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Sample records for solution ph levels

  1. Corrosion studies of thermally sensitised AGR fuel element brace in pH7 and pH9.2 borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyfield, S.P.; Smith, C.A.

    1987-04-01

    Brace and cladding of AGR fuel elements sensitised in reactor are susceptible to intergranular and crevice corrosion, which may initiate in the pH7 borate pond storage environment of CEGB/SSEB stations. This report considers the benefit in corrosion control that is provided by raising the pond solution pH to 9.2, whilst maintaining the boron level at 1250 gm -3 . The greater corrosion protection provided by pH9.2 solution compared to the pH7 borate solution is demonstrated by a series of tests with non-active laboratory sensitised brace samples exposed to solutions dosed with chloride or sulphate in order to promote localised corrosion. The corrosion tests undertaken consisted of 5000 hour immersions at 32 0 C and shorter term electrochemically monitored experiments (rest potential, impedance, anodic current) generally conducted at 22 0 C. The pH9.2 solution effectively inhibited the initiation of crevice and intergranular corrosion in the presence of low levels of chloride and sulphate, whereas the pH7 solution did not always do so. However, the pH9.2 solution, dosed with 40 gm -3 chloride, failed to suppress fully crevice corrosion initiated in unborated 40 gm -3 chloride solution at 22 0 C. Fluoride is not deleterious at low levels ∼ 10 gm -3 in the borate solutions. The significant improvement in corrosion control demonstrated for the change from pH7 to pH9.2 borate solution on laboratory sensitised brace samples should ideally be confirmed using complete irradiated AGR fuel elements. (U.K.)

  2. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuzhang Xue; Yinkun Li; Feng Li; Fang Zhang; Wenzhong Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P), water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experi...

  3. Effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of spinach rhizosphere in hydroponic culture

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parsazadeh; N. Najafi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrate to ammonium ratio and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of rhizosphere during spinach growth period in perlite culture, under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. A split factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted with three factors including nutrient solution’s pH in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8), nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75...

  4. Computer model of hydroponics nutrient solution pH control using ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, M; Stutte, G

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of a hydroponics-based plant growth chamber using ammonium to control pH was constructed to determine the feasibility of such a system. In nitrate-based recirculating hydroponics systems, the pH will increase as plants release hydroxide ions into the nutrient solution to maintain plant charge balance. Ammonium is an attractive alternative to traditional pH controls in an ALSS, but requires careful monitoring and control to avoid overdosing the plants with ammonium. The primary advantage of using NH4+ for pH control is that it exploits the existing plant nutrient uptake charge balance mechanisms to maintain solution pH. The simulation models growth, nitrogen uptake, and pH of a l-m2 stand of wheat. Simulation results indicated that ammonium-based control of nutrient solution pH is feasible using a proportional integral controller. Use of a 1 mmol/L buffer (Ka = 1.6 x 10(-6)) in the nutrient solution is required.

  5. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  6. Manganese toxicity in pasture legumes. II. Effects of pH and molybdenum levels in the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, N V; Andrew, C S; Wilson, G L

    1971-06-01

    The effects of pH and Mo levels in the growing media on Mn toxicity were investigated for white clover and five tropical pasture legume species. In solution culture, high Mo supply did not influence Mn toxicity. However, in two species, it caused Mo toxicity. High solution pH intensified Mn toxicity in white clover, probably by way of uptake. The effects of Ca and P on Mn toxicity reported in a previous paper, were not greatly influenced by solution pH. In the soil, Mo application greatly increased dry matter yield of white clover grown on soils high in exchangeable Mn. This effect was more easily attributed to an influence on N metabolism of the legume plant than on Mn toxicity. Measured soil pH was found to have little influence on the level of exchangeable Mn in the soil. However the larger pH changes in small soil pockets, resulting from non-uniform incorporation of chemicals in the soil, might have a more important effect on this fraction of soil Mn. 31 references, 7 tables.

  7. Effect of Nutrition Solution pH and Electrical Conductivity on Fusarium Wilt on Strawberry Plants in Hydroponic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt on strawberry plants caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof is a major disease in Korea. The prevalence of this disease is increasing, especially in hydroponic cultivation in strawberry field. This study assessed the effect of nutrition solution pH and electrical conductivity (EC on Fusarium wilt in vitro and in field trials. pH levels of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5 were assayed in vitro and in field trials. EC levels at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 dS∙m⁻¹ were assayed in field trials. Mycelial growth of Fof increased with increasing pH and was highest at 25°C pH 7 and lowest at 20°C, pH 5.0 in vitro. The incidence of Fusarium wilt was lowest in the pH 6.5 treatment and highest in the pH 5 treatment in field trials. At higher pH levels, the EC decreased in the drain solution and the potassium content of strawberry leaves increased. In the EC assay, the severity of Fusarium wilt and nitrogen content of leaves increased as the EC increased. These results indicate that Fusarium wilt is related to pH and EC in hydroponic culture of strawberry plants.

  8. Effect of pH Changes on Antioxidant Capacity and the Content of Betalain Pigments During the Heating of a Solution of Red Beet Betalains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Red beets and their products are mainly consumed after processing. In this study, the effect of pH on changes in antioxidant capacity (AC and the content of betalain pigments were analysed during the heating of a betalain preparation solution. With pH ranging from 4 to 9 during the heat-treatment, the content of red pigments decreased depending on the pH level of the sample. The losses of red pigments in the investigated betalain preparation solution increased along with rising pH levels of the heated solution. The greatest losses were recorded at pH of 9.0. An opposite correlation was observed for yellow pigments. The content of yellow pigments in the heated betalain preparation solution was increasing along with increasing pH. The most pronounced increase in the content of yellow pigments was found at pH of 6.5 and 7.0. At the same time, the heated betalain preparation solution was shown to exhibit a higher antioxidant capacity at pH of 6.0 (14.9 μmol Trolox/mL than at pH of 4.0 (12.6 μmol Trolox/mL. It was observed that the increase in the antioxidant capacity in heated betalain preparation solutions with pH in the 6.0–6.5 range occurred as a result of increased concentrations of neobetanin, assessed by HPLC, within the pH range from 5.0 to 6.5.

  9. Characterizing the correlation between dephosphorization and solution pH in a calcined water treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Liu, Qidi; Li, Shuwen; Li, Fei; Zou, Jing; Liao, Xiaobin; Yuan, Baoling; Sun, Wenjie

    2018-04-26

    This study focused on characterizing the correlation between the dephosphorization process of calcined water treatment plant sludge (C-WTPS) and the solution initial pH in batch experiments. The specific aim was to illustrate the effect of different initial pH on the adsorption and desorption of phosphorous in C-WTPS. In addition, the effects of solution initial pH on the release of ammonia nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) from C-WTPS and the change of pH after adsorption were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the initial pH significantly influenced the adsorption of phosphorus on C-WTPS. When initial pH was increased from 3 to 10, the phosphorous absorption capacity reduced by 76.5%. Especially, when the initial pH reached to 11, the phosphorus adsorption capacity became a negative value, indicating that C-WTPS released phosphorus into the solution. The addition of C-WTPS to the solution had little impact on the initial pH of the solution. The absorbed phosphorous on C-WTPS was relatively stable in the pH range of 3 to 10. Nevertheless, when the solution pH was higher than 11, it can be easily released into the solution. Furthermore, by comparison with WTPS, C-WTPS released less ammonia nitrogen and TOC into the solution and adsorbed more phosphorus from the solution in the experimental pH range. Therefore, C-WTPS is more suitable to serve as a cost-effective sorbent for phosphorus removal.

  10. Effect of pH value of applied solution on radioiodine sorption by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption of radioiodine by soils was followed under static conditions at different pH values of the initial solution in five soil types. Sorption of radioiodine by soils is affected by the amount of the organic mass and by the pH of solutions. With the same pH, soils containing a higher amount of the organic mass absorb more radioiodine. The highest sorption percentage of 131 I - for all pH values was found in meadow chernozem soil and the lowest in the rendzina and in carboniferous meadow soils. The highest sorption of 131 I - for degraded chernozem, meadow chernozem soils and brown soil was recorded at pH 5 and for carboniferous meadow soil and rendzina at pH 7. (author)

  11. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  12. The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerozi, Brunno da Silva; Fitzsimmons, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between the main ions in aquaponics nutrient solutions affects chemical composition and availability of nutrients, and nutrient uptake by plant roots. This study determined the effect of pH on phosphorus (P) speciation and availability in an aquaponics nutrient solution and used Visual MINTEQ to simulate P species and P activity. In both experimental and simulated results, P availability decreased with increase in pH of aquaponics nutrient solutions. According to simulations, P binds to several cations leaving less free phosphate ions available in solution. High pH values resulted in the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate species. The study also demonstrated the importance of organic matter and alkalinity in keeping free phosphate ions in solution at high pH ranges. It is recommended though that pH in aquaponics systems is maintained at a 5.5-7.2 range for optimal availability and uptake by plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal extraction from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen using low pH solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA A. CUCULOVIC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of metals (K, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Ba, Zn, Mn and Sr from dry Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen was performed using solutions similar to acid rain (solution A – H2SO4–HNO3–(NH42SO4 and solution B – H2SO4–HNO3–(NH42SO4–NH4NO3. The pH values of these solutions were 2.00, 2.58, 2.87, 3.28, and 3.75. Five consecutive extractions were performed with each solution. In all solutions, the extracted metal content, except Cu and Ca, was the highest in the first extract. The highest percentage of the metals desorbed in the first extraction was obtained using solutions with low pH values, 2.00, 2.58, and 2.87. The lowest percentage in the first extraction was obtained using solutions with pH 3.28 and 3.75, indicating influence of the H+ ion on the extraction. According to the results obtained, the investigated metals form two groups. The first group includes K, Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe. They were extracted in each of the five extractions at each of the pH values. The second group includes Ba, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Sr, which were not all extracted at each pH value. The first group yielded three types of extraction curves when the logarithms of extracted metal amounts were plotted as a function of the number of successive extractions. These effects indicate that three different positions (centres of metal ion accumulation exist in the lichen (due to sorption, complex formation, or other processes present in the tissues.

  14. Considerations on prevention of phlebitis and venous pain from intravenous prostaglandin E(1) administration by adjusting solution pH: in vitro manipulations affecting pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Nishikata, Mayumi; Okamura, Noboru; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1); Alprostadil Alfadex) is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation used to treat patients with peripheral vascular disease. The main adverse effects of intravenous PGE(1) administration, phlebitis and venous pain, arise from the unphysiologically low pH of infusion solutions. When PGE(1) infusion solutions with a pH value greater then 6 are used, phlebitis and venous pain are considered to be avoidable. Beginning with a PGE(1) infusion solution with pH greater than 6, we add the amount of 7% sodium bicarbonate needed to bring the solution to pH 7.4 if phlebitis or venous pain develops. In the present study we established a convenient nomogram showing the relationship between the titratable acidity of various infusion solutions and the volume of 7% sodium bicarbonate required to attain pH 7.4 for preventing the phlebitis and venous pain associated with PGE(1) infusion.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Form and pH of Nutrient Solution on the Shoot Concentration of Phosphorus, Nitrate, and Nitrogen of Spinach in Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    N. Najafi; M. Parsazadeh

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the shoot concentration of P, nitrate, organic N + inorganic ammonium, and total N of spinach, a factorial experiment was conducted with two factors including pH of nutrient solution in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8.0) and nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100). This factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replicatio...

  16. From proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to pH. Assessment of {sup 1}H NMR pH indicator compound set for deuterium oxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynkkynen, Tuulia, E-mail: tuulia.tynkkynen@uku.fi [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-08-19

    In this study, a protocol for pH determination from D{sub 2}O samples using {sup 1}H NMR pH indicator compounds was developed and assessed by exploring the pH-dependency of 13 compounds giving pH-dependent {sup 1}H NMR signals. The indicators cover the pH range from pH* 0 to 7.2. Equations to transform the indicator chemical shifts to pH estimates are given here for acetic acid, formic acid, chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, creatine, creatinine, glycine, histidine, 1,2,4-triazole, and TSP (2,2,3,3-tetradeutero-3-(trimethylsilyl)-propionic acid). To characterize the method in presence of typical solutes, the effects of common metabolites, albumin and ionic strength were also evaluated. For the ionic strengths, the effects were also modelled. The experiments showed that the use of pH sensitive {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts allows the pH determination of typical metabolite solutions with accuracy of 0.01-0.05 pH units. Also, when the ionic strength is known with accuracy better than 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} and the solute concentrations are low, pH{sub nmr}{sup *} (the NMR estimate of pH) can be assumed to be within 0.05 pH units from potentiometrically determined pH.

  17. Solution and surface chemistry of the Se(IV)-Fe(0) reactions: Effect of initial solution pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuefen; Ling, Lan; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2017-02-01

    Aspects of solution and solid-phase reactions between selenite (Se(IV)) and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated. Experimental results on the effects of initial solution pH, formation and evolution of nZVI corrosion products, and speciation of selenium in nZVI were presented. In general, the rate of Se(IV) removal decreases with increasing initial pH. The observed rate constants of Se(IV) removal decreased from 0.3530 to 0.0364 min -1 as pH increased from 4.0 to 10.0. Composition and morphology of nZVI corrosion products and selenium species were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results confirmed that Se(IV) was reduced to Se(0) and Se(-II) by nZVI. Lower solution pH favored further reduction of Se(0) to Se(-II). Amorphous FeOOH, magnetite/maghemite (Fe 3 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) and ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 ) were identified as the main corrosion products. Under alkaline conditions, the corrosion products were mainly of Fe(OH) 2 along with small amounts of Fe 3 O 4 , while nZVI in acidic solutions was oxidized to mostly Fe 3 O 4 and amorphous FeOOH. Furthermore, these corrosion products acted as intermediates for electron transfer and reactive/sorptive sites for Se(IV) adsorption and reduction, thus played a crucial role in the removal of aqueous Se(IV). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A Busy period analysis of the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a level dependent single server queuing system with a waiting room of finite size during the busy period. The focus is on the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue. We derive in closed form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number

  19. Temperature and pH driven association in uranyl aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Druchok

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An association behavior of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions is explored. For this purpose a set of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is performed. During the simulation, the fractions of uranyl ions involved in dimer and trimer formations were monitored. To accompany the fraction statistics one also collected distributions characterizing average times of the dimer and trimer associates. Two factors effecting the uranyl association were considered: temperature and pH. As one can expect, an increase of the temperature decreases an uranyl capability of forming the associates, thus lowering bound fractions/times and vice versa. The effect of pH was modeled by adding H+ or OH- ions to a "neutral" solution. The addition of hydroxide ions OH- favors the formation of the associates, thus increasing bound times and fractions. The extra H+ ions in a solution produce an opposite effect, thus lowering the uranyl association capability. We also made a structural analysis for all the observed associates to reveal the mutual orientation of the uranyl ions.

  20. The stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamin in dentifrices according to pH level and storage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Eun; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Yong-Duk; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vitamin stabilities in dentifrices by analyzing various vitamins according to the level and storage temperature. The stabilities of water- and fat-soluble vitamins were investigated in buffer solution at different pH values (4, 7, 8, 10 and 11) for 14 days and in dentifrices at different pH (7 and 10) for 5 months at two temperature conditions (room and refrigeration temperature) by analyzing the remaining amounts using HPLC methods. In the buffer solution, the stability of vitamins B1 , B6 and C was increased as the pH values increased. Vitamins E and K showed poor stability at pH 4, and vitamin B3 showed poor stability at pH 11. In dentifrices, the storage temperature highly influenced vitamin stability, especially vitamins C and E, but the stabilities of vitamins B1 and C according to pH values did not correspond to the buffer solution tests. Vitamin B group was relatively stable in dentifrices, but vitamin C completely disappeared after 5 months. Vitamin K showed the least initial preservation rates. Vitamins were not detected in commercial dentifrices for adults and detected amounts were less than the advertised contents in dentifrices for children. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A study of specific sorption of neptunium(V) on smectite in low pH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka; Ito, Yoshimoto

    1996-01-01

    The 'specific sorption' of neptunium(V) on smectite, in other words, a strong sorption undesorbable by 1 M KCl, is studied with a combination of batch type sorption and desorption experiments over a pH range of 2 to 5. Six types of homoionic smectite (Li-, Na-, K-, Cs-, Mg-, and Ca-smectite) are used in this study. Distribution coefficients (K d ) of neptunium for smectite vary over a wide pH range; the maximum K d value of ∝300 cm 3 x g -1 at around pH 2 for Li- and Na-smectite and the minimum value of ∝2 cm 3 x g -1 for Cs-smectite. The specific sorption of neptunium depends on pH and on the affinity of the exchangeable cation for smectite; the lower the pH of solution or the affinity, the larger the specific sorption. The neptunium-smectite association varies with the elapse of contact time. Within the first day of the neptunium-smectite contact the neptunium sorbed on na-smectite at low pH is desorbable by 1 M KCl solution, and on the passage of time most of the neuptunium sorbed becomes undesorbable by KCl (the specific sorption). Hydronium ion in solution is sorbed on smectite at low pH and dissociates the exchangeable cation from smectite into solution, and the specific sorption of neuptunium increases with increasing the exchangeable cation that is dissociated from smectite. (orig.)

  2. Effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanaprakash, G. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mahadevan, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kalyanasundaram, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Philip, John [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report the effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles during co-precipitation. We synthesized nanoparticles by keeping the initial pH at 0.7, 1.5, 3.0, 4.7, 5.7, 6.7 for two different temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. When the initial pH (prior to alkali addition) of the salt solution was below 5, the nanoparticles formed were 100% spinel iron oxide. Average size of the magnetite particles increases with initial pH until ferrihydrite is formed at a pH of 3 and the size remains the same till 4.7 pH. The percentage of goethite formed along with non-stoichiometric magnetite was 35 and 78%, respectively, when the initial pH of the solution was 5.7 and 6.7. As the reaction temperature was increased to 60 deg. C, maintaining a pH of 6.7, the amount of goethite increased from 78 to 100%. These results show that the initial pH and temperature of the ferrous and ferric salt solution before initiation of the precipitation reaction are critical parameters controlling the composition and size of nanoparticles formed. We characterize the samples using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results of the present work provide the right conditions to synthesis pure magnetite nanoparticles, without goethite impurities, through co-precipitation technique for ferrofluid applications.

  3. Effect of Solution pH on the Adsorption of Paracetamol on Chemically Modified Activated Carbons

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    Valentina Bernal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol adsorption in acidic, neutral and basic media on three activated carbons with different chemistry surfaces was studied. A granular activated carbon (GAC was prepared from coconut shell; starting from this sample, an oxidized activated carbon (GACo was obtained by treating the GAC with a boiling solution of 6 M nitric acid, so to generate a greater number of oxygenated surface groups. In addition, a reduced activated carbon (GACr was obtained by heating the GAC at 1173 K, to remove the oxygenated surface groups. Paracetamol adsorption was higher for GACr due to the lower presence of oxygenated surface functional groups. Moreover, adsorption was highest at neutral pH. The magnitude of the interactions between paracetamol molecules and activated carbons was studied by measuring the immersion enthalpies of activated carbons in solution of paracetamol at different concentrations and pH values and by calculating the interaction enthalpy. The highest value was obtained for GACr in a paracetamol solution of 1000 mg L−1 at pH 7, confirming that paracetamol adsorption is favoured on basic activated carbons at pH values near to neutrality. Finally, the Gibbs energy changes confirmed the latter result, allowing explaining the different magnitudes of the interactions between paracetamol and activated carbons, as a function of solution pH.

  4. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH and Selected Flavors in e-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from four manufacturers. Methods We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control (QC) validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH and flavors. Results Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6% - 42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1 – 9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Conclusions Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. Pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:25636907

  5. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  6. Chemical Speciation and Bond Lengths of Organic Solutes by Core-Level Spectroscopy: pH and Solvent Influence on p-Aminobenzoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Gainar, Adrian; Suljoti, Edlira; Xiao, Jie; Golnak, Ronny; Aziz, Emad F; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2015-05-04

    Through X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies, the chemical, electronic and structural properties of organic species in solution can be observed. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the nitrogen K-edge of para-aminobenzoic acid reveal both pH- and solvent-dependent variations in the ionisation potential (IP), 1s→π* resonances and HOMO-LUMO gap. These changes unequivocally identify the chemical species (neutral, cationic or anionic) present in solution. It is shown how this incisive chemical state sensitivity is further enhanced by the possibility of quantitative bond length determination, based on the analysis of chemical shifts in IPs and σ* shape resonances in the NEXAFS spectra. This provides experimental access to detecting even minor variations in the molecular structure of solutes in solution, thereby providing an avenue to examining computational predictions of solute properties and solute-solvent interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Integrating chemical imaging of cationic trace metal solutes and pH into a single hydrogel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Christoph [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Santner, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.santner@boku.ac.at [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Department of Crop Sciences, Division of Agronomy, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Borisov, Sergey M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, A-8010, Graz (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We tested three ultra-thin (<100 μm) polyurethane-based gels, incorporating anion and cation binding materials and the fluorescent pH indicator DCIFODA (2′,7′-dichloro-5(6)-N-octadecyl-carboxamidofluorescein). Results showed that PO-based pH sensing using DCIFODA was impossible in the presence of the anion binding materials due to interferences with DCIFODA protonation. One gel, containing only a cation binding material and DCIFODA, was fully characterized and showed similar performance characteristics as comparable DGT-only gels (applicable pH range: pH 5–8, applicable ionic strength range: 1–20 mmol L{sup -1}, cation binding capacity ∼24 μg cm{sup −2}). The dynamic range for PO-based pH mapping was between pH 5.5 and 7.5 with t{sub 90} response time of ∼60 min. In a case study we demonstrated the gel's suitability for multi-analyte solute imaging and mapped pH gradients and concurrent metal solubility patterns in the rhizosphere of Salix smithiana. pH decreases in the rooted soil were co-localized with elevated solute fluxes of Al{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Fe, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, indicating pH-induced metal solubilisation. - Highlights: • Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar

  8. Integrating chemical imaging of cationic trace metal solutes and pH into a single hydrogel layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey M.; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We tested three ultra-thin (<100 μm) polyurethane-based gels, incorporating anion and cation binding materials and the fluorescent pH indicator DCIFODA (2′,7′-dichloro-5(6)-N-octadecyl-carboxamidofluorescein). Results showed that PO-based pH sensing using DCIFODA was impossible in the presence of the anion binding materials due to interferences with DCIFODA protonation. One gel, containing only a cation binding material and DCIFODA, was fully characterized and showed similar performance characteristics as comparable DGT-only gels (applicable pH range: pH 5–8, applicable ionic strength range: 1–20 mmol L"-"1, cation binding capacity ∼24 μg cm"−"2). The dynamic range for PO-based pH mapping was between pH 5.5 and 7.5 with t_9_0 response time of ∼60 min. In a case study we demonstrated the gel's suitability for multi-analyte solute imaging and mapped pH gradients and concurrent metal solubility patterns in the rhizosphere of Salix smithiana. pH decreases in the rooted soil were co-localized with elevated solute fluxes of Al"3"+, Co"2"+, Cu"2"+, Fe, Mn"2"+, Ni"2"+ and Pb"2"+, indicating pH-induced metal solubilisation. - Highlights: • Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optode (PO) imaging is combined. • A

  9. Influence of pH of spray solution on optoelectronic properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodlur, R. M.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by the conventional spray pyrolysis technique. The pH of the spray solution is varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid. The effect of pH on the morphology, crystallinity and optoelectronic properties of these films is studied. The structural analysis showed all the films in the cubic phase. For the films with pH < 7 (acidic condition), the preferred orientation is along the (111) direction and for those with pH >7 (alkaline condition), the preferred orientation is along the (200) direction. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10 −4 Ω·cm (with carrier concentration = 5.1 × 10 20 cm −3 , mobility = 12.4 cm 2 /(V·s)) is observed for pH ≈ 12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70%. Thus, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of the spray solution without compromising the optical transparency. (paper)

  10. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4 manufacturers. We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors. Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Comparative study of buffered 50% glycolic acid (pH 3.0) + 0.5% salicylic acid solution vs Jessner's solution in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Jae, Jeong; Dong Ju, Hyun; Dong Hyun, Kim; Yoon, Moon Soo; Lee, Hee Jung

    2017-11-21

    Superficial chemical peels are frequently used in acne vulgaris treatment. Although glycolic acid (GA) has been widely used in clinical practice, its pH ranges from 0.08-2.75 and thus should be neutralized after application to avoid burns. To evaluate treatment efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using buffered 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% salicylic acid (SA) solution that does not need to be neutralized in the treatment of acne vulgaris compared to the conventional peeling using Jessner's solution. We performed a prospective, randomized, evaluator-blind, split-face clinical trial. Twenty patients were randomized by assigning one side of each patient's face to receive a 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% SA peel (GA side) and the other side to receive the Jessner's solution (Jessner's solution side). All patients underwent 2 sessions of treatment spaced 2 weeks apart. Lesion count, acne severity, subjective efficacy assessment, and side effects were evaluated. The total lesion count was significantly reduced for the GA and Jessner's solution sides (P  .05). The GA side had fewer side effects than the Jessner's solution side. The results of this study suggest that chemical peeling using the 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% SA solution can be as effective and convenient as the conventional peeling using Jessner's solution in the treatment of acne vulgaris and may show fewer adverse events than the conventional peeling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biodesulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates and pH control of bioleaching solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Sheng-cai; Liu, Yan-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Hua-jun

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were desulfurized with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans). The sulfur content of the concentrates was reduced from 0.69wt% to 0.14wt% after bioleaching for 15 d with a 10% pulp density at 30°C. Maintaining a stable pH value during biodesulfurization was critical because of high acid consumption, resulting from a combination of nonoxidative and oxidative dissolution of pyrrhotite in acid solution. It is discovered that the citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 2.0 can control the solution pH value smoothly in the optimal range of 2.0-3.0 for A. ferrooxidans growth. Using the buffer in the volume fraction range of 5.0%-15.0% stimulates A. ferrooxidans growth and improves the biodesulfurization efficiency. Compared with the buffer-free control case, the maximum increase of biodesulfurization rate is 29.7% using a 10.0vol% buffer. Bioleaching provides an alternative process for desulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ores.

