be removed in an HCl solution, but not completely in an H2SO4- H2O2 solution. The paper discusses the involved precipitation mechanism in terms...

  18. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  19. Stability of core–shell nanowires in selected model solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalska-Szostko, B.; Wykowska, U.; Basa, A.; Zambrzycka, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stability of the core–shell nanowires in environmental solutions were tested. • The most and the least aggressive solutions were determined. • The influence of different solutions on magnetic nanowires core was found out. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies of stability of magnetic core–shell nanowires prepared by electrochemical deposition from an acidic solution containing iron in the core and modified surface layer. The obtained nanowires were tested according to their durability in distilled water, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl, and commercial white wine (12% alcohol). The proposed solutions were chosen in such a way as to mimic food related environment due to a possible application of nanowires as additives to, for example, packages. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks wetting in the solutions, nanoparticles were tested by Infrared Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods

  20. Stability of core–shell nanowires in selected model solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl; Wykowska, U.; Basa, A.; Zambrzycka, E.

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Stability of the core–shell nanowires in environmental solutions were tested. • The most and the least aggressive solutions were determined. • The influence of different solutions on magnetic nanowires core was found out. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies of stability of magnetic core–shell nanowires prepared by electrochemical deposition from an acidic solution containing iron in the core and modified surface layer. The obtained nanowires were tested according to their durability in distilled water, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl, and commercial white wine (12% alcohol). The proposed solutions were chosen in such a way as to mimic food related environment due to a possible application of nanowires as additives to, for example, packages. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks wetting in the solutions, nanoparticles were tested by Infrared Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods.

  1. Etching method employing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  2. Effects of etching time on enamel bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Mudgil, A; Levine, A

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching time on bond strengths of composite to enamel. Proximal surfaces of extracted molars were etched with either a conventional etchant (35% phosphoric acid) or one of two dentin/enamel conditioners, 10% maleic acid (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Etchant), or a solution of oxalic acid, aluminum nitrate, and glycine (Gluma 1 & 2 Conditioner). Each agent was applied for 15, 30, or 60 seconds. Specimens etched with 35% phosphoric acid had the highest mean bond strengths at each etching time. At the manufacturer's recommended application times, the other two agents gave significantly lower shear bond strengths than phosphoric acid.

  3. Chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Y.; Tsujimura, S.; Seguchi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer was studied. Etched holes 3000 to 4000 A in diameter were recognized by electron microscopy for a film bombarded by fission fragments in oxygen and etched in a 12N sodium hydroxide solution at 125 0 C. The radial etching rate at 125 0 C was 6 to 8 A/hr, which is less than 17 A/hr for polyvinylidene fluoride in the same sodium hydroxide concentration at 85 0 C. The smaller rate is a reflection of the larger chemical resistivity of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer than polyvinylidene fluoride. (author)

  4. Device fabrication by plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogab, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma etching as applied to many of the materials encountered in the fabrication of LSI's is complicated by loading effect-the dependence of etch rate on the integrated surface area to be etched. This problem is alleviated by appropriate choice of etchant and etching conditions. Appropriate choice of system parameters, generally most concerned with the inherent lifetime of etchant species, may also result in improvement of etch rate uniformity on a wafer-by-wafer basis

  5. Solutions to selected exercise problems in quantum chemistry and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Suggested solutions to a number of problems from the collection "Exercise Problems in Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy", previously published on ResearchGate (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4024.8162).......Suggested solutions to a number of problems from the collection "Exercise Problems in Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy", previously published on ResearchGate (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4024.8162)....

  6. Advanced dry etching studies for micro- and nano-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted

    and even contaminate the surface with metal flakes after resist removal. Ion beam etching has also been used for etching of steel without any problems with redeposition. For steel the etch rate was low which reduced the selectivity to the photo resist. Sapphire, a crystal of aluminum oxide, has a very low....... However, just generating an oxygen plasma does not result in a controllable etch and may give rise to a poor surface for later use. It may be necessary to introduce other gases such as SF6 to reduce surface roughness. Roughness can also be introduced by the mask in the form of redeposition of material...

  7. Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlin- ear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences. Keywords.

  8. Direct determination of bulk etching rate for LR-115-II solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thickness of the removed layer of the LR-115-II solid state nuclear track detector during etching is measured directly with a rather precise instrument. Dependence of bulk etching rate on temperature of the etching solution is investigated. It has been found that the bulk etching rate is 3.2 m/h at 60°C in 2.5 N NaOH of ...

  9. Impact of electron irradiation on particle track etching response in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy by an ionizing particle traversing a material medium. When the ... Their amorphous nature and radiation sensitivity further ... The samples were washed thoroughly in lukewarm soap solution to avoid non-uniformity in etching due to ...

  10. Theory of quasi-Chaplygin unstable media and evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references

  11. Selected topics in solution-phase biomolecular NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lewis E.; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Solution bio-NMR spectroscopy continues to enjoy a preeminent role as an important tool in elucidating the structure and dynamics of a range of important biomolecules and in relating these to function. Equally impressive is how NMR continues to 'reinvent' itself through the efforts of many brilliant practitioners who ask increasingly demanding and increasingly biologically relevant questions. The ability to manipulate spin Hamiltonians - almost at will - to dissect the information of interest contributes to the success of the endeavor and ensures that the NMR technology will be well poised to contribute to as yet unknown frontiers in the future. As a tribute to the versatility of solution NMR in biomolecular studies and to the continued rapid advances in the field we present a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) that includes over 40 articles on various aspects of solution-state biomolecular NMR that have been published in the Journal of Magnetic Resonance in the past 7 years. These, in total, help celebrate the achievements of this vibrant field.

  12. Study on morphology of high-aspect-ratio grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Pan, An; Li, Cunxia; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied morphologies of silicon grooves fabricated by laser irradiation and wet etching. • We found nano-ripple structures formed on the groove sidewall. • Formations of nano-ripples were due to the formation of standing wave and nanoplanes. • Remaining debris on the groove bottom was removed by KOH etching. - Abstract: Morphologies of high-aspect-ratio silicon grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and selective chemical etching of hydrofluoric acid (HF) were studied. Oxygen was deeply doped into silicon under femtosecond laser irradiation in air, and then the oxygen-doped regions were removed by HF etching to form high-aspect-ratio grooves. After HF etching, periodic nano-ripples which were induced in silicon by femtosecond laser were observed on the groove sidewalls. The ripple orientation was perpendicular or parallel to the laser propagation direction (z direction), which depended on the relative direction between the laser polarization direction and the scanning direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations perpendicular to z direction could be attributed to the standing wave generated by the interference of the incident light and the reflected light in z direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations parallel to z direction could be attributed to the formation of self-organized periodic nanoplanes (bulk nanogratings) induced by femtosecond laser inside silicon. Materials in the tail portion of laser-induced oxygen doping (LIOD) regions were difficult to be etched by HF solution due to low oxygen concentration. The specimen was etched further in KOH solution to remove remaining materials in LIOD regions and all-silicon grooves were fabricated

  13. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  14. Mathematical description of adsorption and transport of reactive solutes in soil: a review of selected literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1978-10-01

    This report reviews selected literature related to the mathematical description of the transport of reactive solutes through soil. The primary areas of the literature reviewed are (1) mathematical models in current use for description of the adsorption-desorption interaction between the soil solution and the soil matrix and (2) analytic solutions of the differential equations describing the convective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes through soil

  15. Plasma etching a ceramic composite. [evaluating microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David R.; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma etching is found to be a superior metallographic technique for evaluating the microstructure of a ceramic matrix composite. The ceramic composite studied is composed of silicon carbide whiskers (SiC(sub W)) in a matrix of silicon nitride (Si3N4), glass, and pores. All four constituents are important in evaluating the microstructure of the composite. Conventionally prepared samples, both as-polished or polished and etched with molten salt, do not allow all four constituents to be observed in one specimen. As-polished specimens allow examination of the glass phase and porosity, while molten salt etching reveals the Si3N4 grain size by removing the glass phase. However, the latter obscures the porosity. Neither technique allows the SiC(sub W) to be distinguished from the Si3N4. Plasma etching with CF4 + 4 percent O2 selectively attacks the Si3N4 grains, leaving SiC(sub W) and glass in relief, while not disturbing the pores. An artifact of the plasma etching reaction is the deposition of a thin layer of carbon on Si3N4, allowing Si3N4 grains to be distinguished from SiC(sub W) by back scattered electron imaging.

  16. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  17. Total analysis systems with Thermochromic Etching Discs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Morais, Sergi; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2014-12-16

    A new analytical system based on Thermochromic Etching Discs (TED) technology is presented. TED comprises a number of attractive features such as track independency, selective irradiation, a high power laser, and the capability to create useful assay platforms. The analytical versatility of this tool opens up a wide range of possibilities to design new compact disc-based total analysis systems applicable in chemistry and life sciences. In this paper, TED analytical implementation is described and discussed, and their analytical potential is supported by several applications. Microarray immunoassay, immunofiltration assay, solution measurement, and cell culture approaches are herein addressed in order to demonstrate the practical capacity of this system. The analytical usefulness of TED technology is herein demonstrated, describing how to exploit this tool for developing truly integrated analytical systems that provide solutions within the point of care framework.

  18. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, A; Maji, D; Das, S

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µ m thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 16 H 36 FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C 5 H 9 NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µ m min −1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5–15 gm l −1 of silicic acid (SiO 2xH2 O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µ m etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures. (paper)

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  20. Fabrication of high quality GaN nanopillar arrays by dry and wet chemical etching

    OpenAIRE

    Paramanik, Dipak; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Kryluk, Sergi; Davydov, Albert V.; Talin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    We study strain relaxation and surface damage of GaN nanopillar arrays fabricated using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and post etch wet chemical treatment. We controlled the shape and surface damage of such nanopillar structures through selection of etching parameters. We compared different substrate temperatures and different chlorine-based etch chemistries to fabricate high quality GaN nanopillars. Room temperature photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements were carried ...

  1. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods.

  2. Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan; Mei, Jianguo; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Kristin; Giri, Gaurav; Appleton, Anthony L.; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate high-performance sequentially solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% for blend films using a donor polymer based on the isoindigo-bithiophene repeat unit (PII2T-C10C8) and a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). This has been accomplished by systematically controlling the swelling and intermixing processes of the layer with various processing solvents during deposition of the fullerene. We find that among the solvents used for fullerene deposition that primarily swell but do not re-dissolve the polymer underlayer, there were significant microstructural differences between chloro and o-dichlorobenzene solvents (CB and ODCB, respectively). Specifically, we show that the polymer crystallite orientation distribution in films where ODCB was used to cast the fullerene is broad. This indicates that out-of-plane charge transport through a tortuous transport network is relatively efficient due to a large density of inter-grain connections. In contrast, using CB results in primarily edge-on oriented polymer crystallites, which leads to diminished out-of-plane charge transport. We correlate these microstructural differences with photocurrent measurements, which clearly show that casting the fullerene out of ODCB leads to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. Thus, we believe that tuning the processing solvents used to cast the electron acceptor in sequentially-processed devices is a viable way to controllably tune the blend film microstructure. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate analytical methods for characterizing the assembly and morphology of polymer-based vesicles, or polymersomes are required to reach their full potential in biotechnology. This work presents and compares 17 different techniques for their ability to adequately report size....../purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  4. Inductively coupled plasma etching of III-V antimonides in BCl{sub 3}/SiCl{sub 4} etch chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)], E-mail: swaminak@ece.osu.edu; Janardhanan, P.E.; Sulima, O.V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaSb using BCl{sub 3}/SiCl{sub 4} etch chemistry has been investigated. The etch rates were studied as a function of bias power, inductively coupled plasma source power, plasma chemistry and chamber pressure. The etched surfaces remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. The knowledge gained in etching GaSb was applied to etching AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb in order to fabricate heterojunction phototransistors. As expected, InGaAsSb etch rate was much lower compared to the corresponding value for GaSb, mainly due to the relatively low volatility of indium chlorides. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb was close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based mid-infrared laser diodes. The surface roughness and the etch profile were examined for the etched GaSb, AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb samples using scanning electron microscope. The high etch rates achieved ({approx} 4 {mu}m/min) facilitated deep etching of GaSb. A single layer, soft mask (AZ-4903 photoresist) was used to etch GaSb, with etch depth {approx} 90 {mu}m. The deep dry etching of GaSb has many important applications including etching substrate windows for backside-illuminated photodetectors for the mid-infrared wavelength range.

  5. Effects of gas-flow structures on radical and etch-product density distributions on wafers in magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Fukuyama, Ryoji

    2001-01-01

    To achieve high etch rate, uniformity, good selectivity, and etch profile control across large diameter wafers, the distributions of ions, radicals, and etch products in magnetomicrowave high-etch-rate plasma etching reactors must be accurately controlled. In this work the effects of chamber heights, a focus ring around the wafer, and gas supply structures (or gas flow structures) on the radicals and etch products flux distribution onto the wafer were examined using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and used to determine the optimal reactor geometry. The pressure uniformity on the wafer was less than ±1% when the chamber height was taller than 60 mm. The focus ring around the wafer produced uniform radical and etch-product fluxes but increased the etch-product flux on the wafer. A downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) produced a more uniform radical distribution than that produced by a radial gas-supply structure (type I). The impact flow of the type II structure removed etch products from the wafer effectively and produced a uniform etch-product distribution even without the focus ring. Thus the downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) was adopted in the design for the second-generation of a magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactor with a higher etching rate

  6. Etched ion track polymer membranes for sustained drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vijayalakshmi; Amar, J.V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Narayana Charyulu, R.

    2003-01-01

    The method of track etching has been successfully used for the production of polymer membranes with capillary pores. In the present paper, micropore membranes have been prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC). PC films were irradiated with ions of gold, silicon and oxygen of varying energies and fluence. The ion tracks thus obtained were etched chemically for various time intervals to get pores and these etched films were used as membranes for the drug release. Ciprofloxacine hydrochloride was used as model drug for the release studies. The drug content was estimated spectrophotometrically. Pore size and thus the drug release is dependent on the etching conditions, ions used, their energy and fluence. Sustained drug release has been observed in these membranes. The films can be selected for practical utilization by optimizing the irradiation and etching conditions. These films can be used as transdermal patches after medical treatment

  7. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-11-21

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other functional groups. Furthermore, the acetaldehyde/Fmoc amino acid method can be used as a selective colorimetric test for secondary amines in solution.

  8. Method of plastic track detector electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The review of studies dealing with the development of the method for the electro-chemical etching (ECE) of the plastic track detectors on the base of polyethy-leneterephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) is given. Physical essence of the method, basic parameters of the processes, applied equipment and methods of measurement automation are considered. The advantages of the method over the traditional chemical etching are pointed out. Recommendations on the detector operation modes when detecting fission fragments, α-particles and fast neutrons are given. The ECE method is based on the condition that during chemical etching the high-voltage sound frequency alternating electric field is applied to the detector. In this case the detector serves as an isolating layer betWeen two vessels with etching solution in which high-voltage electrode are submerged. At a fixed electric field potential higher (over than the threshold value) at the end of the etching track cone atree-like discharge spot arises. It is shown that when PET is used for fast neutron detection it is advisable to apply for ECE the PEW solution (15g KOH+40 g C 2 H 2 OH + 45g H 2 O) the field potential should constitute 30 kVxcm -1 at the freqUency of 9 kHz. In the case of fission fragment detection Using ECE and PC the following ECE conditions are recommended: 30% KOH etcher, field potential of 10 kVxcm -1 , 2-4 kHz frequency. It is concluded that the ECE method permits considerably eXtend the sphere of plastic track detector application for detecting ionizing particles,

  9. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  10. Uniformly thinned optical fibers produced via HF etching with spectral and microscopic verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Harpreet K; Brodzeli, Zourab; Dragomir, Nicoleta M; Collins, Stephen F; Sidiroglou, Fotios

    2012-05-01

    A method for producing uniformly thinned (etched) optical fibers is described, which can also be employed to etch optical fibers containing a Bragg grating (FBG) uniformly for evanescent-field-based sensing and other applications. Through a simple modification of this method, the fabrication of phase-shifted FBGs based on uneven etching is also shown. The critical role of how a fiber is secured is shown, and the success of the method is illustrated, by differential interference contrast microscopy images of uniformly etched FBGs. An etched FBG sensor for the monitoring of the refractive index of different glycerin solutions is demonstrated.

  11. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal-assisted etch combined with regularizing etch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Joanne; Miller, Jeff; Jura, Michael; Black, Marcie R.; Forziati, Joanne; Murphy, Brian; Magliozzi, Lauren

    2018-03-06

    In an aspect of the disclosure, a process for forming nanostructuring on a silicon-containing substrate is provided. The process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) performing a clean, including partial or total removal of the metal used to assist the chemical etch, and (c) performing an isotropic or substantially isotropic chemical etch subsequently to the metal-assisted chemical etch of step (a). In an alternative aspect of the disclosure, the process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) cleaning the substrate, including removal of some or all of the assisting metal, and (c) performing a chemical etch which results in regularized openings in the silicon substrate.

  13. Selective extraction of metals from acidic uranium(VI) solutions using neo-tridecano-hydroxamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardoncelli, F.; Grossi, G.

    1975-01-01

    According to this invention neo-alkyl-hydroxamic acids are employed as ion-exchanging agents in processes for liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of separating, purifying dissolved metals and of converting a metal salt solution into a solution of a salt of the same metal but with different anion. In particular it is an objective of this invention to provide a method whereby a molecular pure uranium solution is obtained by selective extraction from a uranium solution delivered by irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and containing plutonium, fission products and other unwanted metals, in which method neo-tridecane-hydroxamic acid is employed as ion exchanger. (Official Gazette)

  14. Selective solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution by alkyl phosphorus esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.; Wan, R.Y.; Mooiman, M.B.; Sibrell, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Research efforts have shown that solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution is possible by alkyl phosphorus esters. Both tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) appear to be effective extractants for gold and exhibit high loading capacities exceeding 30 gpl. Selective solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution can be achieved with selectivity factors relative to other cyanoanions as high as 1000 under certain circumstances. Variables influencing the selectivity such as ionic strength, temperature, and extractant structure, are discussed in terms of the extraction chemistry, which seems to involve the solvation of a M dot, dot, dot Au(CN)2 ion pair.

  15. The chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, E.

    1997-06-01

    The success of silicon IC technology in producing a wide variety of microstructures relies heavily on the orientation dependant etching observed for silicon in alkaline media. Despite the rapid growth of this industry, the chemical and electrochemical mechanisms by which anisotropic etching occurs remain poorly understood. The most common etchant systems in use are ethylenediamine-pyrocatechol-water (EPW) and potassium hydroxide-isopropanol-water (KOH-IPA), and whilst these systems are highly plane selective they each have distinct disadvantages. The occurrence of inhomogeneities such as micropyramids and pits on the surface of etched substrates is a particularly disadvantageous characteristic of many alkaline etching systems. A complete understanding of the chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching mechanisms is essential in order to obtain more reproducible etching, improved etch rate ratios and the development of more reliable etching baths. Wet chemical etching experiments to evaluate the etching rates for the different alkali metal cations have shown that similar etch rates are observed for LiOH, NaOH and KOH but those of RbOH and CsOH are significantly lower. The presence of impurities was shown to worsen the etched wafer's surface finish obtained in these etching baths. Additives have been shown to dramatically improve the surface finish with the presence of IPA in conjunction with etchant oxygenation virtually eliminating all surface defects. Electrochemical experiments were used to assess the electrochemical behaviour of Si p-(100) in of a wide variety of etchants and variations were seen according to the etchant used. A.C impedance spectroscopy showed a variation in the flat-band potential (V FB ) according to alkali metal hydroxide etchant used. These trends were similarly observed in the presence of isopropanol. Oxygenation was observed to reproducibly alter the flat-band potentials. A.c impedance spectroscopic studies additionally confirmed the

  16. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive ion etching (RIE technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  17. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives. PMID:22675358

  18. Development of deep silicon plasma etching for 3D integration technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golishnikov А. А.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma etch process for thought-silicon via (TSV formation is one of the most important technological operations in the field of metal connections creation between stacked circuits in 3D assemble technology. TSV formation strongly depends on parameters such as Si-wafer thickness, aspect ratio, type of metallization material, etc. The authors investigate deep silicon plasma etch process for formation of TSV with controllable profile. The influence of process parameters on plasma etch rate, silicon etch selectivity to photoresist and the structure profile are researched in this paper. Technology with etch and passivation steps alternation was used as a method of deep silicon plasma etching. Experimental tool «Platrane-100» with high-density plasma reactor based on high-frequency ion source with transformer coupled plasma was used for deep silicon plasma etching. As actuation gases for deep silicon etching were chosen the following gases: SF6 was used for the etch stage and CHF3 was applied on the polymerization stage. As a result of research, the deep plasma etch process has been developed with the following parameters: silicon etch rate 6 µm/min, selectivity to photoresist 60 and structure profile 90±2°. This process provides formation of TSV 370 µm deep and about 120 µm in diameter.

  19. On the continuous selections of solution sets of Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoola, E.O.

    2004-05-01

    We prove that a multifunction associated with the set of solutions of Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusion (QSDI) admits a selection continuous from some subsets of complex numbers to the space of the matrix elements of adapted weakly absolutely continuous quantum stochastic processes. In particular, we show that the solution set map as well as the reachable set of the QSDI admit some continuous representations. (author)

  20. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  1. Optical diagnostics for plasma etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, T.H.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; de Zeeuw, C.J.H.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several optical diagnostics were used to det. plasma properties and etch rates in an single wafer etch reactor. Results of UV-visible spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy, indicating different mol. species and their densities are presented. The construction of an interferometer to det. the

  2. Dynamic Wet Etching of Silicon through Isopropanol Alcohol Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S. Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Isopropanol (IPA availability during the anisotropic etching of silicon in Potassium Hydroxide (KOH solutions was investigated. Squares of 8 to 40 µm were patterned to (100 oriented silicon wafers through DWL (Direct Writing Laser photolithography. The wet etching process was performed inside an open HDPE (High Density Polyethylene flask with ultrasonic agitation. IPA volume and evaporation was studied in a dynamic etching process, and subsequent influence on the silicon etching was inspected. For the tested conditions, evaporation rates for water vapor and IPA were determined as approximately 0.0417 mL/min and 0.175 mL/min, respectively. Results demonstrate that IPA availability, and not concentration, plays an important role in the definition of the final structure. Transversal SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis demonstrates a correlation between microloading effects (as a consequence of structure spacing and the angle formed towards the (100 plane.

  3. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of tantalum for x-ray mask absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Akira; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of Ta film was investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. Ta is etched by the system at a high rate and with high selectivity. Using Cl 2 as etching gas, the etch rate decreases rapidly with decreasing pattern width below 0.5 μm and large undercutting is observed. The problems are reduced by adding Ar or O 2 gas to the Cl 2 . Etching with a mixture of Cl 2 and O 2 produces highly accurate Ta absorber patterns for x-ray masks. The pattern width dependence of the etch rate and the undercutting were simulated with a model that takes account of the angular distribution of active species incident on the sample. The experimental results agree well with those calculated assuming that the incidence angles are distributed between -36 degrees and 36 degrees. The addition of O 2 or Ar enhances ion assisted etching. 16 refs., 16 figs

  5. Determination of fluoride content in UO2F2 and ADUF solution by ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Papu; Kumar, Pradeep; Bagchi, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    During production of uranium metal powder, liquid solution UO 2 F 2 and ADUF containing high content of fluoride gets generated. Fluoride being corrosive in nature, fluorides concentration needs to determined. Ion selective electrode, LaF 3 (Eu) crystal, has been used. Uranium was found to interfere with fluoride analysis. Study was carried out to selectively remove uranium by solvent extraction employing D2EHPA+Cyanex 923 and TBP in dodecane. The TBP was found effective to remove uranium. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Pentafluoroethane and 1,1-Difluoroethane for a Dielectric Etch Application in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Etch Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karecki, Simon; Chatterjee, Ritwik; Pruette, Laura; Reif, Rafael; Sparks, Terry; Beu, Laurie; Vartanian, Victor

    2000-07-01

    In this work, a combination of two hydrofluorocarbon compounds, pentafluoroethane (FC-125, C2HF5) and 1,1-difluoroethane (FC-152a, CF2H-CH3), was evaluated as a potential replacement for perfluorocompounds in dielectric etch applications. A high aspect ratio oxide via etch was used as the test vehicle for this study, which was conducted in a commercial inductively coupled high density plasma etch tool. Both process and emissions data were collected and compared to those provided by a process utilizing a standard perfluorinated etch chemistry (C2F6). Global warming (CF4, C2F6, CHF3) and hygroscopic gas (HF, SiF4) emissions were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FC-125/FC-152a was found to produce significant reductions in global warming emissions, on the order of 68 to 76% relative to the reference process. Although etch stopping, caused by a high degree of polymer deposition inside the etched features, was observed, process data otherwise appeared promising for an initial study, with good resist selectivity and etch rates being achieved.

  7. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.

  8. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  9. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of oth...

  10. Spatial redistribution of irregularly-spaced Pareto fronts for more intuitive navigation and solution selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bouter (Anton); K. Pirpinia (Kleopatra); T. Alderliesten (Tanja); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA multi-objective optimization approach is o.en followed by an a posteriori decision-making process, during which the most appropriate solution of the Pareto set is selected by a professional in the .eld. Conventional visualization methods do not correct for Pareto fronts with

  11. Space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings: Optimal selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Natalya; Minaev, Nikolay; Filushina, Kristina; Dobrynina, Olga; Gusakov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The present study is devoted to elaboration of methodology used to select appropriately the space-planning and structural solutions in low-rise buildings. Objective of the study is working out the system of criteria influencing the selection of space-planning and structural solutions which are most suitable for low-rise buildings and structures. Application of the defined criteria in practice aim to enhance the efficiency of capital investments, energy and resource saving, create comfortable conditions for the population considering climatic zoning of the construction site. Developments of the project can be applied while implementing investment-construction projects of low-rise housing at different kinds of territories based on the local building materials. The system of criteria influencing the optimal selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings has been developed. Methodological basis has been also elaborated to assess optimal selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings satisfying the requirements of energy-efficiency, comfort and safety, and economical efficiency. Elaborated methodology enables to intensify the processes of low-rise construction development for different types of territories taking into account climatic zoning of the construction site. Stimulation of low-rise construction processes should be based on the system of approaches which are scientifically justified; thus it allows enhancing energy efficiency, comfort, safety and economical effectiveness of low-rise buildings.

  12. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  13. Fabrication of SiC nanopillars by inductively coupled SF6/O2 plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J H; Bano, E; Latu-Romain, L; Dhalluin, F; Chevolleau, T; Baron, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a top-down fabrication technique for nanometre scale silicon carbide (SiC) pillars using inductively coupled plasma etching. A set of experiments in SF 6 -based plasma was carried out in order to realize high aspect ratio SiC nanopillars. The etched SiC nanopillars using a small circular mask pattern (115 nm diameter) show high aspect ratio (7.4) with a height of 2.2 µm at an optimum bias voltage (300 V) and pressure (6 mTorr). Under the optimal etching conditions using a large circular mask pattern with 370 nm diameter, the obtained SiC nanopillars exhibit high anisotropy features (6.4) with a large etch depth (>7 µm). The etch characteristic of the SiC nanopillars under these conditions shows a high etch rate (550 nm min -1 ) and a high selectivity (over 60 for Ni). We also studied the etch profile of the SiC nanopillars and mask evolution over the etching time. As the mask pattern size shrinks in nanoscale, vertical and lateral mask erosion plays a crucial role in the etch profile of the SiC nanopillars. Long etching process makes the pillars appear with a hexagonal shape, coming from the crystallographic structure of α-SiC. It is found that the feature of pillars depends not only on the etching process parameters, but also on the crystallographic structure of the SiC phase. (paper)

  14. In situ ion etching in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhariwal, R.S.; Fitch, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    A facility for ion etching in a scanning electron microscope is described which incorporates a new type of electrostatic ion source and viewing of the specimen is possible within about 30 sec after terminating the ion bombardment. Artefacts produced during etching have been studied and cone formation has been followed during its growth. The instrument has provided useful structural information on metals, alloys, and sinters. However, although insulating materials, such as plastics, glass and resins, have been successfully etched, interpretation of the resultant micrographs is more difficult. Ion etching of soft biological tissues, such as the rat duodenum was found to be of considerable interest. The observed structural features arise from the selective intake of the heavy fixation elements by different parts of the tissue. Hard biological materials, such as dental tissues and restorative materials, have also been studied and the prismatic structure of the enamel and the form and distribution of the dentinal tubules have been revealed. (author)

  15. Dry etch challenges for CD shrinkage in memory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takaya; Matsumoto, Takanori; Mukai, Hidefumi; Kyoh, Suigen; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2015-03-01

    Line pattern collapse attracts attention as a new problem of the L&S formation in sub-20nm H.P feature. Line pattern collapse that occurs in a slight non-uniformity of adjacent CD (Critical dimension) space using double patterning process has been studied with focus on micro-loading effect in Si etching. Bias RF pulsing plasma etching process using low duty cycle helped increase of selectivity Si to SiO2. In addition to the effect of Bias RF pulsing process, the thin mask obtained from improvement of selectivity has greatly suppressed micro-loading in Si etching. However it was found that micro-loading effect worsen again in sub-20nm space width. It has been confirmed that by using cycle etch process to remove deposition with CFx based etching micro-loading effect could be suppressed. Finally, Si etching process condition using combination of results above could provide finer line and space without "line pattern collapse" in sub-20nm.