  13. Effect of pH on corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in solution without and with NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, C.T.; Wong, P.K. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau (China); Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Cheng, F.T., E-mail: apaftche@polyu.edu.h [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-01

    CuCrZr is a high copper alloy widely used as electrical and thermal conducting material, especially in heat exchangers in nuclear reactors. In this respect, the physical and fatigue properties of CuCrZr have been extensively studied. The electrochemical behavior of CuCrZr, on the other hand, has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, the effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in aqueous solutions without and with chloride (0.6 M NaCl) was studied. The pH of the solutions is found to exert significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr. In acidic solutions without chloride, the corrosion of CuCrZr is ascribed to active dissolution with soluble products. In neutral and alkaline solutions without NaCl, the presence of oxides on the surface of CuCrZr leads to a noble shift in corrosion potential and passivation results in increased corrosion resistance. In chloride solutions at various pH values, the chloride ions influence the formation of the surface layers and the anodic dissolution process during polarization. At high pH, CuCrZr shows significant passivity and high corrosion resistance due to the growth of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH) film which hinders further dissolution whereas at low pH the corrosion resistance is lowered due to active dissolution of Cu.

  14. Effect of pH on corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in solution without and with NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.T.; Wong, P.K.; Man, H.C.; Cheng, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    CuCrZr is a high copper alloy widely used as electrical and thermal conducting material, especially in heat exchangers in nuclear reactors. In this respect, the physical and fatigue properties of CuCrZr have been extensively studied. The electrochemical behavior of CuCrZr, on the other hand, has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, the effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in aqueous solutions without and with chloride (0.6 M NaCl) was studied. The pH of the solutions is found to exert significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr. In acidic solutions without chloride, the corrosion of CuCrZr is ascribed to active dissolution with soluble products. In neutral and alkaline solutions without NaCl, the presence of oxides on the surface of CuCrZr leads to a noble shift in corrosion potential and passivation results in increased corrosion resistance. In chloride solutions at various pH values, the chloride ions influence the formation of the surface layers and the anodic dissolution process during polarization. At high pH, CuCrZr shows significant passivity and high corrosion resistance due to the growth of Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) film which hinders further dissolution whereas at low pH the corrosion resistance is lowered due to active dissolution of Cu.

  15. Calorimetric and diffractometric evidence for the sequential crystallization of buffer components and the consequential pH swing in frozen solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-04-15

    Sequential crystallization of succinate buffer components in the frozen solution has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry (both laboratory and synchrotron sources). The consequential pH shifts were monitored using a low-temperature electrode. When a solution buffered to pH pK(a)(2), the freeze-concentrate pH first decreased and then increased due to the sequential crystallization of the basic (disodium succinate) followed by the acidic (monosodium succinate and succinic acid) buffer components. XRD provided direct evidence of the crystallization events in the frozen buffer solutions, including the formation of disodium succinate hexahydrate [Na(2)(CH(2)COO)(2).6H(2)O]. When the frozen solution was warmed in a differential scanning calorimeter, multiple endotherms attributable to the melting of buffer components and ice were observed. When the frozen solutions were dried under reduced pressure, ice sublimation was followed by dehydration of the crystalline hexahydrate to a poorly crystalline anhydrate. However, crystalline succinic acid and monosodium succinate were retained in the final lyophiles. The pH and the buffer salt concentration of the prelyo solution influenced the crystalline salt content in the final lyophile. The direction and magnitude of the pH shift in the frozen solution depended on both the initial pH and the buffer concentration. In light of the pH-sensitive nature of a significant fraction of pharmaceuticals (especially proteins), extreme care is needed in both the buffer selection and its concentration.

  16. THE PREDICTION OF pH BY GIBBS FREE ENERGY MINIMIZATION IN THE SUMP SOLUTION UNDER LOCA CONDITION OF PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYOUNGJU YOON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the pH of the sump solution should be above 7.0 to retain iodine in a liquid phase and be within the material compatibility constraints under LOCA condition of PWR. The pH of the sump solution can be determined by conventional chemical equilibrium constants or by the minimization of Gibbs free energy. The latter method developed as a computer code called SOLGASMIX-PV is more convenient than the former since various chemical components can be easily treated under LOCA conditions. In this study, SOLGASMIX-PV code was modified to accommodate the acidic and basic materials produced by radiolysis reactions and to calculate the pH of the sump solution. When the computed pH was compared with measured by the ORNL experiment to verify the reliability of the modified code, the error between two values was within 0.3 pH. Finally, two cases of calculation were performed for the SKN 3&4 and UCN 1&2. As results, pH of the sump solution for the SKN 3&4 was between 7.02 and 7.45, and for the UCN 1&2 plant between 8.07 and 9.41. Furthermore, it was found that the radiolysis reactions have insignificant effects on pH because the relative concentrations of HCl, HNO3, and Cs are very low.

  17. Unusual Salt and pH Induced Changes in Polyethylenimine Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Curtis

    Full Text Available Linear PEI is a cationic polymer commonly used for complexing DNA into nanoparticles for cell-transfection and gene-therapy applications. The polymer has closely-spaced amines with weak-base protonation capacity, and a hydrophobic backbone that is kept unaggregated by intra-chain repulsion. As a result, in solution PEI exhibits multiple buffering mechanisms, and polyelectrolyte states that shift between aggregated and free forms. We studied the interplay between the aggregation and protonation behavior of 2.5 kDa linear PEI by pH probing, vapor pressure osmometry, dynamic light scattering, and ninhydrin assay. Our results indicate that: At neutral pH, the PEI chains are associated and the addition of NaCl initially reduces and then increases the extent of association.The aggregate form is uncollapsed and co-exists with the free chains.PEI buffering occurs due to continuous or discontinuous charging between stalled states.Ninhydrin assay tracks the number of unprotonated amines in PEI.The size of PEI-DNA complexes is not significantly affected by the free vs. aggregated state of the PEI polymer. Despite its simple chemical structure, linear PEI displays intricate solution dynamics, which can be harnessed for environment-sensitive biomaterials and for overcoming current challenges with DNA delivery.

  18. Effect of Aging Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of Sintered 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Nykiel, Aneta; Kazior, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The general corrosion behavior of sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel processed under different processing conditions in dilute sulfuric acid solution at 25 °C was studied by open-circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The corrosion resistance was evaluated based on electrochemical parameters, such as polarization resistance, corrosion potential, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate. The results showed that the precipitation-hardening treatment could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel in studied environment. As far as the influence of aging temperature on corrosion behavior of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel is concerned, polarization resistance and corrosion rate are reduced with increasing aging temperature from 480 up to 500 °C regardless of the temperature of solution treatment. It can be concluded that the highest corrosion resistance in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution exhibits 17-4 PH after solution treatment at 1040 °C followed by aging at 480 °C.

  19. Low-temperature solution processing of palladium/palladium oxide films and their pH sensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yiheng; Alam, Arif U; Pan, Si; Howlader, Matiar M R; Ghosh, Raja; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Wu, Yiliang; Deen, M Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive, easy-to-fabricate, and low-cost pH sensors with small dimensions are required to monitor human bodily fluids, drinking water quality and chemical/biological processes. In this study, a low-temperature, solution-based process is developed to prepare palladium/palladium oxide (Pd/PdO) thin films for pH sensing. A precursor solution for Pd is spin coated onto pre-cleaned glass substrates and annealed at low temperature to generate Pd and PdO. The percentages of PdO at the surface and in the bulk of the electrodes are correlated to their sensing performance, which was studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Large amounts of PdO introduced by prolonged annealing improve the electrode's sensitivity and long-term stability. Atomic force microscopy study showed that the low-temperature annealing results in a smooth electrode surface, which contributes to a fast response. Nano-voids at the electrode surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope, indicating a reason for the long-term degradation of the pH sensitivity. Using the optimized annealing parameters of 200°C for 48 h, a linear pH response with sensitivity of 64.71±0.56 mV/pH is obtained for pH between 2 and 12. These electrodes show a response time shorter than 18 s, hysteresis less than 8 mV and stability over 60 days. High reproducibility in the sensing performance is achieved. This low-temperature solution-processed sensing electrode shows the potential for the development of pH sensing systems on flexible substrates over a large area at low cost without using vacuum equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of pH on Cr(VI) ions removal from aqueous solutions using carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anah, L.; Astrini, N.

    2017-03-01

    The major problem in heavy metal pollution is that these metals are not biodegradable and accordingly accumulate in the bodies of living organisms, causing dangerous diseases and serious cell disorder. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the long term exposure of Cr(VI) levels of over 0.1 ppm causes respiratory problems, liver and kidney damage, and carcinogenicity.Due to its easy operation and of various cheap adsorbents development, adsorption has been proved to be efficient and most economically attractive technique and feasible to the removal of toxic heavy metal from wastewater. The study aimed to report the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions through adsorption process using carboxymethyl cellulose-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (CMC-g-PAA) hydrogel as adsorbent.Effect of pH was studied to remove hexavalent chromium.Graft copolymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto carboxymethyl cellulose was carried out in the presence of benzoyl peroxide redox initiator and methylenbisacrylamide as crosslinker agent. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effects ofinitial pH.The adsorption of Cr(VI) ions as a function of pH was conducted in the initial pH range of 1 to 8. The results indicated that acidic pH strongly favored the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption of Cr(VI) ranged from 1 to 3, and the maximum uptake of Cr(VI) from the solution was 6.53 mg/g at pH 1 and 30°C. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analyses were performed on the adsorbent before and after Cr(VI) binding. All analyses confirmed the complexation of Cr(VI) ions on the adsorbent.

  1. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Qiao; Li, Yun; Li, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed

  2. Gammaradiation effect on spectral properties of oxyhemoglobin solutions of different pH in the presence of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in spectral properties of oxyhemoglobin solutions (pH 3 to 12) of mice exposed to gammaradiation (6000R) in the presence of serotonin have been studied. It was established that serotonin (5x10 -5 M) exerts a radioprotective effect in respect of oxyhemoglobin solutions of pH 5 to 9. Serotonin fails to protect protein in the presence of catalase (1x10 -6 M). It is stated that the process of formation of hydrogen peroxide/serotonin complex appreciably contributes to the protective action of the radioprotective agent in respect of gammairradiated oxyhemoglobin solutions

  3. Gravity-driven pH adjustment for site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2017-12-01

    To automate pH adjustment in site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR, I present a funnel with two caps for the standard 5 mm NMR tube. The novelty of this simple-to-build and inexpensive apparatus is that it allows automatic gravity-driven pH adjustment within the magnet, and consequently results in a fully automated NMR-monitored pH titration without any hardware modification on the NMR spectrometer.

  4. Effects of pH on the stability of cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Violeta P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour variation, colour intensity and stability at various pH values (2.0, 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 of cyanidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (Cy3Glc and its aglycone cyanidin was investigated during a period of 8 hours storage at 25ºC. Our data showed that pH of aqueous solution had impact on spectroscopic profile of cyanidin and Cy3Glc. Beginning with the most acidic solutions, increasing the pH induce bathochromic shifts of absorbance maximum in the visible range for all examined pH values (with the exception pH 4.0 for cyanidin, while the presence of the 3-glucosidic substitution induce hypsochromic shift. Compared to cyanidin, Cy3Glc has higher colour intensity and higher stability in the whole pH range, except at pH 7.0. The 3-glucosidic substitution influences on the colour intensity of Cy3Glc in the alkaline region. After 8-hour incubation of Cy3Glc and cyanidin at pH 2.0 and 25 ºC, 99% of Cy3Glc and only 27% of cyanidin remained unchanged.

  5. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  6. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption under saturated equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Three contaminated bulk surface soils were used for investigating the effect of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption. At a low solution pH, the major chemical species of uranium and thorium, uranyl UO 2 +2 , thorium dihydroxide Th(OH) 2 +2 , and thorium hydroxide Th(OH) +3 , tend to form complexes with acetates in the solution phase, which increases the fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed into this phase. At a high solution pH, important uranium and thorium species such as uranyl tricarbonate complex UO 2 (CO) 33 -4 and thorium tetrahydroxide complex Th(OH) 4 tend to resist complexation with acetates. The presence of complexing reagents in solution can release radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium from the soil to the solution by forming soluble complexes. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are strong complex formers that released 38% to 62% of total uranium activity and 78% to 86% of total thorium activity, respectively, from the soil samples investigated. Solutions of 0.1 molar sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and 0.1 molar sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) were not effective complex formers with uranium and thorium under the experimental conditions. Fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed by 0.15g/200ml humic acid ranged from 4.62% to 6.17% and 1.59% to 7.09%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of a knowledge of solution chemistry in investigating the desorption of radionuclides

  7. Revealing the Dimeric Crystal and Solution Structure of β-Lactoglobulin at pH 4 and Its pH and Salt Dependent Monomer–Dimer Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sanaullah; Ipsen, Richard; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2018-01-01

    The dimeric structure of bovine β-lactoglobulin A (BLGA) at pH 4.0 was solved to 2.0 Å resolution. Fitting the BLGA pH 4.0 structure to SAXS data at low ionic strength (goodness of fit R-factor = 3.6%) verified the dimeric state in solution. Analysis of the monomer–dimer equilibrium at varying pH...... and ionic strength by SAXS and scattering modeling showed that BLGA is dimeric at pH 3.0 and 4.0, shifting toward a monomer at pH 2.2, 2.6, and 7.0 yielding monomer/dimer ratios of 80/20%, 50/50%, and 25/75%, respectively. BLGA remained a dimer at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in 50–150 mM NaCl, whereas the electrostatic...... shielding raised the dimer content at pH 2.2, 2.6, and 7.0, i.e., below and above the pI. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the molecular characteristics of BLGA relevant for dairy product formulations and for various biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications....

  8. Sorption behavior of cesium on various soils under different pH levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakopoulou, F.; Haidouti, C.; Chronopoulou, A.; Gasparatos, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the sorption behavior of Cs in four different soils (sandyloam, loam, clayloam and clay) by using batch experiment. Cs sorption characteristics of the studied soils were examined at 4 mg L -1 Cs concentration, at various pH levels, at room temperature and with 0.01 M CaCl 2 as a background electrolyte. Among different soils the decrease of k d (distribution coefficient) of cesium, at all pH levels, followed the sequence sandyloam > loam > clayloam > clay, indicating that the particle size fractions and especially the clay content plays predominant role on sorption of Cs. The effect of pH on cesium sorption displays a similar pattern for all soils, depending on soil type. At acid pH levels less cesium was sorbed, due to a greater competition with other cations for available sorption sites. The maximum sorption of Cs was observed at pH 8, where the negative charge density on the surface of the absorbents was the highest. For all soils was observed significantly lower Cs sorption at pH 10

  9. pH Sensing Properties of Flexible, Bias-Free Graphene Microelectrodes in Complex Fluids: From Phosphate Buffer Solution to Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jinglei; Blum, Jacquelyn E; Vishnubhotla, Ramya; Vrudhula, Amey; Naylor, Carl H; Gao, Zhaoli; Saven, Jeffery G; Johnson, Alan T Charlie

    2017-08-01

    Advances in techniques for monitoring pH in complex fluids can have a significant impact on analytical and biomedical applications. This study develops flexible graphene microelectrodes (GEs) for rapid (pH of complex biofluids by measuring real-time Faradaic charge transfer between the GE and a solution at zero electrical bias. For an idealized sample of phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the Faradaic current is varied monotonically and systematically with the pH, with a resolution of ≈0.2 pH unit. The current-pH dependence is well described by a hybrid analytical-computational model, where the electric double layer derives from an intrinsic, pH-independent (positive) charge associated with the graphene-water interface and ionizable (negative) charged groups. For ferritin solution, the relative Faradaic current, defined as the difference between the measured current response and a baseline response due to PBS, shows a strong signal associated with ferritin disassembly and the release of ferric ions at pH ≈2.0. For samples of human serum, the Faradaic current shows a reproducible rapid (pH. By combining the Faradaic current and real-time current variation, the methodology is potentially suitable for use to detect tumor-induced changes in extracellular pH. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Salivary pH levels and caries among siblings and parents within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Yaffa; Peretz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    High level of caries activity is related to organisms in the dental plaque with high acidogenesis capacity. To test salivary pH in children of the same family and compare it with their caries status. To compare pH levels between children and their parents. To examine the relationship between pH and caries status among children of the same family and their parents. We examined 123 children and adolescents aged 3-18, (73 boys and 50 girls) and 33 adults, (12 men and 21 women), parents of these children. Caries status was examined clinically, using DMF index. Salivary pH measurements were made by a digital pH meter. Among adults, increase in patient age led to increased DMF (p = 0.005). The higher the pH, the lower the DMF (p = 0.037). Among men, DMF was lower by 3 compared to women (p = 0.049). Children's pH correlated with the parents' (p = 0.004). Children's DMF correlated to their pH (p = 0.001). Children's pH was the best predictor of their DMF (R2 = 0.309, p = 0.001). Among children, the higher the pH, the lower the DMFT. Children's pH was the best predictor of their DMF.

  11. Estimation of Hydrazine Decomposition on Measuring the High-Temperature pH in Hydrazine/ETA Solutions at 553 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yeon, Jei Won; Yun, Myung Hee; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Sang Ill

    2010-01-01

    Hydrazine is one of the most excellent oxygen scavengers used in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, in some pants, the hydrazine is used as a source of hydrogen required to suppress radiolysis of the coolant water in the primary loop. When hydrazine was exposed in the high temperature and high pressure water, it can be decomposed into the various products such as NH 3 , N 2 , H 2 , and NO 3 ions. As the result, the pH of solution containing hydrazine in the condition of the high temperature and high pressure can be changed by those decomposed products. In the present work, we investigated the decomposition behavior of hydrazine in ETA (ethanol amine) solution. In addition, we measured the high temperature pH at 553 K on the various hydrazine/ETA solutions for confirming the applicability of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)- based pH electrode in secondary circuit of the nuclear power plants

  12. New analytical methodology for analysing S(IV) species at low pH solutions by one stage titration method (bichromatometry) with a clear colour change. Could potentially replace the state-of-art-method iodometry at low pH analysis due higher accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka; Galfi, Istvan; Virtanen, Jorma; Gasik, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    A new, faster and more reliable analytical methodology for S(IV) species analysis at low pH solutions by bichromatometry is proposed. For decades the state of the art methodology has been iodometry that is still well justified method for neutral solutions, thus at low pH media possess various side reactions increasing inaccuracy. In contrast, the new methodology has no side reactions at low pH media, requires only one titration step and provides a clear color change if S(IV) species are present in the solution. The method is validated using model solutions with known concentrations and applied to analyses of gaseous SO2 from purged solution in low pH media samples. The results indicate that bichromatometry can accurately analyze SO2 from liquid samples having pH even below 0 relevant to metallurgical industrial processes.

  13. Effect of pH on the corrosion behaviour of SUS321 in the ammonia aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, J. H.; Choi, B. K.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2003-02-01

    The corrosion characteristics of SUS321 for pressure vessel of SMART in pure water, ammonia aqueous solutions of pH 8.5 ∼ 11.5 at 300 .deg. C were evaluated by using static autoclaves. SUS321 specimen in the high temperature ammonia aqueous solution has weight gain or loss by the 4 reactions. And it depends on the refreshing period of the aqueous solution. So additional experiments by recirculating loop system were required to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of SUS321 in the ammonia aqueous solution

  14. Influence of pH and oxygen content of buffer solutions on the corrosion behaviour of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, K.H.

    1977-05-01

    The application of solutions to the decontamination of materials in nuclear installations is based on the condition that their corrosion behaviour is clearly understood. Since electrochemical corrosion is due to cathodic and anodic partial reactions which are influenced in different ways by the pH of the solution and the oxygen content it is suggested that the results of electrochemical experiments with buffer solutions be used as a model for predicting the corrosion behaviour of materials in other solutions. In the tests described here potentio-kinetic current-potential-curves have been traced and galvanic corrosion tests have been made. The results obtained in ascorbic acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate, ammonium citrate and acetate, sodium and potassium tartrate, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, hexamethylene tetramin, ethylene diamine enable - on the basis of summarized current-potential-curves - the metals studied to be classified in four groups characterized by clear differences concerning the influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour. (Auth.)

  15. Influence of the Dentinal Wall on the pH of Sodium Hypochlorite during Root Canal Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo Gomes; Herrero, Noemi Pascual; Wesselink, Paul; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin on the pH levels of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions over time and to evaluate if preconditioning of dentin with 17% EDTA or agitation of the NaOCl solution influences these pH levels.

  16. The influence of low dose irradiation on intracellular pH level, synthesizing activity and ATP level in cultured chinese fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, I.M.; Perishvili, G.V.; Turovetskij, V.B.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Rubin, A.B.; Brovko, L.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation of Chinese fibroblasts with doses of 0.05-0.15 Gy was shown to cause intracellular pH (pH i ) changes: its diminishing during the first 40-60 min by 0.16-0.18 pH units, then the return to the control level 120 min after irradiation and, finally, the increase by 0.18-0.20 pH units. Simultaneously, the synthesizing activity of the cells changed in the same way. The ATP level changed in the opposite way: increased when pH fell and decreased when pH grew. It was shown that pH i changes were connected with the changes in Na + /H + -exchange system, and they seemed to be primary in the chain of the alterations observed

  17. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  18. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  19. Dansyl-8-aminoquinoline as a sensitive pH fluorescent probe with dual-responsive ranges in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shuyu; Ma, Liguo; Zhao, Meili; Deng, Lengfang; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-04-24

    A sensitive pH fluorescent probe based on dansyl group, dansyl-8-aminoquinoline (DAQ), has been synthesized. The probe showed dual-responsive ranges to pH changes, one range from 2.00 to 7.95 and another one from 7.95 to 10.87 in aqueous solution, as it showed pKa values of 5.73 and 8.56 under acid and basic conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the pH response mechanism of the probe was explored successfully by using NMR spectra. The results indicated that the responses of DAQ to pH changes should attribute to the protonation of the nitrogen atom in the dimethylamino group and deprotonation of sulfonamide group. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Peroxidase-mediated polymerization of 1-naphthol: impact of solution pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Alok; Xu, Fangxiang; Koch, David E; Hunter, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    Peroxidase-mediated oxidation has been proposed as a treatment method for naphthol-contaminated water. However, the impact of solution chemistry on naphthol polymerization and removal has not been documented. This research investigated the impact of pH and ionic strength on peroxidase-mediated removal of 1-naphthol in completely mixed batch reactors. The impact of hydrogen peroxide to 1-naphthol ratio and activity of horseradish peroxidase was also studied. Size exclusion chromatography was used to estimate the molecular weight distribution of oligomeric products, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to estimate product structure. Naphthol transformation decreased with ionic strength, and substrate removal was lowest at neutral pHs. Solution pH influenced the size and the composition of the oligomeric products. An equimolar ratio of H(2)O(2):naphthol was sufficient for optimal naphthol removal. Polymerization products included naphthoquinones and oligomers derived from two, three, and four naphthol molecules. Our results illustrate the importance of water chemistry when considering a peroxidase-based approach for treatment of naphthol-contaminated waters.

  1. Influence of pH on extracellular matrix preservation during lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Balestrini, Jenna L; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Liping; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.

  2. Contribution of solution pH and buffer capacity to suppress intergranular stress corrosion cracking of sensitized type 304 stainless steel at 95 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Shibata, T.; Haruna, T.