  16. Overview Of Dry-Etch Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, John M.

    1986-08-01

    With pattern dimensions shrinking, dry methods of etching providing controllable degrees of anisotropy become a necessity. A number of different configurations of equipment - inline, hex, planar, barrel - have been offered, and within each type, there are numerous significant variations. Further, each specific type of machine must be perfected over a complex, interactive parameter space to achieve suitable removal of various materials. Among the most critical system parameters are the choice of cathode or anode to hold the wafers, the chamber pressure, the plasma excitation frequency, and the electrode and magnetron structures. Recent trends include the use of vacuum load locks, multiple chambers, multiple electrodes, downstream etching or stripping, and multistep processes. A major percentage of etches in production handle the three materials: polysilicon, oxide and aluminum. Recent process developments have targeted refractory metals, their silicides, and with increasing emphasis, silicon trenching. Indeed, with new VLSI structures, silicon trenching has become the process of greatest interest. For stripping, dry processes provide advantages other than anisotropy. Here, too, new configurations and methods have been introduced recently. While wet processes are less than desirable from a number of viewpoints (handling, safety, disposal, venting, classes of clean room, automatability), dry methods are still being perfected as a direct, universal replacement. The paper will give an overview of these machine structures and process solutions, together with examples of interest. These findings and the trends discussed are based on semiannual survey of manufacturers and users of the various types of equipment.

  17. Selective Removal of Uranium from the Washing Solution of Uranium-Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study examined selective removal methods of uranium from the waste solution by ion exchange resins or solvent extraction methods to reduce amount of the 2{sup nd} waste. Alamine-336, known as an excellent extraction reagent of uranium from the leaching solution of uranium ore, did not remove uranium from the acidic washing solution of soil. Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on ampholyte resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a washing with 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 60 .deg. C. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. A great amount of uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil had been generated from the decommissioning of a uranium conversion plant. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods to decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions.

  18. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  19. Bond strength with various etching times on young permanent teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.N.; Lu, T.C. (School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-07-01

    Tensile bond strengths of an orthodontic resin cement were compared for 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-second etching times, with a 37% phosphoric acid solution on the enamel surfaces of young permanent teeth. Fifty extracted premolars from 9- to 16-year-old children were used for testing. An orthodontic composite resin was used to bond the bracket directly onto the buccal surface of the enamel. The tensile bond strengths were tested with an Instron machine. Bond failure interfaces between bracket bases and teeth surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and calculated with mapping of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The results of tensile bond strength for 15-, 30-, 60-, or 90-second etching times were not statistically different. For the 120-second etching time, the decrease was significant. Of the bond failures, 43%-49% occurred between bracket and resin interface, 12% to 24% within the resin itself, 32%-40% between resin and tooth interface, and 0% to 4% contained enamel fragments. There was no statistical difference in percentage of bond failure interface distribution between bracket base and resin, resin and enamel, or the enamel detachment. Cohesive failure within the resin itself at the 120-second etching time was less than at other etching times, with a statistical significance. To achieve good retention, to decrease enamel loss, and to reduce moisture contamination in the clinic, as well as to save chairside time, a 15-second etching time is suggested for teenage orthodontic patients.

  20. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radjenović

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community, extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process.

  1. Cryogenic Etching of High Aspect Ratio 400 nm Pitch Silicon Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Mirzaeimoghri, Mona; Kasica, Richard; Wen, Han

    2016-10-01

    The cryogenic process and Bosch process are two widely used processes for reactive ion etching of high aspect ratio silicon structures. This paper focuses on the cryogenic deep etching of 400 nm pitch silicon gratings with various etching mask materials including polymer, Cr, SiO 2 and Cr-on-polymer. The undercut is found to be the key factor limiting the achievable aspect ratio for the direct hard masks of Cr and SiO 2 , while the etch selectivity responds to the limitation of the polymer mask. The Cr-on-polymer mask provides the same high selectivity as Cr and reduces the excessive undercut introduced by direct hard masks. By optimizing the etching parameters, we etched a 400 nm pitch grating to ≈ 10.6 μ m depth, corresponding to an aspect ratio of ≈ 53.

  2. Selective capillary diffusion of equimolar H2/D2 gas mixtures through etched ion track membranes prepared from polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.; Angert, N.; Trautmann, C.

    1996-01-01

    The selective capillary diffusion of equimolar H 2 /D 2 gas mixtures through ion track membranes prepared from polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide was investigated at a temperature of 293 K, a primary pressure of 0.15 MPa and a secondary pressure of 10 -4 MPa. Different values of the separation factor Z(H 2 /D 2 ) between experiment and computer simulation exists in the case of polyethylene terephthalate ion track membranes because of multiple pores. Membranes for which multiple pores were reduced by varying the irradiation angle showed an increased separation factor. The separation factor is a function of the pore diameter. This is shown for polyimide ion track membranes with a pore size in the range of 0.17 and 0.5 μm. After grafting with styrene the separation factor increased, indicating grafting within the pores. (orig.)

  3. Morphological Evaluation of the Adhesive/Enamel interfaces of Two-step Self-etching Adhesives and Multimode One-bottle Self-etching Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Matsui, Naoko; Hamba, Hidenori; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) at the adhesive/enamel interface of self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric acid etching. Four adhesives were used in 8 groups: Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Optibond XTR (XTR), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), and Clearfil BOND SE ONE (ONE) without prior phosphoric-acid etching, and each adhesive with phosphoric acid etching for 10 s (P-SEB, P-XTR, P-SBU and P-ONE, respectively). After application of self-etching adhesives on ground enamel surfaces of human teeth, a flowable composite was placed. For observation of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 4.5 h, followed by 5% NaOCl with ultrasonication for 20 min. After the acid-base challenge, morphological attributes of the interface were observed using SEM. ABRZ formation was confirmed in all groups. The funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present in SBU and ONE, where nearly 10 to 15 μm of enamel was dissolved. With phosphoric acid etching, the ABRZs were obviously thicker compared with no phosphoric acid etching. Enamel beneath the bonding interface was more susceptible to acid dissolution in SBU and ONE. In the case of the one-bottle self-etching adhesives and universal adhesives that intrinsically have higher pH values, enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality.

  4. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (ζ), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ζ in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ζ in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does active application of universal adhesives to enamel in self-etch mode improve their performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguercio, Alessandro D; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of adhesion strategy on the enamel microshear bond strengths (μSBS), etching pattern, and in situ degree of conversion (DC) of seven universal adhesives. 84 extracted third molars were sectioned in four parts (buccal, lingual, proximal) and divided into 21 groups, according to the combination of the main factors adhesive (AdheSE Universal [ADU], All-Bond Universal [ABU], Clearfil Universal [CFU], Futurabond U [FBU], G-Bond Plus [GBP], Prime&Bond Elect (PBE), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]), and adhesion strategy (etch-and-rinse, active self-etch, and passive self-etch). Specimens were stored in water (37°C/24h) and tested at 1.0mm/min (μSBS). Enamel-resin interfaces were evaluated for DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under a field-emission scanning electron microscope (direct and replica techniques). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Active self-etch application increased μSBS and DC for five out of the seven universal adhesives when compared to passive application (padhesives in the etch-and-rinse strategy. A slight improvement in etching ability was observed in active self-etch application compared to that of passive self-etch application. Replicas of GBP and PBE applied in active self-etch mode displayed morphological features compatible with water droplets. The DC of GBP and PBE were not affected by the application/strategy mode. In light of the improved performance of universal adhesives when applied actively in SE mode, selective enamel etching with phosphoric acid may not be crucial for their adhesion to enamel. The active application of universal adhesives in self-etch mode may be a practical alternative to enamel etching in specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Different Etching Modes on Bond Strength to Enamel using Universal Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Ana Cs; Bandeca, Matheus C; Pinheiro, Larissa M; Dos Santosh Almeida, Lauber J; Torres, Carlos Rg; Borges, Alvaro H; Pinto, Shelon Cs; Tonetto, Mateus R; De Jesus Tavarez, Rudys R; Firoozmand, Leily M

    2016-10-01

    The adhesive systems and the techniques currently used are designed to provide a more effective adhesion with reduction of the protocol application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of universal adhesive systems on enamel in different etching modes (self-etch and total etch). The mesial and distal halves of 52 bovine incisors, healthy, freshly extracted, were used and divided into seven experimental groups (n = 13). The enamel was treated in accordance with the following experimental conditions: FUE-Universal System - Futurabond U (VOCO) with etching; FUWE - Futurabond U (VOCO) without etching; SB-Total Etch System - Single Bond 2 (3M); SBUE-Universal System - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) with etching; SBUWE - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) without etching; CLE-Self-etch System - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) was applied with etching; CLWE - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) without etching. The specimens were made using the composite spectrum TPH (Dentsply) and stored in distilled water (37 ± 1°C) for 1 month. The microshear test was performed using the universal testing machine EMIC DL 2000 with the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The bond strength values were analyzed using statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test) with Bonferroni correction. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (p adhesive interface revealed that most failures occurred between the interface composite resin and adhesive. The universal adhesive system used in dental enamel varies according to the trademark, and the previous enamel etching for universal systems and the self-etch both induced greater bond strength values. Selective enamel etching prior to the application of a universal adhesive system is a relevant strategy for better performance bonding.

  7. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  8. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified [pt

  9. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  10. Qualification of a new defect revealing etch for CdTe using cathodoluminescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C.C.R.; Durose, K. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)); Banister, A.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)); O' Keefe, E.; Bains, S.K. (Philips Infrared Defence Components, Southampton (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-30

    The action of a new defect revealing etch comprising a saturated FeCl[sub 3] solution has been investigated. The etch was found suitable for use on (111)A, (anti 1anti 1anti 1)B and other surface orientations of CdTe, and (111)A and (anti 1anti 1anti 1)B surfaces of Cd[sub 0.96]Zn[sub 0.04] Te. Direct correlations with cathodoluminescence and infra-red microscopy have shown the etch to successfully reveal twin boundaries, precipitates and dislocations. A background etch rate of approximately 2 [mu]m min[sup -1] has been measured. (orig.).

  11. Thermodynamics of nuclear track chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This is a brief paper with new and useful scientific information on nuclear track chemical etching. Nuclear track etching is described here by using basic concepts of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy parameters are considered for the nuclear track etching. The free energy of etching is determined using etching experiments of fission fragment tracks in CR-39. Relationship between the free energy and the etching temperature is explored and is found to be approximately linear. The above relationship is discussed. A simple enthalpy-entropy model of chemical etching is presented. Experimental and computational results presented here are of fundamental interest in nuclear track detection methodology.

  12. Characterization of etch pit formation via the Everson-etching method on CdZnTe crystal surfaces from the bulk to the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, Lucile C.; Duff, Martine C.; Cadieux, James R.; Soundararajan, Raji; Shick, Charles R.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and mass spectrometry was employed to study CdZnTe crystal surface and used etchant solution following exposure of the CdZnTe crystal to the Everson etch solution. We discuss the results of these studies in relationship to the initial surface preparation methods, the performance of the crystals as radiation spectrometers, the observed etch pit densities, and the chemical mechanism of surface etching. Our results show that the surface features that are exposed to etchants result from interactions with the chemical components of the etchants as well as pre-existing mechanical polishing.

  13. The etching property of the surface of CR-39 and the track core radius of fission fragment

    CERN Document Server

    Mineyama, D; Yamauchi, T; Oda, K; El-Rahman, A

    2002-01-01

    The etch pits of fission fragments in CR-39 detector have been observed carefully using an atomic force microscope (AFM) after extremely short chemical etching in stirred 6N KOH solution kept at 70degC. It was found that there existed a thin layer where the bulk etch rate is relativity from large the etch-pit growth curve for the etching duration between 10 and 1800 seconds. The track core radius of fission fragment was evaluated to be about 6 nm from the extrapolation of the growth curve in a thinner region. (author)

  14. Photography in Dermatologic Surgery: Selection of an Appropriate Lighting Solution for a Particular Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian R; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2018-01-01

    Lighting is an important component of consistent, high-quality dermatologic photography. There are different types of lighting solutions available. To evaluate currently available lighting equipment and methods suitable for procedural dermatology. Overhead lighting, built-in camera flashes, external flash units, studio strobes, and light-emitting diode (LED) light panels were evaluated with regard to their utility for dermatologic surgeons. A set of ideal lighting characteristics was used to examine the capabilities and limitations of each type of lighting solution. Recommendations regarding lighting solutions and optimal usage configurations were made in terms of the context of the clinical environment and the purpose of the image. Overhead lighting may be a convenient option for general documentation. An on-camera lighting solution using a built-in camera flash or a camera-mounted external flash unit provides portability and consistent lighting with minimal training. An off-camera lighting solution with studio strobes, external flash units, or LED light panels provides versatility and even lighting with minimal shadows and glare. The selection of an optimal lighting solution is contingent on practical considerations and the purpose of the image.

  15. Calculation of separation selectivity of aqueous electrolytic solutions with reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognevskij, A.V.; Fomichev, S.V.; Khvostov, V.F.; Kochergin, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    Viscosity and dielectric permittivity of a bound water layer in micropores of cellulose acetate membranes used for electrolyte ion separation by reverse osmosis method are calculated using the water cluster model and the proposed structural temperature parameter. Based on the model representations presented an algorithmof reverse osmosis membrane selectivity calculation in diluted aqueous solutions ofelectrolytes containing Cs + , Sr 2+ , I - and other ions is constructed

  16. Selective separation of Cu, Zn, and As from solution by flotation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalidis, G.A.; Matis, K.A.; Lazaridis, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    The selective precipitation and flotation of copper, zinc, and arsenic ions from dilute aqueous solutions were investigated. Phase separation was accomplished effectively by the dissolved-air technique for the production of fine gas bubbles, and a short-chain xanthate was applied as the collector for copper ions, dialkyl-dithiocarbamate for zinc, and ferric sulfate for the pentavalent arsenic. The procedures followed were ion flotation for copper and zinc, and adsorbing colloid flotation for arsenic (without a surfactant)

  17. Research on ration selection of mixed absorbent solution for membrane air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiao; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We derive models of the membrane air-conditioning system with mixed absorbents. • We make analysis on system COP, cost-effectiveness and economy. • The paper provides a new method for ideal absorbent selection. • The solutes concentration of 50% achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. - Abstract: Absorption air-conditioning system is a good alternative to vapor compression system for developing low carbon society. To improve the performance of the traditional absorption system, the membrane air-conditioning system is configured and its COP can reach as high as 6. Mixed absorbents are potential for cost reduction of the membrane system while maintaining a high COP. On the purpose of finding ideal mixed absorbent groups, this paper makes analysis on COP, cost-effectiveness and economy of the membrane system with mixed LiBr–CaCl 2 absorbent solution. The models of the system have been developed for the analysis. The results show the COP is higher for the absorbent groups with lower concentration of the total solute and higher concentration ratio of LiBr. It also reveals when the total solutes concentration is about 50%, it achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. The process of the analysis provides a useful method for mixed absorbents selection

  18. Etching and oxidation of InAs in planar inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dultsev, F.N., E-mail: fdultsev@thermo.isp.nsc.ru [Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Lavrentiev av. 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Lavrentiev av. 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The surface of InAs (1 1 1)A was investigated under plasmachemical etching in the gas mixture CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar. Etching was performed using the RF (13.56 MHz) and ICP plasma with the power 30-150 and 50-300 W, respectively; gas pressure in the reactor was 3-10 mTorr. It was demonstrated that the composition of the subsurface layer less than 5 nm thick changes during plasmachemical etching. A method of deep etching of InAs involving ICP plasma and hydrocarbon based chemistry providing the conservation of the surface relief is proposed. Optimal conditions and the composition of the gas phase for plasmachemical etching ensuring acceptable etch rates were selected.

  19. Etching and oxidation of InAs in planar inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dultsev, F. N.; Kesler, V. G.

    2009-10-01

    The surface of InAs (1 1 1)A was investigated under plasmachemical etching in the gas mixture CH 4/H 2/Ar. Etching was performed using the RF (13.56 MHz) and ICP plasma with the power 30-150 and 50-300 W, respectively; gas pressure in the reactor was 3-10 mTorr. It was demonstrated that the composition of the subsurface layer less than 5 nm thick changes during plasmachemical etching. A method of deep etching of InAs involving ICP plasma and hydrocarbon based chemistry providing the conservation of the surface relief is proposed. Optimal conditions and the composition of the gas phase for plasmachemical etching ensuring acceptable etch rates were selected.

  20. Etching and oxidation of InAs in planar inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dultsev, F.N.; Kesler, V.G.

    2009-01-01

    The surface of InAs (1 1 1)A was investigated under plasmachemical etching in the gas mixture CH 4 /H 2 /Ar. Etching was performed using the RF (13.56 MHz) and ICP plasma with the power 30-150 and 50-300 W, respectively; gas pressure in the reactor was 3-10 mTorr. It was demonstrated that the composition of the subsurface layer less than 5 nm thick changes during plasmachemical etching. A method of deep etching of InAs involving ICP plasma and hydrocarbon based chemistry providing the conservation of the surface relief is proposed. Optimal conditions and the composition of the gas phase for plasmachemical etching ensuring acceptable etch rates were selected.

  1. Selective removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using thiolated cross-linked polyethylenimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia M.; Cukrowska, Ewa M.; Tutu, Hlanganani

    2013-06-01

    A successful approach to develop an insoluble form of polyethylenimine with a thiol-based functional group for selective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions is reported. The selectivity of the modified polymer for Hg(II) as well as its ability to be regenerated for re-use has been studied. The synthesised polymer exhibited high selectivity for Hg(II) with high removal efficiency of up to 97 %, even in the presence of competing ions. The Freundlich isotherm was found to best fit and describe the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order equation explains the adsorption kinetics most effectively implying chemisorption. The thermodynamic study of the adsorption process revealed high activation energies >41 kJ mol-1, further confirming chemisorption as the mechanism of interaction between mercury ions and the polymer surface. The polymer exhibited good potential for re-use after many cycles of regeneration, giving good removal efficiency up to the fifth cycle.

  2. A privacy-preserving solution for compressed storage and selective retrieval of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhicong; Ayday, Erman; Lin, Huang; Aiyar, Raeka S; Molyneaux, Adam; Xu, Zhenyu; Fellay, Jacques; Steinmetz, Lars M; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    In clinical genomics, the continuous evolution of bioinformatic algorithms and sequencing platforms makes it beneficial to store patients' complete aligned genomic data in addition to variant calls relative to a reference sequence. Due to the large size of human genome sequence data files (varying from 30 GB to 200 GB depending on coverage), two major challenges facing genomics laboratories are the costs of storage and the efficiency of the initial data processing. In addition, privacy of genomic data is becoming an increasingly serious concern, yet no standard data storage solutions exist that enable compression, encryption, and selective retrieval. Here we present a privacy-preserving solution named SECRAM (Selective retrieval on Encrypted and Compressed Reference-oriented Alignment Map) for the secure storage of compressed aligned genomic data. Our solution enables selective retrieval of encrypted data and improves the efficiency of downstream analysis (e.g., variant calling). Compared with BAM, the de facto standard for storing aligned genomic data, SECRAM uses 18% less storage. Compared with CRAM, one of the most compressed nonencrypted formats (using 34% less storage than BAM), SECRAM maintains efficient compression and downstream data processing, while allowing for unprecedented levels of security in genomic data storage. Compared with previous work, the distinguishing features of SECRAM are that (1) it is position-based instead of read-based, and (2) it allows random querying of a subregion from a BAM-like file in an encrypted form. Our method thus offers a space-saving, privacy-preserving, and effective solution for the storage of clinical genomic data. © 2016 Huang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. High density plasma via hole etching in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Lee, K.P.; Leerungnawarat, P.; Chu, S.N.G.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zetterling, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 μm deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF 6 /O 2 at a controlled rate of ∼0.6 μm min-1 and use of Al masks. Selectivities of >50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining

  4. Enhancement of laser induced damage threshold of fused silica by acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Xiang Xia; Jiang Yong; Zu Xiaotao; Yuan Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo; Wang Haijun; Li Xibin; Lu Haibing; Jiang Xiaodong; Wang Chengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning is developed to enhance the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica. Firstly, the fused silica is etched for 1 ∼ 100 min with a buffered 1% HF solution. After acid etching, its transmittance, surface roughness and LIDT are measured. The results reveal that the fused silica has the highest LIDT and transmittance after etching for 10 min. Then UV laser (355 nm) conditioning is adopted to process the 10-min-etched fused silica. When the laser fluence is below 60% of fused silica's zero probability damage threshold, the LIDT increases gradually with the increase of laser conditioning fluence. However, the LIDT rapidly decreases to be lower than the threshold of the 10-min-etched fused silica when the conditioning fluence is up to 80% of the threshold. Proper acid etching and laser conditioning parameters will effectively enhance the laser damage resistance of fused silica. (authors)

  5. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y., E-mail: jean-yves.hihn@univ-fcomte.fr

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  6. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  7. The influence of chemical etching time on efficiency of radon detection using CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reway, Adriana P.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Narloch, Danielle C.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.

    2015-01-01

    Natural radiation is the principal source of human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon is noble radioactive gas that emanates from the soil and rocks entering the atmosphere of dwellings where it could be accumulated. The inhalation of 222 Rn represents a significant health risk. Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) represents an efficient method for alpha particle detection and measurements of the activity concentration of 222 Rn. The aim of present work was to study the etching time impact on CR-39 efficiency in radon activity measurements. The investigation was performed using 80 CR-39 detectors, which were exposed to a source of radon. After the exposition, alpha particle tracks development was achieved by chemical etching using 6.25M NaOH solution and ethanol (2%) at 70°C. Etching alpha particle tracks were identified and counted manually using the optical microscope with magnification of 100x and glass overlay mask. The etching time ranged from 7 to 14 hours. The results show that there is an increase in the number of visible tracks with increased etching time. The number of traces obtained for 7 hours and 8 hours of revelation was 1430 +/- 90 and 2090 +/- 160, respectively. However, for etching time of 13 and 14 hours was not observed statistical increase in the number of visible tracks. The number of tracks in this situation was 3630 +/- 180 and 3870 +/- 160 to 13 and 14 hours etching. Thus, for assumed etching parameters, the etching optimal time was observed 14 hours. (author)

  8. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  9. Selectivity of some basic solutes on a poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane)-silica stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Endler M; Collins, Carol H

    2011-11-01

    Complex analyses of polar compounds, especially basic ones, require more selective stationary phases. The present paper describes a stationary phase prepared by thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) onto chromatographic silica (PMTDS-SiO(2)). This stationary phase presents hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions that confer both high retention and unique selectivities for basic solutes. The influence of ion-exchange interactions is confirmed by the increase in retention factors of basic solutes when the mobile-phase pH changes from acidic to neutral and by the decrease in retention factors when the mobile-phase pH changes from neutral to alkaline. The ion-exchange properties of the stationary phase are enriched in neutral mobile phase (pH 7-7.5) using soft Lewis bases such as tricine and tris as buffers but are suppressed in both acidic (pH 2.5-6) and highly alkaline mobile phases (pH≤10). Increasing both temperature and flow rate permits more rapid separations while maintaining the selectivity. The stability of the stationary phase is evaluated with acid, neutral and alkaline mobile phases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. THE PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL ETCHING AS A TOOL FOR GaN GAS SENSOR FABRICATION

    OpenAIRE

    V.Iu. Popa

    2005-01-01

    Whisker and columnar structures of GaN were fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching in KOH solution. The conductivity changes of the obtained structures to ethylic alcohol and hydrogen were studied. Optimized design for sensor fabrication is proposed.

  11. Electrostatics promotes molecular crowding and selects the aggregation pathway in fibril-forming protein solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccosta, S.; Martorana, V.; Manno, M.; Blanco, M.; Roberts, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of intermolecular interaction in fibril-forming protein solutions and its relation with molecular conformation are crucial aspects for the control and inhibition of amyloid structures. Here, we study the fibril formation and the protein-protein interactions for two proteins at acidic ph, lysozyme and α-chymotrypsinogen. By using light scattering experiments and the Kirkwood-Buff integral approach, we show how concentration fluctuations are damped even at moderate protein concentrations by the dominant long-ranged electrostatic repulsion, which determines an effective crowded environment. In denaturing conditions, electrostatic repulsion keeps the monomeric solution in a thermodynamically metastable state, which is escaped through kinetically populated conformational sub-states. This explains how electrostatics acts as a gatekeeper in selecting a specific aggregation pathway.

  12. Laser etching as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Kelly, R.

    1989-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are removed from surfaces by intense laser beams. This fact has been known almost since the discovery of the laser. Within the present overall area of interest, namely understanding ion-beam-induced sputtering, it is equally important both to contrast laser etching to ion sputtering and to understand the underlying physics taking place during laser etching. Beyond some initial broad observations, the specific discussion is limited to, and aimed at, two areas: (i) short wavelength, UV, laser-pulse effects and (ii) energy fluences sufficiently small that only monolayers (and not microns) of material are removed per pulse. 38 refs.; 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Introducing etch kernels for efficient pattern sampling and etch bias prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, François; Lutich, Andrey; Schatz, Jirka

    2018-01-01

    Successful patterning requires good control of the photolithography and etch processes. While compact litho models, mainly based on rigorous physics, can predict very well the contours printed in photoresist, pure empirical etch models are less accurate and more unstable. Compact etch models are based on geometrical kernels to compute the litho-etch biases that measure the distance between litho and etch contours. The definition of the kernels, as well as the choice of calibration patterns, is critical to get a robust etch model. This work proposes to define a set of independent and anisotropic etch kernels-"internal, external, curvature, Gaussian, z_profile"-designed to represent the finest details of the resist geometry to characterize precisely the etch bias at any point along a resist contour. By evaluating the etch kernels on various structures, it is possible to map their etch signatures in a multidimensional space and analyze them to find an optimal sampling of structures. The etch kernels evaluated on these structures were combined with experimental etch bias derived from scanning electron microscope contours to train artificial neural networks to predict etch bias. The method applied to contact and line/space layers shows an improvement in etch model prediction accuracy over standard etch model. This work emphasizes the importance of the etch kernel definition to characterize and predict complex etch effects.

  14. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG and coarse grained (CG titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  15. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Denis V; Zemtsova, Elena G; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Smirnov, Vladimir M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  16. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  17. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  18. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation

  19. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  20. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  1. A Generalized Measure for the Optimal Portfolio Selection Problem and its Explicit Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy Landsman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer a novel class of utility functions applied to optimal portfolio selection. This class incorporates as special cases important measures such as the mean-variance, Sharpe ratio, mean-standard deviation and others. We provide an explicit solution to the problem of optimal portfolio selection based on this class. Furthermore, we show that each measure in this class generally reduces to the efficient frontier that coincides or belongs to the classical mean-variance efficient frontier. In addition, a condition is provided for the existence of the a one-to-one correspondence between the parameter of this class of utility functions and the trade-off parameter λ in the mean-variance utility function. This correspondence essentially provides insight into the choice of this parameter. We illustrate our results by taking a portfolio of stocks from National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ.

  2. Using a knowledge-based planning solution to select patients for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Alexander R; Dahele, Max; Tol, Jim P; Kuijper, Ingrid T; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2017-08-01

    Patient selection for proton therapy by comparing proton/photon treatment plans is time-consuming and prone to bias. RapidPlan™, a knowledge-based-planning solution, uses plan-libraries to model and predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume-histograms (DVHs). We investigated whether RapidPlan, utilizing an algorithm based only on photon beam characteristics, could generate proton DVH-predictions and whether these could correctly identify patients for proton therapy. Model PROT and Model PHOT comprised 30 head-and-neck cancer proton and photon plans, respectively. Proton and photon knowledge-based-plans (KBPs) were made for ten evaluation-patients. DVH-prediction accuracy was analyzed by comparing predicted-vs-achieved mean OAR doses. KBPs and manual plans were compared using salivary gland and swallowing muscle mean doses. For illustration, patients were selected for protons if predicted Model PHOT mean dose minus predicted Model PROT mean dose (ΔPrediction) for combined OARs was ≥6Gy, and benchmarked using achieved KBP doses. Achieved and predicted Model PROT /Model PHOT mean dose R 2 was 0.95/0.98. Generally, achieved mean dose for Model PHOT /Model PROT KBPs was respectively lower/higher than predicted. Comparing Model PROT /Model PHOT KBPs with manual plans, salivary and swallowing mean doses increased/decreased by <2Gy, on average. ΔPrediction≥6Gy correctly selected 4 of 5 patients for protons. Knowledge-based DVH-predictions can provide efficient, patient-specific selection for protons. A proton-specific RapidPlan-solution could improve results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production Relationships among Cassava Farmers in Etche Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined production relationships among cassava farmers in Etche L.G.A. of Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the data generation exercise. A total of 96 cassava farmers were randomly selected from three out of the five clans for interview using structured questionnaire.

  4. Bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesives to dentin after 24 h water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mouhamed; Benoist, Fatou Leye; Bane, Khaly; Aidara, Adjaratou Wakha; Seck, Anta; Toure, Babacar

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate bonding effectiveness of five self-etch adhesive systems bonded to dentin. The microtensile bond strength of five self-etch adhesives systems, including one two-step and four one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin, was measured. Human third molars had their superficial dentin surface exposed, after which a standardized smear layer was produced using a medium-grit diamond bur. The selected adhesives were applied according to their respective manufacturer's instructions for μTBS measurement after storage in water at 37°C for 24 h. The μTBS varied from 11.1 to 44.3 MPa; the highest bond strength was obtained with the two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and the lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt L-Pop. Pretesting failures mainly occurring during sectioning with the slow-speed diamond saw were observed only with the one-step self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt L-Pop (4 out of 18). When bonded to dentin, the self-etch adhesives with simplified application procedures (one-step self-etch adhesives) still underperform as compared to the two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond.