    1999-01-01

    Controlling pH of high-temperature water to ∼pH 7 at 300 C by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) into the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) successfully has been mitigating the corrosion of PWR component materials. The effects of solution pH and buffer capacity on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized type 304 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S30400) was examined at 95 C by slow strain rate technique (SSRT) with an in-situ cracking observation system. It was found that an increase in solution pH or buffer capacity increased crack initiation time and decreased mean crack initiation frequency, but exerted almost no effect on crack propagation. This inhibition effect on IGSCC initiation was explained as resulting from a retarding effect of solution pH and buffer capacity on the decrease in pH at crack nuclei caused by the hydrolysis of metal ions dissolved when the passive film was ruptured by strain in SSRT

  3. pH sensing characteristics and biosensing application of solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Duck-Jin; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Thanh, Tien Nguyen; Quang, Trung Tran; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2013-07-15

    Solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (R-GO FETs) were investigated for pH sensing and biochemical sensing applications. A channel of a networked R-GO film formed by self-assembly was incorporated as a sensing layer into a solution-gated FET structure for pH sensing and the detection of acetylcholine (Ach), which is a neurotransmitter in the nerve system, through enzymatic reactions. The fabricated R-GO FET was sensitive to protons (H(+)) with a pH sensitivity of 29 mV/pH in terms of the shift of the charge neutrality point (CNP), which is attributed to changes in the surface potential caused by the interaction of protons with OH surface functional groups present on the R-GO surface. The R-GO FET immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used to detect Ach in the concentration range of 0.1-10mM by sensing protons generated during the enzymatic reactions. The results indicate that R-GO FETs provide the capability to detect protons, demonstrating their applicability as a biosensing device for enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic determination of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanu, A.; Glover, E.T.; Bailey, E.; Rochelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    A technique of measuring pH at temperature range of 20 - 70 0 C and high pressure conditions of 1 - 200 atmospheres has been developed by relating the ratio of absorbance peaks of indicator solutions (basic and acidic) as a function of pH, using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The pH values of the buffer solutions measured at 20 0 C and 70 0 C indicated slight temperature dependence, while the pressure had no effect. The pH of the buffer solutions increased with temperature with relative standard deviations in the range 0.4 - 0.5 % at 95 % confidence interval. The possible causes of the temperature dependence were attributed to changes in pH values as the temperature changed. (au)

  5. Influence of the pH value of a colloidal gold solution on the absorption spectra of an LSPR-assisted sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Wenbin; Zhu, Mao; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Wencheng; Liu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold particles assembled on a crystal plate are a powerful tool for biological sensors. Here, we prepare gold colloids in different pH solutions. We monitor the effects of the particle radius and particle coverage on the absorption spectra of AT-cut (r-face dihedral angle of about 3°) crystal plates supporting gold nanoparticles. The surface morphologies were monitored on silicon dioxide substrates using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the gold particle coverage decreases with increasing pH value of the gold colloid solution. This phenomenon demonstrates that self-assembled gold surfaces were formed via the electrostatic adsorption of gold particles on the positively charged, ionized amino groups on the crystal plates in the acidic solution. The spectrum of gold nanoparticles with different coverage degree on the crystal plates showed that the LSPR properties are highly dependent on pH

  6. Migration characteristics of cobalt-60 through sandy soil in high pH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Migration characteristics of 60 Co through sandy soil in high pH solution has been investigated by both column and batch techniques. The association of 60 Co with the sandy soil and its components were studied by sequential extraction techniques. The concentration profile of 60 Co in the sandy soil column was composed of two exponential curves showing that 60 Co would consist of immobile and mobile fractions. The immobile 60 Co was retained by the sandy soil and was distributed near the top. Though the mobile 60 Co was little sorbed by soil and migrated through the soil column, maximum concentration of 60 Co in the effluents decreased slightly with increasing path length of the soil column. The sequential extraction of 60 Co from the sandy soil and from its components showed that 60 Co was sorbed by both manganese oxide and clay minerals. And manganese oxide is one of the responsible soil components for the observed decrease in the maximum concentration of 60 Co in the effluents. Although the content of manganese oxide in the sandy soil was 0.13%, manganese oxide is the important component to prevent from the migration of 60 Co in the high pH solution. (author)

  7. The electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel AISI 304 in alkaline solutions with different pH in the presence of chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, L.; Carmezim, M.J.; Ferreira, M.G.S.; Montemor, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The passivation and passivation breakdown of AISI 304 in alkaline solutions with different pH was studied. → The electrochemical behaviour and the corrosion resistance in chloride environments were evaluated using d.c. potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. → The results were modelled using a hierarchically distributed circuit and revealed a more susceptible surface at pH 9. → The passive film characterization was carried out by SEM and EDS analysis, revealing the existence of MnS inclusions and the increase of Cr/Fe ratio in the attacked areas, preferably the vicinity of those inclusions. - Abstract: Nowadays, stainless steel reinforcements appear as an effective solution to increase the durability of reinforced concrete structures exposed to very aggressive environments. AISI 304 is widely used for this purpose. Although the improved durability of reinforcing AISI 304, when compared to carbon steel, there is a high probability of pitting susceptibility in the presence of chlorides. Thus, the present work aims at studying the passivation and passivation breakdown of AISI 304 in alkaline solutions of different pH (pH from 13 to 9), simulating the interstitial concrete electrolyte. These solutions were contaminated with different concentrations of chloride ions (3% and 10%, as NaCl). The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated by d.c. potentiodynamic polarization and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphological features and the changes observed in the surface composition were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) together with EDS chemical analysis. The results evidence that pH plays an important role in the evolution of the film resistance and charge transfer processes. Moreover, the effect is highly dependent upon the chloride content and immersion time.

  8. Impact of Initial pH and Pyrolysis Temperature on the Adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ from Aqueous Solutions on Corn Straw-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shuai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were performed on Cr(Ⅵ adsorption using four straw-based materials including corn straw and three kinds of biochar pyrolysed at 300 ℃, 450 ℃ and 600 ℃, respectively. The results showed that the Cr(Ⅵ adsorption were significantly affected by initial pH and pyrolysis temperature. The data were described by kinetic and isotherm models, and showed that the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ was increased with the decrease of initial pH. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ were decreased with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature at pH=3 or pH=5. The biochar pyrolysed at 300 ℃ had the best capability of removing Cr(Ⅵ from aqueous solution at pH=1, and the maxi-mum adsorption quantity was 141.24 mg·g-1 approximately. It observed that both the lower initial pH and the lower pyrolysis temperature had positive effects on the removal of Cr(Ⅵ from aqueous solution.

  9. Calculation of the equilibrium pH in a multiple-buffered aqueous solution based on partitioning of proton buffering: a new predictive formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-06-01

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution containing multiple buffers, the final H+ concentration ([H+]) at equilibrium is determined by the partitioning of added H+ among the various buffer components. In the analysis of acid-base chemistry, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the Stewart strong ion formulation can only describe (rather than predict) the equilibrium pH following a proton load since these formulas calculate the equilibrium pH only when the reactant concentrations at equilibrium(1) 1The term "equilibrium" refers to the steady state proton and reactant concentrations when the buffering of excess protons by the various buffers is complete. are already known. In this regard, it is simpler to directly measure the equilibrium pH rather than measure the equilibrium reactant concentrations to calculate the equilibrium pH. As these formulas cannot predict the final equilibrium [H+] following a proton load to a multiple-buffered aqueous solution, we developed a new quantitative approach for predicting the equilibrium [H+] that is based on the preequilibrium(2)2 The term "preequilibrium" refers to the initial proton and reactant concentrations immediately upon addition of protons and before the buffering of excess protons by the various buffers. concentrations of all buffers in an aqueous solution. The mathematical model used to derive our equation is based on proton transfer buffer equilibria without requiring the incorporation of electroneutrality considerations. The model consists of a quartic polynomial equation that is derived based solely on the partitioning of H+ among the various buffer components. We tested the accuracy of the model using aqueous solutions with various buffers and measured the equilibrium pH values following the addition of HCl. Our results confirmed the accuracy of our new equation (r2 = 1; measured pH vs. predicted pH), indicating that it quantitatively accounts for the underlying acid-base phenomenology.

  10. Calculation of the equilibrium pH in a multiple-buffered aqueous solution based on partitioning of proton buffering: a new predictive formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minhtri K.; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution containing multiple buffers, the final H+ concentration ([H+]) at equilibrium is determined by the partitioning of added H+ among the various buffer components. In the analysis of acid-base chemistry, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the Stewart strong ion formulation can only describe (rather than predict) the equilibrium pH following a proton load since these formulas calculate the equilibrium pH only when the reactant concentrations at equilibrium1 1The term “equilibrium” refers to the steady state proton and reactant concentrations when the buffering of excess protons by the various buffers is complete. are already known. In this regard, it is simpler to directly measure the equilibrium pH rather than measure the equilibrium reactant concentrations to calculate the equilibrium pH. As these formulas cannot predict the final equilibrium [H+] following a proton load to a multiple-buffered aqueous solution, we developed a new quantitative approach for predicting the equilibrium [H+] that is based on the preequilibrium22The term “preequilibrium” refers to the initial proton and reactant concentrations immediately upon addition of protons and before the buffering of excess protons by the various buffers. concentrations of all buffers in an aqueous solution. The mathematical model used to derive our equation is based on proton transfer buffer equilibria without requiring the incorporation of electroneutrality considerations. The model consists of a quartic polynomial equation that is derived based solely on the partitioning of H+ among the various buffer components. We tested the accuracy of the model using aqueous solutions with various buffers and measured the equilibrium pH values following the addition of HCl. Our results confirmed the accuracy of our new equation (r2 = 1; measured pH vs. predicted pH), indicating that it quantitatively accounts for the underlying acid-base phenomenology. PMID

  11. The passivation of calcite by acid mine water. Column experiments with ferric sulfate and ferric chloride solutions at pH 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Josep M. [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)], E-mail: jsoler@ija.csic.es; Boi, Marco [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Mogollon, Jose Luis [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nico, Peter S.; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Column experiments, simulating the behavior of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage, have been performed. Acid solutions (HCl or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, pH 2), with initial concentrations of Fe(III) ranging from 250 to 1500 mg L{sup -1}, were injected into column reactors packed with calcite grains at a constant flow rate. The composition of the solutions was monitored during the experiments. At the end of the experiments (passivation of the columns), the composition and structure of the solids were measured. The dissolution of calcite in the columns caused an increase in pH and the release of Ca into the solution, leading to the precipitation of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates (Fe(III)-SO{sub 4}-H{sup +} solutions) or Fe-oxyhydroxychlorides (Fe(III)-Cl-H{sup +} solutions). The columns worked as an efficient barrier for some time, increasing the pH of the circulating solutions from 2 to {approx}6-7 and removing its metal content. However, after some time (several weeks, depending on the conditions), the columns became chemically inert. The results showed that passivation time increased with decreasing anion and metal content of the solutions. Gypsum was the phase responsible for the passivation of calcite in the experiments with Fe(III)-SO{sub 4}-H{sup +} solutions. Schwertmannite and goethite appeared as the Fe(III) secondary phases in those experiments. Akaganeite was the phase responsible for the passivation of the system in the experiments with Fe(III)-Cl-H{sup +} solutions.

  12. Modeling the chemical kinetics of atmospheric plasma for cell treatment in a liquid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. Y.; Kang, S. K.; Lee, H. Wk.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, G. C.; Lee, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been known to be effective for living cell inactivation in a liquid solution but it is not clear yet which species are key factors for the cell treatment. Using a global model, we elucidate the processes through which pH level in the solution is changed from neutral to acidic after plasma exposure and key components with pH and air variation. First, pH level in a liquid solution is changed by He + and He(2 1 S) radicals. Second, O 3 density decreases as pH level in the solution decreases and air concentration decreases. It can be a method of removing O 3 that causes chest pain and damages lung tissue when the density is very high. H 2 O 2 , HO 2 , and NO radicals are found to be key factors for cell inactivation in the solution with pH and air variation.

  13. Analysis of the electric conductivity and pH behaviors in recycled drainage solution of rose cv. Charlotte plants grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Yepes V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In open soilless cropping systems contamination from nutrient lixiviation is generated making it necessary to design closed or semi-closed systems, which require the determination of the maximum saline levels in recycling solutions. In this study, the electric conductivity (EC and pH behaviors were analyzed in drainage solution intended for recycling in the crop; in addition, parameters were used to estimate nutrient availability for the plants in a substrate based cropping system. This research project was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the municipality of Mosquera (Colombia. Rose cv. Charlotte grafted on "Natal briar" stocks were used, sown in pots arranged on elevated beds, 15 m in length. This project was carried out using a split-plot design with sub-plots (with the substrate as the main plot and the recycling as the sub-plot, three kinds of substrate and three recycling percentages (0, 50, and 100%, for a total of 27 experimental units. Substrate mixtures based on burned rice husk and coconut fiber were used. Recycling during one harvest cycle of the roses did not show EC and pH values above those that are considered to have a negative impact on production; however, an increasing behavior in the EC and pH values was observed. Likewise, no significant differences between the 50 and 100% recycling were observed, which means 100% recycling can be used, optimizing nutrient use and water conservation

  14. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  15. Kinetic Rate Law Parameter Measurements on a Borosilicate Waste Glass: Effect of Temperature, pH, and Solution Composition on Alkali Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B PETER.; Icenhower, J P.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of glass is controlled by matrix dissolution and ion exchange (IEX). Dissolution of an alkali-rich simulated borosilicate waste glass was investigated using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments. Experiments were conducted as a function of temperature, pH, and solution composition by varying the SiO 2 (aq) activity in the influent solution. Results showed that under dilute conditions matrix dissolution increased with increasing pH and temperature, and decreased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. IEX rates decreased with increasing pH and temperature, and increased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. Over the solution composition range interrogated in this study the dominant dissolution mechanism changed from matrix dissolution to IEX. These results suggest that ''secondary'' reactions may become dominant under certain environmental conditions and emphasize the need to incorporate these reactions into dissolution rate models

  16. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  17. Initial dissolution rate of a Japanese simulated high-level waste glass P0798 as a function of pH and temperature measured by using micro-channel flow-through test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Makigaki, Hikaru; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Mitsui, Sei-ichiro; Noshita, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests were performed for a Japanese type of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass P0798 by using a newly developed test method of micro-channel flow-through (MCFT) method, and the initial dissolution rate of glass matrix, r 0 , was measured as a function of solution pH (3-11) and temperature (25-90degC) precisely and consistently for systematic evaluation of the dissolution kinetics. The MCFT method using a micro-channel reactor with a coupon shaped glass specimen has the following features to provide precise and consistent data on the glass dissolution rate: (1) any controlled constant solution condition can be provided over the test duration; (2) the glass surface area actually reacting with solution can be determined accurately; and (3) direct and totally quantitative analyses of the reacted glass surface can be performed for confirming consistency of the test results. The present test results indicated that the r 0 shows a 'V-shaped' pH dependence with a minimum at around pH 6 at 25degC, but it changes to a 'U-shaped' one with a flat bottom at neutral pH at elevated temperatures of up to 90degC. The present results also indicated that the r 0 increases with temperature according to an Arrhenius law at any pH, and the apparent activation energy evaluated from Arrhenius relation increases with pH from 54 kJ/mol at pH 3 to 76 kJ/mol at pH 10, which suggests that the dissolution mechanism changes depending on pH. (author)

  18. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  19. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Simulated Concrete Solution with Different pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchen XIE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanizing technology is now widely used as a method of protection for steel rebars. The corrosion behaviors of Q235 carbon steel and hot galvanized steel in a Ca(OH2 solution with a pH from 10 to 13 was investigated by electrode potential and polarization curves testing. The results indicated that carbon steel and hot galvanized steel were all passivated in a strong alkaline solution. The electrode potential of hot dip galvanized steel was lower than that of carbon steel; thus, hot dip galvanized steel can provide very good anodic protection for carbon steel. However, when the pH value reached 12.5, a polarity reversal occurred under the condition of a certain potential. Hot dip galvanized coating became a cathode, and the corrosion of carbon steel accelerated. The electrochemical behaviors and passivation abilities of hot dip galvanized steel and carbon steel were affected by pH. The higher the pH value was, the more easily they were passivated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16675

  20. Influence of pH, temperature and thermal treatment on site corrosion of SAE 304 steel in chlorinated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, I.B.

    1982-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour and fracture morphology of homogenized and sensitized type SAE 304 stainless steel U bent specimens, in 3% NaCl solution, at pH=2.0 and pH=7.0 both at room temperature and 100 0 C was studied. Polarization curves, galvanostatic and potentiostatic experiments were run. It could be observed that high temperature and low pH favour transgranular cracking and longer sensitization times lower fracture time and tend to give rise to intergranular fracture. Light sensitization can produce transgranular cracking even at room temperature, when the homogenized alloy does not present stress-corrosion cracking for the same condition. (Author) [pt

  1. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in solution at varying pH values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, B.; Banik, N.L.; Marquardt, C.M.; Rothe, J.; Denecke, M.A.; Geckeis, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung

    2009-07-01

    We perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations to monitor the stabilization of redox sensitive trivalent and tetravalent actinide ions in solution at acidic conditions in a pH range from 0 to 3 after treatment with holding reductants, hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OHHCl) and Rongalite (sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, CH{sub 3}NaO{sub 3}S). X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements clearly demonstrate the stability of the actinide species for several hours under the given experimental conditions. Hence, structural parameters can be accurately derived by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) investigations. The coordination structure of oxygen atoms belonging to water ligands surrounding the actinide ions does not change with increasing pH value (approximately 11 O atoms at 2.42 A in the case of U(IV) at pH 1, 9 0 atoms at 2.52 A for Np(III) at pH 1.5, and 10 O atoms at 2.49 A for Pu(III) up to pH 3), indicating that hydrolysis reactions are suppressed under the given chemical conditions. (orig.)

  3. Low pH levels wipe out salmon and trout populations in southernmost Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K W; Snekvik, E

    1972-01-01

    A gradual decrease in pH has been documented for many Scandinavian rivers and lakes and there is little doubt that the main cause is acid precipitation (1-4). Eggs, fry, and alevins of salmon and brown trout are more susceptible to acid water than are the older fish. A gradually increasing acidity of trout biotopes will cause a reduction in the natural reproduction rate of trout, because eggs and fry succumb, while the older individuals in the population survive, at least until the pH level sinks low enough to affect them, as well. A study of the present situation and examination of the available data show that the salmon populations in a number of rivers in southernmost Norway have been nearly wiped out by low pH values. During the last twenty to thirty years, low pH levels have eliminated the brown trout populations in a great number of lakes and rivers in Norway's southernmost districts. This alarming development is continuing.

  4. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  5. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  6. Influence of alkaline (PH 8.3-12.0) and saline solutions on chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of two different bentonites - batch experiments at 25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikola, Tiina; Vuorinen, Ulla; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Construction of a spent fuel repository deep in the bedrock will need supporting structures using cement materials. A part of them can be removed before closure but still it is estimated that about 1000 tonnes will remain in the host rock. Degradation of cementitious materials produces leachates of high pH. If such an alkaline plume reaches the bentonite buffer, it may induce mineralogical and chemical changes in bentonite over long term, and further affect the safety functions of the buffer. Laboratory experiments were done with the objective to gain data of possible alterations in mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of bentonites contacted with high-pH saline solutions. Two untreated, high grade, Na- and Ca-bentonites, were used in batch experiments, which were carried out in an anaerobic glove-box at 25±1 deg. C for 554 days. Each bentonite sample (20 g) was leached with approximately 3.8 L of leaching solution, which equals 190 mL/g of bentonite. The bentonites were leached with three types of simulated cement waters (pH 9.7, 11.3 and 12.0) and one saline groundwater simulate (pH 8.3) as a reference. The leaching solutions were 0.3 M, and contained NaCl and CaCl 2 , and trace amounts of SiO 2 , K, Br, Mg and SO 4 . Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed from leaching solutions before mixing of bentonite in PC bottles. The samples were placed on a platform shaker in order to allow better contact between bentonite and the leaching solution. The evolution of pH in the samples was followed by measuring the pH-value of each sample in the solution phase approximately twice a week and the solution was renewed when values of two to three consecutive measurements did not change. On average, the leaching solution was renewed once a month. For each renewal of the leaching solution the phases were separated, the reacted solution withdrawn, and the chemical composition analysed. Before analysis the

  7. pH sensing in aqueous solutions using a MnO2 thin film electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchour, N.; Deslouis, C.; Messaoudi, B.; Pailleret, A.

    2011-01-01

    An electrolysis technique at a constant potential was used to develop a highly reproducible and fast elaboration method of adherent manganese dioxide thin films on a glassy carbon electrode from aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid and manganese sulfate. The resulting films were found to have a nanostructured character presumably due rather to birnessite (δ-MnO 2 ) than to γ-MnO 2 , as suggested by their Raman and XRD signatures. They lead to modified electrodes that present an obvious although complex pH dependent potentiometric response. This sensor indeed showed a single slope non-Nernstian linear behaviour over the 1.5-12 pH range for increasing pH direction ('trace'), whereas a Nernstian two slopes linear behaviour was observed for decreasing pH direction ('re-trace'). Preliminary EIS experiments carried out at a pH value of 1.8 seem to reveal a sensitivity mechanism based on proton insertion process at least at highly acidic pH values.

  8. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in pat...

  9. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  10. The study on the pH behavior of the HFSC leached solution. The development of model considering the pozzolanic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yasushi; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    The development of low alkalinity cement (high fly-ash contained silica-fume cement, HFSC) has been carried out in JNC. Low alkalinity for this cement is achieved by adding pozzolan materials to ordinary portland cement and Ca ion attributed to high alkalinity is consumed by forming CHS gel. This report shows the calculation model to predict the composition for HFSC reacted solution which considers cement mineral dissolution/precipitation as equilibrium reactions and dissolution for pozzolan material as a kinetic reaction. The dissolution kinetic equation for pozzolan material is also derived from leaching experiment. This calculation model is applied to the leaching experiment where powdered HFSC was reacted with distilled water. As a result of comparison between calculation and experimental measurement at the early stage for leaching the tendency for pH, pH decrease from 12.5 to 11.5 drastically, could be interpreted by this calculation model, however, after this drastic pH decreasing pH predicted by calculation model also shows drastic decrease whereas pH for experiment decreased mildly around pH 11.5. It could be thought that this difference between experiment and calculation is caused by inappropriate modelling for CSH gel dissolution/precipitation of C/S value lower than 1.0. For this C/S range thermodynamic data for intermediate and end member for solid solution for CSH gel and in addition the reaction kinetic for CSH gel should be examined in detail. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  12. Effect of interactions between carbon dioxide enrichment and NH4+/NO3- ratio on pH of culturing nutrient solution,growth and vigor of tomato root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan LI; Jianmin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A growth chamber experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the pH in nutrient solution,growth and root vigor system of tomato seedling roots,which attempts to understand whether the elevated CO2 concentration can alleviate the harmful effects of higher NH4+-N concentration in nutrient solutions on the tomato root system.Tomato (Lycopersicon esculenturn Mill.var.Hezuo 906) was grown in pots with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratio (0:1,1:3,1:1,3:1and 1:0) and the growth chambers were supplied with with the growth process and CO2 concentration increased.At both CO2 levels,pH increased when 100% NO3--N was supplied and decreased in other treatments.The pH decrease in the nutrient solution was directly correlated to the NH4+-N proportion.The pH value was more reduced in 100% NH4+-N nutrient solution than increased in the 100% NO3--N nutrient solution.CO2 enrichment increased the dry weight of shoots and roots,root vigor system,total absorbing area and active absorbing area of tomato seedlings.All the measurement indexes above were increased in the elevated CO2 concentration treatment with the NO3- proportion increase in the nutrient solutions.Thus,under the elevated CO2 concentration,the dry weights of shoots and roots,root vigor system,total root absorbing area and active absorbing area were found to be inversely correlated to NH4+/NO3- ratio,leading to about 65.8%,78.0%,18.9%,12.9% and 18.9% increase,respectively,compared with that under the ambient CO2 concentration.Our results indicated that tomato seedling roots may benefit mostly from CO2 enrichment when 100% NO3--N nutrient solutions was supplied,but the CO2 concentration elevation did not alleviate the harmful effects when 100% NHa+-N was supplied.

  13. Changing noise levels in a high CO2/lower pH ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Hester, K. C.; Peltzer, E. T.; Kirkwood, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    We show that ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion and from increased respiration/reduced ventilation, has significantly reduced ocean sound absorption and thus increased ocean noise levels in the kHz frequency range. Below 10 kHz, sound absorption occurs due to well known chemical relaxations in the B(OH)3/B(OH)4- and HCO3-/CO32- systems. The pH dependence of these chemical relaxations results in decreased sound absorption (α = dB/km) as the ocean becomes more acidic from increased CO2 levels. The scale of surface ocean pH change today from the +105 ppmv change in atmospheric CO2 is about - 0.12 pH, resulting in frequency dependent decreases in sound absorption that now exceed 12% over pre- industrial. Under reasonable projections of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions and other sources a pH change of 0.3 units or more can be anticipated by mid-century, resulting in a decrease in α by almost 40%. Increases in water temperature have a smaller effect but also contribute to decreased sound absorption. Combining a lowering of 0.3 pH units with an increase of 3°C, α will decrease further to almost 45%. Ambient noise levels in the ocean within the auditory range critical for environmental, military, and economic interests are set to increase significantly due to the combined effects of decreased absorption and increasing sources from mankind's activities. Incorporation of sound absorption in modeling future ocean scenarios (R. Zeebe, personal communication) and long-term monitoring possibly with the aid of modern cabled observatories can give insights in how ocean noise will continue to change and its effect on groups such as marine mammals which communicate in the affected frequency range.

  14. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  15. Semi-mechanistic partial buffer approach to modeling pH, the buffer properties, and the distribution of ionic species in complex solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Daniel P; Da Conceicao Neta, Edith Ramos; McFeeters, Roger F; Lubkin, Sharon R; Breidt, Frederick

    2006-08-09

    In many biological science and food processing applications, it is very important to control or modify pH. However, the complex, unknown composition of biological media and foods often limits the utility of purely theoretical approaches to modeling pH and calculating the distributions of ionizable species. This paper provides general formulas and efficient algorithms for predicting the pH, titration, ionic species concentrations, buffer capacity, and ionic strength of buffer solutions containing both defined and undefined components. A flexible, semi-mechanistic, partial buffering (SMPB) approach is presented that uses local polynomial regression to model the buffering influence of complex or undefined components in a solution, while identified components of known concentration are modeled using expressions based on extensions of the standard acid-base theory. The SMPB method is implemented in a freeware package, (pH)Tools, for use with Matlab. We validated the predictive accuracy of these methods by using strong acid titrations of cucumber slurries to predict the amount of a weak acid required to adjust pH to selected target values.

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ozone treatment of apple juice at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S; Valdramidis, V P; Cullen, P J; Frias, J; Bourke, P

    2010-09-01

    This research investigated the efficacy of gaseous ozone on the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900 strains in apple juice of a range of pH levels, using an ozone bubble column. The pH levels investigated were 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0. Apple juice inoculated with E. coli strains (10(6)CFU/mL) was treated with ozone gas at a flow rate of 0.12L/min and ozone concentration of 0.048 mg/min/mL for up to 18 min. Results show that inactivation kinetics of E. coli by ozone were affected by pH of the juice. The ozone treatment duration required for achieving a 5-log reduction was faster (4 min) at the lowest pH than at the highest pH (18 min) studied. The relationship between time required to achieve 5log reduction (t(5d)) and pH for both strains was described mathematically by two exponential equations. Ozone treatment appears to be an effective process for reducing bacteria in apple juice and the required applied treatment for producing a safe apple juice is dependant on its acidity level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyotomo, Gadang, E-mail: gada001@lipi.go.id; Nuraini, Lutviasari, E-mail: Lutviasari@gmail.com [Research Center for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Gd.474, Setu, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314 (Indonesia); Kaneno, Yasuyuki, E-mail: kaneno@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.id [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  18. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution as a function of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengtao; Xiao, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Chitosan was reported to interact with proteins through electrostatic interactions. Their interaction was influenced by pH, which was not fully characterized. Further research on the interactions between protein and chitosan at different pH and their influence on the thermal denaturation of proteins is necessary. In this research, the effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution at pH 4.0-6.0 was studied. At pH 4.0, a small amount chitosan was able to prevent the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein molecules. At higher pH values (5.5 and 6.0), whey proteins complexed with chitosan through electrostatic attraction. The formation of chitosan-whey protein complexes at pH 5.5 improved the heat stability of dispersions and no precipitation could be detected up to 20 days. The dispersion with a medium amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:5) produced the most stable particles, which had an average radius of 135 ± 14 nm and a zeta potential value of 36 ± 1 mV. In contrast, at pH 6.0 only the dispersion with a high amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:2) showed good shelf stability up to 20 days. It was possible to produce heat-stable whey protein beverages by regulating the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The influence of surface modification, coating agents and pH value of aqueous solutions on physical properties of magnetite nanoparticles investigated by ESR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobosz, Bernadeta, E-mail: benia@amu.edu.pl [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Krzyminiewski, Ryszard [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Kurczewska, Joanna; Schroeder, Grzegorz [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of electron spin resonance (ESR) studies for aqueous solutions of functionalized superparamagnetic iron(II,III) oxide nanoparticles. The samples studied differed in type of organic ligands at the magnetite surface, type of coating agent and pH value of aqueous solutions. The ESR spectra of the samples were obtained at room temperature and at 230 K. The field cooling (FC) experiment was performed for selected samples, and the effective anisotropy field (H{sub K2}) and the first order magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}) was calculated. The process of the nanoparticles diffusion in different environments (human blood, human serum) forced by an inhomogeneous magnetic field was monitored and their interactions with different solvents have been discussed. It has been shown that ESR method is useful to observe the impact of organic ligands at the magnetite surface, type of coating agent and pH value of aqueous solutions on the properties of iron(II,III) oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The influence of different organic ligands, coatings and pH values of aqueous solutions on the physical properties of the magnetite nanoparticles studied by ESR method. • Nanoparticles diffusion forced by inhomogeneous magnetic field monitored by ESR and explained. • A narrow line separated in ESR spectra by CREM. • The influence of different coatings and pH values of aqueous solutions on ESR spectra of TEMPO attached to the magnetite core.

  1. Ratiometric pH Imaging with a CoII2 MRI Probe via CEST Effects of Opposing pH Dependences (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-13

    acid-catalyzed proton exchange, respectively. Importantly, the pH calibration curve is independent of the probe concentration and is identical in...in aqueous solutions containing 50 mM HEPES and 100 mM NaCl buffered at various pH values were acquired using D2O in an inner capillary to lock the...ppm using a presaturation pulse applied for 6 s at a power level (B1) of 24 μT. D2O was placed in an inner capillary within the NMR sample tube to lock

  2. Passivation Characteristics of Alloy Corrosion-Resistant Steel Cr10Mo1 in Simulating Concrete Pore Solutions: Combination Effects of pH and Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhiyong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Jinyang; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical behaviour for passivation of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 immersed in alkaline solutions with different pH values (13.3, 12.0, 10.5, and 9.0) and chloride contents (0.2 M and 1.0 M), was investigated by various electrochemical techniques: linear polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were determined by XPS. The morphological features and surface composition of the immersed steel were evaluated by SEM together with EDS chemical analysis. The results evidence that pH plays an important role in the passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel and the effect is highly dependent upon the chloride contents. In solutions with low chloride (0.2 M), the corrosion-resistant steel has notably enhanced passivity with pH falling from 13.3 to 9.0, but does conversely when in presence of high chloride (1.0 M). The passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer enriched in Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer, rich in Cr species. The film composition varies with pH values and chloride contents. As the pH drops, more Cr oxides are enriched in the film while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Increasing chloride promotes Cr oxides and Fe oxides to transform into their hydroxides with little protection, and this is more significant at lower pH (10.5 and 9.0). These changes annotate passivation characteristics of the corrosion-resistant steel in the solutions of different electrolyte.

  3. Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of fresh and marine ... are already evident but the impact of these changes on marine and coastal living ... and their potential impacts on global climate and aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Soil solution Zn and pH dynamics in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens grown in a Zn/Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Christie, P; Baker, A J

    2000-07-01

    Temporal changes in soil solution properties and metal speciation were studied in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl (population from Prayon, Belgium) grown in a Zn- and Cd-contaminated soil. This paper focuses on soil solution Zn and pH dynamics during phytoextraction. The concentration of Zn in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soil solutions decreased from 23 mg/l at the beginning to 2 mg/l at the end of the experiment (84 days after transplanting of seedlings), mainly due to chemical sorption. There was no significant difference in overall Zn concentration between the planted and the unplanted soil solutions (P > 0.05). Soil solution pH decreased initially and then increased slightly in both planted and unplanted soil zones. From 60 to 84 days after transplanting, the pH of the rhizosphere soil solution was higher than that of non-rhizosphere soil solution (P<0.05). Zn uptake by the hyperaccumulator plants was 8.8 mg per pot (each containing 1 kg oven-dry soil) on average. The data indicate that the potential of T. caerulescens to remove Zn from contaminated soil may not be related to acidification of the rhizosphere.

  5. Influence of the solution pH in the 6-mercaptopurine self-assembled monolayer (6MP-SAM) on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madueño, Rafael; García-Raya, Daniel; Viudez, Alfonso J; Sevilla, José M; Pineda, Teresa; Blázquez, Manuel

    2007-10-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) have been prepared on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode by immersion of the metal surface in a 100 microM 6MP and 0.01 M HClO4 solution. The 6MP-SAM Au(111) single-crystal electrodes were transferred to the cell and allowed to equilibrate with the different aqueous working solutions before the electrochemical experiments. The influence of the solution pH was studied by cyclic voltammetry, double layer capacitance curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the 6MP-SAM in acetic acid at pH 4 presents important differences in comparison to that obtained in 0.1 M KOH solutions. Cyclic voltammograms for the reductive desorption process in acid medium are broad and show some features that can be explained by a phase transition between a chemisorbed and a physisorbed state of the 6MP molecules. The low solubility of these molecules in acid medium could explain this phenomenon and the readsorption of the complete monolayer when the potential is scanned in the positive direction. The variation of the double-layer capacitance values in the potential range of monolayer stability with the pH suggests that the acid-base chemistry of the 6MP molecules is playing a role. This fact has been studied by following the variations of the electron-transfer rate constant of the highly charged redox probes as are Fe(CN)(6)-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)(6)+3/+2 as a function of solution pH. The apparent surface pKa value for the 6MP-SAM (pKa approximately 8) is explained by the total conversion of the different 6MP tautomers that exist in solution to the thiol species in the adsorbed state.

  6. pH sensing in aqueous solutions using a MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchour, N. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Materiaux et Genie des Procedes (LTMGP), Departement de Genie des Procedes, Universite A. Mira, Route de Targa Ouzemmour, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Deslouis, C. [CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Messaoudi, B. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Materiaux et Genie des Procedes (LTMGP), Departement de Genie des Procedes, Universite A. Mira, Route de Targa Ouzemmour, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Pailleret, A., E-mail: alain.pailleret@upmc.fr [CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2011-11-30

    An electrolysis technique at a constant potential was used to develop a highly reproducible and fast elaboration method of adherent manganese dioxide thin films on a glassy carbon electrode from aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid and manganese sulfate. The resulting films were found to have a nanostructured character presumably due rather to birnessite ({delta}-MnO{sub 2}) than to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}, as suggested by their Raman and XRD signatures. They lead to modified electrodes that present an obvious although complex pH dependent potentiometric response. This sensor indeed showed a single slope non-Nernstian linear behaviour over the 1.5-12 pH range for increasing pH direction ('trace'), whereas a Nernstian two slopes linear behaviour was observed for decreasing pH direction ('re-trace'). Preliminary EIS experiments carried out at a pH value of 1.8 seem to reveal a sensitivity mechanism based on proton insertion process at least at highly acidic pH values.

  7. Electrical Conductivity and Chemical Composition of Soil Solution: Comparison of Solution Samplers in Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.

  8. Normalization of pH level and gastric mucosa after eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shunji; Matsukura, Norio; Matsuda, Noriko; Tsuchiya, Shinichi; Naito, Zenya; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    The Updated Sydney System (USS) is used to evaluate chronic gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) due to H. pylori infection. Here, we investigated USS scores and gastric juice pH levels in H. pylori infection-positive or -eradicated patients with remnant stomach after surgery. Gastric juice pH levels were measured using pH test-tape in 197 patients (112 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative after eradication) who had undergone distal gastrectomy and conventional H. pylori eradication therapy. In H. pylori infection-positive remnant stomach cases, gastric juice pH showed a reverse correlation with pepsinogen I/II ratio, and H. pylori infection-negative patients following eradication showed associations with the degree of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia at both the anastomosis and in the corpus. Further, pH levels in these patients were normalized time depending after the eradication in the remnant stomach. Eradication therapy for the remnant stomach contributes to the possible improvement of stomach conditions by controlling the pH level of gastric juice. This effect will be protective against the risk of secondary stomach carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.

  9. Adsorption of phenol by activated carbon: Influence of activation methods and solution pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beker, Ulker; Ganbold, Batchimeg; Dertli, Halil; Guelbayir, Dilek Duranoglu

    2010-01-01

    Cherry stone based activated carbon derived from a canning industry was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol from an aqueous solution in a batch process. A comparative adsorption on the uptake of phenol by using commercial activated carbon (Chemviron CPG-LF), and two non-functional commercial polymeric adsorbents (MN-200 and XAD-2) containing a styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous hyperreticulated network have been also examined. Equilibrium studies were conducted in 25 mg L -1 initial phenol concentrations, 6.5-9 solution pH and at temperature of 30 deg. C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Besides, the cherry stone based activated carbons were carried out by using zinc chloride and KOH activation agents at different chemical ratios (activating agent/precursor), to develop carbons with well-developed porosity. The cherry stone activated carbon prepared using KOH as a chemical agent showed a high surface area. According to the results, activated carbons had excellent adsorptive characteristics in comparison with polymeric sorbents and commercial activated carbon for the phenol removal from the aqueous solutions.

  10. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERN OF SOIL pH AND Eh AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOLUTE IRON CONTENT IN A WETLAND (TRANSDANUBIA, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZALAI ZOLTÁN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils. The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil andvegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation and the pH, Eh of soils and solute iron in a headwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia, three patches and two species, horsetail (Equisetum arvense, common nettle (Urtica dioica. Thespatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography, climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR. Root respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions and higher pH values were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effectsthrough plants on wetlands.

  11. Effect of the pH in the adsorption and in the immersion enthalpy of monohydroxylated phenols from aqueous solutions on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Martínez, D A; Giraldo, L; Moreno-Piraján, J C

    2009-09-30

    An activated carbon Carbochem--PS230 was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H(2) in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical surface in the adsorption of the monohydroxylated phenols. The solid-solution interaction was determined by analyzing the adsorption isotherms at 298 K at pH 7, 9 and 11 during 48 h. The adsorption capacity of activated carbons increases when the pH solution decreases. The amount adsorbed increases in the reduced carbon at the maximum adsorption pH and decreases in the oxidized carbon. In the sample of granulated activated carbon, CAG, the monohydroxylated phenols adsorption capacity diminishes in the following order catechol >hydroquinone >resorcinol, at the three pH values. The experimental data are evaluated with Freundlich's and Langmuir's models. The immersion enthalpies are determined and increase with the retained amount, ranging between 21.5 and 45.7 J g(-1). In addition, the immersion enthalpies show more interaction with the reduced activated carbon that has lower total acidity contents.

  12. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Midena, Raquel Zanin; Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (pPortland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  13. pH effect on pit potential and protection potential of stainless steels AISI-304, 310 and 316 in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, U.Q.; Sathler, L.; Mariano Neto, F.

    1973-06-01

    For three austenitic stainless steels, AISI 304, 310 and 316, the pH influence on the rupture, protection and corrosion potentials was studied in a 0,5N NACl solution. The pit potentials determined by the chronogalvonometric method, are pH independent within the acid range. They showed a rough linear variation within the basic range having a maximum corresponding to the pH value of 8.8. The electrochemical hysteresis method, employed for determining the protection potential, presented a total pH independence for the AISI 316. The other steels showed a small dependence within the basic range but with a tendency for the protection potential to become slightly more active with increasing pH, within the acid range. It was also noted for the three steels studied that the corrosion potental became more active with increasing pH, within the basic range [pt

  14. Magnetite synthesis from ferrous iron solution at pH 6.8 in a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Yvonne M; Zorzano, Karin Bertens; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Partial oxidation of defined Fe 2+ solutions is a well-known method for magnetite synthesis in batch systems. The partial oxidation method could serve as basis for an iron removal process in drinking water production, yielding magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as a compact and valuable product. As a first step toward such a process, a series of experiments was carried out, in which magnetite was synthesized from an Fe 2+ solution in a 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at atmospheric pressure and 32 °C. In four experiments, elevating the pH from an initial value of 5.5 or 6.0 to a final value of 6.8, 7.0 or 7.5 caused green rust to form, eventually leading to magnetite. Formation of NH 4 + in the reactor indicated that NO 3 - and subsequently NO 2 - served as the oxidant. However, mass flow analysis revealed an influx of O 2 to the reactor. In a subsequent experiment, magnetite formation was achieved in the absence of added nitrate. In another experiment, seeding with magnetite particles led to additional magnetite precipitation without the need for a pH elevation step. Our results show, for the first time, that continuous magnetite formation from an Fe 2+ solution is possible under mild conditions, without the need for extensive addition of chemicals.

  15. ph Sensitive hydrogel as colon specific drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarifi, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    γ-radiation induced graft copolymerization and crosslinking was for the synthesis of ph-sensitive hydrogels composed of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) acrylic acid. The prepared hydrogels were subjected to swelling test to evaluate the effects of ph and ionic strength of the surrounding solution. Drastic changes in the swelling parameters where observed by changing the surrounding solution ph values. The release of ibuprofen from hydrogels was monitored as a function of time at ph 1 and ph 7 in order to evaluate the prepared copolymer ability for colon- specific drug carrier uses.

  16. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angélica MARCIANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods: White Portland cement (WPC was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6. The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05. For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05. The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05. Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  17. Corrosion of zirconium alloys in alternating pH environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of two commercial alloys, Zircaloy-2 and zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium were investigated in an environment of alternating pH. Corrosion advancement and scale morphology of coupons exposed to aqueous solution of LiOH (pH 10.2 and 14) were followed as a function of temperature (300-360 degreesC) and time (up to 165 days). The test sequence consisted of short term exposure to high pH and re-exposure to low pH solutions for extended period of time followed by a short term test in high pH. The results of these tests and detailed post-corrosion analysis indicate a fundamental difference between the corrosion behaviour of these two materials. Both alloys corrode fast in high pH environments, but only zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium continues to form detectable new oxide in low pH solution

  18. A new slurry pH model accounting for effects of ammonia and carbon dioxide volatilization on solution speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, V.; Markfoged, R.; Hafner, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    a reduced variable that combines time and location and an analytical approach to solving the resulting system of equations using Mathematica. To evaluate the model, we made measurements of pH at a resolution of 0.1 mm in the top 30 mm of an ammonium bicarbonate solution. These measurements show the creation...

  19. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  20. Enzymatic characterization of peptidic materials isolated from aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide (pH 9) and hydrocyanic acid (pH 6) exposed to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niketic, V; Draganić, Z; Nesković, S; Draganić, I

    1982-01-01

    The enzymatic digestion of some radiolytically produced peptidic materials was examined. The substrates were compounds isolated from 0.1 molar solutions of NH4CN (pH 9) and HCN (pH 6), after their exposure to gamma rays from a 60Co source (15-20 Mrad doses). Commercial proteolytic enzymes pronase and aminopeptidase M were used. The examined materials were of composite nature and proteolytic action was systematically observed after their subsequent purification. In some fractions the effect was found to be positive with up to 30% of peptide bonds cleaved with respect to the amino acid content. These findings support our previous conclusions on the free radical induced formation of peptidic backbones without the intervention of amino acids. Some side effects were also noted which might be of interest in observations on enzymatic cleavage of other composite peptidic materials of abiotic origin.

  1. Effects of EDTA on the electronic properties of passive film formed on Fe-20Cr in pH 8.5 buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Ae; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Beranrd, Frederic

    2003-01-01

    The electronic properties of the passive film formed on Fe-20Cr ferritic stainless steel in pH 8.5 buffer solution containing 0.05 M EDTA (ethylene diammine tetraacetic acid) were examined by the photocurrent measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis for the film. XPS depth profile for the film demonstrated that Cr content in the outermost layer of the passive film was higher in the solution with EDTA than that in the solution without EDTA, due to selective dissolution of Fe by EDTA. In the solution with EDTA, the passive film showed characteristics of an amorphous or highly disordered n-type semiconductor. The band gap energies of the passive film are estimated to be ∼ 3.0 eV, irrespective of film formation potential from 0 to 700 mV SCE and of presence of EDTA. However, the donor density of the passive film formed in the solution with EDTA is much higher than that formed in the solution without EDTA, due to an increase in oxygen vacancy resulted from the dissolution of Fe-oxide in the outermost layer of the passive film. These results support the proposed model that the passive film formed on Fe-20Cr in pH 8.5 buffer solution mainly consists of Cr-substituted γ-Fe 2 O 3

  2. Removal of radiocobalt from aqueous solutions by kaolinite affected by solid content, pH, ionic strength, contact time and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Li; Zhengjie Liu; Lei Chen; Yunhui Dong; Jun Hu; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei

    2013-01-01

    The kaolinite sample was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray powder diffraction, and was applied as adsorbent for the removal of radiocobalt ions from radioactive wastewater. The results demonstrated that the sorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength at low pH values, and independent of pH and ionic strength at high pH values. The sorption of Co(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange at low pH values, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH values. The sorption isotherms were well described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔGdeg, ΔSdeg, ΔHdeg) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of Co(II) on kaolinite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results of high sorption capacity of kaolinite suggested that the kaolinite sample was a suitable material for the preconcentration of Co(II) from large volumes of aqueous solutions and as backfill materials in nuclear waste management. (author)

  3. Iodine evolution and pH control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Lorenz, R.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The pH is the major factor in determining the extent of I 2 in solution. In containment where no pH-control chemicals are present, the acidity or basicity of the water pool will be determined by materials that are introduced into containment as a result of the accident itself. These materials may be fission products (i.e., cesium compounds), thermally produced products (i.e., core-concrete aerosols), or compounds produced by radiation (i.e., nitric acid). In situations where pH levels fall below ∼7, the formation of I 2 will occur in irradiated iodide solutions. A correlation between pH and iodine formation is needed so that the amounts I 2 in water pools can be assessed. This, in turn, determines the amount of I 2 in the atmosphere available for escape by containment leakage. A number of calculational routines based on more than 100 differential equations representing individual reactions can be found in the literature. In this work, it is shown that a simpler approach based on the steady-state decomposition of hydrogen peroxide should correctly describe iodine formation in severe accidents. Comparisons with test data show this approach to be valid. The most important acids in containment will be nitric acid (HNO 3 ), produced by irradiation of water and air, and hydrochloric acid (HCl), produced by irradiation or heating of electrical cable insulation. The most important bases in containment will be cesium hydroxide, cesium borate (or cesium carbonate), and in some plants pH additives, such as sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate

  4. A method for measuring pH at high temperatures is presented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudon, Luc.

    1979-01-01

    Two hydrogen electrodes are used and set up in a PTFE cell comprising two chambers connected through a saturated potassium chloride solution bridge. This cell is put in an autoclave containing hydrogen. The potential difference of the following cell is measured: H 2 , Pt, R solution - KCl saturated solution at 25 0 C - X solution, Pt, H 2 - The pH of the reference solution R is known up to 300 0 C and the X solution must have its pH to be determined. The precision of the measures at 300 0 C is estimated about +-0,1 pH unit. The dissociation constant of water is calculated from pH variations of alcaline solutions up to 300 0 C. The method has helped to measure the pH at 300 0 C of some boric acid solutions, with or without lithium hydroxide additions, in the following concentration range: B: 250 to 1500 ppm and Li: 0 to 3 ppm. Some concentrations are in fact those chosen for the primary circuits of pressurized water reactors. The pH of ammoniacal solutions is measured too and helped to determine the variations of the dissociation constant of ammonia with temperature [fr

  5. Decoloration and mineralization of aqueous solution of cationic (basic) dye Astrazon Black FDL by using gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Oemer

    2017-01-01

    Degree of decolorization due to the irradiation of aqueous solutions of commercial cationic (basic) Astrazon Black FDL textile dye was studied in this study. Factor effecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, absorbed dose, toxicity, COD, BOD_5 and pH of solutions were studied at air, O_2 saturated and H_2O_2 environments. Unirradiated Astrazon Black FDL was non-biodegradable, whereas it was biodegradable after irradiation. The biodegradability (BOD_5/COD) increased at 2 kGy for Astrazon Black FDL in all solutions. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds having lower molecular weights. In optimum dose and pH determination experiments, 5 kGy pH 12 at air, 7 kGy pH 3 at O_2 saturated, 9 kGy pH 3 at 2.6 mM H_2O_2 for Astrazon Black FDL were found as the optimum irradiation conditions. Toxicity level of unirradiated solutions was high, whereas toxicity level of irradiated solutions was lower.

  6. Decoloration and mineralization of aqueous solution of cationic (basic) dye Astrazon Black FDL by using gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantoglu, Oemer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey). Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center

    2017-06-01

    Degree of decolorization due to the irradiation of aqueous solutions of commercial cationic (basic) Astrazon Black FDL textile dye was studied in this study. Factor effecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, absorbed dose, toxicity, COD, BOD{sub 5} and pH of solutions were studied at air, O{sub 2} saturated and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} environments. Unirradiated Astrazon Black FDL was non-biodegradable, whereas it was biodegradable after irradiation. The biodegradability (BOD{sub 5}/COD) increased at 2 kGy for Astrazon Black FDL in all solutions. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds having lower molecular weights. In optimum dose and pH determination experiments, 5 kGy pH 12 at air, 7 kGy pH 3 at O{sub 2} saturated, 9 kGy pH 3 at 2.6 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for Astrazon Black FDL were found as the optimum irradiation conditions. Toxicity level of unirradiated solutions was high, whereas toxicity level of irradiated solutions was lower.

  7. Effects of Iodide and Hydrogen Peroxide on Measuring High Temperature pH in Various Lithium Borate Buffer Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yun, Myung Hee; Yeon, Jei Won; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    In a reactor coolant system of nuclear power plants, the need for reliable high temperature pH electrodes has resulted from interests in the corrosion and corrosion product behaviors of the structural materials in a high temperature coolant system. In developing the electrodes for measuring the high temperature pH of aqueous solutions, it is necessary to note two major problems: the chemical stability of an electrode against other chemical impurities, and an electrode's integrity as the temperature and pressure are varied between operational extremes. Over the past decade Macdonald et al. and Danielson et al. have developed many ceramic membrane pH electrodes based on a yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide. However, there are still many experimental difficulties associated with the problems in obtaining electrochemical information across different pressure boundaries and against many kinds of chemical impurities caused by the radiolysis of water and the leakage of a fuel clad. In the present work, we investigated the effects of the environmental factors on a high temperature pH. The selected environmental factors are as follows: system pressure, and chemical species such as iodide and hydrogen peroxide ions.

  8. Measurements of spectral responses for developing fiber-optic pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon; Jang, Kyoung Won; Seo, Jeong Ki; Moon, Jin Soo; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a fiber-optic pH sensor, which is composed of a light source, a pH-sensing probe, plastic optical fibers and a spectrometer, for determining the degree of infection by Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. As pH indicators, phenol red and m-cresol purple are used, and pH liquid solutions are prepared by mixing phenol red or m-cresol purple solutions and various kinds of pH buffer solutions. The light emitted by a light source is guided by plastic optical fibers to the pH liquid solution, and the optical characteristic of a reflected light is changed according to the color variations of the pH indicator in the pH-sensing probe. Therefore, we have measured the intensities and wavelength shifts of the reflected lights, which change according to the color variations of indicators at different pH values, by using a spectrometer for spectral analysis. Also, the relationships between the pH values of liquid solutions and the optical properties of the modulated lights are obtained on the basis of the changes of the colors of indicators.

  9. Molecular Twister: A Game for Exploring Solution Chemistry †

    OpenAIRE

    Masonjones, Sawyer R.; Masonjones, Heather D.; Malone, Megan C.; Williams, Ann H.; Beemer, Margaret M.; Waggett, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    pH is an essential biological concept with critical importance at various scales, from the molecular level, dealing with blood buffers, homeostasis, and proton gradients, all the way up to the ecosystem level, with soil chemistry and acid rain. However, pH is also a concept that spawns student misconceptions and misunderstanding in terms of what is happening in a solution on the atomic level. The Molecular Twister game, created for a Florida Department of Education funded professional develop...