  5. Exploration of suitable dry etch technologies for directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Fumiko; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Mochiki, Hiromasa; Bannister, Julie

    2012-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has shown the potential to replace traditional resist patterns and provide a lower cost alternative for sub-20-nm patterns. One of the possible roadblocks for DSA implementation is the ability to etch the polymers to produce quality masks for subsequent etch processes. We have studied the effects of RF frequency and etch chemistry for dry developing DSA patterns. The results of the study showed a capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) reactor with very high frequency (VHF) had superior pattern development after the block co-polymer (BCP) etch. The VHF CCP demonstrated minimal BCP height loss and line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR). The advantage of CCP over ICP is the low dissociation so the etch rate of BCP is maintained low enough for process control. Additionally, the advantage of VHF is the low electron energy with a tight ion energy distribution that enables removal of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with good selectivity to polystyrene (PS) and minimal LER/LWR. Etch chemistries were evaluated on the VHF CCP to determine ability to treat the BCPs to increase etch resistance and feature resolution. The right combination of RF source frequencies and etch chemistry can help overcome the challenges of using DSA patterns to create good etch results.

  6. Neutron dosimetry using electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.J.; Stillwagon, G.B.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1977-01-01

    Registration of α-tracks and fast-neutron-induced recoils tracks by the electrochemical etching technique as applied to sensitive polymer foils (e.g., polycarbonate) provides a simple, sensitive and inexpensive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry as well as a valuable research tool for microdosimetry. When tracks were amplified by our electrochemical technique and the etching results compared with conventional etching technique a striking difference was noted. The electrochemically etched tracks were of much larger diameter (approx. 100 μm) and gave superior contrast. Two optical devices--the transparency projector and microfiche reader--were adapted to facilitate counting of the tracks appearing on our polycarbonate foils. The projector produced a magnification of 14X for a screen to projector distance of 5.0 meter and read's magnification was 50X. A Poisson distribution was determined for the number of tracks located in a particular area of the foil and experimentally verified by random counting of quarter sections of the microfiche reader screen. Finally, in an effort to determine dose equivalent (rem), a conversion factor is being determined by finding the sensitivity response (tracks/neutron) of recoil particle induced tracks as a function of monoenergetic fast neutrons and comparing results with those obtained by others

  7. Pareto Optimal Solutions for Network Defense Strategy Selection Simulator in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If the defender knows his preferred reward distribution, the advantages of Pareto optimization can be retained by using a scalarization algorithm prior to the implementation of the MORL. In this paper, we simulate a network defense scenario by creating a multi-objective zero-sum game and using Pareto optimization and MORL to determine optimal solutions and compare those solutions to different scalarization approaches. We build a Pareto Defense Strategy Selection Simulator (PDSSS system for assisting network administrators on decision-making, specifically, on defense strategy selection, and the experiment results show that the Satisficing Trade-Off Method (STOM scalarization approach performs better than linear scalarization or GUESS method. The results of this paper can aid network security agents attempting to find an optimal defense policy for network security games.

  8. Some aspects of the etching behavior of cellulose nitrate as track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, D.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to support the hypothesis that the etching velocity in cellulose nitrate detectors is dependent on the local water content of the foil. The consequence is drawn that high concentrations (> 4.7 n) of the etching solution should not be used for high precision track etching. The possibility to vary the Vsub(t)/Vsub(b) ratio is reported to have a useful application in biological experiments. Further more an influence of etch products at low NaOH concentrations was found. The cellulose nitrate detectors used in this investigation are 250 μ sheets made by Daicel, Nippon (plasticized) and 100 μ sheets made by Kodak, France (Type CA 80-15, plasticized). No qualitative differences in the etching behaviour of these two materials were obtained regarding the reported investigations, although the differences are partly large regarding other features. (orig.) [de

  9. Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, C.G.; Lee, S.C.; Ooi, P.K.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu; Abdullah, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hillock like porous structure zinc oxide was obtained via electrochemical etching. • Anisotropic dominance etching process by KOH etchant. • Reststrahlen features are sensitive to multilayer porous structure. • Determination of porosity from IR reflectance spectrum. -- Abstract: We investigated the optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film fabricated by ultraviolet light-assisted electrochemical etching. This fabrication process used 10 wt% potassium hydroxide solution as an electrolyte. Hillock-like porous ZnO films were successfully fabricated according to the field emission scanning electron microscopy results. The cross-sectional study of the sample indicated that anisotropic-dominated etching process occurred. However, the atomic force microscopic results showed an increase in surface roughness of the sample after electrochemical etching. A resonance hump induced by the porous structure was observed in the infrared reflectance spectrum. Using theoretical modeling technique, ZnO porosification was verified, and the porosity of the sample was determined

  10. A Reactive-Ion Etch for Patterning Piezoelectric Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Wild, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Reactive-ion etching (RIE) under conditions described below has been found to be a suitable means for patterning piezoelectric thin films made from such materials as PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 or Ba(x)Sr(1.x)TiO3. In the original application for which this particular RIE process was developed, PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films 0.5 microns thick are to be sandwiched between Pt electrode layers 0.1 microns thick and Ir electrode layers 0.1 microns thick to form piezoelectric capacitor structures. Such structures are typical of piezoelectric actuators in advanced microelectromechanical systems now under development or planned to be developed in the near future. RIE of PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 is usually considered to involve two major subprocesses: an ion-assisted- etching reaction, and a sputtering subprocess that removes reactive byproducts. RIE is favored over other etching techniques because it offers a potential for a high degree of anisotropy, high-resolution pattern definition, and good process control. However, conventional RIE is not ideal for patterning PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films at a thickness as great as that in the original intended application. In order to realize the potential benefits mentioned above, it is necessary to optimize process conditions . in particular, the composition of the etching gas and the values of such other process parameters as radio-frequency power, gas pressure, gas-flow rate, and duration of the process. Guidelines for determining optimum conditions can be obtained from experimental determination of etch rates as functions of these parameters. Etch-gas mixtures of BCl3 and Cl2, some also including Ar, have been found to offer a high degree of selectivity as needed for patterning of PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films on top of Ir electrode layers in thin-film capacitor structures. The selectivity is characterized by a ratio of approx.10:1 (rate of etching PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 divided by rate of etching Ir and IrO(x)). At the time of reporting the information for this article

  11. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further

  12. Self-etching ceramic primer versus hydrofluoric acid etching: Etching efficacy and bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Damanhoury, Hatem M; Gaintantzopoulou, Maria D

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of pretreatment of hybrid and glass ceramics using a self-etching primer on the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface topography, in comparison to pretreatment with hydrofluoric acid and silane. 40 rectangular discs from each ceramic material (IPS e.max CAD;EM, Vita Mark II;VM, Vita Enamic;VE), were equally divided (n=10) and assigned to one of four surface pretreatment methods; etching with 4.8% hydrofluoric acid followed by Monobond plus (HFMP), Monobond etch & prime (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MEP), No treatment (NT) as negative control and Monobond plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) with no etching (MP) as positive control. SBS of resin cement (Multilink-N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to ceramic surfaces was tested following a standard protocol. Surface roughness was evaluated using an Atomic force microscope (AFM). Surface topography and elemental analysis were analyzed using SEM/EDX. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni test at a significance level of α=0.05. Pretreatment with HFMP resulted in higher SBS and increased surface roughness in comparison to MEP and MP. Regardless the method of surface pretreatment, the mean SBS values of EM ceramic was significantly higher (pceramics for resin-luting cementation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of block copolymer dry etching for directed self-assembly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Zelalem; Baer, Eberhard; Erdmann, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is a promising alternative technology to overcome the limits of patterning for the semiconductor industry. DSA exploits the self-assembling property of BCPs for nano-scale manufacturing and to repair defects in patterns created during photolithography. After self-assembly of BCPs, to transfer the created pattern to the underlying substrate, selective etching of PMMA (poly (methyl methacrylate)) to PS (polystyrene) is required. However, the etch process to transfer the self-assemble "fingerprint" DSA patterns to the underlying layer is still a challenge. Using combined experimental and modelling studies increases understanding of plasma interaction with BCP materials during the etch process and supports the development of selective process that form well-defined patterns. In this paper, a simple model based on a generic surface model has been developed and an investigation to understand the etch behavior of PS-b-PMMA for Ar, and Ar/O2 plasma chemistries has been conducted. The implemented model is calibrated for etch rates and etch profiles with literature data to extract parameters and conduct simulations. In order to understand the effect of the plasma on the block copolymers, first the etch model was calibrated for polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymers. After calibration of the model with the homopolymers etch rate, a full Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted and simulation results are compared with the critical-dimension (CD) and selectivity of etch profile measurement. In addition, etch simulations for lamellae pattern have been demonstrated, using the implemented model.

  14. Texture-Etched SnO2 Glasses Applied to Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Rui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes of tin dioxide (SnO2 on glasses were further wet-etched in the diluted HCl:Cr solution to obtain larger surface roughness and better light-scattering characteristic for thin-film solar cell applications. The process parameters in terms of HCl/Cr mixture ratio, etching temperature, and etching time have been investigated. After etching process, the surface roughness, transmission haze, and sheet resistance of SnO2 glasses were measured. It was found that the etching rate was increased with the additions in etchant concentration of Cr and etching temperature. The optimum texture-etching parameters were 0.15 wt.% Cr in 49% HCl, temperature of 90°C, and time of 30 sec. Moreover, silicon thin-film solar cells with the p-i-n structure were fabricated on the textured SnO2 glasses using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. By optimizing the texture-etching process, the cell efficiency was increased from 4.04% to 4.39%, resulting from the increment of short-circuit current density from 14.14 to 15.58 mA/cm2. This improvement in cell performances can be ascribed to the light-scattering effect induced by surface texturization of SnO2.

  15. Effects of polymer corrosion inhibitor on widening etch tunnels of aluminum foil for capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Chaolei; He, Yedong; Shao, Xin; Wang, Zhishen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •With PSSA, the exterior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is suppressed. •With PSSA, the interior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is facilitated. •With PSSA, the tunnels are widened along the entire length. •With PSSA, the area and capacitance of etched Al foil are significantly improved. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of polymeric corrosion inhibitor polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) additive to 3% HNO 3 solution on widening tunnels of pre-etched aluminum foil by electrochemical DC etching for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, using scanning electron microscopy and polarization curves. With trace PSSA, the dissolution of exterior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is suppressed and the dissolution of interior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is facilitated, respectively. The tunnels transform from circular cone to circular column in shape and pits-merging on the surface is weakened, leading to significant increase in the surface area and specific capacitance of the Al foil. The amounts of reduced thickness and weight of Al foil during the widening process of etch tunnels can be decreased if PSSA is employed

  16. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium Topography, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zahran

    Full Text Available Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5-7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time.

  17. Formation of Mach angle profiles during wet etching of silica and silicon nitride materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghulinyan, M., E-mail: ghulinyan@fbk.eu [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Bernard, M.; Bartali, R. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Deptartment of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Pucker, G. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Photoresist adhesion induces the formation of complex etch profiles in dielectrics. • Hydrofluoric acid etching of silica glass and silicon nitride materials was studied. • The phenomenon has been modeled in analogy with sonic boom propagation. • The material etch rate and resist adhesion/erosion define the final profile. - Abstract: In integrated circuit technology peeling of masking photoresist films is a major drawback during the long-timed wet etching of materials. It causes an undesired film underetching, which is often accompanied by a formation of complex etch profiles. Here we report on a detailed study of wedge-shaped profile formation in a series of silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride materials during wet etching in a buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution. The shape of etched profiles reflects the time-dependent adhesion properties of the photoresist to a particular material and can be perfectly circular, purely linear or a combination of both, separated by a knee feature. Starting from a formal analogy between the sonic boom propagation and the wet underetching process, we model the wedge formation mechanism analytically. This model predicts the final form of the profile as a function of time and fits the experimental data perfectly. We discuss how this knowledge can be extended to the design and the realization of optical components such as highly efficient etch-less vertical tapers for passive silicon photonics.

  18. Selection of rational technical solutions in designing a robotized assembly complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.M.; Rasulbekov, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the methods permitting a more objective approach to decision making in design is the method of ordered search which, in combination with the methods of expert estimate was used in designing the robotized assembly-finishing complex for automobile tires. The assembly-finishing complex consists of a number of functionally independent parts, i.e., modules provided with manipulators and mutually connected by a transport system with intermediate storage. The modified method of ordered search, examined in the present work, was therefore used for each module separately, and not for the complex as a whole. We will examine the main principles of our approach to the selection of design solutions for the example of a module for laying on the bottom-cushion cords

  19. Analytical Solution for Elliptical Cloaks Based on The Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the elliptical dielectric cylinder which is covered with FSS cloak is considered. Frequency selective surface cloak which Alu named it mantle cloak is one of the recent techniques for cloaking. In this method an appropriate FSS can act as cloaking device for suppressing  the scattering of object  in the desired frequency. With using this method the dimension of the cloaks is extremely reduced. By this proposed structure, the RCS of elliptical cylinder  is reduced about 10-20 dB and designed cloak has an appropriate performance.  The analytical solution for the wave in each layer is presented and with using simulation, the electric field and the scattering pattern has been drawn.

  20. The use of CH3OH additive to NaOH for etching alpha particle tracks in a CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abdalla, A.M.; Rammah, Y.S.; Eisa, M.; Ashraf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in CR-39 detectors was investigated using a new chemical etchant. 252 Cf and 241 Am sources were used for irradiating samples of CR-39 SSNTDs with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal temperature and pressure. A series of experimental chemical etching are carried out using new etching solution (8 ml of 10N NaOH+1 ml CH 3 OH) at 60 °C to detect alpha particle in short time in CR-39 detectors. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data. From fission and alpha track diameters, the value of bulk etching rate is equal to 2.73 μm/h. Both the sensitivity and etching efficiency were found to vary with the amount of methanol in the etching solution. Pure NaOH was used as a control to compare with the result from etching in NaOH with different concentrations of CH 3 OH. The etching efficiency is determined and compared with conventional aqueous solution of 6.25N NaOH at 70 °C for etching time equals 5 h. In this study, the obtained etching efficiency shows a considerable agreement with the previous work. - Highlights: • The value of bulk etching rate is equal to 2.73 μm/h. • Fast detection of alpha particles in CR-39 detectors. • Samples of CR-39 have been irradiated with fission fragments. • Etching efficiency was determined

  1. Carbon black selection from simulated broth solution for ADU gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jeong Kyung; Ho, Eom Sung; Kim, Yeon Ku; Cho, Moon Seoung

    2012-01-01

    The VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor) is one of the reactor concepts in the Gen IV International Collaboration. The nuclear fuel of a VHTR in the US is based on microspheres containing a mixture of UO 2 and UC 2 coated with multi carbon layers and a SiC layer. This mixture is called a 'UCO (uranium oxi carbide)' kernel. The fabrication process of this kernel was based on the sol-gel method between an ADUN and HMTA and urea, a process referred to as internal gelation. UCO kernel microspheres were first prepared at ORNL in the late 1970s. CB(Carbon Black) as a carbon source in the final UCO kernel is added during the broth solution preparation, in the processing of UCO kernel fabrication. The preparation of a good quality UCO kernel is very difficult due to the homogeneous distribution of carbon in a UCO kernel. The key requirement to obtain a good quality kernel is a uniform distribution of carbon in the ADU gel sphere forming process before the thermal treatment, i.e., during the gel formation step. The internal gelation concept was adapted in ADU gel sphere fabrication in the ORNL process of the US. Generally, UO 2 kernel microspheres are prepared by an internal gelation method (USA, India) or external gelation method (Germany, China, Japan). The UCO kernel microspheres prepared only in the US, use an internal gelation method. A material flow chart on the preparation of the microsphere kernel is simply shown in Fig. 1. The broth solution preparation, the raw material, additives, and thermal steps such as calcining and sintering processes were different to compared with the external gelation and internal gelation methods. In this study, we first carried out the matching CB selection experiments among the various kinds of CBs in a broth solution, for UCO kernel preparation using an external gelation method.

  2. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  3. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  4. Selected specific rates of reactions of transients from water in aqueous solution. Hydrated electron, supplemental data. [Reactions with transients from water, with inorganic solutes, and with solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A.B.

    1975-06-01

    A compilation of rates of reactions of hydrated electrons with other transients and with organic and inorganic solutes in aqueous solution appeared in NSRDS-NBS 43, and covered the literature up to early 1971. This supplement includes additional rates which have been published through July 1973.

  5. Methods of etching a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmo, J J; Gambino, R J; Harper, J M.E.

    1979-05-16

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail.

  6. Methods of etching a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail. (U.K.)

  7. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  8. Etch pit investigation of free electron concentration controlled 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Yeol; Shin, Yun Ji; Kim, Jung Gon; Harima, Hiroshi; Kim, Jihyun; Bahng, Wook

    2013-04-01

    Etch pits were investigated using the molten KOH selective etching method to examine dependence of etch pit shape and size on free electron concentration. The free electron concentrations of highly doped 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) were controlled by proton irradiation and thermal annealing, which was confirmed by a frequency shift in the LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode on micro-Raman spectroscopy. The proton irradiated sample with 5×1015 cm-2 fluence and an intrinsic semi-insulating sample showed clearly classified etch pits but different ratios of threading screw dislocation (TSD) and threading edge dislocation (TED) sizes. Easily classified TEDs and TSDs on proton irradiated 4H-SiC were restored as highly doped 4H-SiC after thermal annealing due to the recovered carrier concentrations. The etched surface of proton irradiated 4H-SiC and boron implanted SiC showed different surface conditions after activation.

  9. Toward reliable morphology assessment of thermosets via physical etching: Vinyl ester resin as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karger-Kocsis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of peroxide-cured, styrene crosslinked, bisphenol A-based vinyl ester (VE resin was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM after ‘physical’ etching with different methods. Etching was achieved by laser ablation, atmospheric plasma treatment and argon ion bombardment. Parameters of the etching were varied to get AFM scans of high topography resolution. VE exhibited a nanoscaled nodular structure the formation of which was ascribed to complex intra- and intermolecular reactions during crosslinking. The microstructure resolved after all the above physical etching techniques was similar provided that optimized etching and suitable AFM scanning conditions were selected. Nevertheless, with respect to the ‘morphology visualization’ these methods follow the power ranking: argon bombardment > plasma treatment > laser ablation.

  10. Etching of semiconductors and metals by the photonic jet with shaped optical fiber tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Robin; Lecler, Sylvain; Zelgowski, Julien; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Mermet, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël

    2017-10-01

    The etching of semiconductors and metals by a photonic jet (PJ) generated with a shaped optical fiber tip is studied. Etched marks with a diameter of 1 μm have been realized on silicon, stainless steel and titanium with a 35 kHz pulsed laser, emitting 100 ns pulses at 1064 nm. The selection criteria of the fiber and its tip are discussed. We show that a 100/140 silica fiber is a good compromise which takes into account the injection, the working distance and the energy coupled in the higher-order modes. The energy balance is performed on the basis of the known ablation threshold of the material. Finally, the dependence between the etching depth and the number of pulses is studied. Saturation is observed probably due to a redeposition of the etched material, showing that a higher pulse energy is required for deeper etchings.

  11. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by local gallium implantation and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekurov, N; Grigoras, K; Franssila, S; Tittonen, I; Peltonen, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that gallium-ion-implanted silicon serves as an etch mask for fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures by cryogenic plasma etching (deep reactive ion etching). The speed of focused ion beam (FIB) patterning is greatly enhanced by the fact that only a thin approx. 30 nm surface layer needs to be modified to create a mask for the etching step. Etch selectivity between gallium-doped and undoped material is at least 1000:1, greatly decreasing the mask erosion problems. The resolution of the combined FIB-DRIE process is 20 lines μm -1 with the smallest masked feature size of 40 nm. The maximum achieved aspect ratio is 15:1 (e.g. 600 nm high pillars 40 nm in diameter).

  12. Thermal history-based etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.

    2017-11-28

    A method for adjusting an etchability of a first borosilicate glass by heating the first borosilicate glass; combining the first borosilicate glass with a second borosilicate glass to form a composite; and etching the composite with an etchant. A material having a protrusive phase and a recessive phase, where the protrusive phase protrudes from the recessive phase to form a plurality of nanoscale surface features, and where the protrusive phase and the recessive phase have the same composition.

  13. Study of Thermal Electrical Modified Etching for Glass and Its Application in Structure Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Zhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an accelerating etching method for glass named thermal electrical modified etching (TEM etching is investigated. Based on the identification of the effect in anodic bonding, a novel method for glass structure micromachining is proposed using TEM etching. To validate the method, TEM-etched glasses are prepared and their morphology is tested, revealing the feasibility of the new method for micro/nano structure micromachining. Furthermore, two kinds of edge effect in the TEM and etching processes are analyzed. Additionally, a parameter study of TEM etching involving transferred charge, applied pressure, and etching roughness is conducted to evaluate this method. The study shows that TEM etching is a promising manufacture method for glass with low process temperature, three-dimensional self-control ability, and low equipment requirement.

  14. Influence of Pre-etching Times on Fatigue Strength of Self-etch Adhesives to Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Endo, Hajime; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    To use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence of phosphoric acid pre-etching times prior to application of self-etch adhesives on enamel bonding. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives (Prime&Bond Elect and Scotchbond Universal), a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive (G-ӕnial Bond), and a conventional two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR) were used. The SBS and SFS were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching for 3, 10, or 15 s prior to application of the adhesives, and without pre-etching (0 s) as a control. A staircase method was used to determine the SFS with 10 Hz frequency for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. The mean demineralization depth for each treated enamel surface was also measured using a profilometer. For all the adhesives, the groups with pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFS than groups without pre-etching. However, there was no significant difference in SBS and SFS among groups with > 3 s of preetching. In addition, although the groups with pre-etching showed significantly deeper demineralization depths than groups without pre-etching, there was no significant difference in depth among groups with > 3 s of pre-etching. Three seconds of phosphoric acid pre-etching prior to application of self-etch adhesive can enhance enamel bonding effectiveness.

  15. Determination of Nd3+ Ions in Solution Samples by a Coated Wire Ion-Selective Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coated wire electrode (CWE using 5-(methylsulfanyl-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (MPT as an ionophore has been developed as a neodymium ion-selective sensor. The sensor exhibits Nernstian response for the Nd3+ ions in the concentration range of 1.0×10−6-1.0×10−2 M with detection limit of 3.7×10−7 M. It displays a Nernstian slope of 20.2±0.2 mV/decade in the pH range of 2.7–8.1. The proposed sensor also exhibits a fast response time of ∼5 s. The sensor revealed high selectivity with respect to all common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including members of the lanthanide family other than Nd3+. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Nd(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the Nd3+ ions concentration in water solution samples.

  16. Response of murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells to dry-etched porous silicon scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Khayyat-Kholghi, Maedeh; Wang, Huifen; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Henderson, Janet E

    2011-11-01

    Porous silicon shows great promise as a bio-interface material due to its large surface to volume ratio, its stability in aqueous solutions and to the ability to precisely regulate its pore characteristics. In the current study, porous silicon scaffolds were fabricated from single crystalline silicon wafers by a novel xenon difluoride dry etching technique. This simplified dry etch fabrication process allows selective formation of porous silicon using a standard photoresist as mask material and eliminates the post-formation drying step typically required for the wet etching techniques, thereby reducing the risk of damaging the newly formed porous silicon. The porous silicon scaffolds supported the growth of primary cultures of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) plated at high density for up to 21 days in culture with no significant loss of viability, assessed using Alamar Blue. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed a dense lawn of cells at 9 days of culture and the presence of MSC within the pores of the porous silicon scaffolds. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Suboxide/subnitride formation on Ta masks during magnetic material etching by reactive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Muraki, Yu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Etching characteristics of tantalum (Ta) masks used in magnetoresistive random-access memory etching processes by carbon monoxide and ammonium (CO/NH{sub 3}) or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) plasmas have been examined by mass-selected ion beam experiments with in-situ surface analyses. It has been suggested in earlier studies that etching of magnetic materials, i.e., Fe, Ni, Co, and their alloys, by such plasmas is mostly due to physical sputtering and etch selectivity of the process arises from etch resistance (i.e., low-sputtering yield) of the hard mask materials such as Ta. In this study, it is shown that, during Ta etching by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions, suboxides or subnitrides are formed on the Ta surface, which reduces the apparent sputtering yield of Ta. It is also shown that the sputtering yield of Ta by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions has a strong dependence on the angle of ion incidence, which suggests a correlation between the sputtering yield and the oxidation states of Ta in the suboxide or subnitride; the higher the oxidation state of Ta, the lower is the sputtering yield. These data account for the observed etch selectivity by CO/NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}OH plasmas.

  18. Selective fluorescence detection of Cu{sup 2+} in aqueous solution and living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Lee, Ki-Hwan, E-mail: khlee@kongju.ac.kr

    2014-01-15

    A rhodamine B semicarbazide 3 was synthesized by the reaction of rhodamine B acid chloride 2 with hydrazine carboxamide hydrochloride under reflux with triethyl amine in acetonitrile. It was used as selective fluorescent and colorimetric sensor for visual detection of Cu{sup 2+} over competitive ions (Fe{sup 3+},Fe{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ag{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Li{sup +}) in aqueous methanol (1:1, v/v), exhibiting a fast response time, less than few second and a detection limit of 1.6×10{sup −7} mol/L at neutral pH. The proposed sensing system can be successfully applicable for determination of Cu{sup 2+} in waste water samples showing turn on fluorescence response and for further monitoring of intracellular Cu{sup 2+} levels in living cells with high sensitivity and selectivity at micro molar level concentrations using confocal fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesis of probe 3 was confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectrometric analysis. -- Highlights: • New chemosensor rhodamine B semicarbazide 3 was synthesized. • Addition of Cu{sup +2} ion into aqueous solution of probe 3 gave visual color changes as well as fluorescent off/on observations. • The proposed spirolactam ring opening mechanism of the synthesized probe triggered by copper ion was revealed by using mass spectrum. • High selectivity and sensitivity of probe 3 towards Cu{sup +2} are excellent enough to detect micromolar level of Cu{sup +2} ion even in aqueous media and living cells.

  19. Real-Time Observation of Carbon Nanotube Etching Process Using Polarized Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuchen; Yao, Fengrui; Wang, Zequn; Deng, Shibin; Tong, Lianming; Liu, Kaihui; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance in its further application, which attracts broad attention. As growth and etching are the two sides in the process of material crystallography and the control of the competition between them forms the foundation for modern technology of materials design and manufacture, the understanding on etching process of carbon nanotubes is still very unclear because technically it is of great challenge to characterize the dynamics in such small one-dimensional (1D) scale. Here the real-time investigation on the etching process of CNTs is reported, by the hot-wall chemical reactor equipped with a polarized optical microscope. It is discovered that the CNT etching behavior in air is totally of random, including the etching sites, termination sites, and structure dependence. Combining with the dynamic simulation, it is revealed that the random behavior reflects the unique "self-termination" phenomenon. A structure-independent etching propagation barrier of 2.4 eV is also obtained, which indicates that the etching propagation process still follows the conventional Kinetic Wulff construction theory. The results represent the new knowledge on the etching process in carbon nanotube and can contribute to its selective enrichment. Furthermore, the "self-termination" phenomenon may be a universal behavior in 1D process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  1. The etching behaviour of silicon carbide compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepps, N.W.; Page, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of microstructural investigations has been undertaken in order to explore the reliability of particular etches in revealing microstructural detail in silicon carbide compacts. A series of specimens has been etched and examined following complete prior microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry techniques. In particular, the sensitivity of both a molten salt (KOH/KNO 3 ) etch and a commonly-used oxidizing electrolytic 'colour' etch to crystal purity, crystallographic orientation and polytypic structure has been established. The molten salt etch was found to be sensitive to grain boundaries and stacking disorder while the electrolytic etch was found to be primarily sensitive to local purity and crystallographic orientation. Neither etch appeared intrinsically polytype sensitive. Specifically, for the 'colour' etch, the p- or n-type character of impure regions appears critical in controlling etching behaviour; p-type impurities inhibiting, and n-type impurities enhancing, oxidation. The need to interpret etching behaviour in a manner consistent with the results obtained by a variety of other microstructural techniques will be emphasized. (author)

  2. Etching characteristics of nuclear tracks in CR-39 plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takao; Isobe, Ginko.

    1984-01-01

    In using CR-39 plastics for individual neutron dosimeters, changes of etching efficiency cause significant error in dose estimation. Etching efficiency is subject to a number of parameters. In this study the influences of the parameters were examined by measuring the diameters of etch-pits formed by alpha-particles and enlarged by aqueous solutions of 25-35% KOH at 55-65 0 C for 4 hr. It has been observed that diameter changes at the rate of 8.3%/ 0 C in temperature, 8.2%/wt% in concentration and -0.60%/day in time after preparation of etchant. The diameter is unaffected by the supplying of up to 280ml/l, of distilled water for evaporation of etchant or by increase up to 5g/l of CR-39 dissolved in etchant. The magnitude of possible error has been estimated by parameter as well as in general, so as to obtain suggestions for improving etching treatment. (author)

  3. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping for Cell Isolation Using Tapered Fiber Probe by Dynamic Chemical Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, K; Okada, J; Nomura, Y; Tamura, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, chemically etched fiber probe was proposed for laser trapping and manipulation of cells. We fabricated tapered fiber probe by dynamic chemical etching technique. Three-Dimensional optical trap of a yeast cell dispersed in water solution could be formed by the fiber tip with 17deg tip. Optical forces were sufficient to move the yeast cell for trapping and manipulation. From these experimental results, it was found that our proposed tapered fiber tip was a promising tool for cell isolation.

  4. Plasma etching of electrospun polymeric nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, Patrick [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: verdonck@imec.be; Braga Caliope, Priscila [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moral Hernandez, Emilio del [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Ana Neilde R. da [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); FATEC-SP, Pca Fernando Prestes, 30 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-25

    Electrospun polymeric nanofibres have several applications because of their high surface area to volume and high length to diameter ratios. This paper investigates the influence of plasma etching on these fibres and the etching mechanisms. For the characterization, SEM analysis was performed to determine the forms and shapes of the fibres and SEM photos were analysed by the technique of mathematical morphology, in order to determine the area on the sample occupied by the fibres and the frequency distribution of the nanofibre diameters. The results showed that the oxygen plasma etches the nanofibres much faster when ion bombardment is present. The form of the fibres is not altered by the etching, indicating the possibility of transport of oxygen atoms over the fibre surface. The most frequent diameter, somewhat surprisingly, is not significantly dependent on the etching process, and remains of the order of 80 nm, indicating that fibres with smaller diameters are etched at high rates.