  10. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part I: pH estimation of a solution with various chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • pH evaluation based on Gibbs free energy minimization. • Program was developed to evaluate chemical equilibrium and pH solutions. • Predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine, which is released into the atmosphere of the containment building, is absorbed into the containment spray water and dissolved to be ionized. This iodine-rich water is then transported to the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) in APR1400 nuclear power plants. When the pH of the water is below 7, the dissolved iodine converts to molecular iodine and re-evolves from the water and returns to the atmosphere. A series of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the iodine re-evolution from the IRWST. This study consists of two parts: the pH evaluation method and the evaluation of the iodine re-evolution. This paper presents the first part, i.e. the pH evaluation method. The equilibrium concentrations of various chemicals in a solution are determined at the minimum Gibbs’ free energy. This method is useful for complex reactant problems rather than equilibrium constants method because the latter method requires numerous equilibrium constants and there might be missing equilibrium constants associated with the solution. The calculated pH values of solutions are compared with the experimental measurements in order to validate this method and the thermodynamic data of the chemicals incorporated into the program. The estimated values for solutions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements within a difference of less than 3.3%.

  11. Effect of pH on turbidity, size, viscosity and the shape of sodium caseinate aggregates with light scattering and rheometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Gorji, Sara; Ghorbani Gorji, Elham; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-03-01

    The characterization of sodium caseinate solutions as a function of pH was determined using titration with HCL through turbidimetry in different concentrations (0.03 wt.%, 0.045 wt.%, 0.06 wt.%, 0.09 wt.%, 0.2 wt.%, and 0.3 wt.%). Additionally, the coupling of slow in situ acidification of the solution and rheometry was utilized to gain deeper insights into pH-induced structural transitions during the self assembly process and particle size distribution analysis have been used to determine the behavior of sodium caseinate solutions in different pHs. The formation of aggregates during the acidification process was clearly visualized using microscopy. Surprisingly the viscosity of sodium caseinate solution at pH 4.64 was maximum and decreased by lowering pH. Particle size analysis confirmed the onset of big aggregates on decreasing pH but further acidification led to formation of smaller aggregates. A small concentration effect on pI was seen where at sodium caseinate levels of 0.03 wt.% the pI occurred at 4.29, where at sodium caseinate levels of 0.30 wt.% pI value was 4.64.

  12. Influence of pH on the localized corrosion of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.; Henry, R.

    1986-06-01

    The influence of pH on the pitting corrosion of iron in chloride and sulfate solutions was determined using two artificial pit apparatuses to obtain the pH near the surface of the pit bottom. A glass membrane electrode and an antimony electrode were used to measure pH in the two apparatuses. Using solutions of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 at current densities of 0.5, 5.0, and 10 mA/cm 2 pH's in the range 5 to 6 were obtained with the first apparatus. The antimony probe did not measure pH accurately in solutions of 1 N NaCl and 1 N Na 2 SO 4 and had an error of approximately 2 pH units. A one-dimensional transport model was developed to predict pH variations around the pit mouth and inside the pit. The validity of this model was not verified due to the relative lack of precision with pH measurement techniques

  13. Effect of surface chemistry, solution pH, and ionic strength on the removal of herbicides diuron and amitrole from water by an activated carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha-Cámara, M A; López-Ramón, M V; Alvarez-Merino, M A; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2007-01-30

    A study was conducted on the effects of carbon surface chemistry, solution pH, and ionic strength on the removal of diuron and amitrole from aqueous solutions by adsorption on an as-received and oxidized activated carbon fiber. Results obtained were explained by the surface characteristics of the adsorbents and the characteristics of the herbicide molecules. Under the experimental conditions used, diuron uptake was much higher than that of amitrole, despite its larger molecular dimensions, due to the lesser water solubility, greater hydrophobicity, and larger dipolar moment of diuron compared with amitrole. Uptake variations associated with differences in carbon surface oxidation, solution pH, and ionic strength were explained by corresponding changes in electrostatic, hydrophobic, and van der Waals interactions.

  14. Effect of pH on saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, D.L.; Roades, J.D.; Lavado, R.; Grieve, C.M.

    The adverse effects of exchangeable sodium on soil hydraulic conductivity (K) are well known, but at present only sodicity and total electrolyte concentration are used in evaluating irrigation water suitability. In arid areas, high sodicity is often associatd with high dissolved carbonate and thus high pH, but in humid areas high sodicity may be associated with low pH. To evaluate the effect of pH (as an independent variable) on K, solutions with the same SAR and electrolyte level were prepared at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9. Saturated K values were determined at constant flux in columns packed at a bulk density of 1.5 Mg m/sup -3/. At pH 9, saturated K values were lower than at pH 6 for a montmorillonitic and kaolinitic soil. For a vermiculitic soil with lower organic carbon and higher silt content, pH changes did not cause large K differences. Decreases in K were not reversible on application of waters with higher electrolyte levels. The results from the K experiments were generally consistent with optical transmission measurements of dispersion. Although anion adsorption was at or below detection limits and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was only slightly dependent on pH, differences in pH effects on K among soils are likely due to differences in quantities of variable-charge minerals and organic matter.

  15. pH in atomic scale simulations of electrochemical interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Chan, Karen; Ahmed, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction rates can strongly depend on pH, and there is increasing interest in electrocatalysis in alkaline solution. To date, no method has been devised to address pH in atomic scale simulations. We present a simple method to determine the atomic structure of the metal......|solution interface at a given pH and electrode potential. Using Pt(111)|water as an example, we show the effect of pH on the interfacial structure, and discuss its impact on reaction energies and barriers. This method paves the way for ab initio studies of pH effects on the structure and electrocatalytic activity...

  16. Role of Metal Cations on the corrosion behaviour of 8090-T851 in a pH 2.0 solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, K.S.N.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of cations such as Cu2+, Al3+ and Li+ on the corrosion behaviour of 8090-T851(Al-Li) alloy in a pH 2.0 HCl solution was investigated by weight loss and polarisation techniques. Weight loss experiments showed that the effect of cation is a strong function of its nature...

  17. The effect of pH and chloride concentration on the stability and antimicrobial activity of chlorine-based sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian W; Hung, Yen-Con

    2014-04-01

    Chlorinated water and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water solutions were made to compare the free chlorine stability and microbicidal efficacy of chlorine-containing solutions with different properties. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was greatest in fresh samples (approximately 9.0 log CFU/mL reduction). Chlorine loss in "aged" samples (samples left in open bottles) was greatest (approximately 40 mg/L free chlorine loss in 24 h) in low pH (approximately 2.5) and high chloride (Cl(-) ) concentrations (greater than 150 mg/L). Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was also negatively impacted (pH and high Cl(-) . Higher pH values (approximately 6.0) did not appear to have a significant effect on free chlorine loss or numbers of surviving microbial cells when fresh and aged samples were compared. This study found chloride levels in the chlorinated and EO water solutions had a reduced effect on both free chlorine stability and its microbicidal efficacy in the low pH solutions. Greater concentrations of chloride in pH 2.5 samples resulted in decreased free chlorine stability and lower microbicidal efficacy. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Requirements for Ion and Solute Transport, and pH Regulation During Enamel Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; MOFFATT, PIERRE; CHANG, EUGENE H.; BROMAGE, TIMOTHY G.; BRINGAS, PABLO; NANCI, ANTONIO; BANIWAL, SANJEEV K.; ZABNER, JOSEPH; WELSH, MICHAEL J.; KURTZ, IRA; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

    2012-01-01

    Transcellular bicarbonate transport is suspected to be an important pathway used by ameloblasts to regulate extracellular pH and support crystal growth during enamel maturation. Proteins that play a role in amelogenesis include members of the ABC transporters (SLC gene family and CFTR). A number of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have also been identified. The defined functions of these genes are likely interlinked during enamel mineralization. The purpose of this study is to quantify relative mRNA levels of individual SLC, Cftr, and CAs in enamel cells obtained from secretory and maturation stages on rat incisors. We also present novel data on the enamel phenotypes for two animal models, amutant porcine(CFTR-ΔF508) and the NBCe1-null mouse.Our data show that two SLCs(AE2 and NBCe1),Cftr,and Car2, Car3,Car6,and Car12 are all significantly up-regulated at the onset of the maturation stage of amelogenesis when compared to the secretory stage. The remaining SLCs and CA gene transcripts showed negligible expression or no significant change in expression from secretory to maturation stages. The enamel of Cftr-ΔF508 adult pigs was hypomineralized and showed abnormal crystal growth. NBCe1-null mice enamel was structurally defective and had a marked decrease in mineral content relative to wild-type. These data demonstrate the importance of many non-matrix proteins to amelogenesis and that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating extracellular pH are modulated during enamel maturation in response to an increased need for pH buffering during hydroxyapatite crystal growth. PMID:21732355

  19. Growth rates of three geographically separated strains of the ichthyotoxic Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae) in response to six different pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysgaard, Maria L.; Eckford-Soper, Lisa; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2018-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic carbon emissions are expected to cause a decline in global average pH of the oceans to a projected value of 7.8 by the end of the century. Understanding how harmful algal bloom (HAB) species will respond to lowered pH levels will be important when predicting future HAB events and their ecological consequences. In this study, we examined how manipulated pH levels affected the growth rate of three strains of Prymnesium parvum from North America, Denmark and Japan. Triplicate strains were grown under pH conditions ranging from 6.6 to 9.1 to simulate plausible future levels. Different tolerances were evident for all strains. Significantly higher growth rates were observed at pH 6.6-8.1 compared to growth rates at pH 8.6-9.1 and a lower pH limit was not observed. The Japanese strain (NIES-1017) had the highest maximum growth rate of 0.39 divisions day-1 at pH 6.6 but a low tolerance (0.22 divisions day-1) to high levels (pH 9.1) with growth declining markedly after pH 7.6. The Danish (SCCAP K-0081) and North American (UTEX LB 2797) strains had maximum growth rates of 0.26 and 0.35 divisions day-1, respectively between pH 6.6-8.1. Compared to the other two strains the Danish strain had a statistically lower growth rate across all pH treatments. Strain differences were either attributed to their provenance or the length of time the strain had been in culture.

  20. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  1. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A.; Philip, Lijy M.; Cheung, Guillaume; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Grasemann, Hartmut; Sweezey, Neil; Palaniyar, Nades

    2018-01-01

    Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45) into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe) conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox), neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi). Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units) increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements). Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging) during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs). In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots) and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative)-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive)-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM) increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  2. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraj A. Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45 into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox, neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi. Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation (NETosis is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements. Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs. In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  3. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Kidd, Karen A.; O’ Driscoll, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine biomagnification of Hg through stream food webs using δ15 N. ► Slopes of methyl Hg vs. trophic level were higher than total Hg vs. trophic level. ► Biomagnification from predatory insects to fish was related to pH of the water. ► Biomagnification at lower trophic levels was related to dietary concentrations. ► These trends can explain variation in field-measured Hg in food webs. -- Abstract: Biomagnification processes and the factors that govern them, including those for mercury (Hg), are poorly understood in streams. Total and methyl Hg concentrations and relative trophic position (using δ 15 N) were analyzed in biofilm and invertebrates from 21 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to assess food web biomagnification leading to the common minnow blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), a species known to have Hg concentrations that are higher in low pH waters. Biomagnification slopes within stream food webs measured using Hg vs. δ 15 N or corresponding trophic levels (TL) differed depending on the chemical species analyzed, with total Hg exhibiting increases of 1.3–2.5 per TL (mean slope of total Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.14 ± 0.06 S.D., range = 0.06–0.20) and methyl Hg showing a more pronounced increase of 2.8 to 6.0 per TL (mean slope of methyl Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.30 ± 0.08 S.D., range = 0.22–0.39). While Hg biomagnification slopes through the entire food web (Trophic Magnification Factors, TMFs) were not influenced by water chemistry (pH), dietary concentrations of methyl Hg strongly influenced biomagnification factors (BMFs) for consumer-diet pairs within the food web at lower trophic levels, and BMFs between dace and predatory invertebrates were significantly higher in low pH waters. These analyses, coupled with observations of higher Hg in primary producers in streams with low pH, suggest that pH influences both baseline concentrations and biomagnification of Hg in these systems. Because higher Hg concentrations in the diets

  4. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: tim.jardine@usask.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O’ Driscoll, Nelson [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We examine biomagnification of Hg through stream food webs using δ15 N. ► Slopes of methyl Hg vs. trophic level were higher than total Hg vs. trophic level. ► Biomagnification from predatory insects to fish was related to pH of the water. ► Biomagnification at lower trophic levels was related to dietary concentrations. ► These trends can explain variation in field-measured Hg in food webs. -- Abstract: Biomagnification processes and the factors that govern them, including those for mercury (Hg), are poorly understood in streams. Total and methyl Hg concentrations and relative trophic position (using δ{sup 15}N) were analyzed in biofilm and invertebrates from 21 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to assess food web biomagnification leading to the common minnow blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), a species known to have Hg concentrations that are higher in low pH waters. Biomagnification slopes within stream food webs measured using Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N or corresponding trophic levels (TL) differed depending on the chemical species analyzed, with total Hg exhibiting increases of 1.3–2.5 per TL (mean slope of total Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N = 0.14 ± 0.06 S.D., range = 0.06–0.20) and methyl Hg showing a more pronounced increase of 2.8 to 6.0 per TL (mean slope of methyl Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N = 0.30 ± 0.08 S.D., range = 0.22–0.39). While Hg biomagnification slopes through the entire food web (Trophic Magnification Factors, TMFs) were not influenced by water chemistry (pH), dietary concentrations of methyl Hg strongly influenced biomagnification factors (BMFs) for consumer-diet pairs within the food web at lower trophic levels, and BMFs between dace and predatory invertebrates were significantly higher in low pH waters. These analyses, coupled with observations of higher Hg in primary producers in streams with low pH, suggest that pH influences both baseline concentrations and biomagnification of Hg in these systems. Because higher Hg

  5. Precision sensing by two opposing gradient sensors: how does Escherichia coli find its preferred pH level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-07-02

    It is essential for bacteria to find optimal conditions for their growth and survival. The optimal levels of certain environmental factors (such as pH and temperature) often correspond to some intermediate points of the respective gradients. This requires the ability of bacteria to navigate from both directions toward the optimum location and is distinct from the conventional unidirectional chemotactic strategy. Remarkably, Escherichia coli cells can perform such a precision sensing task in pH taxis by using the same chemotaxis machinery, but with opposite pH responses from two different chemoreceptors (Tar and Tsr). To understand bacterial pH sensing, we developed an Ising-type model for a mixed cluster of opposing receptors based on the push-pull mechanism. Our model can quantitatively explain experimental observations in pH taxis for various mutants and wild-type cells. We show how the preferred pH level depends on the relative abundance of the competing sensors and how the sensory activity regulates the behavioral response. Our model allows us to make quantitative predictions on signal integration of pH and chemoattractant stimuli. Our study reveals two general conditions and a robust push-pull scheme for precision sensing, which should be applicable in other adaptive sensory systems with opposing gradient sensors. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. pH dependent polymeric micelle adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, S C; Gee, M L [The University of Melbourne, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Full text: Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-PEO) shows potential as a possible drug delivery system for anti-tumour drugs since it forms pH dependent polymeric micelles. Hence to better understand the adsorption behaviour of this polymer we have studied the interaction forces between layers of P2VP-PEO adsorbed onto silica as a function of solution pH using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). When P2VP-PEO is initially adsorbed above the pKa of the P2VP block, P2VP-PEO adsorbs from solution as micelles that exist as either partially collapsed- or a hemi-micelles at the silica surface. Below the pKa of P2VP, the P2VP-PEO adsorbs as unimers, forming a compact layer with little looping and tailing into solution. When initial adsorption of P2VP-PEO is in the form of unimers, any driving force to self-assembly of the now charge neutral polymer is kinetically hindered. Hence, after initial adsorption at pH 3.6, a subsequent increase in pH to 6.6 results in a slow surface restructuring towards self-assembly and equilibrium. When the pH is increased from pH 6.6 to 9.7 there is a continuation of the evolution of the system to its equilibrium position during which the adsorbed P2VP-PEO unimers continue to 'unravel' from the surface, extending away from it, towards eventual complete surface self-assembly.

  7. pH tolerance of Daphnia pulex (leydig, emend. , richard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P; Ozburn, G W

    1969-01-01

    The survival time and reproduction of female Daphnia pulex in solutions varying in pH have been observed. Dilute sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid solutions were added to four different diluent waters: distilled water, aerated tap water, aerated and filtered tap water from an aquarium containing Dace minnows, and Mcintyre River water. D. Pulex (initially up to 72 hours old) survived for the duration of the experiment (32 hours) in river water within a pH range of 6.1 to 10.3; in aquarium water within a pH range of 4.3 to 10.4; only at pH 6.4 and pH 7.6 in distilled water; and in none of the solutions using aerated tap water. The dissolved oxygen content was measured at the beginning and end of every experiment and was found never to fall below 6.2 p.p.M. Those individuals which survived were cultured in the laboratory and parthenogenesis was observed at pH values between 7.0 and 8.7.

  8. Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

  9. Corrosion of Alloys 600 ampersand 900 in acidified sulfate and chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.H.; Partridge, M.J.; Paine, J.P.N.

    1993-01-01

    A program is being performed currently: (1) to better quantify the susceptibility of Alloy 600 and 690 steam generator (SG) tubing materials to intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in acid solutions of the types that could concentrate in steam generator crevices, and (2) to establish the effectiveness of various remedial measures achieved through chemical additions to the secondary side coolant. The main test method is the exposure of stressed C-rings and expanded capsules of SG tubing to acid chloride and sulfate environments of various pH levels, temperatures, and applied potentials. Following these exposures, crack lengths are measured on metallographic cross-sections of the C-rings, and wastage rates calculated from weight loss, surface area and time. Test solutions are based on varying concentrations of sulfate and chloride species, with other contaminants added to some tests. The temperature dependence of the pH of the acidified solutions is calculated using the EPRI-developed MULTEQ computer program. High-temperature pH levels range from values of 2.5 to 7.6 at 315 degrees C, which is the nominal test temperature. Various accelerating and inhibiting factors (pH, temperature, solution composition and concentration, and applied electrochemical potential) are being evaluated

  10. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Saputri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involving 40 male smokers. Before participating, they filled a questionnaire related to the history of their smoking habit. Using a spitting method for 5 minutes their saliva was collected. Results: Result of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking intensity and salivary flow rate of those smokers (r = -0.486 and p0.512. There was no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and salivary pH of those smokers (r = -0.216, p>0.181. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary pH of those smokers (r= 0.686, p<0.00,. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the intensity of smoking with salivary flow rate and its pH. However, there is no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and both salivary flow rate as well as salivary pH.

  11. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...... buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did....... Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH....

  12. Economical wireless optical ratiometric pH sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuppu, Sandeep; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2009-01-01

    The development and application of a portable, wireless fluorescence-based optical pH sensor is presented. The design incorporates the MSP430 microcontroller as the control unit, an RF transceiver for wireless communication, digital filters and amplifiers and a USB-based communication module for data transmission. The pH sensor is based on ratiometric fluorescence detection from pH sensitive dye incorporated in a peel-and-stick patch. The ability of the instrument to detect the pH of the solution with contact only between the sensor patch and the solution makes it partially non-invasive. The instrument also has the ability to transmit data wirelessly, enabling its use in processes that entail stringent temperature control and sterility. The use of the microcontroller makes it a reliable, low-cost and low-power device. The luminous intensity of the light source can be digitally controlled to maximize the sensitivity of the instrument. It has a resolution of 0.05 pH. The sensor is accurate and reversible over the pH range of 6.5–9

  13. Modulation of phosducin-like protein 3 (PhLP3 levels promotes cytoskeletal remodelling in a MAPK and RhoA-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini V L Hayes

    Full Text Available Phosducin-like protein 3 (PhLP3 forms a ternary complex with the ATP-dependent molecular chaperone CCT and its folding client tubulin. In vitro studies suggest PhLP3 plays an inhibitory role in β-tubulin folding while conversely in vivo genetic studies suggest PhLP3 is required for the correct folding of β-tubulin. We have a particular interest in the cytoskeleton, its chaperones and their role in determining cellular phenotypes associated with high level recombinant protein expression from mammalian cell expression systems.As studies into PhLP3 function have been largely carried out in non mammalian systems, we examined the effect of human PhLP3 over-expression and siRNA silencing using a single murine siRNA on both tubulin and actin systems in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell lines. We show that over-expression of PhLP3 promotes an imbalance of α and β tubulin subunits, microtubule disassembly and cell death. In contrast, β-actin levels are not obviously perturbed. On-the-other-hand, RNA silencing of PhLP3 increases RhoA-dependent actin filament formation and focal adhesion formation and promotes a dramatic elongated fibroblast-like change in morphology. This was accompanied by an increase in phosphorylated MAPK which has been associated with promoting focal adhesion assembly and maturation. Transient overexpression of PhLP3 in knockdown experiments rescues cells from the morphological change observed during PhLP3 silencing but mitosis is perturbed, probably reflecting a tipping back of the balance of PhLP3 levels towards the overexpression state.Our results support the hypothesis that PhLP3 is important for the maintenance of β-tubulin levels in mammalian cells but also that its modulation can promote actin-based cytoskeletal remodelling by a mechanism linked with MAPK phosphorylation and RhoA-dependent changes. PhLP3 levels in mammalian cells are thus finely poised and represents a novel target for engineering industrially

  14. Reflection-mode micro-spherical fiber-optic probes for in vitro real-time and single-cell level pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-02-01

    pH sensing at the single-cell level without negatively affecting living cells is very important but still a remaining issue in the biomedical studies. A 70 μm reflection-mode fiber-optic micro-pH sensor was designed and fabricated by dip-coating thin layer of organically modified aerogel onto a tapered spherical probe head. A pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was employed and covalently bonded within the aerogel networks. By tuning the alkoxide mixing ratio and adjusting hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) priming procedure, the sensor can be optimized to have high stability and pH sensing ability. The in vitro real-time sensing capability was then demonstrated in a simple spectroscopic way, and showed linear measurement responses with a pH resolution up to an average of 0.049 pH unit within a narrow, but biological meaningful pH range of 6.12-7.81. Its novel characterizations of high spatial resolution, reflection mode operation, fast response and high stability, great linear response within biological meaningful pH range and high pH resolutions, make this novel pH probe a very cost-effective tool for chemical/biological sensing, especially within the single cell level research field.

  15. Radiolysis of permanganate and its mixtures with bromate and nitrate ions in solution at pH 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Kulkarni, S.A.; Mahajan, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    γ-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of pure permanganate and its binary mixture with nitrite and bromate ions at pH 10 is studied as a function of concentration and dose. In pure system G(-MnO 4 - ) increases with the increase in initial concentration from 0.68 to a maximum of 25. The rise is sharp above 10 -2 M concentration which indicates the occurrence of a chain mechanism. In the presence of bromate or nitrite the G value decreases: the G(-MnO 4 - ) in 10 -3 M permanganate solution is 1.07, with 10 -1 M bromate it is 0.2 and with 10 -2 M nitrite it is 0.7. A mechanism based on the cometitive kinetics is envisaged to explain the observed results. (author)

  16. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  17. Effect of X-ray irradiation on germination of rice and wheat at different temperatures and pH levels of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, T.B.S.; Singh, Jaswant

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on the germination of ''Jaya'' rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) and ''Sonalika'' wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Thell.) to study the effects of low doses of X-ray irradiation at different temperatures and pH levels of water. The percentage of germination was more at pH 7, and decreased with an increase or decrease in pH level. In most of the cases irradiation delayed the germination and proved to be harmful. But at 20deg C, 4 KR X-ray irradiation promoted the germination of rice by more than 15% at pH levels of 5.5-8.5. But in wheat no significant increase in germination percentage was noted at any combination of the parameters. (auth.)

  18. Dielectrophoresis Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as pH Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Martin, Caleb M; Yeung, Kan Kan; Xue, Wei

    2011-01-31

    Here we report the fabrication and characterization of pH sensors using aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The SWNTs are dispersed in deionized (DI) water after chemical functionalization and filtration. They are deposited and organized on silicon substrates with the dielectrophoresis process. Electrodes with "teeth"-like patterns-fabricated with photolithography and wet etching-are used to generate concentrated electric fields and strong dielectrophoretic forces for the SWNTs to deposit and align in desired locations. The device fabrication is inexpensive, solution-based, and conducted at room temperature. The devices are used as pH sensors with the electrodes as the testing pads and the dielectrophoretically captured SWNTs as the sensing elements. When exposed to aqueous solutions with various pH values, the SWNTs change their resistance accordingly. The SWNT-based sensors demonstrate a linear relationship between the sensor resistance and the pH values in the range of 5-9. The characterization of multiple sensors proves that their pH sensitivity is highly repeatable. The real-time data acquisition shows that the sensor response time depends on the pH value, ranging from 2.26 s for the pH-5 solution to 23.82 s for the pH-9 solution. The long-term stability tests illustrate that the sensors can maintain their original sensitivity for a long period of time. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the SWNT-based sensors facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas.

  19. Computer simulation of the effect of temperature on pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, J E; Schuck, D F

    1995-11-01

    The effect of temperature on solution pH was simulated by computer (program PHTEMP). We have determined that the change in pH due to shifts in acid-base equilibria [delta pH = pH(60 degrees C) - pH(25 degrees C)] can be substantial for compounds such as aliphatic amines that have high enthalpies for acid dissociation. This is of particular significance during elevated temperature experiments in which changes in the pKa values of formulation components, and hence the solution pH, can accelerate decomposition as compared to those formulations where sensitive functionality is absent. PHTEMP afforded the following results at initial pH = 7 (25 degrees C): (a) 0.1 M triethylamine (delta H zero = 10.4 kcal/mol) delta pH approximately -0.8; (b) 0.1 M acetic acid (delta H zero = -0.1 kcal/mol) delta pH approximately 0; (c) 0.1 M sulfuric acid (delta H zero 1 = -12 kcal/mol; delta H zero 2 = -5.4 kcal/mol) delta pH approximately -0.4. Solutions of general pharmaceutical interest were also studied and included a 12-component amino acid mixture, 0.1 M glycine, and 0.1 M triethylamine in either 0.02 M citric acid or 0.05 M TRIS buffer. In each case the pH change with temperature was dependent on the concentrations of components, the enthalpies for each acid dissociation, and the starting pH. At lower pH ( 9). These results are interpreted as the effect of a relative change in hydronium ion activity, delta H+/H+(initial), due to temperature-induced shifts in equilibria (acid dissociation, water autoprotolysis). This relative change must become larger as H+ decreases (pH increases). The output of PHTEMP was experimentally verified with 0.1 M glycine and with a multiple component amino acid solution. In both cases, agreement with prediction was excellent. The results of this investigation underscore the need to critically review formulation choices for both thermodynamic and traditional kinetic effects on the resulting product stability.

  20. Hemoglobin bioconjugates with surface-protected gold nanoparticles in aqueous media: The stability depends on solution pH and protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Caño, Rafael; Mateus, Lucia; Sánchez-Obrero, Guadalupe; Sevilla, José Manuel; Madueño, Rafael; Blázquez, Manuel; Pineda, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the factors that dictate the formation and physicochemical properties of protein-nanomaterial bioconjugates are important to understand their behavior in biological systems. The present work deals with the formation and characterization of bioconjugates made of the protein hemoglobin (Hb) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) capped with three different molecular layers (citrate anions (c), 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and ω-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)). The main focus is on the behavior of the bioconjugates in aqueous buffered solutions in a wide pH range. The stability of the bioconjugates have been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy by following the changes in the localized surface resonance plasmon band (LSRP), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential pH titrations. It has been found that they are stable in neutral and alkaline solutions and, at pH lower than the protein isoelectric point, aggregation takes place. Although the surface chemical properties of the AuNPs confer different properties in respect to colloidal stability, once the bioconjugates are formed their properties are dictated by the Hb protein corona. The protein secondary structure, as analyzed by Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, seems to be maintained under the conditions of colloidal stability but some small changes in protein conformation take place when the bioconjugates aggregate. These findings highlight the importance to keep the protein structure upon interaction with nanomaterials to drive the stability of the bioconjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

    2014-04-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

  2. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  3. A highly selective chemosensor for colorimetric detection of Hg2+ and fluorescence detection of pH changes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, Ramasamy; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-01-01

    A naturally existing and unmodified simple chemosensor, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2HNQ), was identified and used for both the colorimetric detection of Hg 2+ and the fluorescent (on-off) detection of pH. The distinct color change and quenching of fluorescence emission was visible to the naked eye. More importantly, the chemosensor was used in combination with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which enabled the sensor to be solubilized and stabilized in aqueous solutions. The sensor selectively detected Hg 2+ via the stable 1:1 complexation of the CåO and OH groups with Hg 2+ and reflected pH changes in the range from 6 to 12 via a fluorescence on–off response resulting from the deprotonation of the hydroxyl group in 2HNQ. - Highlights: • The 2-Hydroxy-1,4-Naphthoquinone (2HNQ) chemosensor is capable of both colorimetric detection of Hg 2+ and a fluorescence on-off response to pH. • The distinct color change and quenching of fluorescence emission are detectable with the naked eye. • The on– off fluorescence response in the pH range from 6– to 12 is due to the deprotonation of the hydroxyl group in 2HNQ

  4. Self-assembly behavior of pH- and thermosensitive amphiphilic triblock copolymers in solution: experimental studies and self-consistent field theory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunhua; Zhang, Liangshun; Lin, Jiaping; Wang, Liquan

    2008-10-09

    We investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, the self-assembly behaviors of pH- and thermosensitive poly(L-glutamic acid)- b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA-b-PPO-b-PLGA) triblock copolymers in aqueous solution by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulations. Vesicles were observed when the hydrophilic PLGA block length is shorter or the pH value of solution is lower. The vesicles were found to transform to spherical micelles when the PLGA block length increases or its conformation changes from helix to coil with increasing the pH value. In addition, increasing temperature gives rise to a decrease in the size of aggregates, which is related to the dehydration of the PPO segments at higher temperatures. The SCFT simulation results show that the vesicles transform to the spherical micelles with increasing the fraction or statistical length of A block in model ABA triblock copolymer, which corresponds to the increase in the PLGA length or its conformation change from helix to coil in experiments, respectively. The SCFT calculations also provide chain distribution information in the aggregates. On the basis of both experimental and SCFT results, the mechanism of the structure change of the PLGA- b-PPO- b-PLGA aggregates was proposed.

  5. Redox properties of phenosafranine at zeolite-modified electrodes-Effect of surface modification and solution pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easwaramoorthi, S.; Natarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Redox properties of cationic dye phenosafranine (3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazenium chloride) (PS + ) were studied at zeolite-modified electrodes using Zeolite-Y and NaZSM-5. The peak current and peak potential of phenosafranine-adsorbed zeolite were found to be influenced by the pH of the electrolyte solution. Observation of a second redox couple is suggested to be due to formation of new species at low concentration from the reduced phenosafranine at the zeolite-modified electrodes. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the cavities of the zeolite or anchored on the external surface of the zeolite do not seem to affect the redox properties of adsorbed PS + . When the cyclic voltammograms are recorded immediately after the electrode is immersed into the solution, the redox potential of PS + is found to be sensitive to the nature of the zeolite surface. The peak potential shifts towards positive region under continuous cycles as the surface hydroxyl groups get protonated in acidic electrolyte solution thereby forcing the movement of dye molecules from the zeolite surface to the zeolite electrode solution interface. The electron transfer rate constants for the adsorbed dye at the electrode are calculated to be 2.5 ± 0.2 s -1 and 3.5 ± 0.2 s -1 for the zeolite-Y electrode and the ZSM-5 electrode, respectively by the Laviron equation

  6. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of pH sensitive carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenchi; Ostafin, Agnes; Mizukami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A rapid response dual wavelength emission pH sensor consisting of carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactors has been synthesized and shown to provide accurate pH measurements even in complex biological media, where the unprotected pH responsive dyes have failed. The carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactor is made of a calcium phosphate shell covering phosphatidylcholine liposomes filled with the dye. Its mean diameter is 150 nm with dynamic light scattering, the shell thickness is 5-7 nm with TEM, and it contains about 10 dyes/particle. The nanoreactor's response time to pH change nearly equals that of the dye in solution. Its pH titration curves at two different wavelengths are equivalent to those of the dye in solution and fluorescence intensity ratio dependent pH analysis is possible using the modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. However, the pH dependent fluorescence ratios of the dye in solution in the presence of plasma and albumin are distorted, and application of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is not possible. We have found that the distortions may be restored using cSNARF-1 nanoreactors and the pK a of the dye in the nanoreactor then equals that in solution. These results suggest that the interference to the dye for the pH analyses with the environmental molecules may be reduced or prohibited by usage of cSNARF-1 nanoreactors.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of pH sensitive carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yenchi; Ostafin, Agnes [Department of Materials Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mizukami, Hiroshi, E-mail: a.ostafin@utah.edu [Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-05-28

    A rapid response dual wavelength emission pH sensor consisting of carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactors has been synthesized and shown to provide accurate pH measurements even in complex biological media, where the unprotected pH responsive dyes have failed. The carboxySNARF-1 nanoreactor is made of a calcium phosphate shell covering phosphatidylcholine liposomes filled with the dye. Its mean diameter is 150 nm with dynamic light scattering, the shell thickness is 5-7 nm with TEM, and it contains about 10 dyes/particle. The nanoreactor's response time to pH change nearly equals that of the dye in solution. Its pH titration curves at two different wavelengths are equivalent to those of the dye in solution and fluorescence intensity ratio dependent pH analysis is possible using the modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. However, the pH dependent fluorescence ratios of the dye in solution in the presence of plasma and albumin are distorted, and application of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is not possible. We have found that the distortions may be restored using cSNARF-1 nanoreactors and the pK{sub a} of the dye in the nanoreactor then equals that in solution. These results suggest that the interference to the dye for the pH analyses with the environmental molecules may be reduced or prohibited by usage of cSNARF-1 nanoreactors.

  9. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by flourescence lifetime imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Burdikova, Suzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A.E.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level ther...

  10. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  11. The ocular distribution of 14C-labeled bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baklayan GA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available George A Baklayan, Mauricio Muñoz Bausch + Lomb, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the ocular distribution of an advanced formulation of bromfenac ophthalmic solution. Two studies were conducted in rabbits: 1 a 12-hour parallel-group study comparing the ocular distribution of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07%, pH 7.8 with that of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09%, pH 8.3, and 2 a 24-hour study evaluating the ocular distribution of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07%, pH 7.8.Methods: In the 12-hour study, rabbits were randomized to receive 50 µL of 14C-bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 or 50 µL 14C-bromfenac 0.09%, pH 8.3 in one eye, whereas, in the 24-hour, study both eyes received 50 µL of 14C-bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8. Ocular tissues were collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 (both studies and 24 hours (second study only following drug instillation, and tissue radioactivity was determined using liquid scintillation chromatography. Results: Measureable levels of bromfenac were observed in all ocular tissues, with the exception of vitreous humor, regardless of formulation. In the 12-hour study, high concentrations of 14C-bromfenac were found in the sclera, followed by the iris/ciliary body, aqueous humor, choroid, retina, and lens. There was no significant difference between the bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 and bromfenac 0.09%, pH 8.3 formulations in any 14C-bromfenac tissue levels at any time point, with the exception of in sclera at 2 hours post-instillation (0.451 µg eq/g versus 0.302 µg eq/g, respectively, P<0.001. There was also no significant difference in the total amount of 14C-bromfenac in the tissues evaluated following instillation of the two formulations. In the 24-hour study evaluating bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 only, high concentrations of 14C-bromfenac were found 1 hour post-instillation in the cornea (2.402 µg eq/g and conjunctiva (1.049 µg eq/g, two tissues not evaluated in the 12-hour study. The rank order of 14C

  12. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements

  13. Dielectrophoresis Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as pH Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the fabrication and characterization of pH sensors using aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs. The SWNTs are dispersed in deionized (DI water after chemical functionalization and filtration. They are deposited and organized on silicon substrates with the dielectrophoresis process. Electrodes with “teeth”-like patterns—fabricated with photolithography and wet etching—are used to generate concentrated electric fields and strong dielectrophoretic forces for the SWNTs to deposit and align in desired locations. The device fabrication is inexpensive, solution-based, and conducted at room temperature. The devices are used as pH sensors with the electrodes as the testing pads and the dielectrophoretically captured SWNTs as the sensing elements. When exposed to aqueous solutions with various pH values, the SWNTs change their resistance accordingly. The SWNT-based sensors demonstrate a linear relationship between the sensor resistance and the pH values in the range of 5–9. The characterization of multiple sensors proves that their pH sensitivity is highly repeatable. The real-time data acquisition shows that the sensor response time depends on the pH value, ranging from 2.26 s for the pH-5 solution to 23.82 s for the pH-9 solution. The long-term stability tests illustrate that the sensors can maintain their original sensitivity for a long period of time. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the SWNT-based sensors facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas.

  14. Determining pH of strip-mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Berg

    1969-01-01

    Results with the LaMotte-Morgan method for determining soil pH-or the solution modification of this method-usually agreed fairly well with the results from using a pH meter, the recognized standard. Results obtained with the Soiltex and Hellige-Truog methods often deviated somewhat from the pH meter readings; and the Hydrion papers and the Kelway pH tester often gave...

  15. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  16. Changes in soil solution Zn and pH and uptake of Zn by arbuscular mycorrhizal red clover in Zn-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    Red clover plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae were grown in a sterile pasture soil containing 50 mg Zn kg(-1) in 'Plexiglas' (acrylic) containers with nylon net partitions (30 microm mesh) designed to separate the soil into a central root zone and two outer zones for hyphal growth with no root penetration. Two porous plastic soil moisture samplers were installed in each pot, one in the root compartment and the other in one of the hyphal compartments. The soil in the outer compartments was amended with one of the four application rates of Zn (as ZnSO4) ranging from 0 to 1000 mg kg(-1). Non-mycorrhizal controls were included, and there were five replicates of each treatment in a randomised block in a glasshouse. Uninoculated plants received supplementary P to avoid yield limitation due to low soil P status. Plants grew in the central compartment for nine weeks. Soil moisture samples were collected 4, 24 and 62 days after sowing to monitor changes in the Zn concentration and pH of the soil solution. At harvest, the mean mycorrhizal infection rate of inoculated plants ranged from 29% to 34% of total root length and was little affected by Zn application. Root and shoot yields were not affected by mycorrhizal infection. Plant Zn concentration and uptake were lower in mycorrhizal plants than non-mycorrhizal controls, and this effect was more pronounced with increasing Zn application rate to the soil. Soil solution Zn concentrations were lower and pH values were higher in mycorrhizal treatments than non-mycorrhizal controls and the mycorrhiza effect was more pronounced at higher Zn application rates. The protective effect of mycorrhiza against plant Zn uptake may have been associated with changes in Zn solubility mediated by changes in the soil solution pH, or by immobilisation of Zn in the extraradical mycelium.

  17. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  18. The pH-static enzyme sensor: design of the pH control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; van der Schoot, Bart H.; Voorthuijzen, Hans; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1990-01-01

    The pH-static enzyme sensor offers a solution to the buffer dependency of ISFET-based enzyme sensors. A continuous coulometric titration of the reaction products keeps the pH in the enzymatic membrane at a constant level. This paper presents an automatic system to control the compensating current

  19. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  20. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Paz, M.G., E-mail: myrnasandoval@udec.cl [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Porcile-Saavedra, P.F. [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Trejo-Cruz, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Biobío, Avenue Collao 1202, Box 5C, Concepción 4051381 (Chile)

    2016-07-15

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films. - Graphical abstract: “Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution” by M. G. Sandoval-Paz, C. A. Rodríguez, P. F. Porcile-Saavedra, C. Trejo-Cruz. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Copper (I) selenide thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition. • Orthorhombic to cubic phase change was induced by varying the reaction solution pH. • Orthorhombic phase is obtained mainly from a hydroxides cluster mechanism. • Cubic phase is obtained mainly from an ion by ion mechanism. • Structural, optical and electrical properties are presented as a function of pH.

  1. Open-gated pH sensor fabricated on an undoped-AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Sharifabad, Maneea Eizadi; Rahman, Shaharin Fadzli Abd; Sadoh, Taizoh

    2011-01-01

    The sensing responses in aqueous solution of an open-gated pH sensor fabricated on an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) structure are investigated. Under air-exposed ambient conditions, the open-gated undoped AlGaN/GaN HEMT only shows the presence of a linear current region. This seems to show that very low Fermi level pinning by surface states exists in the undoped AlGaN/GaN sample. In aqueous solution, typical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with reasonably good gate controllability are observed, showing that the potential of the AlGaN surface at the open-gated area is effectively controlled via aqueous solution by the Ag/AgCl gate electrode. The open-gated undoped AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure is capable of distinguishing pH level in aqueous electrolytes and exhibits linear sensitivity, where high sensitivity of 1.9 mA/pH or 3.88 mA/mm/pH at drain-source voltage, V(DS) = 5 V is obtained. Due to the large leakage current where it increases with the negative gate voltage, Nernstian like sensitivity cannot be determined as commonly reported in the literature. This large leakage current may be caused by the technical factors rather than any characteristics of the devices. Surprisingly, although there are some imperfections in the device preparation and measurement, the fabricated devices work very well in distinguishing the pH levels. Suppression of current leakage by improving the device preparation is likely needed to improve the device performance. The fabricated device is expected to be suitable for pH sensing applications.

  2. Open-Gated pH Sensor Fabricated on an Undoped-AlGaN/GaN HEMT Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizoh Sadoh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensing responses in aqueous solution of an open-gated pH sensor fabricated on an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT structure are investigated. Under air-exposed ambient conditions, the open-gated undoped AlGaN/GaN HEMT only shows the presence of a linear current region. This seems to show that very low Fermi level pinning by surface states exists in the undoped AlGaN/GaN sample. In aqueous solution, typical current-voltage (I-V characteristics with reasonably good gate controllability are observed, showing that the potential of the AlGaN surface at the open-gated area is effectively controlled via aqueous solution by the Ag/AgCl gate electrode. The open-gated undoped AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure is capable of distinguishing pH level in aqueous electrolytes and exhibits linear sensitivity, where high sensitivity of 1.9 mA/pH or 3.88 mA/mm/pH at drain-source voltage, VDS = 5 V is obtained. Due to the large leakage current where it increases with the negative gate voltage, Nernstian like sensitivity cannot be determined as commonly reported in the literature. This large leakage current may be caused by the technical factors rather than any characteristics of the devices. Surprisingly, although there are some imperfections in the device preparation and measurement, the fabricated devices work very well in distinguishing the pH levels. Suppression of current leakage by improving the device preparation is likely needed to improve the device performance. The fabricated device is expected to be suitable for pH sensing applications.

  3. Metal/Metal Oxide Differential Electrode pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Buehler, Martin; Keymeulen, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors for measuring the degrees of acidity or alkalinity (in terms of pH values) of liquid solutions are being developed. These sensors are intended to supplant older electrochemical pH sensors that include glass electrode structures and reference solutions. The older sensors are fragile and subject to drift. The present developmental solid-state sensors are more rugged and are expected to be usable in harsh environments. The present sensors are based on a differential-electrode measurement principle. Each sensor includes two electrodes, made of different materials, in equilibrium with the solution of interest.

  4. Influence of storage solution on enamel demineralization submitted to pH cycling Influência da solução de armazenagem na desmineralização do esmalte submetido à ciclagem de pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Moura

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracted human teeth are frequently used for research or educational purposes. Therefore, it is necessary to store them in disinfectant solutions that do not alter dental structures. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of storage solution on enamel demineralization. For that purpose, sixty samples were divided into the following groups: enamel stored in formaldehyde (F1, stored in thymol (T1, stored in formaldehyde and submitted to pH cycling (F2, stored in thymol and submitted to pH cycling (T2. All samples were evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness analysis and had their percentage of mineral volume versus micrometer (integrated area determined. Differences between groups were found up to 30-µm depth from the enamel surface (p Dentes humanos extraídos são freqüentemente utilizados para propósitos educacionais ou de pesquisa. Desta forma, é necessário o armazenamento dos mesmos em soluções desinfetantes que não alterem a estrutura dental. Para tanto, sessenta espécimes foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: esmalte armazenado em formol (F1, armazenado em timol (T1, armazenado em formol e submetido à ciclagem de pH (F2 e armazenado em timol e submetido à ciclagem de pH (T2, sendo avaliados por meio de análise de microdureza longitudinal e tiveram a porcentagem de volume mineral pro micrômetro determinada. Diferenças entre os grupos foram encontradas até a profundidade de 30µm da superfície do esmalte (p<0,05, onde o grupo mais desmineralizado era T2. Foi concluído que a solução de armazenagem influenciou na reação do substrato dental a um desafio cariogênico, sugerindo que o formaldeído pode aumentar a resistência do esmalte à desmineralização promovida pelo modelo de ciclagem de pH, quando comparado à desmineralização ocorrida no esmalte armazenado em timol.

  5. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  6. Recovery of uranium from sulphate solutions containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Genik-Sas-Berezowsky, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from a sulphate solution containing dissolved uranium and molybdenum includes reacting the solution with ammonia (pH 8 to 10), the pH of the original solution must not exceed 5.5 and after the addition of ammonia the pH must not be in the vicinity of 7 for a significant time. The resultant uranium precipitate is relatively uncontaminated by molybdenum. The precipitate is then separated from the remaining solution while the pH is maintained within the stated range

  7. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana eBurdikova; Zdenek eSvindrych; Jan ePala; Cian eHickey; Martin G. Wilkinson; Jiri ePanek; Mark A. E. Auty; Ammasi ePeriasamy; Jeremiah J. Sheehan

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a signi...

  8. An All-Solid-State pH Sensor Employing Fluorine-Terminated Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond as a pH-Insensitive Solution-Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-05

    A fluorine-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond surface is successfully employed as a pH-insensitive SGFET (solution-gate field-effect transistor) for an all-solid-state pH sensor. The fluorinated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) channel possesses a pH-insensitivity of less than 3mV/pH compared with a pH-sensitive oxygenated channel. With differential FET (field-effect transistor) sensing, a sensitivity of 27 mv/pH was obtained in the pH range of 2-10; therefore, it demonstrated excellent performance for an all-solid-state pH sensor with a pH-sensitive oxygen-terminated polycrystalline BDD SGFET and a platinum quasi-reference electrode, respectively.

  9. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appell, Michael, E-mail: michael.appell@ars.usda.gov [Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Jackson, Michael A.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann [Renewable Product Technology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 silica was investigated to detoxify aqueous solutions contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propylthiol groups, a functional group known to form Michael reaction products with the conjugated double bond system of patulin. BET surface area analysis indicated the propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 possesses channels with the pore size of 5.4 nm and a surface area of 345 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Elemental analysis indicates the silicon/sulfur ratio to be 10:1, inferring one propylthiol substituent for every ten silica residues. The propylthiol modified SBA-15 was effective at significantly reducing high levels of patulin from aqueous solutions (pH 7.0) in batch sorption assays at room temperature. The material was less effective at lower pH; however heating low pH solutions and apple juice to 60 deg, C in the presence of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 significantly reduced the levels of patulin in contaminated samples. Composite molecular models developed by semi-empirical PM3 and empirical force field methods support patulin permeation through the mesoporous channels of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15. Density functional study at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicts the proposed patulin adducts formed by reaction with the thiol residues exhibit less electrophilic properties than patulin. It is demonstrated the use of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 is a viable approach to reduce patulin levels in aqueous solutions, including contaminated apple juice.

  10. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, Michael; Jackson, Michael A.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 silica was investigated to detoxify aqueous solutions contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propylthiol groups, a functional group known to form Michael reaction products with the conjugated double bond system of patulin. BET surface area analysis indicated the propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 possesses channels with the pore size of 5.4 nm and a surface area of 345 m 2 g -1 . Elemental analysis indicates the silicon/sulfur ratio to be 10:1, inferring one propylthiol substituent for every ten silica residues. The propylthiol modified SBA-15 was effective at significantly reducing high levels of patulin from aqueous solutions (pH 7.0) in batch sorption assays at room temperature. The material was less effective at lower pH; however heating low pH solutions and apple juice to 60 deg, C in the presence of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 significantly reduced the levels of patulin in contaminated samples. Composite molecular models developed by semi-empirical PM3 and empirical force field methods support patulin permeation through the mesoporous channels of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15. Density functional study at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicts the proposed patulin adducts formed by reaction with the thiol residues exhibit less electrophilic properties than patulin. It is demonstrated the use of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 is a viable approach to reduce patulin levels in aqueous solutions, including contaminated apple juice.

  11. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  12. Effect of pH and phosphate on calcium carbonate polymorphs precipitated at near-freezing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yu-Bin; Wolthers, Mariëtte; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Nehrke, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pH and phosphate on the precipitation of calcium carbonate polymorphs from aqueous solution were investigated. Experiments were carried out at near-freezing temperature and two different pH conditions (pH 13.4 and 9.0). At each pH condition, solutions having different concentrations

  13. Recovery of thorium along with uranium 233 from Thorex waste solution employing Chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, S.; Reghuram, D.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.

    2003-01-01

    The low level waste solution, generated from Thorex process during the processing of U 233 , contains thorium along with traces of Th 228 and U 233 . Chitosan, a natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin, was earlier used to recover the uranium and americium. The studies were extended to find out its thorium sorption characteristics. Chitosan exhibited very good absorption of thorium (350 mg/g). Chitosan was equilibrated directly with the low level waste solution at different pH after adjusting its pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed. The results showed more than 99% of thorium and U 233 could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 5. Loaded thorium and uranium could be eluted from the Chitosan by 1M HNO 3 quantitatively. (author)

  14. ISFET pH Sensitivity: Counter-Ions Play a Key Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Kokab B; Xu, Xiaoqing; Pal, Ashish; Hu, Xiaolin; Wong, H S Philip

    2017-02-02

    The Field Effect sensors are broadly used for detecting various target analytes in chemical and biological solutions. We report the conditions under which the pH sensitivity of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect transistor (ISFET) sensor can be significantly enhanced. Our theory and simulations show that by using pH buffer solutions containing counter-ions that are beyond a specific size, the sensor shows significantly higher sensitivity which can exceed the Nernst limit. We validate the theory by measuring the pH response of an extended gate ISFET pH sensor. The consistency and reproducibility of the measurement results have been recorded in hysteresis free and stable operations. Different conditions have been tested to confirm the accuracy and validity of our experiment results such as using different solutions, various oxide dielectrics as the sensing layer and off-the-shelf versus IC fabricated transistors as the basis of the ISFET sensor.