  5. A TOTAL MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS TECHNIQUE TO SELECT APPROPRIATE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF A FOOTWEAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia is promoting the manufacturing sector to join the global market in a large scale. Due to its comparative advantages, the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry have been given due attention. To fully utilize such advantages, the country shifted its export items from hides/skins to footwear products. Nevertheless, the performance of the leather sector in general and footwear sub-sector in particular is far below the desired standards. The improvement strategies applied hitherto were mainly to tackle a small portion of their total problems. If the Ethiopian footwear companies have to become globally competitive, their entire business spectrum has to be assessed and appropriate improvement strategies must be selected. In this research, we used a Total manufacturing solutions (TMS technique to identify areas of improvement and improvement strategy of one of Ethiopian footwear companies. For this purpose, we conducted two surveys using structured questionnaire. The first survey was to test the TMS technique against the context of footwear industry. The result proved that the original TMS model can be used to measure the performance of footwear companies. The second survey was done to identify company's total problems, map its current position and select appropriate improvement strategy. The result revealed that the company has company-wide problems and its current position is a plodder. For plodders which have company-wide problems, the improvement strategy must include aggressive application of BPR; and the implementation of best practices to develop workers skills that encourages networking and promotion, a market-led manufacturing strategy, employee involvement and team work cultures. According to the findings of this research, we suggested that a BPR technique followed by a continuous improvement programme could be an appropriate improvement strategy for this company. The company requires long-term improvement

  6. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  7. A plasmaless, photochemical etch process for porous organosilicate glass films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. Todd; Molis, Steven E.

    2017-12-01

    A plasmaless, photochemical etch process using ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of NH3 or O2 etched porous organosilicate glass films, also called pSiCOH films, in a two-step process. First, a UV/NH3 or UV/O2 treatment removed carbon (mostly methyl groups bonded to silicon) from a pSiCOH film by demethylation to a depth determined by the treatment exposure time. Second, aqueous HF was used to selectively remove the demethylated layer of the pSiCOH film leaving the methylated layer below. UV in the presence of inert gas or H2 did not demethylate the pSiCOH film. The depth of UV/NH3 demethylation followed diffusion limited kinetics and possible mechanisms of demethylation are presented. Unlike reactive plasma processes, which contain ions that can damage surrounding structures during nanofabrication, the photochemical etch contains no damaging ions. Feasibility of the photochemical etching was shown by comparing it to a plasma-based process to remove the pSiCOH dielectric from between Cu interconnect lines, which is a critical step during air gap fabrication. The findings also expand our understanding of UV photon interactions in pSiCOH films that may contribute to plasma-induced damage to pSiCOH films.

  8. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  9. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2015-05-01

    Reported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.

  10. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  11. Consideration of correlativity between litho and etching shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2012-03-01

    We developed an effective method for evaluating the correlation of shape of Litho and Etching pattern. The purpose of this method, makes the relations of the shape after that is the etching pattern an index in wafer same as a pattern shape on wafer made by a lithography process. Therefore, this method measures the characteristic of the shape of the wafer pattern by the lithography process and can predict the hotspot pattern shape by the etching process. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used wafer CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and lithography management, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the semiconductor business. 2-dimensional shape of wafer quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. In this study, we conducted experiments for correlation method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional litho and etch evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a litho and etch was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision.

  12. Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    4 - 0 2- G xC 0 .- 04.410Zt .0 f.-C 13-a U Z W:; LU OU SS 0 L = 0 . 6c C! tun a.- I- -. 4 *CZ=U K 0 2N 0 (3 A LWE’-0 Z W Z4 £C 0.C ?A C. V;, 4US CI US...z Q. cm -2 C’S *-D WX 4 an 0 N 4 W 0(A1 -O 0-C -C ZaW U. aNi x 400 C O CD0 0 00Ix - WA - C 0 0 C A. J -4 * 0-4 w~ aT L C M 0n N U- X ZOWO 2 %-0 IM

  13. Self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in clinical dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Fusun; Blatz, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Current adhesive systems follow either an "etch-and-rinse" or "self-etch" approach, which differ in how they interact with natural tooth structures. Etch-and-rinse systems comprise phosphoric acid to pretreat the dental hard tissues before rinsing and subsequent application of an adhesive. Self-etch adhesives contain acidic monomers, which etch and prime the tooth simultaneously. Etch-and-rinse adhesives are offered as two- or three-step systems, depending on whether primer and bonding are separate or combined in a single bottle. Similarly, self-etch adhesives are available as one- or two-step systems. Both etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems form a hybrid layer as a result of resins impregnating the porous enamel or dentin. Despite current trends toward fewer and simpler clinical application steps, one-step dentin bonding systems exhibit bonding agent lower bond strengths and seem less predictable than multi-step etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems. The varying evidence available today suggests that the choice between etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems is often a matter of personal preference. In general, however, phosphoric acid creates a more pronounced and retentive etching pattern in enamel. Therefore, etch-and-rinse bonding systems are often preferred for indirect restorations and when large areas of enamel are still present. Conversely, self-etch adhesives provide superior and more predictable bond strength to dentin and are, consequently, recommended for direct composite resin restorations, especially when predominantly supported by dentin.

  14. Magnetically enhanced triode etching of large area silicon membranes in a molecular bromine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, J.C.; Sen, S.; Pendharkar, S.V.; Mauger, P.; Shimkunas, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The optimization of a process for etching 125 mm silicon membranes formed on 150 mm wafers and bonded to Pyrex rings is discussed. A magnetically enhanced triode etching system was designed to provide an intense, remote plasma surrounding the membrane while, at the same time, suppressing the discharge over the membrane itself. For the optimized molecular bromine process, the silicon etch rate is 40 nm/min and the selectivity relative to SiO 2 is 160:1. 14 refs., 6 figs

  15. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Delaney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks.

  16. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Declan T; O'Hare, Gregory M P

    2016-12-01

    No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks.

  17. Selective masking and demasking for the stepwise complexometric determination of aluminium, lead and zinc from the same solution

    OpenAIRE

    Kayal, Nijhuma; Singh, Nahar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A complexometric method based on selective masking and de-masking has been developed for the rapid determination of aluminium, lead and zinc from the same solution in glass and glass frit samples. The determination is carried out using potassium cyanide to mask zinc, and excess disodium salt of EDTA to mask lead and aluminium. The excess EDTA was titrated with standard Mn(II)SO4 solution using Erichrome Black-T as the indicator. Subsequently selective de-masking agents – t...

  18. Efficient Incorporation of Mg in Solution Grown GaN Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    dispersed by a 1800 grooves/mm 0.85m double-grating spectrometer and detected by a UV -sensitive GaAs photomultiplier coupled to a computer-controlled... UV excitation at RT was attacked by the etching solution (which is indicative of the N-polar surface), as depicted in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). This result...thorough spectrometric and optical spectro - scopic studies in combination with selective etching carried out on samples grown by the moderate-pressure

  19. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  20. Chemical etching and polishing of InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, E.; Reif, A.; Gottschalch, V.; Finster, J.; Butter, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes possibilities of several chemical preparations for the selective cleaning of InP surfaces. The investigations of the surface states after the chemical treatment were carried out by means of XPS measurements. A pre-etching with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 :H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O and a polishing with 1% bromine in methanol produce optically smooth (100)-and (111) P surfaces free of oxides. (author)

  1. Selective recovery of Pd(II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: Adsorption performance and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shuo; Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Tao; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An acid-resisting chitosan fiber was prepared by ion-imprinting technique. • Pd(II) and ECH were as template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. • IIF showed a good adsorption and selectivity performance on Pd(II) solutions. • Selectivity was due to the electrostatic attraction between −NH_3"+ and [PdCl_4]"2"−. • Stable sorption/desorption performance shows a potential in further application. - Abstract: A novel, selective and acid-resisting chitosan fiber adsorbent was prepared by the ion-imprinting technique using Pd(II) and epichlorohydrin as the template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. The resulting ion-imprinted chitosan fibers (IIF) were used to selectively adsorb Pd(II) under extremely acidic synthetic metal solutions. The adsorption and selectivity performances of IIF including kinetics, isotherms, pH effects, and regeneration were investigated. Pd(II) rapidly adsorbed on the IIF within 100 min, achieving the adsorption equilibrium. The isotherm results showed that the maximum Pd(II) uptake on the IIF was maintained as 324.6–326.4 mg g"−"1 in solutions containing single and multiple metals, whereas the Pd(II) uptake on non-imprinted fibers (NIF) decreased from 313.7 to 235.3 mg g"−"1 in solution containing multiple metals. Higher selectivity coefficients values were obtained from the adsorption on the IIF, indicating a better Pd(II) selectivity. The amine group, supposedly the predominant adsorption site for Pd(II), was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH value played a significant role on the mechanism of the selective adsorption in the extremely acidic conditions. Furthermore, the stabilized performance for three cycles of sorption/desorption shows a potential for further large-scale applications.

  2. Selective recovery of Pd(II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: Adsorption performance and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shuo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wei, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Tao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Mao, Juan, E-mail: monicamao45@hust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An acid-resisting chitosan fiber was prepared by ion-imprinting technique. • Pd(II) and ECH were as template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. • IIF showed a good adsorption and selectivity performance on Pd(II) solutions. • Selectivity was due to the electrostatic attraction between −NH{sub 3}{sup +} and [PdCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. • Stable sorption/desorption performance shows a potential in further application. - Abstract: A novel, selective and acid-resisting chitosan fiber adsorbent was prepared by the ion-imprinting technique using Pd(II) and epichlorohydrin as the template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. The resulting ion-imprinted chitosan fibers (IIF) were used to selectively adsorb Pd(II) under extremely acidic synthetic metal solutions. The adsorption and selectivity performances of IIF including kinetics, isotherms, pH effects, and regeneration were investigated. Pd(II) rapidly adsorbed on the IIF within 100 min, achieving the adsorption equilibrium. The isotherm results showed that the maximum Pd(II) uptake on the IIF was maintained as 324.6–326.4 mg g{sup −1} in solutions containing single and multiple metals, whereas the Pd(II) uptake on non-imprinted fibers (NIF) decreased from 313.7 to 235.3 mg g{sup −1} in solution containing multiple metals. Higher selectivity coefficients values were obtained from the adsorption on the IIF, indicating a better Pd(II) selectivity. The amine group, supposedly the predominant adsorption site for Pd(II), was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH value played a significant role on the mechanism of the selective adsorption in the extremely acidic conditions. Furthermore, the stabilized performance for three cycles of sorption/desorption shows a potential for further large-scale applications.

  3. A Regionalization Approach to select the final watershed parameter set among the Pareto solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. H.; Micheletty, P. D.; Carney, S.; Quebbeman, J.; Day, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of hydrological models often results in model parameters that are inconsistent with those from neighboring basins. Considering that physical similarity exists within neighboring basins some of the physically related parameters should be consistent among them. Traditional manual calibration techniques require an iterative process to make the parameters consistent, which takes additional effort in model calibration. We developed a multi-objective optimization procedure to calibrate the National Weather Service (NWS) Research Distributed Hydrological Model (RDHM), using the Nondominant Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with expert knowledge of the model parameter interrelationships one objective function. The multi-objective algorithm enables us to obtain diverse parameter sets that are equally acceptable with respect to the objective functions and to choose one from the pool of the parameter sets during a subsequent regionalization step. Although all Pareto solutions are non-inferior, we exclude some of the parameter sets that show extremely values for any of the objective functions to expedite the selection process. We use an apriori model parameter set derived from the physical properties of the watershed (Koren et al., 2000) to assess the similarity for a given parameter across basins. Each parameter is assigned a weight based on its assumed similarity, such that parameters that are similar across basins are given higher weights. The parameter weights are useful to compute a closeness measure between Pareto sets of nearby basins. The regionalization approach chooses the Pareto parameter sets that minimize the closeness measure of the basin being regionalized. The presentation will describe the results of applying the regionalization approach to a set of pilot basins in the Upper Colorado basin as part of a NASA-funded project.

  4. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  5. The influence of chemical etching time on efficiency of radon detection using CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reway, Adriana P.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Narloch, Danielle C., E-mail: adrireway@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com, E-mail: daninarloch@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduaca em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial; Correa, Janine N., E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Construcao Civil

    2015-07-01

    Natural radiation is the principal source of human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon is noble radioactive gas that emanates from the soil and rocks entering the atmosphere of dwellings where it could be accumulated. The inhalation of {sup 222}Rn represents a significant health risk. Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) represents an efficient method for alpha particle detection and measurements of the activity concentration of {sup 222}Rn. The aim of present work was to study the etching time impact on CR-39 efficiency in radon activity measurements. The investigation was performed using 80 CR-39 detectors, which were exposed to a source of radon. After the exposition, alpha particle tracks development was achieved by chemical etching using 6.25M NaOH solution and ethanol (2%) at 70°C. Etching alpha particle tracks were identified and counted manually using the optical microscope with magnification of 100x and glass overlay mask. The etching time ranged from 7 to 14 hours. The results show that there is an increase in the number of visible tracks with increased etching time. The number of traces obtained for 7 hours and 8 hours of revelation was 1430 +/- 90 and 2090 +/- 160, respectively. However, for etching time of 13 and 14 hours was not observed statistical increase in the number of visible tracks. The number of tracks in this situation was 3630 +/- 180 and 3870 +/- 160 to 13 and 14 hours etching. Thus, for assumed etching parameters, the etching optimal time was observed 14 hours. (author)

  6. Grafting of acrylic acid on etched latent tracks induced by swift heavy ions on polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Torres, A.; Gutierrez, M.C.; Magni, M.; Celma, G.; Tadey, D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to continue with a systematic study that include different polymers and monomers, the residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, that remain after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. To produce tracks, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with 208 Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, these were etched and grafted with acrylic acid (AA) monomers. Experimental curves of grafting yield as a function of grafting time with the etching time as a parameter were measured. Also, the grating yield as a function of the fluence and etching time was obtained. In addition, the permeation of solutions, with different pH, through PP grafted foils was measured

  7. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the microleakage level of fissure sealants prepared by a fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis prior to acid etching. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone.

  8. On the long standing question of nuclear track etch induction time: Surface-cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Using a systematic set of experiments, nuclear track etch induction time measurements in a widely used CR-39 detector were completed for accessible track-forming particles (fission fragments, 5.2 MeV alpha particles and 5.9 MeV antiprotons). Results of the present work are compared with appropriately selected published results. The possibility of the use of etch induction time for charged particle identification is evaluated. Analysis of experimental results along with the use of well-established theoretical concepts yielded a model about delay in the start of chemical etching of nuclear tracks. The suggested model proposes the formation of a surface-cap (top segment) in each nuclear track consisting of chemically modified material with almost same or even higher resistance to chemical etching compared with bulk material of the track detector. Existing track formation models are reviewed very briefly, which provide one of the two bases of the proposed model. The other basis of the model is the general behavior of hot or energised material having a connection with an environment containing a number of species like ordinary air. Another reason for the delay in the start of etching is suggested as the absence of localization of etching atoms/molecules, which is present during etching at depth along the latent track

  9. Localized etching of polymer films using an atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Honglei; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    A direct-write process device based on the atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet (AμPJ) has been developed for the localized etching of polymer films. The plasma was generated by the air discharge ejected out through a tip-nozzle (inner diameter of 100 μm), forming the microplasma jet. The AμPJ was capable of reacting with the polymer surface since it contains a high concentration of oxygen reactive species and thus resulted in the selective removal of polymer films. The experimental results demonstrated that the AμPJ could fabricate different microstructures on a parylene-C film without using any masks or causing any heat damage. The etch rate of parylene-C reached 5.1 μm min −1 and microstructures of different depth and width could also be realized by controlling two process parameters, namely, the etching time and the distance between the nozzle and the substrate. In addition, combining XPS analysis and oxygen-induced chemical etching principles, the potential etching mechanism of parylene-C by the AμPJ was investigated. Aside from the etching of parylene-C, micro-holes on the photoresist and polyimide film were successfully created by the AμPJ. In summary, maskless pattern etching of polymer films could be achieved using this AμPJ. (paper)

  10. A New Methodology to Select the Preferred Solutions from the Pareto-optimal Set: Application to Polymer Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Jose C.; Gaspar-Cunha, Antonio; Fonseca, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the real world optimization problems involve multiple, usually conflicting, optimization criteria. Generating Pareto optimal solutions plays an important role in multi-objective optimization, and the problem is considered to be solved when the Pareto optimal set is found, i.e., the set of non-dominated solutions. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms based on the principle of Pareto optimality are designed to produce the complete set of non-dominated solutions. However, this is not allays enough since the aim is not only to know the Pareto set but, also, to obtain one solution from this Pareto set. Thus, the definition of a methodology able to select a single solution from the set of non-dominated solutions (or a region of the Pareto frontier), and taking into account the preferences of a Decision Maker (DM), is necessary. A different method, based on a weighted stress function, is proposed. It is able to integrate the user's preferences in order to find the best region of the Pareto frontier accordingly with these preferences. This method was tested on some benchmark test problems, with two and three criteria, and on a polymer extrusion problem. This methodology is able to select efficiently the best Pareto-frontier region for the specified relative importance of the criteria

  11. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru

    2018-02-01

    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  12. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  13. Anisotropic etching of polycrystalline silicon with a hot Cl2 molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Hiraoka, S.; Nishimatsu, S.

    1988-01-01

    A hot Cl 2 molecular (Cl/sup */ 2 ) beam was successfully applied to achieve highly anisotropic, highly selective, and almost damage-free etching of polycrystalline Si. The anisotropy, the ratio of etch rates in vertical and horizontal directions, was larger than 25. The selectivity, the ratio of polycrystalline Si and SiO 2 etch rates, was larger than 1000. The Cl/sup */ 2 beam was produced by free jet expansion of a Cl 2 gas heated in a graphite furnace. The furnace temperature was 830 0 C. The substrate temperature was 180 0 C. The average total energy (0.38 eV) of a Cl/sup */ 2 molecule impinging on a substrate surface is much lower than the critical energy (approximately 10 eV) to displace the atoms of the etched material and to cause surface damage. This is the essential reason why this highly selective and almost damage-free etching has been achieved. The highly anisotropic etching mechanism is explained by a model taking into account the directional incidence of Cl/sup */ 2 molecules to the surface, and the deactivation process of the Cl/sup */ 2 molecules on a cold surface

  14. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  15. Obtaining porous silicon suitable for sensor technology using MacEtch nonelectrolytic etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsunskyi I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests to use the etching method MacEtch (metal-assisted chemical etching for production of micro- and nanostructures of porous silicon. The paper presents research results on the morphology structures obtained at different parameters of deposition and etching processes. The research has shown that, depending on the parameters of deposition of silver particles and silicon wafers etching, the obtained surface morphology may be different. There may be both individual crater-like pores and developed porous or macroporous surface. These results indicate that the MacEtch etching is a promising method for obtaining micro-porous silicon nanostructures suitable for effective use in gas sensors and biological object sensors.

  16. Fabrication of different pore shapes by multi-step etching technique in ion-irradiated PET membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, D.; Liu, J. D.; Duan, J. L.; Yao, H. J.; Latif, H.; Cao, D. L.; Chen, Y. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Zhai, P. F.; Liu, J.

    2014-08-01

    A method for the fabrication of different pore shapes in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based track etched membranes (TEMs) is reported. A multi-step etching technique involving etchant variation and track annealing was applied to fabricate different pore shapes in PET membranes. PET foils of 12-μm thickness were irradiated with Bi ions (kinetic energy 9.5 MeV/u, fluence 106 ions/cm2) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility (HIRFL, Lanzhou). The cross-sections of fundamental pore shapes (cylinder, cone, and double cone) were analyzed. Funnel-shaped and pencil-shaped pores were obtained using a two-step etching process. Track annealing was carried out in air at 180 °C for 120 min. After track annealing, the selectivity of the etching process decreased, which resulted in isotropic etching in subsequent etching steps. Rounded cylinder and rounded cone shapes were obtained by introducing a track-annealing step in the etching process. Cup and spherical funnel-shaped pores were fabricated using a three- and four-step etching process, respectively. The described multi-step etching technique provides a controllable method to fabricate new pore shapes in TEMs. Introduction of a variety of pore shapes may improve the separation properties of TEMs and enrich the series of TEM products.

  17. Selection of dissolution process for spent fuels and preparation of corrosion test solution simulated to dissolver (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Terakado, Shogo; Koya, Toshio; Hamada, Shozo; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-03-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of reprocessing equipment materials used in the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, we have proceeded a mock-up test and laboratory tests for getting corrosion parameters. In a dissolver made of zirconium, the simulation of test solutions to the practical solution which includes the high concentration of radioactive elements such as FP and TRU is one of the important issues with respect to the life prediction. On this experiment, the dissolution process of spent fuels and the preparation of test solution for evaluating the corrosion resistance of dissolver materials were selected. These processes were tested in the No.3 cell of WASTEF. The test solution for corrosion tests was prepared by adjusting the uranium and nitric acid concentrations. (author)

  18. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  19. Sputter etching of polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Hill, A.E.; Nobes, M.J.; Jeffries, R.; Simmens, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fibres of polyamide, polyester and an aromatic polyamide (Kevlar) have been subjected to Ar + ion bombardment erosion in an ion accelerator or an rf discharge system. In the case of the former two polymers, cones are observed to develop upon the fibre surface and these are associated with etch protection resulting from the presence of particles of titanium dioxide pigment. This effect is absent in the third, unpigmented, fibre. In all cases ripple structures with a habit transverse to the fibre axes and of wavelength of approximately 1000 Angstrom are gradually developed during ion bombardment. It is suggested that this morphology results from an underlying periodicity of the fibre structure either inherent in the fibre structure or induced by the irradiation. (author)

  20. Catalytically-etched hexagonal boron nitride flakes and their surface activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Minwoo; Ye, Bora; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Eok-Soo; Kim, Hong Dae

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride flakes are etched at low temperature in air by catalysts. • The presence of transition metal oxides produces an etched structure in the flakes. • Etched surfaces become highly active due to vacancy defects formed in the flakes. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a ceramic compound which is thermally stable up to 1000 °C in air. Due to this, it is a very challenging task to etch h-BN under air atmosphere at low temperature. In this study, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily etched by oxidation at 350 °C under air atmosphere in the presence of transition metal (TM) oxide. After selecting Co, Cu, and Zn elements as TM precursors, we simply oxidized h-BN sheets impregnated with the TM precursors at 350 °C in air. As a result, microscopic analysis revealed that an etched structure was created on the surface of h-BN flakes regardless of catalyst type. And, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the air oxidation led to the formation of Co_3O_4, CuO, and ZnO from each precursor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual weight loss in the temperature range where the weight of h-BN flakes increased by air oxidation. As a result of etching, pore volume and pore area of h-BN flakes were increased after catalytic oxidation in all cases. In addition, the surface of h-BN flakes became highly active when the h-BN samples were etched by Co_3O_4 and CuO catalysts. Based on these results, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, resulting in an etched structure in the layered structure.

  1. Catalytically-etched hexagonal boron nitride flakes and their surface activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyun, E-mail: nanotube@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minwoo; Ye, Bora [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu Tae [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Jin [New Functional Components Research Team, Korea Institute of Footware & Leather Technology, 152 Danggamseo-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-100 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eok-Soo [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae, E-mail: hdkim@kitech.re.kr [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride flakes are etched at low temperature in air by catalysts. • The presence of transition metal oxides produces an etched structure in the flakes. • Etched surfaces become highly active due to vacancy defects formed in the flakes. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a ceramic compound which is thermally stable up to 1000 °C in air. Due to this, it is a very challenging task to etch h-BN under air atmosphere at low temperature. In this study, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily etched by oxidation at 350 °C under air atmosphere in the presence of transition metal (TM) oxide. After selecting Co, Cu, and Zn elements as TM precursors, we simply oxidized h-BN sheets impregnated with the TM precursors at 350 °C in air. As a result, microscopic analysis revealed that an etched structure was created on the surface of h-BN flakes regardless of catalyst type. And, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the air oxidation led to the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CuO, and ZnO from each precursor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual weight loss in the temperature range where the weight of h-BN flakes increased by air oxidation. As a result of etching, pore volume and pore area of h-BN flakes were increased after catalytic oxidation in all cases. In addition, the surface of h-BN flakes became highly active when the h-BN samples were etched by Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CuO catalysts. Based on these results, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, resulting in an etched structure in the layered structure.

  2. Comparison of long-term SLR and GNSS solutions from selected stations in the frame of GGOS realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranek, K.; Schillak, S.; Araszkiewicz, A.; Figurski, M.; Lehmann, M.; Lejba, P.

    2012-04-01

    Up-to-date investigations concerning space geodesy are mostly aimed at data of various techniques joint processing. The poster presents solutions (North, East, Up components) of selected stations (McDonald, Yarragadee, Greenbelt, Monument Peak, Zimmerwald, Borowiec, Mt.Stromlo-Orroral, Potsdam, Graz, Herstmonceux and Wettzell), which adopted Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques and which were gathering the data in the same time (from 1994 to 2010). Processing of both types of data was made according to Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) recommendations, the same models and parameters from IERS Conventions 2010 were used in both processing strategies (if it was possible). The main goal was to obtain coordinates and their changes in time (velocities) basing on both techniques and to compare the results. The station coordinates were determined for the common reference epoch of both techniques - for first day of each month. Monthly orbital arcs for laser observations were created basing on solutions from several SLR sites (observations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites) with the best solutions quality and the highest amount of observations. For GNSS coordinates determination about 130 sites belonging to International GNSS Service (IGS) were selected: 30 with local ties to SLR sites and others basing on their geolocalization (length of the baselines) and solutions time series analysis. Mainly, core IGS stations were used. Solutions of both techniques were analyzed in order to verify agreement of both techniques and for independent control of local ties.

  3. The memory characteristics of submicron feature-size PZT capacitors with PtOx top electrode by using dry-etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Wang, C.-C.; Wu, T.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry etching and its effect on the characteristics of submicron feature-size PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) capacitors with PtO x top electrode were investigated. The photoresist (PR)-masked PtO x films were etched by an Ar/(20%)Cl 2 /O 2 helicon wave plasma. A fence-free pattern with a significantly high etch rate and sidewall slope was obtained by the addition of O 2 into the etching gas mixture, due to the chemical instability of PtO x and the formation of a PtO 2 passivation layer to suppress redeposition of the etch by-products on the etched surface. The patterned PtO x electrode can be further used as a hard mask for etching the PZT film, subsequently, with the gas mixture of Ar, CF 4 and O 2 . A high etching rate of PZT and a good etching selectivity to PtO x can be obtained at 30% O 2 addition into the Ar/(50%)CF 4 plasma. The etched capacitors have a steep, 72 0 , sidewall angle with a clean surface. Moreover, the addition of O 2 into the etching gas can well preserve the properties and the fatigue endurance of PtO x /PZT capacitors

  4. Silicon germanium as a novel mask for silicon deep reactive ion etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed Y.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the use of p-type polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-Si1-xGex) thin films as a new masking material for the cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon. We investigated the etching behavior of various poly-Si1-xGex:B (0Etching selectivity for silicon, silicon oxide, and photoresist was determined at different etching temperatures, ICP and RF powers, and SF6 to O2 ratios. The study demonstrates that the etching selectivity of the SiGe mask for silicon depends strongly on three factors: Ge content; boron concentration; and etching temperature. Compared to conventional SiO2 and SiN masks, the proposed SiGe masking material exhibited several advantages, including high etching selectivity to silicon (>1:800). Furthermore, the SiGe mask was etched in SF6/O2 plasma at temperatures ≥ - 80°C and at rates exceeding 8 μm/min (i.e., more than 37 times faster than SiO2 or SiN masks). Because of the chemical and thermodynamic stability of the SiGe film as well as the electronic properties of the mask, it was possible to deposit the proposed film at CMOS backend compatible temperatures. The paper also confirms that the mask can easily be dry-removed after the process with high etching-rate by controlling the ICP and RF power and the SF6 to O2 ratios, and without affecting the underlying silicon substrate. Using low ICP and RF power, elevated temperatures (i.e., > - 80°C), and an adjusted O2:SF6 ratio (i.e., ~6%), we were able to etch away the SiGe mask without adversely affecting the final profile. Ultimately, we were able to develop deep silicon- trenches with high aspect ratio etching straight profiles. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

  5. Etch Defect Characterization and Reduction in Hard-Mask-Based Al Interconnect Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Hung, C.L.; Leng, C.H.; Lian, N.T.; Young, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the defect adders, for example, post hard-mask etch residue, post metal etch residue, and blocked etch metal island and investigates the removal characteristics of these defects within the oxide-masked Al etching process sequence. Post hard-mask etch residue containing C atom is related to the hardening of photoresist after the conventional post-RIE ashing at 275 degree C. An in situ O 2 -based plasma ashing on RIE etcher was developed to prevent the photoresist hardening from the high-ashing temperature; followed wet stripping could successfully eliminate such hardened polymeric residue. Post metal etch residue was caused from the attack of the Al sidewall by Cl atoms, and too much CHF 3 addition in the Al main etch step passivated the surface of Al resulting in poor capability to remove the Al-containing residue. The lower addition of CHF 3 in the Al main etch step would benefit from the residue removal. One possibility of blocked etch metal island creating was due to the micro masking formed on the opening of Ti N during the hard-mask patterning. We report that an additional Ti N surface pretreatment with the Ar/CHF 3 /N 2 plasmas could reduce the impact of the micro masking residues on blocked metal etch.