  15. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Radiolysis of nitrite, bromate and permanganate ions and their binary mixtures in aqueous solutions at pH 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Kulkarni, S.A.; Mahajan, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    #betta#-radiolysis of pure systems viz. nitrite, bromate and permanganate and their binary mixtures (MNO 4- /NO 2- , MnO 4- /BrO 3- ) in aqueous solution at pH 10 is studied as a function of dose and concentration. In pure systems the G(NO 3- ), G(Br - ) and G(-MnO 4- ) increase with increasing concentration. The first two show an identical limiting value of approximately 0.5 while the last increases from 0.68 below 10 4 M and reaches 2.5 at 10 - 2 M concentration. Presence of 10 - 1 M BrO 3- or 10 - 2 M NO 2- reduces the G(-MnO 4- ) from 1.07 for the pure 10 - 3 M permanganate solution to 0.2 and 0.7 respectively. A mechanism based on the competitive kinetics is envisaged to explain the observed results. (author)

  17. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  18. Solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface from sodium dodecyl sulfate/oligoamine mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacheva, S S; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Webster, J R P

    2013-05-14

    Neutron reflectivity and surface tension have been used to investigate the solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/oligoamine mixtures at the air-water interface. For diethylenetriamine, triamine, or triethylenetetramine, tetramine mixed with SDS, there is monolayer adsorption at pH 7 and 10, and multilayer adsorption at pH 3. For the slightly higher molecular weight tetraethylenepentamine, pentamine, and pentaethylenehexamine, hexamine, the adsorption is in the form of a monolayer at pH 3 and multilayers at pH 7 and 10. Hence, there is a pH driven transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption, which shifts from low pH to higher pH as the oligoamine molecular weight increases from tetramine to pentamine. This results from the relative balance between the electrostatic attraction between the SDS and amine nitrogen group which decreases as the charge density decreases with increasing pH, the ion-dipole interaction between the amine nitrogen and SDS sulfate group which is dominant at higher pH, and the hydrophobic interalkyl chain interaction between bound SDS molecules which changes with oligoamine molecular weight.

  19. Methodologically controlled variations in laboratory and field pH measurements in waterlogged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    artefacts is critical. But the study includes agricultural and forest soils for comparison. At a waterlogged site, Laboratory results were compared with three different field methods: calomel pH probes inserted in the soil from pits, pH measurements of soil solution extracted from the soil, and pH profiles...... using a solid-state pH electrode pushed into the soil from the surface. Comparisons between in situ and laboratory methods revealed differences of more than 1 pH unit. The content of dissolved ions in soil solution and field observations of O2 and CO2 concentrations were used in the speciation model...... PHREEQE in order to predict gas exchange processes. Changes in pH in soil solution following equilibrium in the laboratory could be explained mainly by CO2 degassing. Only soil pH measured in situ using either calomel or solid-state probes inserted directly into the soil was not affected by gas exchange...

  20. Effect of pH on Pulp Potential and Sulphide Mineral Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTEPE, Ferihan

    2014-01-01

    Control of pH is one of the most widely applied methods for the modulation of mineral flotation. In this study the effect of pH on potential in solution and sulphur minerals flotation is discussed with various electrodes. The electrodes were platinum, gold, chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena. In solution, potentials were linearly dependent on pH with a different slope for each electrode. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena minerals flotation tests were performed in a microflot...

  1. Science PhD career preferences: levels, changes, and advisor encouragement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Sauermann

    Full Text Available Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

  2. Science PhD career preferences: levels, changes, and advisor encouragement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry; Roach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

  3. Parametric Level Statistics in Random Matrix Theory: Exact Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzieper, E.

    1999-01-01

    During recent several years, the theory of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles has experienced a sound progress motivated by new ideas in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and mesoscopic physics. Invariant non-Gaussian random matrix models appear to describe universal features of low-energy part of the spectrum of Dirac operator in QCD, and electron level statistics in normal conducting-superconducting hybrid structures. They also serve as a basis for constructing the toy models of universal spectral statistics expected at the edge of the metal-insulator transition. While conventional spectral statistics has received a detailed study in the context of RMT, quite a bit is known about parametric level statistics in non-Gaussian random matrix models. In this communication we report about exact solution to the problem of parametric level statistics in unitary invariant, U(N), non-Gaussian ensembles of N x N Hermitian random matrices with either soft or strong level confinement. The solution is formulated within the framework of the orthogonal polynomial technique and is shown to depend on both the unfolded two-point scalar kernel and the level confinement through a double integral transformation which, in turn, provides a constructive tool for description of parametric level correlations in non-Gaussian RMT. In the case of soft level confinement, the formalism developed is potentially applicable to a study of parametric level statistics in an important class of random matrix models with finite level compressibility expected to describe a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. In random matrix ensembles with strong level confinement, the solution presented takes a particular simple form in the thermodynamic limit: In this case, a new intriguing connection relation between the parametric level statistics and the scalar two-point kernel of an unperturbed ensemble is demonstrated to emerge. Extension of the results obtained to higher-order parametric level statistics is

  4. Influence of pH on the transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media: laboratory experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, Jason; Kanel, Sushil R., E-mail: sushil.kanel.ctr@afit.edu; Racz, LeeAnn [Air Force Institute of Technology, Department of Systems and Engineering Management (United States); Impellitteri, Christopher A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Silva, Rendahandi G. [U.S. EPA Test and Evaluation Facility, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure (United States); Goltz, Mark N., E-mail: mark.goltz@afit.edu [Air Force Institute of Technology, Department of Systems and Engineering Management (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Given the ubiquity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their potential for toxic effects on both humans and the environment, it is important to understand their environmental fate and transport. The purpose of this study is to gain information on the transport properties of commercial AgNP suspensions in a glass bead-packed column under saturated flow conditions at different solution pH levels. Commercial AgNPs were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Transport data were collected at different pH levels (4, 6.5, 9, and 11) at fixed ionic strength. Capture of AgNPs increased as the pH of the solution increased from 4 to 6.5. Further increase in pH to 9 and 11 decreased the attachment of AgNPs to the glass beads. AgNP concentration versus time breakthrough data were simulated using an advection-dispersion model incorporating both irreversible and reversible attachment. In particular, a reversible attachment model is required to simulate breakthrough curve tailing at near neutral pH, when attachment is most significant. The laboratory and modeling study reveals that for natural groundwaters, AgNP transport in porous media may be retarded due to capture; but ultimately, most of the mass may be slowly released over time.

  5. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  6. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  7. Effect of pH and uranium concentration on interaction of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.C.; Victor, D.M.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of pH and uranium concentration on the interactions of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands was studied by employing dialysis and ultrafiltration techniques. The interactions of U(VI) and U(IV) with organic ligands in nitrate or chloride aqueous solution have been found to be pH-dependent. The stability constants of uranium-organic complexes decrease in the order: fulvic acid>humic acid>tannic acid for U(VI) and humic acid>tannic acid>fulvic acid for U(IV). Scatchard plots for the uranium-organic acid systems indicate two types of binding sites with a difference in stability constants of about 10 2 . Ultrafiltration of uranium-humic acid complexes indicates that U(VI) and U(IV) ions are concentrated in larger molecular size fractions (>5.1 nm) at pH less than or equal to 3 and in smaller molecular size fractions (in the range 5.1 to 3.1 nm and 2.4 to 1.9 nm) at pH greater than or equal to 5. 7 figures, 4 tables

  8. CMOS COLOUR SENSOR BASED pH MEASUREMENT FOR WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar; Arvind Singh

    2016-01-01

    A Real-Time pH measurement system using a novel design Programmable CMOS optical Colour light to frequency converter TCS230 is presented. The system uses Bogen’s universal indicator solution combined with a white light source and the Programmable CMOS colour sensor TCS230 to measure pH as a function of colour change in a sample. Bogen’s universal indicator solution causes a colour change in a sample according to the pH of the sample. The output frequency from the colour-sensitive CM...

  9. Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution under densely buffered neutral pH conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-08-18

    Under buffered neutral pH conditions, solute concentrations drastically influence the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The iR-free HER performance as a function of solute concentration was found to exhibit a volcano-shaped trend in sodium phosphate solution at pH 5, with the maximum occurring at 2 M. A detailed microkinetic model that includes calculated activity coefficients, solution resistance, and mass-transport parameters accurately describes the measured values, clarifying that the overall HER performance is predominantly governed by mass-transport of slow phosphate ions (weak acid). In the HER at the optimum concentration of approximately 2 M sodium phosphate at pH 5, our theoretical model predicts that the concentration overpotential accounts for more than half of the required overpotential. The substantial concentration overpotential would originate from the electrolyte property, suggesting that the proper electrolyte engineering will result in an improved apparent HER performances. The significance of concentration overpotential shown in the study is critical in the advancement of electrocatalysis, biocatalysis, and photocatalysis.

  10. Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution under densely buffered neutral pH conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Under buffered neutral pH conditions, solute concentrations drastically influence the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The iR-free HER performance as a function of solute concentration was found to exhibit a volcano-shaped trend in sodium phosphate solution at pH 5, with the maximum occurring at 2 M. A detailed microkinetic model that includes calculated activity coefficients, solution resistance, and mass-transport parameters accurately describes the measured values, clarifying that the overall HER performance is predominantly governed by mass-transport of slow phosphate ions (weak acid). In the HER at the optimum concentration of approximately 2 M sodium phosphate at pH 5, our theoretical model predicts that the concentration overpotential accounts for more than half of the required overpotential. The substantial concentration overpotential would originate from the electrolyte property, suggesting that the proper electrolyte engineering will result in an improved apparent HER performances. The significance of concentration overpotential shown in the study is critical in the advancement of electrocatalysis, biocatalysis, and photocatalysis.

  11. Reduction of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in soil with increasing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Mário

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted with soil samples and synthetic solutions to investigate possible mechanisms related with reduction in KCl exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Increasing soil pH over 5.3 with CaCO3 added to the soil and with NaOH solution added to soil/KCl suspension increased adsorptions of Ca and Mg. The reduction of Mg was greater than Ca and was related to the concentration of soil exchangeable Al. The decreases of soluble Ca and Mg following addition of Al in synthetic solution were at pH > 7.5. The isomorphic coprecipitation reaction with Al compounds may be the most possible mechanism responsible for the decrease of exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Possible chemical reactions are presented.

  12. A simple protocol for the routine calibration of pH meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FEDERMAN NETO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A simplified laboratory protocol for the calibration of pH meters is described and tested. It is based on the use of two analytical primary buffer solutions, potassium hydrogen phthalate and Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate of precisely known concentrations and pH. The solutions may be stored at room temperature for long periods, without decomposition and used directly. The calibration of the meter can be checked with standard solutions of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate or potassium oxalate. Methods for the purification of Borax and potassium chloride are also given, and a new method for the neutralization of 0.9% saline is suggested. Keywords: pH meters (calibration; saline (0.9%; pH standards; potassium biphthalate; Borax.

  13. BSA-coated nanoparticles for improved SERS-based intracellular pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Shan; Hu, Pei; Cui, Yan; Zong, Cheng; Feng, Jia-Min; Wang, Xin; Ren, Bin

    2014-12-16

    Local microenvironment pH sensing is one of the key parameters for the understanding of many biological processes. As a noninvasive and high sensitive technique, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has attracted considerable interest in the detection of the local pH of live cells. We herein develop a facile way to prepare Au-(4-MPy)-BSA (AMB) pH nanosensor. The 4-MPy (4-mercaptopyridine) was used as the pH sensing molecule. The modification of the nanoparticles with BSA not only provides a high sensitive response to pH changes ranging from pH 4.0 to 9.0 but also exhibits a high sensitivity and good biocompatibility, stability, and reliability in various solutions (including the solutions of high ionic strength or with complex composition such as the cell culture medium), both in the aggregation state or after long-term storage. The AMB pH nanosensor shows great advantages for reliable intracellular pH analysis and has been successfully used to monitor the pH distribution of live cells and can address the grand challenges in SERS-based pH sensing for practical biological applications.

  14. The pH dependent Raman spectroscopic study of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Gu, Huaimin; Zhong, Liang; Hu, Yongjun; Liu, Fang

    2011-02-01

    First of all the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and normal Raman spectra of caffeine aqueous solution were obtained at different pH values. In order to obtain the detailed vibrational assignments of the Raman spectroscopy, the geometry of caffeine molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. By comparing the SERS of caffeine with its normal spectra at different pH values; it is concluded that pH value can dramatically affect the SERS of caffeine, but barely affect the normal Raman spectrum of caffeine aqueous solution. It can essentially affect the reorientation of caffeine molecule to the Ag colloid surface, but cannot impact the vibration of functional groups and chemical bonds in caffeine molecule.

  15. Effects of cold stratification pretreatment and pH level on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies emphasise that low germination rate of its seed is primarily due to deep seed dormancy. Therefore, studies was done on C. tchihatcheffii seeds, to investigate the effects of cold stratification for different periods (90, 120 and 150 days) and different pH values (pH 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5) on seed germination.

  16. Chapter A6. Section 6.4. pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Radtke, Dean B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of pH is critical to the understanding of the viability and vulnerability of environmental waters and is considered a master variable in determining the aqueous geochemistry of an aqueous system. pH is a measure that represents the hydrogen-ion concentration (activity) of a solution. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of pH in ground and surface waters.

  17. Integrated titanium dioxide (TiO_2) nanoparticles on interdigitated device electrodes (IDEs) for pH analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizah, N.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Farehanim, M. A.; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) nanoparticles based Interdigitated Device Electrodes (IDEs) Nanobiosensor device was developed for intracellular biochemical detection. Fabrication and characterization of pH sensors using IDE nanocoated with TiO_2 was studied in this paper. In this paper, a preliminary assessment of this intracellular sensor with electrical measurement under different pH levels. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was used to enhance the sensitivity of titanium dioxide layer as well as able to provide surface modification by undergoing protonation and deprotonation process. Different types of pH solution provide different resistivity and conductivity towards the surface. Base solution has the higher current compared to an acid solution. Amine and oxide functionalized TiO_2 based IDE exhibit pH-dependent could be understood in terms of the change in surface charge during protonation and deprotonation. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the TiO_2 based IDEs facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas. The small size of semiconductor TiO_2 based IDE for sensitive, label-free, real time detection of a wide range of biological species could be explored in vivo diagnostics and array-based screening.

  18. Partitioning high-level waste from alkaline solution: A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1993-05-01

    Most chemical partitioning procedures are designed for acidic feed solutions. However, the high-level waste solutions in the underground storage tanks at US Department of Energy defense production sites are alkaline. Effective partitioning procedures for alkaline solutions could decrease the need to acidify these solutions and to dissolve the solids in acid, which would simplify subsequent processing and decrease the generation of secondary waste. The author compiles candidate technologies from his review of the chemical literature, experience, and personal contacts. Several of these are recommended for evaluation

  19. No-core fiber-based highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of an optical fiber pH sensor using a sol–gel technique. The sensing head configuration is incorporated using a short section of no-core fiber, coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate and spliced at the end of a single mode fiber with a bulge. Different types of indicators (bromophenol blue, cresol red, and chlorophenol red) were used to achieve a wide pH range from 2 to 13. High sensitivities of the fabricated device were found to be 1.02 and ? 0.93 ?? nm / pH for acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. From the characterization results, it was noted that there is an impact of ionic strength and an effect of the temperature of liquid on the response characteristic, which is an advantage of the existing device over the other pH sensors. The fabricated sensor exhibited good reflection spectrum, indicating a blueshift in resonance wavelength for alkaline solutions and a redshift for acidic solutions.

  20. Addressing a Common Misconception: Ammonium Acetate as Neutral pH "Buffer" for Native Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit. NH4 + and CH3-COO- are not a conjugate acid/base pair, which means that they do not constitute a buffer at pH 7. Dissolution of ammonium acetate salt in water results in pH 7, but this pH is highly labile. Ammonium acetate does provide buffering around pH 4.75 (the pKa of acetic acid) and around pH 9.25 (the pKa of ammonium). This implies that neutral ammonium acetate solutions electrosprayed in positive ion mode will likely undergo acidification down to pH 4.75 ± 1 in the ESI plume. Ammonium acetate nonetheless remains a useful additive for native ESI-MS. It is a volatile electrolyte that can mimic the solvation properties experienced by proteins under physiological conditions. Also, a drop from pH 7 to around pH 4.75 is less dramatic than the acidification that would take place in pure water. It is hoped that the habit of referring to pH 7 solutions as ammonium acetate "buffer" will disappear from the literature. Ammonium acetate "solution" should be used instead. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Differential Sensor for PH Monitoring of Environmental Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pH sensor is proposed. Reference electrode and measuring electrode are the same type. Reference electrode is immersed in standard buffer solution with known pH value. The differential pH sensor has longer service life as compared with the traditionally used sensors with silver chloride reference electrode. Ultrasonic cleaning system is proposed to clean the primary measuring transducer from pollution that form as result of silting during long-term operation with the sensor.

  2. Colorimetric study of malvidin-3-O-glucoside copigmented by phenolic compounds: The effect of molar ratio, temperature, pH, and ethanol content on color expression of red wine model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Xue-Shan; Li, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xia; Sheng, Wen-Jun; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Han, Shun-Yu

    2017-12-01

    In the recent research, the copigmentations of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with eight types of phenolic copigments have been investigated. The influence of the pigment/copigment molar ratio, the reaction temperature, the pH and the ethanol content of solutions has been examined. The results showed that the copigmentation effect was dependent on not only the particular structures of the phenolic compounds but also the factors of the reaction systems. The increase of the copigment concentration can strengthen the copigmentation effect, improve the solution color, and enhance the red-purple features. Different temperatures had different influences on the copigmentation reactions. The destruction of the copigmentation complexes can result in the hypsochromic shift of the reaction solution when the temperature was higher than 20°C. The bathochromic shift of the solution gradually progressed with the increase of the pH value. A significant copigmentation feature was spotted when pH reached 3.0, which demonstrates obvious red-purple characterization. The addition of the ethanol weakened the copigmentation effect. According to measurement through color analysis, it was found that the color differences caused by ethanol in red wine were typically attributed to quantitative changes. Remarkably, all of the above delicate color deviations caused by the structural or environmental factors can be precisely and conveniently depicted via the CIELAB space analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence on Levels of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    Involves secondary students in a study designed to allow investigation into how different levels of information presented by various technologies (chemical indicators, pH meters, and microcomputer-based laboratories-MBLs) affected students' understanding of acid, base, and pH concepts. Results showed that students using MBLs exhibited a greater…

  4. pH dependent green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by completely C6-carboxylated curdlan under high temperature and various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Yi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao-Yao; Ding, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Li-Xia; Cai, Wu-Dan; Yan, Jing-Kun

    2018-01-01

    A C6-carboxylated curdlan (C6-Cc) obtained from 4-acetamido-TEMPO-mediated oxidation of curdlan was used both as a reducing and stabilizing agent for green synthesis of pH-responsive AuNPs, which was carried out by controlling the pH of the C6-Cc solution at a high temperature (100°C). C6-Cc presented a semi-flexible random coil chain in the aqueous medium at pH 5.5 and became more expanded and rigid in alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0), though the primary chemical structure of C6-Cc was virtually unchanged with the pH variation. The AuNPs prepared with C6-Cc at various pHs were characterized by various instrumental measurements. The shapes and sizes of AuNPs were found to be strongly dependent on the pH of the C6-Cc solution. The C6-Cc-decorated AuNPs exhibited a more well-dispersed spherical morphology with smaller particle sizes under alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0). Through this study, a facile, simple, and green method has been demonstrated for preparation of stimuli-sensitive AuNPs using biocompatible polyanionic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological and analytical studies of peritoneal dialysis solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to conduct biological and analytical studies of the peritoneal dialysis (PD solutions containing glucose and sodium lactate and establish correlations between cell viability of the Vero cell line and values of analytical indexes of the tested solutions. The results of this study confirm the cytotoxicity of the PD solutions even compared with the isotonic solution of sodium chloride, which may be due to the low pH of the solutions, presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs and high osmolarity of the solutions, and unphysiological concentrations of glucose and sodium lactate. However, it is not yet known what factors or their combination and to what extent cause the cytotoxicity of PD solutions. In the neutral red (NR test the weak, almost middle (r = -0.496 and 0.498, respectively and unexpected correlations were found between reduced viability of monkey kidney cells and increased pH of the PD solutions and between increased cell viability and increased absorbance at 228 nm of the tested PD solutions. These two correlations can be explained by a strong correlation (r = -0.948 between a decrease in pH and an increase in the solution absorbance at 228 nm. The opposite effect was observed in the MTT test. The weak, but expected correlations (r = 0.32 and -0.202, respectively were found between increased cell viability and increased pH in the PD solutions and between decreased cell viability and increased absorbance at 228 nm of the tested PD solutions. The middle and weak correlations (r = 0.56 and 0.29, respectively were detected between increased cell viability and increased lactate concentration in the NR test and MTT test. The data of these correlations can be partially explained by the fact that a correlation with a coefficient r = -0.34 was found between decreased pH in the solutions and increased lactate concentration. The very weak correlations (0.138 and 0.196, respectively were found between increased cell

  6. Electrochemical characteristics of bioresorbable binary MgCa alloys in Ringer's solution: Revealing the impact of local pH distributions during in-vitro dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareci, D., E-mail: danmareci@yahoo.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, The “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Bolat, G. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, The “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Izquierdo, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, E-38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Crimu, C.; Munteanu, C. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, The “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Antoniac, I. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Souto, R.M., E-mail: rsouto@ull.es [Department of Chemistry, University of La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, E-38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium–calcium (MgCa) alloy is a very attractive biomaterial. Two MgCa alloys below the solid solubility of Ca were considered, as to solely investigate the effect of Ca content on the behavior of magnesium and the pH changes associated to metal dissolution. X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy showed that both Mg–0.63Ca and Mg–0.89Ca alloys were solely composed of α(Mg) phase. Degradation characteristics and electrochemical characterization of MgCa alloys were investigated during exposure to Ringer's solution at 37 °C by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The impedance behavior showed both capacitive and inductive features that are related to the alloy charge transfer reaction and the relaxation of the absorbed corrosion compounds, and can be described in terms of an equivalent circuit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to view the surface morphology of the MgCa samples after 1 week immersion in Ringer's solution showing extensive precipitation of corrosion products, whereas the substrate shows evidence of a non-uniform corrosion process. Energy dispersive analysis showed that the precipitates contained oxygen, calcium, magnesium and chlorine, and the Mg:Ca ratios were smaller than in the alloys. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to visualize local pH changes associated to these physicochemical processes with high spatial resolution. The occurrence of pH variations in excess of 3 units between anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions was monitored in situ. - Highlights: • Spontaneous degradation of MgCa alloys in Ringer's solution characterized at 37 °C • Reactivity differences between Mg0.63Ca and Mg0.89Ca are evidenced using multiscale electrochemical characterization. • Electrochemical activation occurs heterogeneously on the alloy surface. • Metal dissolution is accompanied by local pH changes. • Mg0.63Ca degrades faster

  7. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  8. Effects of pH and chloride concentration on pitting corrosion of AA6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, B.; Saidi, D.; Benzaid, A.; Hadji, S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of pH solution and chloride (Cl - ) ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of alloy AA6061 immersed in aqueous solutions of NaCl have been investigated using measurements of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation, cyclic polarisation experiment combined with open circuit potential transient technique and optical or scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the AA6061 aluminum alloy was found to be dependant on the pH and chloride concentration [NaCl] of solution. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion. Experience revealed that the alloy AA6061 was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution of concentration ranging between 0.003 wt% and 5.5 wt% NaCl and an increase in the chloride concentration slightly shifted both the pitting E pit and corrosion E cor potentials to more active values. In function of the conditions of treatment, the sheets of the alloy AA6061 undergo two types of localised corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarisation resistance measurements in acidic (pH = 2) and alkaline chloride solutions (pH = 12) which are in good agreement with those of weight loss, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimised in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 6)

  9. Influence of oxidation state on the pH dependence of hydrous iridium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steegstra, Patrick; Ahlberg, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Many electrochemical reactions taking place in aqueous solution consume or produce protons. The pH in the diffusion layer can therefore be significantly altered during the reaction and there is a need for in situ pH measurements tracing this near surface pH. In the present paper the rotating ring disc technique was used to measure near surface pH changes during oxygen reduction, utilising hydrous iridium oxide as the pH sensing probe. Before such experiments a good understanding of the pH sensing properties of these films is required and the impact of the oxidation state of the film on the pH sensing properties was investigated as well as the influence of solution redox species. The pH sensitivity (depicted by dE/dpH) was found to depend on the average oxidation state of the film in a manner resembling the cyclic voltammetry response. In all cases the pH response is “supernernstian” with more than one proton per electron. The origin of this behaviour is discussed in the context of acid-base properties of the film and the existence of both hydrous and anhydrous oxide phases. The pH response depends also on the redox properties of the solution but can be optimised for various purposes by conditioning the film at different potentials. This was clearly illustrated by adding hydrogen peroxide, an intermediate in the oxygen reduction reaction, to the solution. It was shown that hydrous iridium oxide can be used as a reliable in situ pH sensor provided that care is taken to optimise the oxidation state of the film.