  6. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuat, Vanthanh [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Le Quy Don Technical University, No. 100, Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 7EN-248 (Viet Nam); Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai, E-mail: jinhaisi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  8. Evaluation of selectivity and thermodynamic characteristics of doubly charged cations on zirconium titanate from aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, E.S.; Ali, I.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The ion exchange of Ni 2+ /H + and Co 2+ /H + have been determined using solution of 0.1 ionic strength for both forward and backward reactions at 25 degree C by batch technique. The thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the exchange process have been calculated using Gains Thomas equation. The preference series Ni 2+ >Co 2+ was determined. The ion exchange selectivity for exchange of Ni 2 + and Co 2+ ions with hydrogen ions on zirconium titanate have been investigated for aqueous and 25% of methanol and ethanol solutions. The values of thermodynamic functions for the studied systems have been calculated

  9. A Closed-Form Solution for Robust Portfolio Selection with Worst-Case CVaR Risk Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the uncertainty probability distribution, we establish the worst-case CVaR (WCCVaR risk measure and discuss a robust portfolio selection problem with WCCVaR constraint. The explicit solution, instead of numerical solution, is found and two-fund separation is proved. The comparison of efficient frontier with mean-variance model is discussed and finally we give numerical comparison with VaR model and equally weighted strategy. The numerical findings indicate that the proposed WCCVaR model has relatively smaller risk and greater return and relatively higher accumulative wealth than VaR model and equally weighted strategy.

  10. Equipment for electrochemical etching of dielectric track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, K.; Novak, M.

    1992-01-01

    The facility is designed for electrochemical etching of solid state track detectors, devised for thicknesses in excess of 200 μm as employed for direct detection of charged particles or neutrons. The device consists of a high-voltage a.c. supply for the electrodes and an assembly whose body consists of a flat tank, on the surface of which is formed a channel for feeding the heating and cooling media. The tank is covered by a gasket, an earthed metal plate for the detector, a mask with holes determining the shape of the etched area, and a pressure plate. The pressure plate is fitted with a system of holes for the etching solution. Needle-shaped high-voltage electrodes are accommodated in the holes of the mask. The underlying principle of the invention consists in the fact that a rubber pad with guide holes for the needle-shaped electrodes lies on the pressure plate. Each electrode is composed of a central tip and an outer jacket, separated by an insulating layer; connection is provided by a light emitting diode. (Z.S.). 2 figs

  11. Etching patterns on the micro‐ and nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Herstrøm, Berit; Stöhr, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    ‐ray beam down to a spot size of some 100 nm, the sidewalls of the cavities etched down to 300 μm into a silicon wafer must be perfectly straight and normal to the surface and have minimum roughness.The range of possible applications of the silicon etches is greatly extended if combined with electroplating...... and polymer injection molding. High precision patterns of, for instance microfluidic devices, are etched intosilicon which is then electroplated with nickel that will serve as a stamp in the polymer injection molding tool where thousands of devices may be replicated. In addition to silicon and its derived...

  12. Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

    2013-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented.

  13. Etching and anti-etching strategy for sensitive colorimetric sensing of H2O2 and biothiols based on silver/carbon nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenli; Liu, Xiaoying; Lu, Qiujun; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the colorimetric sensing of H 2 O 2 related molecules and biothiols based on etching and anti-etching strategy was firstly proposed. Ag/carbon nanocomposite (Ag/C NC) was served as the sensing nanoprobe, which was synthesized via carbon dots (C-dots) as the reductant and stabilizer. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorbance of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) was sensitive to the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). It exhibited strong optical responses to H 2 O 2 with the solution colour changing from yellow to nearly colourless, which is resulted from the etching of Ag by H 2 O 2 . The sensing platform was further extended to detect H 2 O 2 related molecules such as lactate in coupling with the specific catalysis oxidation of L-lactate by lactate oxidase (LOx) and formation of H 2 O 2 . It provides wide linear range for detecting H 2 O 2 in 0.1-80μM and 80-220μM with the detection limit as low as 0.03μM (S/N=3). In the presence of biothiols, the etching from the H 2 O 2 can be hampered. Other biothiols exhibit anti-etching effects well. The strategy works well in detecting of typical biothiols including cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). Thus, a simple colorimetric strategy for sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 and biothiols is proposed. It is believed that the colorimetric sensor based on etching and anti-etching strategy can be applied in other systems in chemical and biosensing areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Equilibrium Speciation of Select Lanthanides in the Presence of Acidic Ligands in Homo- and Heterogeneous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Troy A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This dissertation explores lanthanide speciation in liquid solution systems related to separation schemes involving the acidic ligands: bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), lactate, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Equilibrium speciation of neodymium (Nd3+), sodium (Na+), HDEHP, water, and lactate in the TALSPEAK liquid-liquid extraction system was explored under varied Nd3+ loading of HDEHP in the organic phase and through extraction from aqueous HCl and lactate media. System speciation was probed through vapor pressure osmometry, visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 22Na and 13C labeled lactate radiotracer distribution measurements, Karl Fischer titrations, and equilibrium pH measurements. Distribution of Nd3+, Na+, lactate, and equilibrium pH were modeled using the SXLSQI software to obtain logKNd and logKNa extraction constants under selected conditions. Results showed that high Nd3+ loading of the HDEHP led to Nd3+ speciation that departs from the ion exchange mechanism and includes formation of highly aggregated, polynuclear [NdLactate(DEHP)2]x; (with x > 1). By substituting lanthanum (La3+) for Nd3+ in this system, NMR scoping experiments using 23Na, 31P nuclei and 13C labeled lactate were performed. Results indicated that this technique is sensitive to changes in system speciation, and that further experiments are warranted. In a homogeneous system representing the TALSPEAK aqueous phase, Lactate protonation behavior at various temperatures was characterized using a combination of potentiometric titration and modeling with the Hyperquad computer program. The temperature dependent deprotonation behavior of lactate showed little change with temperature at 2.0 M NaCl ionic strength. Cloud point extraction is a non-traditional separation technique that starts with a homogeneous

  15. Flux based modeling and simulation of dry etching for fabrication of silicon deep trench structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik Rizwan [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu road, Wuhan, China 43007 (China); Shi Tielin; Tang Zirong; Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: rizwanmalik@smail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu road Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process is a key growth for fabrication of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Due to complexity of this process, including interaction of the process steps, full analytical modeling is complex. Plasma process holds deficiency of understanding because it is very easy to measure the results empirically. However, as device parameters shrink, this issue is more critical. In this paper, our process was modeled qualitatively based on 'High Density Plasma Etch Model'. Deep trench solutions of etch rate based on continuity equation were successfully generated first time through mathematical analysis. It was also proved that the product of fluorine and gas phase concentration in SF{sub 6} remains identical during both deposition and etching stages. The etching process was treated as a combination of isotropic, directional and angle-dependent component parts. It exploited a synergistic balance of chemical as well as physical etching for promoting silicon trenches and high aspect ratio structures. Simulations were performed for comprehensive analysis of fluxes coming towards the surface during chemical reaction of gas. It is observed that near the surface, the distribution of the arrival flux follows a cosine distribution. Our model is feasible to analyze various parameters like gas delivery, reactor volume and temperature that help to assert large scale effects and to optimize equipment design.

  16. Prevention of sidewall redeposition of etched byproducts in the dry Au etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A; Akin, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new technique of etching thin Au film in a dual frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system on Si substrate to prevent the redeposition of etched Au particles over the sidewall of the masking material known as veils. First, the effect of the lithography step was investigated. Then the effects of etch chemistry and the process parameters on the redeposition of etched Au particles on the sidewall of the masking material were investigated. The redeposition effect was examined by depositing a thin Ti film over the masking material acting as a hard mask. The results showed that depositing a thin Ti film over the masking material prevents the formation of veils after etching Au in plasma environments for submicron size structures. Based on the results of this study, we propose a new technique that completely eliminates formation of veils after etching Au in plasma environments for submicron size structures. (paper)

  17. Bond efficacy and interface morphology of self-etching adhesives to ground enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ali I; El Zohairy, Ahmed A; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed M; Feilzer, Albert J

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the microshear bond strengths to ground enamel of three one-step self-etching adhesive systems, a self-etching primer system and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Three self-etching adhesives, Futurabond DC (Voco), Clearfil S Tri Bond (Kuraray) and Hybrid bond (Sun-Medical), a self-etching primer, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), and an etch-and-rinse system, Admira Bond (Voco), were selected. Thirty human molars were used. The root of each tooth was removed and the crown was sectioned into halves. The convex enamel surfaces were reduced by polishing on silicone paper to prepare a flat surface. The bonding systems were applied on this surface. Prior to adhesive curing, a hollow cylinder (2.0 mm height/0.75 mm internal diameter) was placed on the treated surfaces. A resin composite was then inserted into the tube and cured. After water storage for 24 h, the tube was removed and shear bond strength was determined in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were analyzed with ANOVA and the Tukey.-Kramer test at a 59 degrees confidence level. The enamel of five additional teeth was ground, and the etching component of each adhesive was applied and removed with absolute ethanol instead of being light cured. These teeth and selected fractured surfaces were examined by SEM. Adhesion to ground enamel of the Futurabond DC (25 +/- 3.5 MPa) and Clearfil SE Bond (23 +/- 2.9 MPa) self-etching systems was not significantly different from the etch-and-rinse system Admira Bond (27 +/- 2.3 MPa). The two self-etching adhesives Clearfil S Tri bond and Hybrid Bond demonstrated significantly lower bond strengths (14 +/- 1.4 MPa; 11 +/- 1.9 MPa) with no significant differences between them (p adhesive systems are dependent on the type of adhesive system. Some of the new adhesive systems showed bond strength values comparable to that of etch-and-rinse systems. There was no correlation between bond strength and morphological changes in

  18. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Nicholas A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Smith, Barbara S. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Although clotting reductions were

  19. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Nicholas A.; Smith, Barbara S.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO 2 peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: ►Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. ►Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. ►Although clotting reductions were seen, protein adsorption remained similar.

  20. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. l-Tryptophan-capped carbon quantum dots for the sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of mercury ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xuejuan; Li, Shifeng; Zhuang, Lulu; Tang, Jiaoning, E-mail: tjn@szu.edu.cn [Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    l-Tryptophan-capped carbon quantum dots (l-CQDs) were facilely synthesized through “green” methodology, and the obtained material was utilized as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for mercury ion (Hg{sup 2+}) in pure aqueous solutions. Carboxyl-functionalized CQDs were first green synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal route, and l-tryptophan was then attached to CQDs via direct surface condensation reaction in aqueous solution at room temperature. The as-synthesized l-CQDs had an average size of ca. 5 nm with a good dispersity in water, and exhibited a favorable selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} ions over a range of other common metal cations in aqueous solution (10 mM PBS buffer, pH 6.0). Upon the addition of Hg{sup 2+}, a complete fluorescence quenching (ON–OFF switching) of l-CQDs was evident from the fluorescence titration experiment, and the fluorescence detection limit of Hg{sup 2+} was calculated to be 11 nM, which indicated that the obtained environmentally friendly l-CQDs had sensitive detection capacity for Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous solution.

  2. Transport through track etched polymeric blend membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India. MS received 10 June 2005 ... Both the track and bulk etching takes place in the irradiated membrane. ... using rotating flywheel attachment, the details having been given ...

  3. Effect of certain production parameters and post-production treatments on the etching characteristics of CR-39 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Hunyadi, I.; Hafez, A.-F.

    1986-01-01

    There is a permanent need in producing track recording detectors of well defined behaviour from CR-39 monomer. Therefore, more studies on the role of production parameters determining the stability of main etching characteristics (bulk etch rate, Vsub(B);etch rate ratio, Vsub(T)/Vsub(B);opaqueness after longer etching periods) are highly required. In our studies we have examined different commercial CR-39 sheets (Homalite, Pershore, MA-ND) to compare their registration sensitivity to selected alpha and proton energies. In addition, we have investigated the main etching parameters of CR-39 sheets manufactured under different casting conditions varying the concentration of initiator and certain additives. Finally, the effect of some post-production treatments, annealing and storage in vacuum, on the Vsub(B) and Vsub(T)/Vsub(B) values is studied.

  4. Selected specific rates of reactions of transients from water in aqueous solution. II. Hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbar, M.; Farhataziz; Ross, A.B.

    1975-05-01

    Rates of reactions of hydrogen atoms (from radiolysis of water and other sources) with organic and inorganic molecules, ions, and transients in aqueous solution were tabulated. Directly measured rates obtained by kinetic spectroscopy or conductimetric methods, and relative rates determined by competition kinetics are included. (U.S.)

  5. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available by inadequate grid electricity infrastructure. This state of affairs has culminated in massive deforestation and desertification of some parts of Africa. One technology solution is to harness the energy from the sun through solar absorbers. This has applications...

  6. Feasibility analysis of AP1000 wireless communication system and selection of technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xin

    2012-01-01

    This article expatiates the rationality and feasibility of AP1000 nuclear power plant adopts wireless communication system as the first choice in routine and emergency operations, compares and analysed. 5 major wireless communication technology solutions, and introduces the Wi-Fi based wireless communication system architecture. (author)

  7. Selective labeling of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C in organic solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; López-Lacomba, J L

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C has been isolated from porcine lungs and treated with dansyl isothiocyanate in chloroform:methanol 2:1 (v/v) solutions,under conditions optimized to introduce a single dansyl group covalently attached to the N-terminalamine group of the protein without loss of its...

  8. [Selected enhancement of different order stokes lines of SRS by using fluorescence of mixed dye solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-yi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Jing-guo

    2007-03-01

    A new method to enhance the intensity of the different orders of Stokes lines of SRS by using mixed dye fluorescence is reported. The Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order of CCl4 were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed R6G and RB solutions in different proportions of 20:2, 20:13 and 20:40 (R6g:Rb), respectively. It is considered that the Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order are near the fluorescence peaks of the three mixed solutions, and far from the absorption peaks of R6g and Rb, so the enhancement effect dominates the absorption effect; as a result, these stokes lines are enhanced. On the contrary, the first-order stokes line is near the absorption peak of RB and far from the fluorescence peaks of the mixed solutions, which leads to the weakening of this stokes line. It is also reported that the first-order, the second-order and the third-order Stokes lines of benzene were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed solutions of R6g and DCM with of different proportions. The potential application of this method is forecasted.

  9. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel with additional phosphoric acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Guhr, Silke; Schilke, Reinhard; Borchers, Lothar; Geurtsen, Werner; Günay, Hüsamettin

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel and the effect of additional phosphoric acid etching. Seventy sound human molars were randomly divided into three test groups and one control group. The enamel surfaces of the control group (n=10) were treated with Syntac Classic (SC). Each test group was subdivided into two groups (each n=10). In half of each test group, ground enamel surfaces were coated with the self-etch adhesives AdheSe (ADH), Xeno III (XE) or Futurabond NR (FNR). In the remaining half of each test group, an additional phosphoric acid etching of the enamel surface was performed prior to applying the adhesives. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute after storing the samples in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Fracture modes were determined by SEM examination. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and the two-sided Dunnett Test were used (p>0.05). Additional phosphoric etching significantly increased the shear bond strength of all the examined self-etch adhesives (padhesive fractures. For all the self-etch adhesives, a slight increase in mixed fractures occurred after conditioning with phosphoric acid. An additional phosphoric acid etching of enamel should be considered when using self-etch adhesives. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate the long-term success of the examined adhesives.

  11. Track-Etched Magnetic Micropores for Immunomagnetic Isolation of Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Melaku; Shang, Wu

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic chip is developed to selectively isolate magnetically tagged cells from heterogeneous suspensions, the track-etched magnetic micropore (TEMPO) filter. The TEMPO consists of an ion track-etched polycarbonate membrane coated with soft magnetic film (Ni20Fe80). In the presence of an applied field, provided by a small external magnet, the filter becomes magnetized and strong magnetic traps are created along the edges of the micropores. In contrast to conventional microfluidics, fluid flows vertically through the porous membrane allowing large flow rates while keeping the capture rate high and the chip compact. By utilizing track-etching instead of conventional semiconductor fabrication, TEMPOs can be fabricated with microscale pores over large areas A > 1 cm2 at little cost ( 500 at a flow rate of Φ = 5 mL h−1. Furthermore, the large density of micropores (ρ = 106 cm−2) allows the TEMPO to sort E. coli from unprocessed environmental and clinical samples, as the blockage of a few pores does not significantly change the behavior of the device. PMID:24535921

  12. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte

  13. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  14. Applications for Track-etched Templates and Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferain, E.

    2006-01-01

    Track etching technology of first generation is mainly used for the production of self-supported membranes made of polycarbonate (PC) or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with randomly distributed pores. Typical membrane thickness is between 10 and 20 microns and pore size is in the range 0,1 μm to 10 μm. Second generation track etching technology overcomes many of limitations and offers new advantages : true nanopores down to 10 nm with well-controlled pore shape in a large range of pore densities, use of polymer (polyimide-PI) resistant to high temperature (up to 430 degree), ability to track etch a thin polymeric layer deposited on a substrate (such as glass, quartz, silicon, oxides, ...) and ability to confine nanopores into zones as small as 10 micron square (patterning process). This second generation technology, when applied to larger pore size, also contributes to a better membrane with potential benefits as e.g. a more precise cut-off. Another feature of the second generation technology is the patterning of the polymer layers - i.e. the nanopores can be grown in defined areas of the polymer layers. Smart membranes are used as separation barriers and flow controllers in devices such as chemical and biochemical sensors and analysers (lab on a chip, microtitre plates, ...). For example, a specific track etched membrane has been designed to be used as a selective separation barrier in a project intends to develop, improve and validate an efficient reliable bioartificial pancreas for human application. A variety of materials (metals, semiconductors, oxides, heterostructures) can be deposited into the pores as nanowires or nanotubes; these structures can be produced with over wide range of aspect ratios with excellent shape control, and can be either used in-situ or easily harvested by simple chemical dissolution

  15. Growth and etching characteristics of gallium oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Sin-Liang; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Fu, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Shu-Ping; Horng, Ray-Hua; Liu, Lei; Feng, Zhe-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The β-Ga2O3 thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition. ► The substrate temperature affects the structural, optical and etching properties of the grown films. ► The optical transmittance and band gap of the films increased with increasing the substrate temperature. ► The etching treatments for gallium oxide are performed in 49 mol% HF solution at room temperature. ► The gallium oxide thin film grown at 400 °C has the highest etching rate of 490 nm s −1 . - Abstract: The gallium oxide films were deposited on (0 0 1) sapphire at various substrate temperatures from 400 to 1000 °C by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser. The etching treatments for as-grown gallium oxide were performed in a 49 mol% HF solution at room temperature. The structural, optical and etching properties of the grown films were investigated in terms of high resolution X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline β-Ga 2 O 3 structure was observed with increasing growth temperature. From the optical transmittance measurements, the films grown at 550–1000 °C exhibit a clear absorption edge at deep ultraviolet region around 250–275 nm wavelength. It was found that the optical band gap of gallium oxide films increased from 4.56 to 4.87 eV when the substrate temperature increased from 400 to 1000 °C. As the substrate temperature increases, the crystallinity of gallium oxide film is enhanced and the etching rate is decreased. The high etching rate of 490 nm s −1 for gallium oxide film grown at 400 °C could be due to its amorphous phase, which is referred to higher void ratio and looser atomic structure.

  16. Overcoming etch challenges related to EUV based patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Andrew W.; Cottle, Hongyun; Honda, Masanobu; Morikita, Shinya; Kumar, Kaushik A.; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Research and development activities related to Extreme Ultra Violet [EUV] defined patterning continue to grow for cost and extreme process control challenges of Self-Aligned Quad Patterning [SAQP] with continued momentum for EUV ecosystem readiness could provide cost advantages in addition to improved intra-level overlay performance relative to multiple patterning approaches. However, Line Edge Roughness [LER] and Line Width Roughness [LWR] performance of EUV defined resist images are still far from meeting technology needs or ITRS spec performance. Furthermore, extreme resist height scaling to mitigate flop over exacerbates the plasma etch trade-offs related to traditional approaches of PR smoothing, descum implementation and maintaining 2D aspect ratios of short lines or elliptical contacts concurrent with ultra-high photo resist [PR] selectivity. In this paper we will discuss sources of LER/LWR, impact of material choice, integration, and innovative plasma process techniques and describe how TELTM VigusTM CCP Etchers can enhance PR selectivity, reduce LER/LWR, and maintain 2D aspect ratio of incoming patterns. Beyond traditional process approaches this paper will show the utility of: [1] DC Superposition in enhancing EUV resist hardening and selectivity, increasing resistance to stress induced PR line wiggle caused by CFx passivation, and mitigating organic planarizer wiggle; [2] Quasi Atomic Layer Etch [Q-ALE] for ARC open eliminating the tradeoffs between selectivity, CD, and shrink ratio control; and [3] ALD+Etch FUSION technology for feature independent CD shrink and LER reduction. Applicability of these concepts back transferred to 193i based lithography is also confirmed.

  17. Selective masking and demasking for the stepwise complexometric determination of aluminium, lead and zinc from the same solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nahar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complexometric method based on selective masking and de-masking has been developed for the rapid determination of aluminium, lead and zinc from the same solution in glass and glass frit samples. The determination is carried out using potassium cyanide to mask zinc, and excess disodium salt of EDTA to mask lead and aluminium. The excess EDTA was titrated with standard Mn(IISO4 solution using Erichrome Black-T as the indicator. Subsequently selective de-masking agents – triethanolamine, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol and a formaldehyde/acetone mixture – were used to determine quantities of aluminium, lead and zinc in a stepwise and selective manner. Results The accuracy of the method was established by analysing glass certified reference material NBS 1412. The standard deviation of the measurements, calculated by analysing five replicates of each sample, was found to be less than 1.5% for the method proposed. Conclusion The novelty of the method lies in its simplicity and accuracy afforded by there not being a need for a prior separation or instrumentation. The proposed method was found to be highly selective for the precise determination of aluminum, zinc and lead in the routine analysis of glass batch and allied materials.

  18. High-aspect ratio micro- and nanostructures enabled by photo-electrochemical etching for sensing and energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaili, Badriyah; Dryden, Daniel M.; Vidu, Ruxandra; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Gao, Yang; Saif Islam, M.

    2018-03-01

    Photo-electrochemical (PEC) etching can produce high-aspect ratio features, such as pillars and holes, with high anisotropy and selectivity, while avoiding the surface and sidewall damage caused by traditional deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) RIE. Plasma-based techniques lead to the formation of dangling bonds, surface traps, carrier leakage paths, and recombination centers. In pursuit of effective PEC etching, we demonstrate an optical system using long wavelength (λ = 975 nm) infra-red (IR) illumination from a high-power laser (1-10 W) to control the PEC etching process in n-type silicon. The silicon wafer surface was patterned with notches through a lithography process and KOH etching. Then, PEC etching was introduced by illuminating the backside of the silicon wafer to enhance depth, resulting in high-aspect ratio structures. The effect of the PEC etching process was optimized by varying light intensities and electrolyte concentrations. This work was focused on determining and optimizing this PEC etching technique on silicon, with the goal of expanding the method to a variety of materials including GaN and SiC that are used in designing optoelectronic and electronic devices, sensors and energy harvesting devices.

  19. DETECTING SELECTION IN NATURAL POPULATIONS: MAKING SENSE OF GENOME SCANS AND TOWARDS ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2016-01-01

    Genomewide scans for natural selection (GWSS) have become increasingly common over the last 15 years due to increased availability of genome-scale genetic data. Here, we report a representative survey of GWSS from 1999 to present and find that (i) between 1999 and 2009, 35 of 49 (71%) GWSS focused on human, while from 2010 to present, only 38 of 83 (46%) of GWSS focused on human, indicating increased focus on nonmodel organisms; (ii) the large majority of GWSS incorporate interpopulation or interspecific comparisons using, for example FST, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity or the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions; (iii) most GWSS focus on detection of directional selection rather than other modes such as balancing selection; and (iv) in human GWSS, there is a clear shift after 2004 from microsatellite markers to dense SNP data. A survey of GWSS meant to identify loci positively selected in response to severe hypoxic conditions support an approach to GWSS in which a list of a priori candidate genes based on potential selective pressures are used to filter the list of significant hits a posteriori. We also discuss four frequently ignored determinants of genomic heterogeneity that complicate GWSS: mutation, recombination, selection and the genetic architecture of adaptive traits. We recommend that GWSS methodology should better incorporate aspects of genomewide heterogeneity using empirical estimates of relevant parameters and/or realistic, whole-chromosome simulations to improve interpretation of GWSS results. Finally, we argue that knowledge of potential selective agents improves interpretation of GWSS results and that new methods focused on correlations between environmental variables and genetic variation can help automate this approach. PMID:26224644

  20. Functionalization of nanochannels by radio-induced grafting polymerization on PET track-etched membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Espinoza, S.L.; Arbeitman, C.R.; Clochard, M.C.; Grasselli, M.

    2014-01-01

    The application of swift-heavy ion bombardment to polymers is a well-established technique to manufacture micro- and nanopores onto polymeric films to obtain porous membranes. A few years ago, it was realized that, during ion bombardment, the high energy deposition along the ion path through the polymer reached cylindrical damage regions corresponding to the core trace and the penumbra. After the etching procedure, there are still enough active sites left in the penumbra that can be used to initiate a polymerization process selectively inside the membrane pores. In this study, we report the grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto etched PET foils to obtain functionalized nanochannels. Grafted polymers were labeled with a fluorescent tag and analyzed by different fluorescence techniques such as direct fluorescence, fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. These techniques allowed identifying and quantifying the grafted regions on the polymeric foils. - Highlights: • Irradiated PET foils with swift-heavy ions were etched and grafted in a step-by-step process. • Grafting polymerization was performed on the remaining active sites after etching. • Track-etched PET membranes were fluorescently labeled by chemical functionalization. • Functionalized track-etched PET membranes were analyzed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy

  1. Selection of the Best Process Stream to Remove Ca2+ Ion Using Electrodialysis from Sugar Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogi Ganesh Dattatreya Tadimeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialytic removal of calcium chloride (CaCl2, 25–50 mol·m−3 from 5% sugar solution was executed in batch recirculation mode. Calcium ion removal rate was monitored with (i applied potential, (ii feed flow rate, (iii solution viscosity and conductivity, and (iv catholyte streams (NaOH or sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid-acetic acid, Na2EDTA-AA. Unsteady state model for ion concentration change was written for the ED cell used. Linearized Nernst-Planck equation instead of Ohm’s law was applied to closely obtain the current density and concentration change theoretically. The model developed could closely predict the experimental observation. Mass transfer coefficients and specific energy densities were estimated for each combination of catholyte stream used. NaOH showed better performance for a short duration over Na2EDTA-acetic acid combination.

  2. Extraction and selective stripping of uranium and molybdenum in sulfate solution using amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sialino, E.; Mignot, C.; Michel, P.; Vial, J.

    1977-01-01

    The uranium solutions issued from leaching of AKOUTA ores and containing lot of molybdenum are purified using solvent extraction. During the first test run precipitation of complexes such as amine phosphomolybdate was observed. It was pointed out that the precipitation could be prevented if the molybdenum is oxidized in the feed prior to solvent extraction. Informations on the basic studies carried out to ensure the reliability of the process are given in the complete paper

  3. Feasibility study on renewable energy systems and selected insulation applications : smart solutions for energy saving

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadra Fonseca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Energy represents a big challenge for future generations; not only mineral and fossil energy sources are being exhausted, but also GHG emissions pollute the environment and disrupt life natural cycles bringing serious irreversible impacts on earth. Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, are unexhausted and free of pollution; solar power systems play an important role in the generation of clean energy, being one of the most cost-effective solutions. Besides, solar power systems have ...

  4. Acid Etching as Surface Treatment Method for Luting of Glass-Ceramic Restorations, part 1: Acids, Application Protocol and Etching Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Barjaktarova-Valjakova

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Acid etching of the bonding surface of glass - ceramic restorations is considered as the most effective treatment method that provides a reliable bond with composite cement. Selective removing of the glassy matrix of silicate ceramics results in a micromorphological three-dimensional porous surface that allows micromechanical interlocking of the luting composite.

  5. Comparison of crystal and solution hemoglobin binding of selected antigelling agents and allosteric modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehanna, A.S.; Abraham, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper details comprehensive binding studies (solution and X-ray) of human hemoglobin A with a group of halogenated carboxylic acids that were investigated as potential antisickling agents. It is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare solution and crystal binding for a series of compounds under similar high-salt conditions used for cocrystallization. The compounds include [(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy]acetic acid, [(p-bromobenzyl)oxy]acetic acid, clofibric acid, and bezafibrate. The location and stereochemistry of binding sites have been established by X-ray crystallography, while the number of binding sites and affinity constants were measured by using equilibrium dialysis. The observed crystal structures are consistent with the binding observed in solution and that the number of binding sites is independent of salt concentration, while the binding constant increases with increasing salt concentration. The studies also reveal that relatively small changes in the chemical structure of a drug molecule can result in entirely different binding sites on the protein. Moreover, the X-ray studies provide a possible explanation for the multiplicity in function exhibited by these compounds as allosteric modulators and/or antisickling agents. Finally, the studies indicate that these compounds bind differently to the R and T states of hemoglobin, and observation of special significance to the original design of these agents

  6. Effect of ferric sulfate contamination on the bonding effectiveness of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to superficial dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi; Niloofar Shadman; Arezoo Abrishami

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of one hemostatic agent on the shear bond strength of self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted third molars were selected. After preparing a flat surface of superficial dentin, they were randomly divided into six groups. Adhesives were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, and AdheSE One F. Before applying adhesives, surfaces were contaminated with ViscoStat for 60 s in three groups and rinsed. Then composite were attached ...

  7. Shear bond strength of self-etch and total-etch bonding systems at different dentin depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Maito Villela-Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentin shear bond strength of four adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Magic Bond DE and Self Etch Bond in regards to buccal and lingual surfaces and dentin depth. Forty extracted third molars had roots removed and crowns bisected in the mesiodistal direction. The buccal and lingual surfaces were fixed in a PVC/acrylic resin ring and were divided into buccal and lingual groups assigned to each selected adhesive. The same specimens prepared for the evaluation of superficial dentin shear resistance were used to evaluate the different depths of dentin. The specimens were identified and abraded at depths of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm. Each depth was evaluated by ISO TR 11405 using an EMIC-2000 machine regulated at 0.5 mm/min with a 200 Kgf load cell. We performed statistical analyses on the results (ANOVA, Tukey and Scheffé tests. Data revealed statistical differences (p < 0.01 in the adhesive and depth variation as well as adhesive/depth interactions. The Adper Single Bond 2 demonstrated the highest mean values of shear bond strength. The Prompt L-Pop product, a self-etching adhesive, revealed higher mean values compared with Magic Bond DE and Self Etch Bond adhesives, a total and self-etching adhesive respectively. It may be concluded that the shear bond strength of dentin is dependent on material (adhesive system, substrate depth and adhesive/depth interaction.

  8. Storage selection functions : A coherent framework for quantifying how catchments store and release water and solutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldo, A.; Benettin, P.; Harman, C.J.; Hrachowitz, M.; McGuire, K.J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Bertuzzo, E.; Botter, G.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a recent theoretical approach combining catchment-scale flow and transport processes into a unified framework. The approach is designed to characterize the hydrochemistry of hydrologic systems and to meet the challenges posed by empirical evidence. StorAge Selection functions (SAS) are

  9. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN HFETs utilizing post-metallization etching by nitric acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) processed by using a simple post-metallization etching (PME) treatment. Decreased gate length (L G ) can be achieved by using nitric acid (HNO 3 ) PME treatment owing to the high etching selectivity of HNO 3 of Ni against the Au and GaN layer. Influences on L G , etched gate profiles and device characteristics with respect to different PME processing parameters by HNO 3 treatment are systematically investigated. Optimum device performance is obtained as L G was reduced to 0.5 µm by using a 1 µm long gate mask by immersing the device into a 45% diluted HNO 3 solution for 35 s. Improved device performances, including maximum drain–source current density (I DS,max : 657.6 mA mm −1 → 898.5 mA mm −1 ), drain–source saturation current density at zero gate bias (I DSS0 : 448.3 mA mm −1 → 653.4 mA mm −1 ), maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m,max : 158.3 mS mm −1 → 219.2 mS mm −1 ), unity-gain cut-off frequency (f T : 12.35 GHz → 22.05 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (f max : 17.55 GHz → 29.4 GHz) and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.: 26.3% → 34.5%) compared to the untreated reference device, have been successfully achieved. (invited paper)

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Chromium (III) in Egyptian 11 manite from phosphate solution using Ewes as a selective adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdu, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Egyptian white sand (EWS) was used as an adsorbent for the selective separation of Cr(III) from phosphate solution to be determined colorimetrically using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. The experimental factors affecting maximum selective adsorption/desorption of Cr(III) on / from EWS were the amount of adsorption (g), pH of initial concentration of Cr(III) in solution, contact time temperature and initial concentration of Cr(III) in solution were investigated. No effect of [PO 4 ] 3- , Ti(IV) and Fe(III) on Cr(III) sorption were verified. Accuracy and relative standard deviations (RSD) were acceptable for all analyses. The maximum sorption capacity, Q e , of adsorbed Cr(III) per gram of sand was 93.5 mg/g, at EWS concentration 20 g/1, pH 0.8 contact time 120 min and temperature 30 o C for adsorption of Cr(III) on EWS and pH 0.4, contact time 6 min and temperature 25o C for desorption of Cr(III) from EWS. (Author)

  11. High performance of phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide for the selective adsorption of U(VI) from acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Li, Jiaxing, E-mail: lijx@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, 215123, Suzhou (China); Wang, Xiangxue; Chen, Changlun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Xiangke [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, 215123, Suzhou (China); Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) was prepared by grafting triethyl phosphite onto the surface of GO using Arbuzov reaction. The as-prepared PGO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and Zeta potential. The application of the PGO to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was investigated with a maximum adsorption capacity of 251.7 mg/g at pH = 4.0 ± 0.1 and T = 303 K. The adsorption mechanism was also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, indicating a chemical adsorption of U(VI) on PGO surface. Moreover, experimental results gave a better removal efficiency toward U(VI) on PGO surface than other heavy metal ions at acidic solution, indicating the selective extraction of U(VI) from environmental pollutants. - Highlights: • The successful grafting phosphonate to graphene oxide by the Arbuzov reaction. • Selective adsorption of U(VI) on PGO surface over other heavy metal ions from acidic solution. • Electrostatic interactions of U(VI) with phosphonate and oxygen-containing functional groups on PGO surface. • Higher sorption capacity on PGO surface than GO surface for the U(VI) removal.

  12. Understanding ice nucleation characteristics of selective mineral dusts suspended in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Kaufmann, Lukas; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Introduction & Objectives Freezing of liquid droplets and subsequent ice crystal growth affects optical properties of clouds and precipitation. Field measurements show that ice formation in cumulus and stratiform clouds begins at temperatures much warmer than those associated with homogeneous ice nucleation in pure water, which is ascribed to heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring on the foreign surfaces of ice nuclei (IN). Various insoluble particles such as mineral dust, soot, metallic particles, volcanic ash, or primary biological particles have been suggested as IN. Among these the suitability of mineral dusts is best established. The ice nucleation ability of mineral dust particles may be modified when secondary organic or inorganic substances are accumulating on the dust during atmospheric transport. If the coating is completely wetting the mineral dust particles, heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs in immersion mode also below 100 % RH. A previous study by Kaufmann (PhD Thesis 2015, ETHZ) with Hoggar Mountain dust suspensions in various solutes (ammonium sulfate, PEG, malonic acid and glucose) showed reduced ice nucleation efficiency (in immersion mode) of the particles. Though it is still quite unclear of how surface modifications and coatings influence the ice nucleation activity of the components present in natural dust samples. In view of these results we run freezing experiments using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with the following mineral dust particles suspended in pure water and ammonium sulfate solutions: Arizona Test Dust (ATD), microcline, and kaolinite (KGa-2, Clay Mineral Society). Methodology Suspensions of mineral dust samples (ATD: 2 weight%, microcline: 5% weight, KGa-2: 5% weight) are prepared in pure water with varying solute concentrations (ammonium sulfate: 0 - 10% weight). 20 vol% of this suspension plus 80 vol% of a mixture of 95 wt% mineral oil (Aldrich Chemical) and 5 wt% lanolin (Fluka Chemical) is emulsified with a

  13. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  14. Investigate Transient Behaviours and Select Appropriate Fault Protection Solutions of Uni-grounded AC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Minh Bui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrid are simulated in this paper, which include different fault tests and operation transition test between the grid-connected and islanded modes of the uni-grounded microgrid. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for the main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. Main contributions of this paper are (i analysing transient responses of a typically uni-grounded lowvoltage AC microgrid from line-to-line, single line-to-ground, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test; and (ii proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded AC microgrids, such as non-directional/directional overcurrent protection solutions, under/over voltage protection solutions, differential protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other protection principles not based on high fault currents (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of phase currents and voltages, or protection methods using symmetrical sequence components of current and voltage.

  15. Selecting a Web Conferencing Solution. A Case Study for a Non-Profit Organization.

    OpenAIRE

    Botchkarev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Web conferencing has been acknowledged as a valuable organizational resource. Diverse geographically dispersed project teams gain benefits from real time online collaboration, e-learning and document sharing. Web conferencing tools have entered the mainstream of business applications and multiple vendors offer over 100 different types and systems. This presentation is showcasing an approach to defining business requirements and selecting a web conferencing tool for a local chapter of a non-pr...

  16. Amarginal contribution of selected carotenoids to the supression of UV-irradiation-induced lecithin peroxidation in hexane solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN CVETKOVIC

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the anticipated antioxidant role of four selected carotenoids in mixtures with lecithin lipoidal compounds in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation in three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C. Two carotenes (b-carotene and licopene and two xantophylls (lutein and neoxanthin were employed to control the lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, by scavenging the involved free radicals. The results show that while carotenoids undergo a substantial, structural dependent destruction (bleaching, which is highly dependent on energy of the UV-photons, their contribution to the expected suppression of lecithin peroxidation is of marginal importance, not exceeding a maximum of 20%. The marginal antioxidant behaviour has been attributed to a highly unordered hexane solution, where the scavenging action of the carotenoids becomes less competitive.

  17. Plasma etching of niobium-SiO/sub x/ layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelle, D.; Tiller, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    CF 4 -plasma etching of niobium and SiO/sub x/ layers has been investigated in a r.f. diode reactor. Etch rates increase linearly with increasing power density and also increase with pressure. The etch rate ratio can be changed using different etch gases or operating in different plasma modes (PE or IEPE). Changing from the ion enhanced plasma etching mode (IEPE) to plasma etching mode (PE) the etch rate ratio is changing by a factor of ten. On the basis of etch rate dependences on process parametes and thermodynamic data it has been suggested the generation of fluorine radicals as the rate limiting step. A general etching model has been proposed, which explains qualitatively and quantitatively (on account of data from literature) the measured results. (author)

  18. Pulsed Plasma with Synchronous Boundary Voltage for Rapid Atomic Layer Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2014-05-13

    Atomic Layer ETching (ALET) of a solid with monolayer precision is a critical requirement for advancing nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current plasma etching techniques do not have the level of control or damage-free nature that is needed for patterning delicate sub-20 nm structures. In addition, conventional ALET, based on pulsed gases with long reactant adsorption and purging steps, is very slow. In this work, novel pulsed plasma methods with synchronous substrate and/or “boundary electrode” bias were developed for highly selective, rapid ALET. Pulsed plasma and tailored bias voltage waveforms provided controlled ion energy and narrow energy spread, which are critical for highly selective and damage-free etching. The broad goal of the project was to investigate the plasma science and engineering that will lead to rapid ALET with monolayer precision. A combined experimental-simulation study was employed to achieve this goal.

  19. III-Nitride Blue Laser Diode with Photoelectrochemically Etched Current Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalini, Ludovico

    distance. In this dissertation it is presented the first nitride blue edge emitting LD with a photoelectrochemical etched current aperture (CA-LD) into the device active region. Photoelectrochemical etching (PECE) has emerged as a powerful wet etching technique for III-nitride compounds. Beyond the advantages of wet etching technique, PECE offers bandgap selectivity, which is particularly desirable because it allows more freedom in designing new and advanced devices with higher performances. In the first part of this thesis a review of PECE is presented, and it is shown how it can be used to achieve a selective and controllable deep undercut of the active region of LEDs and LDs, in particular the selective PECE of MQW active region of (10-10) m-plane and (20-2-1) plane structures is reported. In the second part of this thesis, the fabrication flow process of the CA-LD is described. The performance of these devices is compared with that of shallow etched ridge LDs with a nominally identical epitaxial structure and active region width and it is experimentally shown that the CA-LD design has superior performance. CW operation of a (20-2-1) CA-LD with a 1.5 microm wide active region is demonstrated. Finally, in the third and last part of this thesis, the CA-LD performance is discussed in more details, in particular, an analysis of optical scattering losses caused by the rough edges of the remnant PEC etched active region is presented.

  20. Ti O{sub 2}-Based Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Selected pesticides in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, A.; Baune, M.; Malato, S.; Thiemann, W.

    1999-07-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of the pesticides pirimicarb and imidacloprid, using Ti O{sub 2} suspensions under solar radiation, has been studied at pilot-plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. The effect of the added Ti O{sub 2}-concentration (ranging from 0 to 1000 mg.dm''-3) and the pH value of the solution (pH values 3, 7 and 10) on the decomposition rates of pirimicarb and imidacloprid oxidation was examined. Addition of Ti O{sub 2} leads to an increase in the reaction rates of both investigated pollutants. A pH dependence is also obvious, but not similar for both pesticides. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Selectivity control of photosensitive structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions by changing the rate of surface recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S A; Andreev, M Y; Lamkin, I A; Solomonov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of surface recombination on spectral sensitivity of structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions. Simulation of the effect for structures based on a p-n junction and a Schottky barrier was carried out. Photodetectors with different rates of surface recombination were fabricated by using different methods of preliminary treatment of the semiconductor surface. We experimentally demonstrated the possibility to control photodetector selectivity by altering the rate of surface recombination. The full width at half maximum was reduced by almost 4 times, while a relatively small decrease in sensitivity at the maximum was observed. (paper)

  2. Radiolytic and photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in solution catalyzed by transition metal complexes with some selected macrocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the work presented in this report is an explanation of the mechanism of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction catalyzed by transition metal complexes with some selected macrocycles. The catalytic function of two electron exchange centers in the reduction of CO 2 , an inner metal and a macrocycle ring, was defined. Catalytic effects of rhodium, iron and cobalt porphyrins, cobalt and iron phthalocyanines and corroles as well as cobalt corrins have been investigated. CO 2 reduction by iron ions without presence of macrocycles and also in presence of copper compounds in aqueous solutions have been studied as well

  3. Reactive ion etching of microphotonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Vanajek, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Fabrication of microphotonic structures such as planar waveguides and other periodic structures based on silicon technology has become increasingly important due to the potential for integration of planar optical devices. We have fabricated various periodic microstructures on silicon wafers using standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). For optical applications the surface roughness and the sidewall angle or steepness of microstructures are the most critical factors. In particular, sidewall roughness of the etched waveguide core accounts for most of the optical propagation loss. We show that by varying the main RIE parameters such as gas pressure, RF power and CF 4 /Ar/O 2 gas composition it is possible to produce microstructures with near-vertical sidewalls and very smooth surfaces. In addition to plasma etching conditions, poor edge quality of the mask often causes sidewall roughness. We employed Ni/Cr metal masks in these experiments for deep etching, and used Ar + ion milling instead of wet chemical etching to open the mask. This improves the edge quality of the mask and ultimately results in smooth sidewalls

  4. Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Hübner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the realization of complex high-aspect ratio silicon structures with feature dimensions from 100 lm to 100nm by deep reactive ion etching using the Bosch process. As the exact shape of the sidewall profiles can be crucial for the proper functioning of a device, the authors...... of the sacrificial structures was accomplished by thermal oxidation and subsequent selective wet etching. The effects of the dimensions and relative placement of sacrificial walls and pillars on the etching result were determined through systematic experiments. The authors applied this process for exact sidewall...

  5. A novel approach to particle track etching: surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the mechanism behind a long observed but thus far unexplained effect, a new method to control the geometry of nano- and micropores is described. Surfactant molecules added to an etching solution used for etching out ion tracks, create a steric-hindrance effect which is responsible for the formation of 'bottleneck' or 'cigar-like' pores. Filtration membranes thus obtained exhibit significantly improved flow rates without deterioration in the retention properties. New applications are made possible with these new pore geometries

  6. Selective nonspecific solvation under dielectric saturation and fluorescence spectra of dye solutions in binary solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiev, N G; Kiselev, M B

    1991-09-01

    The influence of selective nonspecific solvation on the fluorescence spectra of three substitutedN-methylphthalimides in a binary solvent system consisting of a nonpolar (n-heptane) and a polar (pyridine) component has been studied under conditions close to dielectric saturation. The substantially nonlinearity of the effect is confirmation that the spectral shifts of fluorescence bands depend on the number of polar solvent molecules involved in solvating the dye molecule. The measured fluorescence spectral shifts determined by substituting one nonpolar solvent molecula with a polar one in the proximity of the dye molecule agree quantitatively with the forecasts of the previously proposed semiempirical theory which describes this nonlinear solvation phenomenon.

  7. HYBRID LAYER THICKNESS IN PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH – A COMPARISON BETWEEN TOTAL ETCH ADHESIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gateva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim this study is to compare the hybrid layer thickness and its micromorphological characteristics in samples from primary and permanent teeth following application of total etch adhesives.Materials and methods: On intact specimens of 20 primary and 10 permanent teeth was created flat dentin surfaces. The patterns were divided in 6 groups. Two different total etch adhesive systems were used – one tree steps (OptiBond, Kerr and one two steps (Exite, VivaDent. In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 recommended etching time was used - 15 s, in groups 1 and 2 the etching time was reduced to 7 s. After applying the adhesive, resin composite build-ups were constructed. Thus restored samples are stored in saline solution for 24 hours at temperature 37 C. Then they are subjected to thermal stress in temperature between 5 C to 55 C for 1,500 cycles and to masticatory stress – 150,000 cycles with force 100 N in intervals of 0.4 s. After that the teeth are cut through the middle in medio-distal direction with a diamond disc. SEM observation was done to investigate the thickness of the hybrid layer and the presence of microgaps. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey׳s tests.Results: SEM observation showed significant differences of the hybrid layer thickness between primary and permanent teeth under equal conditions and after different etching time. Group 6 presented the highest average thickness 8.85 μ and group 1 the lowest average in hybrid layer 3.74 μ.Conclusion: In primary teeth the hybrid layer thickness increases with the increased etching time. The hybrid layer thickness in primary teeth is greater than that of the hybrid layer in permanent teeth under equal conditions. For primary teeth it is more appropriate to reduce the etching time to 7s to obtain a hybrid layer with better quality

  8. Microstructure and hardness studies of Inconel 718 manufactured by selective laser melting before and after solution heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucho, Wakshum M., E-mail: wakshum.m.tucho@uis.no [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Cuvillier, Priscille [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Sjolyst-Kverneland, Atle [Roxar/Emerson Process Management, POB 112, 4065 Stavanger (Norway); Hansen, Vidar [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2017-03-24

    The microstructure of Additive Manufactured (AM) Inconel 718 in general and Selective Laser Melting (SLM), in particular is different from the material produced by conventional methods due to the rapid solidification process associated with the former. As a result, the widely adapted standard solution heat treatment temperature (<1100 °C) for conventional material is found to be not high enough for materials fabricated with SLM method in order to dissolve Laves and other microsegregated phases for releasing the ageing constituents (Nb, Ti, Al) sufficiently into the alloy matrix. In this study, sample of Inconel 718 fabricated with SLM method were solution heat-treated to 1100 °C or 1250 °C at different hold times to investigate the dissolution of macro- and micro-segregated precipitates. Investigations of microstructure and segregation in as-printed and solution heat-treated states have been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Measurement of material hardness was performed with Vickers hardness tests. The microstructure of the as-printed parts exhibit non-columnar grains, but contain well-shaped columnar/cellular sub-grains. The intergranular boundaries are decorated with high density of dislocations and segregated particles. Tremendous stress relief and grain coarsening were observed with solution heat treatment. In particular, at 1250 °C annealing, the sub-grains, including precipitates and dislocation networks along the sub-grain boundaries, were entirely dissolved. However, the 1100/1250 °C solution heat treatment scheme could not dissolve microsegregated precipitates and carbides completely. Details of the analysis on microstructure, dissolution of precipitates and hardness are presented.

  9. Microstructure and hardness studies of Inconel 718 manufactured by selective laser melting before and after solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucho, Wakshum M.; Cuvillier, Priscille; Sjolyst-Kverneland, Atle; Hansen, Vidar

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of Additive Manufactured (AM) Inconel 718 in general and Selective Laser Melting (SLM), in particular is different from the material produced by conventional methods due to the rapid solidification process associated with the former. As a result, the widely adapted standard solution heat treatment temperature (<1100 °C) for conventional material is found to be not high enough for materials fabricated with SLM method in order to dissolve Laves and other microsegregated phases for releasing the ageing constituents (Nb, Ti, Al) sufficiently into the alloy matrix. In this study, sample of Inconel 718 fabricated with SLM method were solution heat-treated to 1100 °C or 1250 °C at different hold times to investigate the dissolution of macro- and micro-segregated precipitates. Investigations of microstructure and segregation in as-printed and solution heat-treated states have been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Measurement of material hardness was performed with Vickers hardness tests. The microstructure of the as-printed parts exhibit non-columnar grains, but contain well-shaped columnar/cellular sub-grains. The intergranular boundaries are decorated with high density of dislocations and segregated particles. Tremendous stress relief and grain coarsening were observed with solution heat treatment. In particular, at 1250 °C annealing, the sub-grains, including precipitates and dislocation networks along the sub-grain boundaries, were entirely dissolved. However, the 1100/1250 °C solution heat treatment scheme could not dissolve microsegregated precipitates and carbides completely. Details of the analysis on microstructure, dissolution of precipitates and hardness are presented.

  10. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  11. Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMaster, D.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.

  12. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin; Song Jianjing; Shan Dan; Yang Dean

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr 2 O 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  13. Modeling Multilevel Supplier Selection Problem Based on Weighted-Directed Network and Its Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Te Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of economy, the supplier network is becoming more and more complicated. It is important to choose the right suppliers for improving the efficiency of the supply chain, so how to choose the right ones is one of the important research directions of supply chain management. This paper studies the partner selection problem from the perspective of supplier network global optimization. Firstly, this paper discusses and forms the evaluation system to estimate the supplier from the two indicators of risk and greenness and then applies the value as the weight of the network between two nodes to build a weighted-directed supplier network; secondly, the study establishes the optimal combination model of supplier selection based on the global network perspective and solves the model by the dynamic programming-tabu search algorithm and the improved ant colony algorithm, respectively; finally, different scale simulation examples are given to testify the efficiency of the two algorithms. The results show that the ant colony algorithm is superior to the tabu search one as a whole, but the latter is slightly better than the former when network scale is small.

  14. Single track and single layer formation in selective laser melting of niobium solid solution alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling GUO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM was employed to fabricate Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si (at% alloy, using pre-alloyed powders prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP. A series of single tracks and single layers under different processing parameters was manufactured to evaluate the processing feasibility by SLM, including laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. Results showed that continuous single tracks could be fabricated using proper laser powers and scanning velocities. Both the width of a single track and its penetration depth into a substrate increased with an increase of the linear laser beam energy density (LED, i.e., an increase of the laser power and a decrease of the scanning speed. Nb, Ti, Si, Cr, and Al elements distributed heterogeneously over the melt pool in the form of swirl-like patterns. An excess of the hatch distance was not able to interconnect neighboring tracks. Under improper processing parameters, a balling phenomenon occurred, but could be eliminated with an increased LED. This work testified the SLM-processing feasibility of Nb-based alloy and promoted the application of SLM to the manufacture of niobium-based alloys. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Melt pool, Niobium alloy, Powder metallurgy, Selective laser melting

  15. Roles of Ag in fabricating Si nanowires by the electroless chemical etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X.; Wang, Q. K.; Wangyang, P. H.; Tao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon wafers coated with a film of Ag pattern are used for investigating roles of Ag in the fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) by the electroless chemical etching technique. The diameter of SiNWs grown in the mixed AgNO 3 /HF solution ranges from 20 to 250 nm. A growth mechanism for such obtained SiNWs is proposed and further experimentally verified. As a comparison as well as to better understand this chemical process, another popular topic on growing SiNWs in the H 2 O 2 /HF solution is also studied. Originating from different chemical reaction mechanisms, Ag film could protect the underneath Si in the AgNO 3 /HF solution and it could, on the contrary, accelerate etching of the underneath Si in the H 2 O 2 /HF solution.

  16. Stimulus responsive hydrogel-coated etched fiber Bragg grating for carcinogenic chromium (VI) sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Pabbisetti Vayu Nandana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Moru, Satyanarayana

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a chemo-mechanical-optical sensing approach for the detection of carcinogenic chromium (VI) metal ion using an etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) coated with stimulus responsive hydrogel. Hydrogel synthesized from the blends of (3-acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride, which is highly responsive to chromium ions suffers a volume change when placed in Cr solution. When the proposed sensor system is exposed to various concentrations of Cr (VI) ion solution, FBG peak shifts due to the mechanical strain induced by the swelling of the hydrogel. The peak shift is correlated with the concentration of the Cr (VI) metal ion. Due to the reduction in the cladding diameter of FBG, wastage of swelling force due to hydrogel on FBG is lowered and utilized for more wavelength peak shift of FBG resulting in the increase in the sensitivity. The resolution of the sensor system is found to be 0.072 ppb. Trace amounts of chromium (VI) ion as low as 10 ppb can be sensed by this method. The sensor has shown good sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability. The salient features of the sensors are its compact size, light weight, and adoptability for remote monitoring.

  17. Model calculations for electrochemically etched neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, E.; Scharmann, A.; Werner, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrochemical etching has been established as a common method for visualisation of nuclear tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors. Usually the Mason equation, which describes the amplification of the electrical field strength at the track tip, is used to explain the treeing effect of electrochemical etching. The yield of neutron-induced tracks from electrochemically etched CR-39 track detectors was investigated with respect to the electrical parameters. A linear dependence on the response from the macroscopic field strength was measured which could not be explained by the Mason equation. It was found that the reality of a recoil proton track in the detector does not fit the boundary conditions which are necessary when the Mason equation is used. An alternative model was introduced to describe the track and detector geometry in the case of a neutron track detector. The field strength at the track tip was estimated with this model and compared with the experimental data, yielding good agreement. (author)

  18. Pattern transfer with stabilized nanoparticle etch masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Charles R; Majetich, Sara A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Narasimhan, Amrit; Bain, James A

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticle monolayer arrays are used as an etch mask for pattern transfer into Si and SiO x substrates. Crack formation within the array is prevented by electron beam curing to fix the nanoparticles to the substrate, followed by a brief oxygen plasma to remove excess carbon. This leaves a dot array of nanoparticle cores with a minimum gap of 2 nm. Deposition and liftoff can transform the dot array mask into an antidot mask, where the gap is determined by the nanoparticle core diameter. Reactive ion etching is used to transfer the dot and antidot patterns into the substrate. The effect of the gap size on the etching rate is modeled and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  19. Stability constant determinations for technetium (IV) complexation with selected amino carboxylate ligands in high nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, Trevor; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    The stability constants for Tc(IV) complexation with the ligands IDA, NTA, HEDTA, and DTPA were determined in varied nitrate concentrations using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The determined log β{sub 101} stability constants at 0.5 M NaNO{sub 3} were found to be 9.2±0.3, 10.3±0.3, and 15.3±0.3 for IDA, NTA, and HEDTA, respectively. The log β{sub 111} stability constant for DTPA was determined to be 22.0±0.6. These determined stability constants show a slight decrease in magnitude as a function of increasing NaNO{sub 3} concentration. These stability constants were used to model the total dissolution of Tc(IV) in acidic aqueous solutions in the presence of each ligand. The results of these predictive models indicate that amino carboxylic ligands have a high potential for increasing the aqueous dissolution of Tc(IV); at pH 2.3, 0.01 M ligand yield dissolved Tc(IV) concentrations of 1.42.10{sup -5} M, 1.33.10{sup -5} M, 6.07.10{sup -6} M, 9.65.10{sup -7} M, for DTPA, HEDTA, NTA, and IDA, respectively.

  20. Failure criterion effect on solid production prediction and selection of completion solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Javani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of fines together with reservoir fluid is called solid production. It varies from a few grams or less per ton of reservoir fluid posing only minor problems, to catastrophic amount possibly leading to erosion and complete filling of the borehole. This paper assesses solid production potential in a carbonate gas reservoir located in the south of Iran. Petrophysical logs obtained from the vertical well were employed to construct mechanical earth model. Then, two failure criteria, i.e. Mohr–Coulomb and Mogi–Coulomb, were used to investigate the potential of solid production of the well in the initial and depleted conditions of the reservoir. Using these two criteria, we estimated critical collapse pressure and compared them to the reservoir pressure. Solid production occurs if collapse pressure is greater than pore pressure. Results indicate that the two failure criteria show different estimations of solid production potential of the studied reservoir. Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion estimated solid production in both initial and depleted conditions, where Mogi–Coulomb criterion predicted no solid production in the initial condition of reservoir. Based on Mogi–Coulomb criterion, the well may not require completion solutions like perforated liner, until at least 60% of reservoir pressure was depleted which leads to decrease in operation cost and time.

  1. Selection of an optimal antiseptic solution for intraoperative irrigation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, S J; Gawlitta, D; Heemstra, K A; Poolman, R W; Vogely, H C; Kruyt, M C

    2014-02-19

    With increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and an increased infection risk due to more complicated surgical procedures and patient populations, prevention of surgical infection is of paramount importance. Intraoperative irrigation with an antiseptic solution could provide an effective way to reduce postoperative infection rates. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the bactericidal or cytotoxic characteristics of antiseptics, the combination of these characteristics for intraoperative application has not been addressed. Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and human cells were exposed to polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, octenidine dihydrochloride, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine digluconate at various dilutions for two minutes. Bactericidal properties were calculated by means of the quantitative suspension method. The cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells was determined by a WST-1 metabolic activity assay. All of the antiseptics except for polyhexanide were bactericidal and cytotoxic at the commercially available concentrations. When diluted, only povidone-iodine was bactericidal at a concentration at which some cell viability remained. The other antiseptics tested showed no cellular survival at the minimal bactericidal concentration. Povidone-iodine diluted to a concentration of 1.3 g/L could be the optimal antiseptic for intraoperative irrigation. This should be established by future clinical studies.

  2. Fabrication of sub-15 nm aluminum wires by controlled etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Wall, T.; Hughes, H. J.; Hartman, N.; Marković, N.; McQueen, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for the fabrication of uniform aluminum nanowires with diameters below 15 nm. Electron beam lithography is used to define narrow wires, which are then etched using a sodium bicarbonate solution, while their resistance is simultaneously measured in-situ. The etching process can be stopped when the desired resistance is reached, and can be restarted at a later time. The resulting nanowires show a superconducting transition as a function of temperature and magnetic field that is consistent with their smaller diameter. The width of the transition is similar to that of the lithographically defined wires, indicating that the etching process is uniform and that the wires are undamaged. This technique allows for precise control over the normal state resistance and can be used to create a variety of aluminum nanodevices

  3. Etching twin core fiber for the temperature-independent refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanbiao; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jingjing; Gao, Xuekai; Lin, Heng; Pei, Li

    2018-04-01

    We proposed an ultra-compact chemically etched twin core fiber (TCF) based optic refractive index (RI) sensor, in which the etched fiber was fabricated by immersing in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to etch the cladding. Due to the multipath evolutions of light during the TCF, the mode induced interference pattern can be used for measurement. Numerical simulations were performed, demonstrating that only the cladding mode strongly interacts with the surrounding media, and the higher cladding modes will be more sensitive to external medium. In the experiment demonstration, the RI response characteristics of the sensor were investigated, which shows a relatively high RI sensitivity and a much low temperature cross-sensitivity with about 1.06 × 10-6 RIU °C-1. Due to low cost and easy fabrication, the sensor can be a suitable candidate in the biochemical field.

  4. Influence of stain etching on low minority carrier lifetime areas of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona (Spain); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Ziegler, J. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory- and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen. Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Velazquez, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Hohage, S.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen. Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R., E-mail: rglemus@ull.es [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > An enhanced minority carrier lifetime at extended defects in multicrystalline silicon is observed with the use of HF/HNO{sub 3} stain etching to texture the surface. > FTIR analysis shows no influence of oxide passivation in this effect. > SEM images show a preferential etching at extended defects suggesting smoothing at defects as one of the causes for the reduced recombination activity. > LBIC images show a reduction in IQE at extended defects in HF/HNO{sub 3} textured multicrystalline solar cells. - Abstract: In this work the use of HF/HNO{sub 3} solutions for texturing silicon-based solar cell substrates by stain etching and the influence of texturing on minority carrier lifetimes are studied. Stain etching is currently used to decrease the reflectance and, subsequently improve the photogenerated current of the cells, but also produces nanostructures on the silicon surface. In the textured samples it has been observed that an improvement on the minority carrier lifetime with respect to the samples treated with a conventional saw damage etching process is produced on grain boundaries and defects, and the origin of this effect has been discussed.

  5. Influence of stain etching on low minority carrier lifetime areas of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Ziegler, J.; Velazquez, J.J.; Hohage, S.; Borchert, D.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An enhanced minority carrier lifetime at extended defects in multicrystalline silicon is observed with the use of HF/HNO 3 stain etching to texture the surface. → FTIR analysis shows no influence of oxide passivation in this effect. → SEM images show a preferential etching at extended defects suggesting smoothing at defects as one of the causes for the reduced recombination activity. → LBIC images show a reduction in IQE at extended defects in HF/HNO 3 textured multicrystalline solar cells. - Abstract: In this work the use of HF/HNO 3 solutions for texturing silicon-based solar cell substrates by stain etching and the influence of texturing on minority carrier lifetimes are studied. Stain etching is currently used to decrease the reflectance and, subsequently improve the photogenerated current of the cells, but also produces nanostructures on the silicon surface. In the textured samples it has been observed that an improvement on the minority carrier lifetime with respect to the samples treated with a conventional saw damage etching process is produced on grain boundaries and defects, and the origin of this effect has been discussed.

  6. Step voltage with periodic hold-up etching: A novel porous silicon formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Awad, F.; Soukeih, M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel etching method for preparing light-emitting porous silicon (PS) is developed. A gradient steps (staircase) voltage is applied and hold-up for different periods of time between p-type silicon wafers and a graphite electrode in HF based solutions periodically. The single applied staircase voltage (0-30 V) is ramped in equal steps of 0.5 V for 6 s, and hold at 30 V for 30 s at a current of 6 mA. The current during hold-up time (0 V) was less than 10 μA. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) behavior of the PS samples as a function of etching parameters has been investigated. The intensity of PL peak is initially increased and blue shifted on increasing etching time, but decreased after prolonged time. These are correlated with the study of changes in surface morphology using atomic force microscope (AFM), porosity and electrical conductance measurements. The time of holding-up the applied voltage during the formation process is found to highly affect the PS properties. On increasing the holding-up time, the intensity of PL peak is increased and blue shifted. The contribution of holding-up the applied steps during the formation process of PS is seen to be more or less similar to the post chemical etching process. It is demonstrated that this method can yield a porous silicon layer with stronger photoluminescence intensity and blue shifted than the porous silicon layer prepared by DC etching

  7. Step voltage with periodic hold-up etching: A novel porous silicon formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: scientific@aec.org.sy; Awad, F. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Soukeih, M. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2007-05-16

    A novel etching method for preparing light-emitting porous silicon (PS) is developed. A gradient steps (staircase) voltage is applied and hold-up for different periods of time between p-type silicon wafers and a graphite electrode in HF based solutions periodically. The single applied staircase voltage (0-30 V) is ramped in equal steps of 0.5 V for 6 s, and hold at 30 V for 30 s at a current of 6 mA. The current during hold-up time (0 V) was less than 10 {mu}A. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) behavior of the PS samples as a function of etching parameters has been investigated. The intensity of PL peak is initially increased and blue shifted on increasing etching time, but decreased after prolonged time. These are correlated with the study of changes in surface morphology using atomic force microscope (AFM), porosity and electrical conductance measurements. The time of holding-up the applied voltage during the formation process is found to highly affect the PS properties. On increasing the holding-up time, the intensity of PL peak is increased and blue shifted. The contribution of holding-up the applied steps during the formation process of PS is seen to be more or less similar to the post chemical etching process. It is demonstrated that this method can yield a porous silicon layer with stronger photoluminescence intensity and blue shifted than the porous silicon layer prepared by DC etching.

  8. In-situ photoluminescence imaging for passivation-layer etching process control for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Z.; Michaelson, L.; Munoz, K.; Tyson, T.; Gallegos, A.; Sullivan, J. T.; Buonassisi, T.

    2014-07-01

    Light-induced plating (LIP) of solar-cell metal contacts is a scalable alternative to silver paste. However, LIP requires an additional patterning step to create openings in the silicon nitride (SiNx) antireflection coating (ARC) layer prior to metallization. One approach to pattern the SiNx is masking and wet chemical etching. In-situ real-time photoluminescence imaging (PLI) is demonstrated as a process-monitoring method to determine when SiNx has been fully removed during etching. We demonstrate that the change in PLI signal intensity during etching is caused by a combination of (1) decreasing light absorption from the reduction in SiNx ARC layer thickness and (2) decreasing surface lifetime as the SiNx/Si interface transitions to an etch-solution/Si. Using in-situ PLI to guide the etching process, we demonstrate a full-area plated single-crystalline silicon device. In-situ PLI has the potential to be integrated into a commercial processing line to improve process control and reliability.

  9. Surfactant-controlled etching of ion track nanopores and its practical applications in membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Mamonova, T.I.; Orelovitch, O.L.; Sartowska, B.; Yamauchi, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of surfactants on chemical development of ion tracks in polymers has been studied. It has been shown that surface-active agents added to an alkaline etching solution adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entrances. This reduces the etch rate, which leads to the formation of pores tapered toward the surface. Self-assembly of surfactant molecules at the pore entrance creates a barrier for their penetration into the etched-out nanopores, whereas hydroxide ions diffuse freely. Due to this, the internal pore volume grows faster than the pore surface diameter. The ability to control pore shape is demonstrated with the fabrication of profiled nano- and micropores in polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate. Some earlier published data on small track-etched pores in polycarbonate (in particular, the pore diameter vs. etching time curves measured conductometrically) have been revised in light of the above findings. Adding surfactants to chemical etchants makes it possible to optimize the structure of track membranes, thus improving their retention and permeation properties. Asymmetric membranes with thin skin retention layers have been produced and their performance studied

  10. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Cs., E-mail: vasscsaba@physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ{sub FWHM} = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm{sup 2}, while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  11. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Cs.; Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B.

    2013-01-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ FWHM = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm 2 , while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm 2 . The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  12. Selective removal of cesium from aqueous solutions with nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue–walnut shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Dahu; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biosorbent for cesium removal was derived from agricultural residue. • It could remove cesium effectively from aqueous solution. • Large size of granules makes it easy to be separated from solutions. • The volume of used biosorbent could be significantly reduced after incineration. • Incinerated biosorbent has a low volume and a low cost final disposal. - Abstract: A novel nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell (Ni II HCF III -WS) was developed to selectively remove cesium ion (Cs + ) from aqueous solutions. This paper showed the first integral study on Cs + removal behavior and waste reduction analysis by using biomass adsorption material. The results indicated that the removal process was rapid and reached saturation within 2 h. As a special characteristic of Ni II HCF III -WS, acidic condition was preferred for Cs + removal, which was useful for extending the application scope of the prepared biomass material in treating acidic radioactive liquid waste. The newly developed Ni II HCF III -WS could selectively remove Cs + though the coexisting ions (Na + and K + in this study) exhibited negative effects. In addition, approximately 99.8% (in volume) of the liquid waste was reduced by using Ni II HCF III -WS and furthermore 91.9% (in volume) of the spent biomass material (Cs-Ni II HCF III -WS) was reduced after incineration (at 500 °C for 2 h). Due to its relatively high distribution coefficient and significant volume reduction, Ni II HCF III -WS is expected to be a promising material for Cs + removal in practice

  13. Selective removal of cesium from aqueous solutions with nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue–walnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dahu, E-mail: dingdahu@gmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Feng, Chuanping [School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Key Laboratory of Groundwater Circulation and Evolution, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Zhenya, E-mail: zhang.zhenya.fu@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Novel biosorbent for cesium removal was derived from agricultural residue. • It could remove cesium effectively from aqueous solution. • Large size of granules makes it easy to be separated from solutions. • The volume of used biosorbent could be significantly reduced after incineration. • Incinerated biosorbent has a low volume and a low cost final disposal. - Abstract: A novel nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell (Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS) was developed to selectively remove cesium ion (Cs{sup +}) from aqueous solutions. This paper showed the first integral study on Cs{sup +} removal behavior and waste reduction analysis by using biomass adsorption material. The results indicated that the removal process was rapid and reached saturation within 2 h. As a special characteristic of Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS, acidic condition was preferred for Cs{sup +} removal, which was useful for extending the application scope of the prepared biomass material in treating acidic radioactive liquid waste. The newly developed Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS could selectively remove Cs{sup +} though the coexisting ions (Na{sup +} and K{sup +} in this study) exhibited negative effects. In addition, approximately 99.8% (in volume) of the liquid waste was reduced by using Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS and furthermore 91.9% (in volume) of the spent biomass material (Cs-Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS) was reduced after incineration (at 500 °C for 2 h). Due to its relatively high distribution coefficient and significant volume reduction, Ni{sup II}HCF{sup III}-WS is expected to be a promising material for Cs{sup +} removal in practice.

  14. Studies of the confinement at laser-induced backside dry etching using infrared nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Han, B.; Zimmer, K.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, laser-induced backside etching of SiO2 at an interface to an organic material using laser pulses with a wavelength of λ = 1064 nm and a pulse length of τ = 7 ns have been performed in order to investigate selected processes involved in etching of the SiO2 at confined ablation conditions with wavelengths well below the band gap of SiO2. Therefore, in between the utilized metallic absorber layer and the SiO2 surface, a polymer interlayer with a thickness between 20 nm to 150 nm was placed with the aim, to separate the laser absorption process in the metallic absorber layer from the etching process of the SiO2 surface due to the provided organic interlayer. The influence of the confinement of the backside etching process was analyzed by the deposition of different thick polymer layers on top of the metallic absorber layer. In particular, it was found that the SiO2 etching depth decreases with higher polymer interlayer thickness. However, the etching depth increases with increasing the confinement layer thickness. SEM images of the laser processed areas show that the absorber and confinement layers are ruptured from the sample surface without showing melting, and suggesting a lift off process of these films. The driving force for the layers lift off and the etching of the SiO2 is probably the generated laser-induce plasma from the confined ablation that provides the pressure for lift off, the high temperatures and reactive organic species that can chemically attack the SiO2 surface at these conditions.

  15. Selective Magnetic Removal of Pb(II from Aqueous Solution by Porphyrin Linked-Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghanbarnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of lead containing effluents into the environment and water bodies is harmful for the human, animals, aquatic flora and fauna. Herein, a novel surface engineered magnetic nanoparticle for removing Pb2+  ions was studied. After surface modification of the magnetite by 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTES magnetic nanoparticles with covalently linked porphyrins were synthesized. Two atropisomers of  meso-tetrakis(2-carboxy-4-nonylphenyl porphyrin (TCNP were tested to analyze the atropisomeric effect on lead uptake. For characterize the synthesized nanosorbents methods like: Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis were used. The effects of pH, contact time, sorbent dosage and some co-existing cations were investigated. Regeneration of lead adsorbed material could be possible and the modified magnetic nanoparticles exhibited good reusability. The use of such a system can provide fast and efficient removal of the lead ion by using an external magnetic field. The competitive adsorption tests showed good adsorption selectivity for lead ion.

  16. Etching behavior of poly (vinylidene fluoride) thin films irradiated with ion beams. Effect of irradiated ions and pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Rohani, Rosiah; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Shin; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Neumann, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Poly (vinylidene fluoride) thin films irradiated with four kinds of ion beams were exposed to a 9M KOH aqueous solution after their storage in air for 30 or 90 days at different temperatures. According to the conductometry, the heating at 120degC was found to enhance the etch rate in the latent track without changing that in the bulk, thereby enabling us to obtain very high etching sensitivity for the preparation of nano-sized through-pores. The formation of hydroperoxides during this pretreatment should facilitate the introduction of the etching agent to improve etchability. Additionally, the irradiation of higher-LET ions, causing each track to contain more activated sites (like radicals), was preferable to achieve high sensitivity of the etching. (author)

  17. Deep reactive ion etching of 4H-SiC via cyclic SF6/O2 segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Lunet E; Tadjer, Marko J; Anderson, Travis J; Imhoff, Eugene A; Hobart, Karl D; Kub, Fritz J

    2017-01-01

    Cycles of inductively coupled SF 6 /O 2 plasma with low (9%) and high (90%) oxygen content etch segments are used to produce up to 46.6 µ m-deep trenches with 5.5 µ m-wide openings in single-crystalline 4H-SiC substrates. The low oxygen content segment serves to etch deep in SiC whereas the high oxygen content segment serves to etch SiC at a slower rate, targeting carbon-rich residues on the surface as the combination of carbon-rich and fluorinated residues impact sidewall profile. The cycles work in concert to etch past 30 µ m at an etch rate of ∼0.26 µ m min −1 near room temperature, while maintaining close to vertical sidewalls, high aspect ratio, and high mask selectivity. In addition, power ramps during the low oxygen content segment is used to produce a 1:1 ratio of mask opening to trench bottom width. The effect of process parameters such as cycle time and backside substrate cooling on etch depth and micromasking of the electroplated nickel etch mask are investigated. (paper)

  18. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta', N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10 5 ) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10 1 Hz to 10 6 Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl 2 /Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl 2 /Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl 2 /Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  19. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  20. Selective data extension for full-waveform inversion: An efficient solution for cycle skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2017-12-29

    Standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) attempts to minimize the difference between observed and modeled data. However, this difference is obviously sensitive to the amplitude of observed data, which leads to difficulties because we often do not process data in absolute units and because we usually do not consider density variations, elastic effects, or more complicated physical phenomena. Global correlation methods can remove the amplitude influence for each trace and thus can mitigate such difficulties in some sense. However, this approach still suffers from the well-known cycle-skipping problem, leading to a flat objective function when observed and modeled data are not correlated well enough. We optimize based on maximizing not only the zero-lag global correlation but also time or space lags of the modeled data to circumvent the half-cycle limit. We use a weighting function that is maximum value at zero lag and decays away from zero lag to balance the role of the lags. The resulting objective function is less sensitive to the choice of the maximum lag allowed and has a wider region of convergence compared with standard FWI. Furthermore, we develop a selective function, which passes to the gradient calculation only positive correlations, to mitigate cycle skipping. Finally, the resulting algorithm has better convergence behavior than conventional methods. Application to the Marmousi model indicates that this method converges starting with a linearly increasing velocity model, even with data free of frequencies less than 3.5 Hz. Application to the SEG2014 data set demonstrates the potential of our method.

  1. Selective Adsorption of Pb(II from Aqueous Solution by Triethylenetetramine-Grafted Polyacrylamide/Vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amine groups play significant roles in polymeric composites for heavy metals removal. However, generating a composite with a large number of functional and stable amine groups based on clay is still a challenge. In this work, a new amine-functionalized adsorbent based on acid-activated vermiculite (a-Verm was prepared by organic modification of silane coupling agent as bridge, followed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AM and further grafting of triethylene tetramine (TETA. The obtained polymeric composite g-PAM/OVerm was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal analysis (TG/DTG, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET analyses, confirming that amine groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of Verm. The efficacy g-PAM/OVerm for removing Pb(II was tested. The adsorption equilibrium data on g-PAM/OVerm was in good accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and the adsorption maximal value of Pb(II was 219.4 mg·g−1. The adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Additionally, g-PAM/OVerm has better selectivity for Pb(II ion in comparison with Zn(II, Cd(II and Cu(II ions. The present work shows that g-PAM/OVerm holds great potential for removing Pb(II from wastewater, and provides a new and efficient method for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater.

  2. Selected Problems of Determining the Course of Railway Routes by Use of GPS Network Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary

    2011-09-01

    The main problem related to railroad surveying design and its maintenance is the necessity to operate in local geodetic reference systems caused by the long rail sections with straight lines and curvatures of the running edge. Due to that reason the geodetic railroad classical surveying methods requires to divide all track for a short measurement section and that caused additional errors. Development of the Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning methods operating in the standardized World Geodetic System (WGS-84) allowed verification of capability of utilization GPS measurements for railroad surveying. It can be stated that implemented satellite measurement techniques opens a whole new perspective on applied research and enables very precise determination of data for railway line determining, modernization and design. The research works focused on implementation GNSS multi-receivers measurement positioning platform for projecting and stock-taking working based on polish active geodesic network ASG-EUPOS, as a reference frame. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track few campaigns were realized in 2009 and 2010. Leica GPS Total station system 1200 SmartRover (with ATX1230 GG antennas) receivers were located in the diameter of the measurement platform. Polish Active Geodetic Network ASG-EUPOS was used as a reference network transmitted Real Time Kinematic Positioning Service according to RTCM 3.1 standard. Optimum time period were selected for GNSS campaign and testing area was chosen without large obstructions. The article presents some surveying results of the measurement campaigns and also discusses the accuracy of the course determination. Analyzes and implementation of results in railroad design process are also discussed.

  3. Selective Adsorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution by Triethylenetetramine-Grafted Polyacrylamide/Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shiqing; Wang, Lan; Mao, Xinyou; Yang, Liping; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-01-01

    Amine groups play significant roles in polymeric composites for heavy metals removal. However, generating a composite with a large number of functional and stable amine groups based on clay is still a challenge. In this work, a new amine-functionalized adsorbent based on acid-activated vermiculite (a-Verm) was prepared by organic modification of silane coupling agent as bridge, followed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and further grafting of triethylene tetramine (TETA). The obtained polymeric composite g-PAM/OVerm was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG/DTG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, confirming that amine groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of Verm. The efficacy g-PAM/OVerm for removing Pb(II) was tested. The adsorption equilibrium data on g-PAM/OVerm was in good accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and the adsorption maximal value of Pb(II) was 219.4 mg·g−1. The adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Additionally, g-PAM/OVerm has better selectivity for Pb(II) ion in comparison with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. The present work shows that g-PAM/OVerm holds great potential for removing Pb(II) from wastewater, and provides a new and efficient method for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. PMID:29597288

  4. Patterning functional materials using channel diffused plasma-etched self-assembled monolayer templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective methodology for large-area micrometer-scale patterning of a wide range of metallic and oxidic functional materials is presented. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkyl thiols on Au were micropatterned by channel-diffused oxygen plasma etching, a method in which selected

  5. DURIP 99 - Instrumentation for Deposition and Etching of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kummel, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    .... Since silver is much more difficult to etch than iron due to the lack of volatile silver halides, this spontaneous coating of Fe by Ag explains the difficulty in etching Fe particles deposited on Ag substrates. (b...

  6. Influence of different pre-etching times on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Scheidel, Donal D; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence on dentin bonding of phosphoric acid pre-etching times before the application of self-etch adhesives. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives [Prime & Bond Elect (EL) and Scotchbond Universal (SU)], a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive [G-aenial Bond (GB)], and a two-step self-etch adhesive [OptiBond XTR (OX)] were used. The SBS and SFS values were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching times of 3, 10, or 15 s before application of the adhesives, and for a control without pre-etching. For groups with 3 s of pre-etching, SU and EL showed higher SBS values than control groups. No significant difference was observed for GB among the 3 s, 10 s, and control groups, but the 15 s pre-etching group showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values than the control group. No significant difference was found for OX among the pre-etching groups. Reducing phosphoric acid pre-etching time can minimize the adverse effect on dentin bonding durability for the conventional self-etch adhesives. Furthermore, a short phosphoric acid pre-etching time enhances the dentin bonding performance of universal adhesives. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-01-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0-3) by

  8. Treatment of Fukushima contaminated waters TEPCO selected Areva and Veolia solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seberac, Philippe; Paillard, Herve; Thierry, Jean-Marie; Bae, Ho-Il; Prevost, Thierry; Piot, Gregoire; Bertrand Ytournel

    2012-09-01

    The Actiflo-Rad TM system successfully contributed to treat the contaminated wastewaters from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The decontamination system jointly designed by AREVA and Veolia Water treated about 77 500 m 3 of high activity wastewater (∼10 6 Bq/cm 3 ), combining radionuclides adsorbents developed by AREVA and the know-how of Veolia in water treatment for the settlement of the adsorbed radioactive elements, producing sludge with a weight concentration of 80 g/L. Both companies delivered the treatment facility quickly with an efficient joint organization - in a very complex environment. Assembled on Fukushima site - badly damaged by the tsunami following the earthquake of March 11 th - the system was designed, built and started in a record time of 2 month 1 / 2 , instead of several years in a classical nuclear engineering project. The Actiflo-Rad TM was a key equipment to achieve a stable situation of reactors, allowing treated water to be reused for core cooling. Commissioned with the on-site support of Veolia experts, the system reduced by 10 000 the Cs-activity of the wastewater even with significant salt content (seawater diluted twice) at a flow-rate slightly below the design value of 50 m 3 /hr. The implemented technologies are already used separately on AREVA sites (la Hague, fuel reprocessing plant) and for many water treatment projects by Veolia all over the world (Actiflo TM and Multiflo TM processes, using lamellar settling devices - in addition, the first one making use of micro-sand for a better floc quality). The complete treatment process selected by TEPCO features a physico-chemical treatment and water desalination, in five steps. After de-oiling, wastewater is primarily decontaminated through zeolite columns (Kurion process). This pre-decontaminated water is then treated on the AREVA-Veolia two stages system; at each stage, more than 30 minutes contact time with radionuclides adsorbents is needed, adsorbed

  9. Fluorescent metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe3+ in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Ren, Hu-Bo; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2013-08-06

    Fluorescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention in sensing application. Here, we report the exploration of fluorescent MIL-53(Al) for highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The cation exchange between Fe(3+) and the framework metal ion Al(3+) in MIL-53(Al) led to the quenching of the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) due to the transformation of strong-fluorescent MIL-53(Al) to weak-fluorescent MIL-53(Fe), allowing highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution with a linear range of 3-200 μM and a detection limit of 0.9 μM. No interferences from 0.8 M Na(+); 0.35 M K(+); 11 mM Cu(2+); 10 mM Ni(2+); 6 mM Ca(2+), Pb(2+), and Al(3+); 5.5 mM Mn(2+); 5 mM Co(2+) and Cr(3+); 4 mM Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mg(2+); 3 mM Fe(2+); 0.8 M Cl(-); 60 mM NO2(-) and NO3(-); 10 mM HPO4(2-), H2PO4(-), SO3(2-), SO4(2-), and HCOO(-); 8 mM CO3(2-), HCO3(-), and C2O4(2-); and 5 mM CH3COO(-) were found for the detection of 150 μM Fe(3+). The possible mechanism for the quenching effect of Fe(3+) on the fluorescence of MIL-53(Al) was elucidated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The specific cation exchange behavior between Fe(3+) and the framework Al(3+) along with the excellent stability of MIL-53(Al) allows highly selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous solution. The developed method was applied to the determination of Fe(3+) in human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries from 98.2% to 106.2%.

  10. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface dam...

  11. Special equipment for etching nitrocellulose film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrocellulose film and converter screens used for neutron radiography are described. Difficulties in visualization of radiographs on those films are mentioned. Because there is no equipment for etching nitrocellulose film available on the market Risoe has designed and produced such equipment at an estimated cost of Dkr. 15,000. Design criteria for this equipment are given and its performance described

  12. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  13. Current problems in chemical track etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A schematic survey is given on the current relevant problems of the etching (or revelation) of multi-track and single-track events in dielectric solids. Some aspects of the research trends and possible new applications of the effects observable here, are also considered. (author)

  14. Etching of polymers, proteins and bacterial spores by atmospheric pressure DBD plasma in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, A.; Kretková, T.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Prukner, V.; Doležalová, E.; Šimek, M.; Biederman, H.

    2017-04-01

    Many studies proved that non-equilibrium discharges generated at atmospheric pressure are highly effective for the bio-decontamination of surfaces of various materials. One of the key processes that leads to a desired result is plasma etching and thus the evaluation of etching rates of organic materials is of high importance. However, the comparison of reported results is rather difficult if impossible as different authors use diverse sources of atmospheric plasma that are operated at significantly different operational parameters. Therefore, we report here on the systematic study of the etching of nine different common polymers that mimic the different structures of more complicated biological systems, bovine serum albumin (BSA) selected as the model protein and spores of Bacillus subtilis taken as a representative of highly resistant micro-organisms. The treatment of these materials was performed by means of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in open air at constant conditions. All tested polymers, BSA and spores, were readily etched by DBD plasma. However, the measured etching rates were found to be dependent on the chemical structure of treated materials, namely on the presence of oxygen in the structure of polymers.

  15. The effect of CF4 addition on Ru etching with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il

    2003-01-01

    Ru thin films were etched in CF 4 /O 2 plasma using an ICP (inductively coupled plasma etching) system. The etch rate of Ru thin films was examined as a function of gas mixing ratio. The maximum etch rate of Ru thin films was 168 nm/min at a CF 4 /O 2 gas mixing ratio of 10 %. The selectivity of Ru over SiO 2 was 1.3. From the OES (optical emission spectroscopy), the optical emission intensity of the O radical had a maximum value at 10 % of CF 4 gas concentration and decrease with further addition of CF 4 gas. From XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, Ru-F bonds by the chemical reaction of Ru and F appeared in the surface of the etched Ru thin film in CF 4 /O 2 chemistry. RuF 3-4 compounds were suggested as a surface passivation layer that reduces the chemical reactions between Ru and O radicals. In a FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) micrograph, we had an almost perpendicular taper angle of 89 .deg.

  16. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  17. Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengjun; Iltanen, Kari; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka; Grigoras, Kestutis

    2013-01-01

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al 2 O 3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al 2 O 3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga + ) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al 2 O 3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga + FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al 2 O 3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga + ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 μm. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated. (paper)

  18. More vertical etch profile using a Faraday cage in plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Ok; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Ryu, Jung-Hyun; Moon, Sang Heup

    1999-05-01

    Scanning electron microscope images of sidewalls obtained by plasma etching of an SiO2 film with and without a Faraday cage have been compared. When the substrate film is etched in the Faraday cage, faceting is effectively suppressed and the etch profile becomes more vertical regardless of the process conditions. This is because the electric potential in the cage is nearly uniform and therefore distortion of the electric field at the convex corner of a microfeature is prevented. The most vertical etch profile is obtained when the cage is used in fluorocarbon plasmas, where faceting is further suppressed due to the decrease in the chemical sputtering yield and the increase in the radical/ion flux on the substrate.

  19. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  20. A study on decontamination of TRU, Co, and Mo using plasma surface etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y.D.; Kim, Y.S.; Paek, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Recently dry decontamination/surface-cleaning technology using plasma etching has been focused in the nuclear industry. In this study, the applicability and the effectiveness of this new dry processing technique are experimentally investigated by examining the etching reaction of UO 2 , Co, and Mo in r.f. plasma with the etchant gas of CF 4 /O 2 mixture. UO 2 is chosen as a representing material for uranium and TRU (TRans-Uranic) compounds and metallic Co and Mo are selected because they are the principal contaminants in the spent nuclear components such as valves and pipes made of stainless steel or INCONEL. Results show that in all cases maximum etching rate is achieved when the mole fraction of O 2 to CF 4 /O 2 mixture gas is 20 %, regardless of temperature and r.f. power. (author)

  1. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievilae, Paeivi; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    Local gallium implantation of silicon by a focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to create a mask for anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. The dependence of the etch stop properties of gallium-doped silicon on the implanted dose has been investigated and a dose of 4 x 10 13 ions cm -2 has been determined to be the threshold value for achieving observable etching resistance. Only a thin, approx. 50 nm, surface layer is found to be durable enough to serve as a mask with a high selectivity of at least 2000:1 between implanted and non-implanted areas. The combined FIB-TMAH process has been used to generate various types of 3D nanostructures including nanochannels separated by thin vertical sidewalls with aspect ratios up to 1:30, ultra-narrow (approx. 25 nm) freestanding bridges and cantilevers, and gratings with a resolution of 20 lines μm -1 .

  2. Comparison of Self-Etch Primers with Conventional Acid Etching System on Orthodontic Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Amit; Zope-Khalekar, Yogita; Chitko, Shrikant S.; Kerudi, Veerendra V.; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Jaltare, Pratik; Dolas, Siddhesh G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The self-etching primer system consists of etchant and primer dispersed in a single unit. The etching and priming are merged as a single step leading to fewer stages in bonding procedure and reduction in the number of steps that also reduces the chance of introduction of error, resulting in saving time for the clinician. It also results in smaller extent of enamel decalcification. Aim To compare the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontic bracket bonded with Self-Etch Primers (SEP) and conventional acid etching system and to study the surface appearance of teeth after debonding; etching with conventional acid etch and self-etch priming, using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods Five Groups (n=20) were created randomly from a total of 100 extracted premolars. In a control Group A, etching of enamel was done with 37% phosphoric acid and bonding of stainless steel brackets with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California). Enamel conditioning in left over four Groups was done with self-etching primers and adhesives as follows: Group B-Transbond Plus (3M Unitek), Group C Xeno V+ (Dentsply), Group D-G-Bond (GC), Group E-One-Coat (Coltene). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was also evaluated. Additionally, the surface roughness using profilometer were observed. Results Mean SBS of Group A was 18.26±7.5MPa, Group B was 10.93±4.02MPa, Group C was 6.88±2.91MPa while of Group D was 7.78±4.13MPa and Group E was 10.39±5.22MPa respectively. In conventional group ARI scores shows that over half of the adhesive was remaining on the surface of tooth (score 1 to 3). In self-etching primer groups ARI scores show that there was no or minor amount of adhesive remaining on the surface of tooth (score 4 and 5). SEP produces a lesser surface roughness on the enamel than conventional etching. However, statistical analysis shows significant correlation (pbracket bonding after enamel conditioning with any of the SEPs tested. The SEPs used in Groups C (Xeno V

  3. Study of the interactions of PAMAM-NH2 G4 dendrimer with selected natural amino acids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczkowski, Adam; Palecz, Bartlomiej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calorimetric titration and dilution calorimetry show strong interactions between PAMAM-NH 2 G4 dendrimer and amino acids. • The more polar the amino acid side chain, the more exothermic the effects of the direct interactions with dendrimer. • Macromolecule of PAMAM-NH 2 G4 dendrimer can coordinate 20 to 40 molecules of amino acid. -- Abstract: The interactions of PAMAM-NH 2 G4 dendrimer with selected natural amino acids (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Phe, Ser, Thr, Met, Asn, Gln, Pro and Trp) in aqueous solutions were measured with the use of the techniques of calorimetric titration and dilution calorimetry. The results of calorimetric measurements show strong interactions between PAMAM-NH 2 G4 dendrimer and amino acids with polar substituents. A macromolecule of PAMAM-NH 2 G4 dendrimer can coordinate 20 to 40 molecules of amino acid

  4. Study on Selective Removal of Impurity Iron from Leached Copper-Bearing Solution Using a Chelating Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubiao Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to selectively remove iron from copper laden solution after leaching but prior to electrowinning, equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies have been conducted on an a chelating resin of Rexp-501 at pH 1.0 and at various temperatures. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were investigated, with the Langmuir model proving to be more suitable for fitting iron removal performance, with little influence from copper concentration. Compared with the pseudo first order kinetic model, the pseudo second order kinetic model fitted the dynamic adsorption process better, indicating a chemisorption mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results indicated that C=O from carbonyl group played a key role in combining with iron and can be regenerated and reused. However, the C=O of the acylamino group combining with iron was not able to be released after oxalic acid was applied.

  5. Development of Fluorescent Turn-On Sensor for Selective Detection of Cu{sup 2+} in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XiaoLiang; He, Yongwu; Ahn, Kyungil; Yang, Sung Ik [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Cu{sup 2+} is one of the most essential metal ions in biological systems, since it plays an important role in numerous biological processes and can induce various disorders, including some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemer's, Prion, and Parkinson's diseases. In conclusion, we have developed a novel chemodosimeter for RhMS by covalent coupling of rhodamine with meso-porous SiO{sub 2} and characterized as a fluorescent sensor for Cu{sup 2+}. The RhMS showed a high sensitivity and selectivity toward the Cu{sup 2+} ions over other metal ions in an aqueous solution. Upon addition of the Cu{sup 2+}, the RhMS underwent a hydrolysis reaction and ring opening process, which increased the fluorescence intensity by a factor of 1,000 and changed the color from colorless to pink.

  6. Selective removal of Cs and Re by precipitation in a Na2CO3-H2O2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eil-Hee Lee; Jae-Gwan Lim; Dong-Yong Chung; Han-Beom Yang; Kwang-Wook Kim

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Cs and Re (as a surrogate for Tc) by selective precipitation from the simulated fission products which were co-dissolved with uranium during the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel in a Na 2 CO 3 -H 2 O 2 solution was investigated in this study. The precipitations of Cs and Re were examined by introducing sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and tetraphenylohosponium chloride (TPPCl), respectively. The precipitation of Cs by NaTPB and that of Re by TPPCl each took place within 5 min, and an increase in temperature up to 50 deg C and a stirring speed up to 1000 rpm hardly affected their precipitation rates. The most important factor in the precipitation with NaTPB and TPPCl was found to be a pH of the solution after precipitation. Since Mo tends to co-precipitate with Cs or Re at a lower pH, an effective precipitation with NaTPB and TPPCl was done at pH of above 9 without the co-precipitation of Mo. More than 99% of Cs and Re were precipitated when the initial concentration ratio of NaTPB to Cs was above 1 and when that of TPPCl to Re was above 1. The precipitation of Cs and Re was never affected by the concentration of Na 2 CO 3 and H 2 O 2 , even though they were raised up to 1.5 and 1.0 M, respectively. Precipitation yields of Cs and Re in a Na 2 CO 3 -H 2 O 2 solution were found to be dependent on the concentration ratios of [NaTBP]/[Cs] and [TPPCl]/[Re]. (author)

  7. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  8. Removal of Sr from radioactive waste solutions by polymer enhanced ultra filtration: study of selectivity and mechanism of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedari, C.S.; Yadav, J.S.; Gandhi, P.M.; Banerjee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of 90 Sr in liquid radioactive wastes is an important issue for waste disposal. Because of the physical and biological half-life of 90 Sr, it is one of the most hazardous radionuclides for internal exposure. Accumulation in bones tissues and high-energy beta particles from its daughter nuclide, 90 Y (half-life: 64.1 h), cause the damage to bone marrow. These characteristics are forcing the implementation of monitoring 90 Sr activities and its elimination from the industrial waste solutions. Filtration through semi permeable membrane with the potential of selective retention is a well-established commercial technique, which also has great applicability in nuclear waste processing. The UF based separation is a solute fractionation using appropriate pore size membrane as a sieve. The advantage of working with UF is: high throughput can be achieved as compared to RO while using low driving pressure and temperature. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of separation of divalent strontium by complexing with water soluble cation exchange polymer and its removal by ultra filtration

  9. Effect of collagen fibrils removal on shear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishevar L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Sodium hypochlorite can remove the organic phase of the demineralized dentin and it produces direct resin bonding with hydroxyapatite crystals. Therefore, the hydrolytic degradation of collagen fibrils which might affect the bonding durability is removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibrils removal by 10% NaOCl on dentin shear bond strength of two total etch and self etch adhesive systems."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were used in this study. Buccal surface of teeth were grounded until dentin was exposed. Then teeth were divided into four groups. According to dentin surface treatment, experimental groups were as follows: Group I: Single Bond (3M according to manufacture instruction, Group II: 10% NaOCl+Single bond (3M, Group III: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray according to manufacture instruction, and Group IV: Clearfil SE Bond primer. After that, the specimens were immersed in 50% acetone solution for removing extra monomer. Then the specimens were rinsed and dried. 10% NaOCl was applied and finally adhesive was used. Then composite was bonded to the treated surfaces using a 4 2 mm cylindrical plastic mold. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5-55ºC. A shear load was employed by a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The data were analyzed for statistical significance with One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests."nResults: The mean shear bond strengths of groups were as follows: Single Bond=16.8±4.2, Clearfil SE Bond=23.7±4.07, Single Bond+NaOCl=10.5±4.34, Clearfil SE Bond+NaOCl=23.3±3.65 MPa. Statistical analysis revealed that using 10% NaOCl significantly decreased the shear bond strength in Single Bond group (P=0.00, but caused no significant difference in the shear bond strength in Clearfil SE Bond group (P=0.99."nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl treatment did not improve the bond

  10. The effect of SF6 addition in a Cl2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for deep titanium etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudrel, E.; Tillocher, T.; Meric, Y.; Lefaucheux, P.; Boutaud, B.; Dussart, R.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium is a material of interest for the biomedical field and more particularly for body implantable devices. Titanium deep etching by plasma was carried out in an inductively coupled plasma with a chlorine-based chemistry for the fabrication of titanium-based microdevices. Bulk titanium etch rate was first studied in Cl2/Ar plasma mixture versus the source power and the self-bias voltage. The plasma was characterized by Langmuir probe and by optical emission spectroscopy. The addition of SF6 in the plasma mixture was investigated. Titanium etch rate was optimized and reached a value of 2.4 µm · min-1. The nickel hard mask selectivity was also enhanced. The etched titanium surface roughness was reduced significantly.

  11. Sub-micrometer-scale patterning on Zr-based metallic glass using focused ion beam irradiation and chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasegi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Morita, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Shigeru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Takano, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oyama, Tatsuo [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ashida, Kiwamu [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Momota, Sadao [Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Tosayamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Taniguchi, Jun [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ofune, Hitoshi [YKK Corporation, 200 Yoshida, Kurobe, Toyama 938-8601 (Japan)

    2007-09-19

    This report describes a method of sub-micrometer-scale rapid patterning on a Zr-based metallic glass surface using a combination of focused ion beam irradiation and wet chemical etching. We found that a Zr-based metallic glass surface irradiated with Ga{sup +} ions could be selectively etched; a concave structure with a width and depth of several tens to hundreds of nanometers rapidly formed in the irradiated area. Moreover, we determined that the etching was enhanced by the presence of Ga{sup +} ions rather than a change in the crystal structure, and the structure could be fabricated while the substrate remained amorphous. The shape of the structure was principally a function of the dose and the etch time.

  12. Four-year water degradation of a total-etch and two self-etching adhesives bonded to dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, A.I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate effect of direct and indirect water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of one total-etch and two self-etching adhesives. Methods: The adhesive materials were: one total-etch adhesive; ‘Admira Bond’ and two selfetch adhesives; ‘Clearfil SE Bond’ and ‘Hybrid

  13. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O 2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O 2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O 2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O 2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  14. Fabrication of combined-scale nano- and microfluidic polymer systems using a multilevel dry etching, electroplating and molding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions to fabric......Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions...

  15. Fluorimetric determination of copper(II) in aqueous solution using lucifer yellow CH as selective metal reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, T.; Wencel, D.; Werner, T. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany) Inst. of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors

    2001-09-01

    Lucifer yellow CH is shown to be a highly selective fluorescent reagent for the determination of Cu(II) in the {mu}g L{sup -1} concentration range. The fluorophore is statically quenched by Cu(II); the carbohydrazide group was assigned as the complexing part of the dye molecule. A total range of Cu(II) determination from 0.06 mg L{sup -1} (1 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) to 6.3 mg L{sup -1} (100 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 0.019 mg L{sup -1} (0.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) was obtained, along with surprisingly high selectivity. There was no interference from alkaline and earth alkaline metal ions. The cross sensitivity to heavy metal ions was evaluated by the separate solution method and by competitive binding experiments. Calibration plots are shown for Cu(II) determination at different pH and the dissociation constant was determined. The application of the reagent was demonstrated by the determination of the Cu(II) content of tap water samples. (orig.)

  16. Selective removal of cesium from aqueous solutions with nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-04-15

    A novel nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell (Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS) was developed to selectively remove cesium ion (Cs(+)) from aqueous solutions. This paper showed the first integral study on Cs(+) removal behavior and waste reduction analysis by using biomass adsorption material. The results indicated that the removal process was rapid and reached saturation within 2h. As a special characteristic of Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS, acidic condition was preferred for Cs(+) removal, which was useful for extending the application scope of the prepared biomass material in treating acidic radioactive liquid waste. The newly developed Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS could selectively remove Cs(+) though the coexisting ions (Na(+) and K(+) in this study) exhibited negative effects. In addition, approximately 99.8% (in volume) of the liquid waste was reduced by using Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS and furthermore 91.9% (in volume) of the spent biomass material (Cs-Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS) was reduced after incineration (at 500°C for 2h). Due to its relatively high distribution coefficient and significant volume reduction, Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS is expected to be a promising material for Cs(+) removal in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective UV–O3 treatment for indium zinc oxide thin film transistors with solution-based multiple active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jung; Jeong, Jun-Kyo; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, Byung-Jun; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a method to control the electrical performance of solution-based indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed by ultraviolet–ozone (UV–O3) treatment on the selective layer during multiple IZO active layer depositions. The IZO film is composed of triple layers formed by spin coating and UV–O3 treatment only on the first layer or last layer. The IZO films are compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the results show that the atomic ratio of oxygen vacancy (VO) increases in the UV–O3 treatment on the first layer, while it decreases on last layer. The device characteristics of the bottom gated structure are also improved in the UV–O3 treatment on the first layer. This indicates that the selective UV–O3 treatment in a multi-stacking active layer is an effective method to optimize TFT properties by controlling the amount of VO in the IZO interface and surface independently.

  18. SU-8 etching in inductively coupled oxygen plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jensen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Structuring or removal of the epoxy based, photo sensitive polymer SU-8 by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was investigated as a function of plasma chemistry, bias power, temperature, and pressure. In a pure oxygen plasma, surface accumulation of antimony from the photo......-initiator introduced severe roughness and reduced etch rate significantly. Addition of SF6 to the plasma chemistry reduced the antimony surface concentration with lower roughness and higher etch rate as an outcome. Furthermore the etch anisotropy could be tuned by controlling the bias power. Etch rates up to 800 nm...

  19. Porous siliconformation and etching process for use in silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Martin, Jr., Samuel B.; Stevenson, Joel O.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A reproducible process for uniformly etching silicon from a series of micromechanical structures used in electrical devices and the like includes providing a micromechanical structure having a silicon layer with defined areas for removal thereon and an electrochemical cell containing an aqueous hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. The micromechanical structure is submerged in the electrochemical cell and the defined areas of the silicon layer thereon are anodically biased by passing a current through the electrochemical cell for a time period sufficient to cause the defined areas of the silicon layer to become porous. The formation of the depth of the porous silicon is regulated by controlling the amount of current passing through the electrochemical cell. The micromechanical structure is then removed from the electrochemical cell and submerged in a hydroxide solution to remove the porous silicon. The process is subsequently repeated for each of the series of micromechanical structures to achieve a reproducibility better than 0.3%.

  20. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y

    2015-02-27

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing.

  1. The Effect of the Rolling Direction, Temperature, and Etching Time on the Photochemical Machining of Monel 400 Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepakkumar H. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the effect of the rolling direction on the quality of microchannels manufactured using photochemical machining (PCM of Monel 400. Experiments were carried out to fabricate microchannels along and across the rolling direction to investigate the effect of the grain orientation on microchannel etching. The input parameters considered were channel width and rolling direction, whereas the depth of etch was the response parameters. Different channels of widths of 60, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μm were etched. The effects of the etching time and temperature of the etchant solution on the undercut and depth of the microchannels were studied. For good quality microchannels, the effects of spinning time, spinning speed, exposure time, and photoresist film strength were also taken into consideration. Optimized values of the above were used for the experimentation. The results show that the depth of etch of the microchannel increases more along the rolling direction than across the rolling direction. The channel width and depth are significantly affected by the etching time and temperature. The proposed study reports an improvement in the quality of microchannels produced using PCM.

  2. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  3. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching on Fatigue Limits of Self-etching Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Scheidel, D D; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing to determine the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel and dentin prior to application of self-etch adhesives for bonding resin composite to these substrates. Three self-etch adhesives--1) G- ænial Bond (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); 2) OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp, Orange, CA, USA); and 3) Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA)--were used to bond Z100 Restorative resin composite to enamel and dentin surfaces. A stainless-steel metal ring with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to flat-ground (4000 grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFL. Fifteen specimens each were used to determine initial SBS to human enamel/dentin, with and without pre-etching with a 35% phosphoric acid (Ultra-Etch, Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT, USA) for 15 seconds prior to the application of the adhesives. A staircase method of fatigue testing (25 specimens for each test) was then used to determine the SFL of resin composite bonded to enamel/dentin using a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of SBS data, and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFL data. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the area of the bonded restorative/tooth interface. For all three adhesive systems, phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel demonstrated significantly higher (padhesives clearly demonstrated different tendencies between enamel and dentin. The effect of using phosphoric acid, prior to the application of the self-etching adhesives, on SBS and SFL was dependent on the adhesive material and tooth substrate and should be carefully considered in clinical situations.

  4. Etching of glass microchips with supercritical water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Grym, Jakub; Roth, Michal; Planeta, Josef; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 311-318 ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : glass microchips * channel etching * supercritical water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.586, year: 2015

  5. Self-aligned mask renewal for anisotropically etched circular micro- and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, Peter; Jäckel, Heinz; Holzapfel, Sebastian; Windhab, Erich J

    2011-01-01

    The top–down fabrication of high aspect ratio circular micro- and nanostructures in silicon nitride is presented. A new method is introduced to increase the aspect ratio of anisotropically etched holes by a factor of more than two with respect to the results obtained from an established dry-etching process. The method is based on the renewal of an etching mask after a first etching step has been completed. Mask renewal is done by line-of-sight deposition of a masking layer on the surface of the sample, which is mounted at an angle with respect to the deposition direction. No additional alignment step is required. The proof of principle is performed for silicon nitride etching through a mask of titanium, but the method has great potential to be applicable to a wide variety of substrate–mask combinations and to find entrance into various engineering fields. Two specific applications are highlighted. Firstly, a thick silicon nitride hardmask is used for the fabrication of deeply etched photonic crystal holes in indium phosphide (InP). For holes of 280 nm diameter, a record aspect ratio of 20 and an overall selectivity of 28.5 between a positive-tone resist layer and InP are reported. Secondly, the use of perforated silicon nitride membranes for droplet formation for applications in food engineering or pharmaceutics is addressed. Preliminary results show a potential for the self-aligned mask renewal method to exceed state-of-the-art membrane quality in terms of pore size, aspect ratio and membrane stability.

  6. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-02-01

    Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch.

  7. Etch Pit Studies of II-VI-Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials ZnSe, ZnCdSe, and ZnCdMgSe Grown on InP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semendy, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Etch pit density (EPD) determination studies have been conducted on II-VI semiconductor materials ZnSe, ZnCdSe, and ZnCdMgSe grown on InP surfaces for the first time by using various etching solutions under different...

  8. Etching of UO2 in NF3 RF Plasma Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John M. Veilleux

    1999-01-01

    A series of room temperature, low pressure (10.8 to 40 Pa), low power (25 to 210 W) RF plasma glow discharge experiments with UO 2 were conducted to demonstrate that plasma treatment is a viable method for decontaminating UO 2 from stainless steel substrates. Experiments were conducted using NF 3 gas to decontaminate depleted uranium dioxide from stainless-steel substrates. Depleted UO 2 samples each containing 129.4 Bq were prepared from 100 microliter solutions of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solution. The amorphous UO 2 in the samples had a relatively low density of 4.8 gm/cm 3 . Counting of the depleted UO 2 on the substrate following plasma immersion was performed using liquid scintillation counting with alpha/beta discrimination due to the presence of confounding beta emitting daughter products, 234 Th and 234 Pa. The alpha emission peak from each sample was integrated using a gaussian and first order polynomial fit to improve quantification. The uncertainties in the experimental measurement of the etched material were estimated at about ± 2%. Results demonstrated that UO 2 can be completely removed from stainless-steel substrates after several minutes processing at under 200 W. At 180 W and 32.7 Pa gas pressure, over 99% of all UO 2 in the samples was removed in just 17 minutes. The initial etch rate in the experiments ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 microm/min. Etching increased with the plasma absorbed power and feed gas pressure in the range of 10.8 to 40 Pa. A different pressure effect on UO 2 etching was also noted below 50 W in which etching increased up to a maximum pressure, approximately23 Pa, then decreased with further increases in pressure

  9. Wet chemical etching of Al-doped ZnO film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method on textured glass substrate for energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ki Hwan; Nam, Sang Hun; Jung, Won Suk; Lee, Yong Min; Yang, Hee Su; Boo, Jin Hyo [Dept. of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The etching of glasses in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions is applied in many technological fields. Particularly, the textured transparent conductive oxide materials on the glass substrate etched by HF were used to improve the current density of solar cells. In this study, the textured glass substrate has been etched by solution and the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been prepared on this textured glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. After the AZO film deposition, the surface of AZO has been etched by hydrochloric acid with different concentration and etching time. Etched AZO thin films had higher haze ratio and sheet resistance than bare AZO glass. Increases in the root-mean-square surface roughness of AZO films enhanced from 53.78 to 84.46 nm the haze ratio in above 700 nm wavelength. Our process could be applicable in texturing glass and etching AZO surface to fabricate solar cell in industrial scale. We also carried out fabricating an organic solar-cell device. Energy conversion efficiency improvement of 123% was obtained with textured AZO-based solar-cell device compared with that of nontextured solar-cell device.

  10. Predicting synergy in atomic layer etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Tan, Samantha [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yang, Wenbing [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kim, Taeseung [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Lill, Thorsten [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kabansky, Alexander [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Ohba, Tomihito [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Nojiri, Kazuo [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yu, Jengyi [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Wise, Rich [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Berry, Ivan L. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Pan, Yang [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Marks, Jeffrey [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a multistep process used today in manufacturing for removing ultrathin layers of material. In this article, the authors report on ALE of Si, Ge, C, W, GaN, and SiO2 using a directional (anisotropic) plasma-enhanced approach. The authors analyze these systems by defining an “ALE synergy” parameter which quantifies the degree to which a process approaches the ideal ALE regime. This parameter is inspired by the ion-neutral synergy concept introduced in the 1979 paper by Coburn and Winters. ALE synergy is related to the energetics of underlying surface interactions and is understood in terms of energy criteria for the energy barriers involved in the reactions. Synergistic behavior is observed for all of the systems studied, with each exhibiting behavior unique to the reactant–material combination. By systematically studying atomic layer etching of a group of materials, the authors show that ALE synergy scales with the surface binding energy of the bulk material. This insight explains why some materials are more or less amenable to the directional ALE approach. Furthermore, they conclude that ALE is both simpler to understand than conventional plasma etch processing and is applicable to metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics.

  11. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  12. Shapes of agglomerates in plasma etching reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.Y.; Kushner, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Dust particle contamination of wafers in reactive ion etching (RIE) plasma tools is a continuing concern in the microelectronics industry. It is common to find that particles collected on surfaces or downstream of the etch chamber are agglomerates of smaller monodisperse spherical particles. The shapes of the agglomerates vary from compact, high fractal dimension structures to filamentary, low fractal dimension structures. These shapes are important with respect to the transport of particles in RIE tools under the influence electrostatic and ion drag forces, and the possible generation of polarization forces. A molecular dynamics simulation has been developed to investigate the shapes of agglomerates in plasma etching reactors. We find that filamentary, low fractal dimension structures are generally produced by smaller (<100s nm) particles in low powered plasmas where the kinetic energy of primary particles is insufficient to overcome the larger Coulomb repulsion of a compact agglomerate. This is analogous to the diffusive regime in neutral agglomeration. Large particles in high powered plasmas generally produce compact agglomerates of high fractal dimension, analogous to ballistic agglomeration of neutrals. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Lindhard, Jonas Michael; Hirsch, Jens; Lausch, Dominik; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Stamate, Eugen; Hansen, Ole

    2017-10-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface damage that causes significant recombination. Here, we present a process optimization strategy for bSi, where surface damage is reduced and surface passivation is improved while excellent light trapping and low reflectance are maintained. We demonstrate that reduction of the capacitively coupled plasma power, during reactive ion etching at non-cryogenic temperature (-20 °C), preserves the reflectivity below 1% and improves the effective minority carrier lifetime due to reduced ion energy. We investigate the effect of the etching process on the surface morphology, light trapping, reflectance, transmittance, and effective lifetime of bSi. Additional surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 significantly improves the effective lifetime. For n-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 12 ms for polished and 7.5 ms for bSi surfaces. For p-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 800 μs for both polished and bSi surfaces.

  14. Value of the Debris of Reduction Sculpture: Thiol Etching of Au Nanoclusters for Preparing Water-Soluble and Aggregation-Induced Emission-Active Au(I) Complexes as Phosphorescent Copper Ion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Su, Lei; Wang, Jianxing; Lu, Xin; Liang, Feng; Li, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-06-07

    Chemical etching of gold by thiols has been known to be capable of generating nonluminescent gold(I) complexes, e.g., in size-focusing synthesis of atomically precise gold nanoclusters (GNCs). These nonluminescent gold(I) complexes have usually been considered as useless or worthless byproducts. This study shows a promising potential of thiol etching of GNCs to prepare novel water-soluble and phosphorescent gold(I) materials for sensing application. First, cysteamine-induced etching of GNCs is used to produce nonluminescent oligomeric gold(I)-thiolate complexes. Then, cadmium ion induces the aggregation of these oligomeric complexes to produce highly water-soluble ultrasmall intra-aggregates. These intra-aggregates can phosphoresce both in dilute aqueous solutions and in the solid phase. Studies on the effect of pH on their phosphorescent emission reveal the importance of the interaction between the amino groups of the ligands and cadmium ion for their phosphorescent emission property. Furthermore, Cu(2+) ion is found to quickly quench the phosphorescent emission of the intra-aggregates and simultaneously cause a Cu(2+)-concentration-dependent peak wavelength shift, enabling the establishment of a novel colorimetric sensor for sensitive and selective visual sensing of Cu(2+).

  15. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  16. Wet etching and chemical polishing of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghi, R; Cervera, C; Aït-Kaci, H; Grech, P; Rodriguez, J B; Christol, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we studied wet chemical etching fabrication of the InAs/GaSb superlattice mesa photodiode for the mid-infrared region. The details of the wet chemical etchants used for the device process are presented. The etching solution is based on orthophosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) and H 2 O 2 , followed by chemical polishing with the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution and protection with photoresist polymerized. The photodiode performance is evaluated by current–voltage measurements. The zero-bias resistance area product R 0 A above 4 × 10 5 Ω cm 2 at 77 K is reported. The device did not show dark current degradation at 77 K after exposition during 3 weeks to the ambient air

  17. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of Zn

  18. High-density plasma etching characteristics of indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin films in CF4/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young-Hee; Kim, Chang-Il

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the etching process of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films in an inductively coupled plasma system. The dry etching characteristics of the IGZO thin films were studied by varying the CF 4 /Ar gas mixing ratio, RF power, DC-bias voltage, and process pressure. We determined the following optimized process conditions: an RF power of 700 W, a DC-bias voltage of − 150 V, and a process pressure of 2 Pa. A maximum etch rate of 25.63 nm/min for the IGZO thin films was achieved in a plasma with CF 4 /Ar(= 25:75), and the selectivity of IGZO to Al and TiN was found to be 1.3 and 0.7, respectively. We determined the ionic composition of the CF 4 /Ar plasma using optical emission spectroscopy. Analysis of chemical reactions at the IGZO thin film surfaces was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Highlights: • IGZO thin film was etched by CF 4 /Ar plasma as a function of gas mixing ratio. • IGZO bonds were broken Ar + sputtering and then reacted with the C-F x radicals. • The physical sputtering is dominant in etch control compared with chemical etching

  19. Ga+ focused-ion-beam implantation-induced masking for H2 etching of ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Huang, Jun-Han; Chu, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2010-01-01

    Gallium implantation of ZnO by a focused-ion beam is used to create a mask for ZnO dry etching with hydrogen. Effects of Ga + fluence on the etch stop properties and the associated mechanisms are investigated. The fluence of 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 is determined to be optimum to render the best mask quality. While lower fluences would cause less etching selectivity, higher fluences would cause erosion of the surface and particles to be precipitated on the surface after H 2 treatment at high temperature. In contrast to the commonly adopted gallium oxide formation on Si, transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that, for the fluences ≤ 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 , Ga + ions are incorporated as dopants into ZnO without any second phases or precipitates, indicating the Ga-doped ZnO layer behaves as a mask for H 2 etching due to the higher electronegativity of Ga + towards oxygen. However, for the fluences ≥ 4.6 x 10 16 cm -2 , the surface particles are responsible for the etch stop and are identified as ZnGa 2 O 4 . We finally demonstrate a complicated pattern of 'NCKU' on ZnO by using this technique. The study not only helps clarify the related mechanisms, but also suggests a feasible extension of the etch stop process that can be applied to more functional material.

  20. Chemical etching studies of a Brazilian polycarbonate to fast neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, E.B.; Campos, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Dosimetric Materials Laboratory (LMD) of the Radiation Metrology Center (CMR) is developing a personal dosimeter for fast neutrons using the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). This technique is based on the recorded damage (tracks) in dielectric materials due to the impact of charged particles. The tracks are revealed and amplified for visualization in optic microscope through a technique known as chemical etching. The LMD is investigating a Brazilian commercial polycarbonate as a new passive fast neutron's detector in substitution to the traditional materials, as the cellulose nitrate LR-115 and the polycarbonates Makrofol and CR-39. The variation of the etching parameters (chemical solution, time and temperature) alters the response of the material; the best revelation conditions provide the best relationship among the amount of revealed tracks, their clearness and the time spent for this. The polycarbonate studied is a resin of same chemical monomer of Makrofol (C,6H,403). Samples of 3 x 1 cm 2 of the polycarbonate were irradiated with 5 mSv of fast neutrons ( 241 Am-Be) and revealed with the chemical solution PEW-40 (15% KOH, 45% H 2 O, 40% C 2 H 5 OH), commonly used for Makrofol. The studied etching parameters were time and temperature. Groups of four samples were revealed at temperatures of 50, 65, 75, 90 and 100 C with etching times varying from one to six hours. The used track's counting procedure was that referred in the literature. The best response to fast neutrons was obtained at 75 C; in spite of their similar answers, smaller temperatures join larger uncertainties in the track's counting and poorer clearness. At this temperature, the number of revealed tracks increases with the etching time approximately until a plateau at three hours. For etching times higher than four hours the polycarbonate presents overlap of tracks. If the temperature is adjusted to 75 C, the etching time should be in the plateau to avoid that small