  10. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg −1 in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L −1 DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH 4 + -N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  11. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Po-Neng [Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University, Chushan, Nantou County, 55750, Taiwan (China); Tong, Ou-Yang [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Kuang [Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg{sup −1} in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L{sup −1} DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  12. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jinyang; Sun, Wei; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  13. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Zhiyong, E-mail: 230139452@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Jinyang, E-mail: jiangjinyang16@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: sunwei@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Song, Dan, E-mail: songdancharls@hhu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Han, E-mail: mahan-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jianchun, E-mail: Zhangjc-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Danqian, E-mail: wonderbaba@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  14. Metabolism of the intervertebral disc: effects of low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH on rates of energy metabolism of bovine nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Susan R S; Jones, Deborah A; Ripley, Ruth M; Urban, Jill P G

    2005-03-01

    In vitro measurements of metabolic rates of isolated bovine nucleus pulposus cells at varying levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. To obtain quantitative information on the interactions between oxygen and glucose concentrations and pH, and the rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and lactic acid production, for disc nucleus cells. Disc cells depend on diffusion from blood vessels at the disc margins for supply of nutrients. Loss of supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how loss of supply affects nutrient concentrations in the disc is not known; nutrient concentrations within discs can normally only be calculated, because concentration measurements are invasive. However, realistic predictions cannot be made until there are data from measurements of metabolic rates at conditions found in the disc in vivo, i.e., at low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. A metabolism chamber was designed to allow simultaneous recording of oxygen and glucose concentrations and of pH. These concentrations were measured electrochemically with custom-built glucose and oxygen sensors; lactic acid was measured biochemically. Bovine nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and inserted into the chamber, and simultaneous rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and of lactic acid production were measured over a range of glucose, oxygen, and pH levels. There were strong interactions between rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption and pH. At atmospheric oxygen levels, oxygen consumption rate at pH 6.2 was 32% of that at pH 7.4. The rate fell by 60% as oxygen concentration was decreased from 21 to 5% at pH 7.4, but only by 20% at pH 6.2. Similar interactions were seen for lactic acid production and glucose consumption rates; we found that glycolysis rates fell at low oxygen and glucose concentrations and low pH. Equations were derived that satisfactorily predict the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations on rates of lactic acid production rate and oxygen consumption. Disc

  15. Formation of Hg(II) Tetrathiolate Complexes with Cysteine at Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Thomas; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Mercury(II) ions precipitate from aqueous cysteine (H 2 Cys) solutions containing H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 2.0 as Hg( S -HCys) 2 . In absence of additional cysteine, the precipitate dissolves at pH ~12 with the [Hg( S,N -Cys) 2 ] 2- complex dominating. With excess cysteine (H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 4.0), higher complexes form and the precipitate dissolves at lower pH values. Previously, we found that tetrathiolate [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complexes form at pH = 11.0; in this work we extend the investigation to pH values of physiological interest. We examined two series of Hg(II)-cysteine solutions in which C Hg(II) varied between 8 - 9 mM and 80 - 100 mM, respectively, with H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratios from 4 to ~20. The solutions were prepared in the pH range 7.1 - 8.8, at the pH at which the initial Hg( S -HCys) 2 precipitate dissolved. The variations in the Hg(II) speciation were followed by 199 Hg NMR, X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Our results show that in the dilute solutions ( C Hg(II) = 8 - 9 mM), mixtures of di-, tri- (major) and tetrathiolate complexes exist at moderate cysteine excess ( C H2Cys ~ 0.16 M) at pH 7.1. In the more concentrated solutions ( C Hg(II) = 80 - 100 mM) with high cysteine excess ( C H2Cys > 0.9 M), tetrathiolate [Hg( S -cysteinate) 4 ] m -6 ( m = 0 - 4) complexes dominate in the pH range 7.3 - 7.8, with lower charge than for the [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complex due to protonation of some ( m ) of the amino groups of the coordinated cysteine ligands. The results of this investigation could provide a key to the mechanism of biosorption and accumulation of Hg(II) ions in biological / environmental systems.

  16. Solution chemistry of lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ , luminescence intensity measurements, potentiometric titrations, differential absorption spectroscopy, and spectroscopic titrations were all used to study the binding of lanthanide ions by serine and threonine. At low pH (3.0 to 6.0) the complexes are mononuclear and ligand is only weakly bound. In the pH interval of 6.0 to 8.5 stronger interaction takes place between the ligand and the metal (with possible coordination of the undissociated hydroxyl group), and self-association of complexes becomes important. Above pH 8.5, base hydrolysis of the complexes leads to highly associated species in solution and shortly above this pH an insoluble precipitate is formed. It was found that energy could be transferred from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ more efficiently among complexes prepared from racemic ligands than in complexes made from resolved ligand, but this stereoselectivity was only observed at pH values greater than 6.5 and in solutions having a 1:10 ratio of metal-to-ligand. No stereoselectivity was found in solutions having 1:5 ratios, and this observation was explained by the existence of 1:2 metal-ligand complexes existing in solutions having the higher ratio of metal-to-ligand (only 1:1 complexes are then found at lower ratios of metal-to-ligand). (author)

  17. A Simple Technique for Determining the pH of Whole Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique has been developed to determine the pH of whole cigarette smoke. In this technique, whole smoke from ten cigarettes was trapped in 300 mL water containing 1% (w/v sodium chloride and the pH was determined on the resulting aqueous suspension of cigarette smoke. Two impingers with an extra coarse porosity fritted disc were used to dispense the smoke in the aqueous trapping medium. Cigarettes were smoked on a 20-port Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine using modified FTC (Federal Trade Commission conditions. The puff volume was adjusted to take a 35 mL puff as measured through the cigarette and the collection traps. This new technique accounts for the contributions to smoke pH from both the vapor phase and the particulate phase of smoke. The repeatability of this new technique was determined on eighteen replicates of a commercially available non-menthol, filter cigarette. Each measurement was done on a different day to check for a possible drift in pH with time. The mean pH value for the chosen sample was found to be 4.97 with a standard deviation of 0.07 pH units. The smoke pH values for over 150 commercially available cigarette brands with a variety of “tar” levels were determined. The smoke pH values had a range from 4.6 to 5.5, with an average of 4.79 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.10 pH units. An experimental flue cured cigarette had a smoke pH of around 5.0, while an experimental Burley cigarette had a smoke pH of 5.4. No correlation between smoke pH and “tar” or total particulate matter (TPM and between pH and nicotine levels was found. The purpose of the present study was to develop a practical, relatively simple laboratory method to measure the pH of a water solution of whole smoke, and was not intended to reflect, or have direct relevance for any biochemical or biological phenomena such as inhalability of smoke, flavor perception, nicotine ab-sorption, etc.”

  18. Evaluation of citric acid and GDL in the recovery at different pH levels of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores subjected to HTST treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla Santos, M H; Torres Zarzo, J

    1996-04-01

    Spores of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 were treated at different temperatures (121, 126, 130 and 135 degrees C) in white asparagus purée (pH 5.8) and acidified with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) and citric acid to pH levels of 5.5, 5.0 and 4.5. Afterwards, the spores were recovered in MPA3679 medium in various conditions: unacidified (pH 7.5), acidified with GDL (500 ppm) and acidified with citric acid (500 and 250 ppm) to pH levels of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0. The results indicated that the pH levels, concentration and type of acid used act synergistically rather than independently. Citric acid has a stronger inhibiting effect than GDL on the recovery of C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores. At the higher heat treatments (130 and 135 degrees C) the major injury on the spores sensitize more than against the acids and low pH values.

  19. Effects of solution P H on the adsorption of aromatic compounds from aqueous solutions by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, S.; Haghseresht, F.; Lu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of p-Cresol, Benzoic acid and Nitro Benzene by activated carbon from dilute aqueous solutions was carried out under controlled ph conditions at 310 k. In acidic conditions, well below the pK a of all solutes, it was observed that the adsorbate solubility and the electron density of its aromatic ring were the influencing factors on the extent of the adsorption by affecting the extent of London dispersion forces. In higher solution ph conditions, on the other hand, it was found that the electrostatic forces played a significant role on the extent of adsorption. The Effect of ph must be considered from its combined effects on the carbon surface and on the solute molecules. It was found that the uptake of the molecular forms of the aromatic solutes was dependent on the substituents of the aromatic ring. Adsorption of the solutes in higher P H values was found to be dependent on the concentration of anionic form of the solutes. All isotherms were fitted into Freundlich Isotherm Equations

  20. Molecular Twister: A Game for Exploring Solution Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer R. Masonjones

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available pH is an essential biological concept with critical importance at various scales, from the molecular level, dealing with blood buffers, homeostasis, and proton gradients, all the way up to the ecosystem level, with soil chemistry and acid rain. However, pH is also a concept that spawns student misconceptions and misunderstanding in terms of what is happening in a solution on the atomic level. The Molecular Twister game, created for a Florida Department of Education funded professional development workshop for Florida high school teachers hosted at the University of Tampa  (Science Math Masters, seeks to model pH in such a way that students can visually and kinesthetically learn the concept in a few minutes. In addition, the basic design of the game pieces allow for teaching extensions to include more complex acid-base reactions. Challenge questions are provided to allow teachers to bring relevancy to the game, using examples of acid-base chemistry pulled from cases in human health and the environment.

  1. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. The effect of solution pH and peroxide in the TiO2-induced photocatalysis of chlorinated aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Choy, W.K.; So, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorinated anilines are frequently used in the industry as starting materials for chemical synthesis. This type of compounds can end up as pollutants in wastewater. 2-Chloroaniline (2-ClA) was selected irradiating under monochromatic UV light at 300 nm. The reaction rate could be enhanced by introducing low level of H 2 O 2 into the UV/TiO 2 system. Excess H 2 O 2 could not increase the HO· generation but retarded the reaction rate. The pH effect was also investigated in UV/TiO 2 and UV/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 systems. All the experimental results show that pH is a sensitive parameter to the rate of degradation. Low reaction rate at acidic pH could be accounted by the dark adsorption test which has also proven the photocatalysis of TiO 2 may contribute to a two-step process: (1) 2-ClA pre-adsorbed onto TiO 2 and (2) photoexcitation of TiO 2 . At high pH, rate enhancement could be observed at UV/TiO 2 system because of the increase generation of HO·. However, the introduction of H 2 O 2 slowdown the decay rate at such alkaline medium

  3. Pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Carl O.; Herman, Janet S.

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies of pyrite oxidation kinetics have concentrated primarily on the reaction at low pH, where Fe(III) has been assumed to be the dominant oxidant. Studies at circumneutral pH, necessitated by effective pH buffering in some pyrite oxidation systems, have often implicitly assumed that the dominant oxidant must be dissolved oxygen (DO), owing to the diminished solubility of Fe(III). In fact, Fe(III)(aq) is an effective pyrite oxidant at circumneutral pH, but the reaction cannot be sustained in the absence of DO. The purpose of this experimental study was to ascertain the relative roles of Fe(III) and DO in pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. The rate of pyrite oxidation was first-order with respect to the ratio of surface area to solution volume. Direct determinations of both Fe(II) (aq)> and Fe(III) (aq) demonstrated a dramatic loss of Fe(II) from the solution phase in excess of the loss for which oxidation alone could account. Based on rate data, we have concluded that Fe(II) is adsorbed onto the pyrite surface. Furthermore, Fe(II) is preferred as an adsorbate to Fe(III), which we attribute to both electrostatic and acid-base selectivity. We also found that the rate of pyrite oxidation by either Fe(III) (aq) or DO is reduced in the presence of aqueous Fe(II), which leads us to conclude that, under most natural conditions, neither Fe(III) (aq) nor DO directly attacks the pyrite surface. The present evidence suggests a mechanism for pyrite oxidation that involves adsorbed Fe( II ) giving up electrons to DO and the resulting Fe(III) rapidly accepting electrons from the pyrite. The adsorbed Fe is, thus, cyclically oxidized and reduced, while it acts as a conduit for electrons traveling from pyrite to DO. Oxygen is transferred from the hydration sphere of the adsorbed Fe to pyrite S. The cycle of adsorbed Fe oxidation and reduction and the successive addition of oxygen to pyrite S continues until a stable sulfoxy species dissociates from the surface. Prior

  4. All-in-One Wafer-Level Solution for MMIC Automatic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an all-in-one wafer-level solution for MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit automatic testing. The OSL (open short load two tier de-embedding, the calibration verification model, the accurate PAE (power added efficiency testing, and the optimized vector cold source NF (noise figure measurement techniques are integrated in this solution to improve the measurement accuracy. A dual-core topology formed by an IPC (industrial personal computer and a VNA (vector network analyzer, and an automatic test software based on a three-level driver architecture, are applied to enhance the test efficiency. The benefit from this solution is that all the data of a MMIC can be achieved in only one contact, which shows state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Adsorption and colloidal behaviour of carrier-free 7Be in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Jiranek, V.

    1974-01-01

    The state of carrier-free 7 Be in aqueous nitrate solutions was studied by electrophoresis, centrifugation and dialysis. In solutions of pH 2+ cation. At pH > 4 hydrolysis of beryllium proceeds which results in the formation of BeOH + ions and Be(OH) 2 molecules. The larger part of these molecules is adsorbed on the surface of colloidal impurities present in the solution. The pseudocolloids thus formed are positively charged up to pH 11. In alkaline solutions (pH > 11), negatively charged pseudocolloids and anionic hydroxocomplexes of beryllium exist. Adsorption and desorption of carrier-free beryllium was studied on glass, plexiglass and polyethylene as a function of pH, age and ionic strength (NaNO 3 ) of the solution. It has been found that the adsorption begins at pH 3-5, passes through a maximum at pH 8-11 and decreases to a very low value at pH 14. Probable mechanismus of the adsorption were discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. pH dependence of the aqueous dissolution rates of perovskite and zirconolite at 90 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlinn, P.J.; Hart, K.P.; Loi, E.H.; Vance, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Perovskite and zirconolite are two of the major phases of the Synroc titanate mineral assemblage. Their aqueous durability under a range of pH conditions at 90 C has been examined. Solution analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate the dissolution behavior of these phases, and a perovskite phase doped with Nd, Sr and Al, using buffered solutions at pH levels of 2.1, 3.7, 6.1, 7.9 and 12.9. After 43 days of leaching, Ca and Ti extractions from perovskite and zirconolite show only a weak pH-dependence. SEM investigation of the samples leached at pH 2.1, 6.1 and 12.9 showed that a titanaceous surface layer formed on the perovskite specimens. XRD analysis of the perovskite samples showed that anatase formed on the leached surface at acidic and neutral pHs, but not under alkaline conditions, and that minor amounts of rutile also formed. In the leached perovskite specimens doped with Nd, Sr and Al, no rule was found by XRD and anatase was only detected in the sample leached at pH 2.1. There were no detectable changes in the leached zirconolite samples examined by SEM and XRD

  7. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  8. Label-Free Carbon-Dots-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence pH Nanoprobes for Intracellular pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jingfang; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Liu, Jinquan; Tang, Jinlu; Yang, Xue; Huang, Jin

    2016-08-02

    Measuring pH in living cells is of great importance for better understanding cellular functions as well as providing pivotal assistance for early diagnosis of diseases. In this work, we report the first use of a novel kind of label-free carbon dots for intracellular ratiometric fluorescence pH sensing. By simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment of citric acid and basic fuchsin, the carbon dots showing dual emission bands at 475 and 545 nm under single-wavelength excitation were synthesized. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence intensities of the as-synthesized carbon dots at the two emissions are pH-sensitive simultaneously. The intensity ratio (I475 nm/I545 nm) is linear against pH values from 5.2 to 8.8 in buffer solution, affording the capability as ratiometric probes for intracellular pH sensing. It also displays that the carbon dots show excellent reversibility and photostability in pH measurements. With this nanoprobe, quantitative fluorescence imaging using the ratio of two emissions (I475 nm/I545 nm) for the detection of intracellular pH were successfully applied in HeLa cells. In contrast to most of the reported nanomaterials-based ratiometric pH sensors which rely on the attachment of additional dyes, these carbon-dots-based ratiometric probes are low in toxicity, easy to synthesize, and free from labels.

  9. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Dewi; Nasution, Abdillah Imron; Surbakti, Mutiara Rizki Wardarni; Gani, Basri A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involvin...

  10. Plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of plain and bulky bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mortazavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consistency, backing process and content differences could influence cariogenic potential of foods. The aim was to compare plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of bread with different physical characteristics. Methods : In this clinical trial, interproximal plaque pH of 10 volunteers with high risk of dental caries (saliva Streptococcus mutans > 10 5 , high dental caries experience, and average DMFT =6.10 ± 1.56 was measured. Plain traditionally backed "Sangak bread" and soft bulky "Baguette bread" and %10 sucrose solution were tested in a cross over designed experiment. Baseline plaque pH was recorded and followed by 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes intervals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05. Results: Sucrose solution caused the most pronounced pH and ∆pH drop from 7.15 ± 0.33 at baseline to 6.78 ± 0.29. Means plaque pH of 10% sucrose solution and Baguette were not statistically different at 1, 20 and 30 minutes (P > 0.05. Mean plaque pH of Sangak and Baguette showed significant differences at 0, 1, 20 and30 minutes (P < 0.05. Sucrose solution caused a dramatic plaque pH drop during first 10 minutes and then within 30 minutes returned to baseline pH. For two bread samples within first 10 minutes, pH increased and then started to decrease during tenth to fifteenth minutes. Conclusion: During all experiment phases, the mean pH of Baguette with less consistency and carbohydrate content and higher rate of starch gelatination was lower compared to Sangak.

  11. Transport and Retention of TiO2 Rutile Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Solution pH, Ionic Strength, and the Presence of Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of solution pH, ionic strength, and varying concentrations of the Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticle aggregates (nTiO2) in saturated porous media was investigated through systematically examining the tra...

  12. Influence of Bath Composition at Acidic pH on Electrodeposition of Nickel-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Corrosion Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-layered silicates were electrochemically deposited from acidic bath solutions. Citrate was used as a ligand to stabilize nickel (II ions in the plating solution. The silicate, montmorillonite, was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta-potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The solution particles at pH 2.5 (−22.2 mV and pH 3.0 (−21.9 mV were more stable than at pH 1.6 (−10.1 mV as shown by zeta-potential analysis of the nickel-citrate-montmorillonite plating solution. Ecorr for the films ranged from −0.32 to −0.39 V with varying pH from 1.6 to 3.0. The films were immersed in 3.5% NaCl and the open circuit potential monitored for one month. The coatings deposited at pH 3.0 were stable 13 days longer in the salt solution than the other coatings. X-ray diffraction showed a change in the (111/(200 ratio for the coatings at the various pHs. The scanning electron microscopy and hardness results also support that the electrodeposition of nickel-montmorillonite at pH 3.0 (234 GPa had improved hardness and morphology compared to pH 2.5 (174 GPa and pH 1.6 (147 GPa.

  13. Water-rock interactions and the pH stability of groundwater from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Titrations of acidic solutions in waters from the tuff and carbonate aquifers at Yucca Mountain were simulated using the geochemical codes PHREEQE and EQ3/6. The simulations tested pH stability of the waters in the presence of different minerals and in their absence. Two acidic solutions, 10 -4 HCl and 10 -4 M UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , were titrated in to the water. Little pH and/or compositional change resulted in the groundwater when the HCl solution was titrated, but significant pH and CO 2 fugacity changes were observed when UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was titrated. Water interactions with alkali feldspar, quartz or cristobalite, and Ca-smectite buffered the pH and compositional changes in the carbonate water and decreased the magnitude of pH and compositional changes when small volumes of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 added to the tuffaceous waters

  14. Electrochemical characteristics of bioresorbable binary MgCa alloys in Ringer's solution: Revealing the impact of local pH distributions during in-vitro dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareci, D; Bolat, G; Izquierdo, J; Crimu, C; Munteanu, C; Antoniac, I; Souto, R M

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-calcium (MgCa) alloy is a very attractive biomaterial. Two MgCa alloys below the solid solubility of Ca were considered, as to solely investigate the effect of Ca content on the behavior of magnesium and the pH changes associated to metal dissolution. X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy showed that both Mg-0.63Ca and Mg-0.89Ca alloys were solely composed of α(Mg) phase. Degradation characteristics and electrochemical characterization of MgCa alloys were investigated during exposure to Ringer's solution at 37 °C by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The impedance behavior showed both capacitive and inductive features that are related to the alloy charge transfer reaction and the relaxation of the absorbed corrosion compounds, and can be described in terms of an equivalent circuit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to view the surface morphology of the MgCa samples after 1 week immersion in Ringer's solution showing extensive precipitation of corrosion products, whereas the substrate shows evidence of a non-uniform corrosion process. Energy dispersive analysis showed that the precipitates contained oxygen, calcium, magnesium and chlorine, and the Mg:Ca ratios were smaller than in the alloys. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to visualize local pH changes associated to these physicochemical processes with high spatial resolution. The occurrence of pH variations in excess of 3 units between anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions was monitored in situ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  16. Aqueous solutions/nuclear glasses interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, F.; Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions results of the borosilicate glass used in radioactive wastes confinement and aqueous solutions at various temperature and PH show that for the glass components: - the release rate evolution follows an Arrhenius law, - in acid PH, there is a selective dissolution, - in basic PH, there is a stoechiometric dissolution [fr

  17. PH measurement under pressure and at high temperatures; Mesure du pH sous pression et a temperature elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournie, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Le Peintre, M; Mahieu, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1961-07-01

    In the first part the development and operation of a glass electrode under pressure at room temperature is described. The pressure equilibrium between the inside and outside of the glass membrane several centimetres thick is obtained instantaneously by means of a siphon. The use of a silicone oil as electrical insulator makes possible the working of the glass electrode with the siphon at high pressures (100 kg/cm{sup 2}). In the second part, we determined the pH of various buffer solutions up to 250 deg. C using a cell of our design having two hydrogen electrodes. The values thus obtained for the buffer solutions make it possible to verify and calibrate the pH electrodes independently of the oxido-reduction potential of the medium. In the third part we give the results obtained up to 200 deg. C with the glass electrodes developed in conjunction with the Societe St Gobain. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons la mise au point et le fonctionnement d'une electrode en verre sous pression a la temperature ordinaire. L'equilibrage instantane de la pression a l'interieur et a l'exterieur de la membrane en verre de quelques diziemes de millimetres d'epaisseur s'effectue par l'intermediaire d'un siphon. L'emploi d'une huile de silicone comme isolant electrique a permis le fonctionnement de l'electrode en verre a siphon sous haute pression (1000 kg/cm{sup 2}). Dans une deuxieme partie, nous avons determine jusqu'a 250 deg. C les valeurs du pH des diverses solutions tampons avec une cellule de notre conception a deux electrodes d'hydrogene. Les valeurs des solutions tampons ainsi obtenues permettent de verifier et d'etalonner les electrodes a pH independantes du potentiel d'oxydo-reduction du milieu. Dans une troisieme partie, nous relatons les resultats obtenus jusqu'a 200 deg. C avec les electrodes en verre mis au point en collaboration avec la Societe Saint-Gobain. (auteur)

  18. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity, calcium release, and pH of a new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer when compared to endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. Method: Specimens were fabricated from MTA Fillapex, Sealer 26, Sealapex, and AH...... Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing...... in solution with an alkaline pH. Conclusion: The new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer presented higher antimicrobial activity when compared to the sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. As for pH and calcium release, the sealers containing calcium hydroxide resulted in presented...

  19. Changes in EC , pH and in the concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in the drainage solution of a crop of roses on substrates with drainage recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rose cultivation system has been changing from soil to substrate on the Plateau of Bogota. The objective of this study was the monitoring of the EC, pH, and the levels of nitrate, ammonium, sodium and chlorine in a drainage solution in a crop of roses with substrates based on burnt rice husk and coconut fiber. The Charlotte rose variety grafted onto ‘Natal Briar’ was planted in a greenhouse located in one of the SENA facilities in Mosquera (Colombia; with a density of 6.5 plants/ m². For this experiment, a split plot design was used arranged in randomized blocks with a three-level recirculating system (0, 50 and 100% on the substrates 100% burnt rice husk; 65% burnt rice husk plus 35% coconut fiber; and 35% burnt rice husk plus 65% coconut fiber, repeated three times. The EC decreased from 2.7 to 1.3 mS cm-1 within weeks 2 and 5 which demonstrated an increase of mineral consumption by the plants. The pH levels dropped from 7.46 to 6.27 within weeks 3 to 8 and then increased to 7.39 within weeks 8 to 12. Nitrate concentrations showed a decreasing trend in recirculation treatments within weeks 2 to 12. A lower ammonium concentration was observed at week 4 in treatments with and without recirculation during the vegetative stage. The levels of sodium and chloride increased in treatments with a recirculation system, without signs of toxicity

  20. Acid-base equilibria in the reaction of tantalum pentafluoride with O,O-diphenyl-H-benzoylamidophosphate (PhO)2P(0)NHC(O)Ph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, E.G.; Kharrmann, Eh.; Shcherbakova, M.N.; Buslaev, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Method of 19 F NMR was used to study TaF 5 interaction with imidodiphosphoric acid ester (PhO) 2 P(O)NHC(O)Ph(LH) in methylene chloride. Dimeric molecular LH(TaF 5 ) 2 complex was the main form in the solution with towfold TaF 5 excess; phosphoryl and carbonyl groups partisipate in complexing at that. Increase of ligand content in the solution up to equimolar one results to preliminary ligand coordination via P=O-group. Introduction of the base excess to the solution results to formation of L - anion which is coordinated to TaF 5 in a monodentate way via phosphoryl group or in a chelate way with fluorine ion substitution and formation of LTaF 4 + cationw

  1. PhMYB4 fine-tunes the floral volatile signature of Petunia x hybrida through PhC4H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Thomas A; Kim, Joo Young; Wedde, Ashlyn E; Levin, Laura A; Schmitt, Kyle C; Schuurink, Robert C; Clark, David G

    2011-01-01

    In Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD), floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is controlled spatially, developmentally, and daily at molecular, metabolic, and biochemical levels. Multiple genes have been shown to encode proteins that either directly catalyse a biochemical reaction yielding FVBP compounds or are involved in metabolite flux prior to the formation of FVBP compounds. It was hypothesized that multiple transcription factors are involved in the precise regulation of all necessary genes, resulting in the specific volatile signature of MD flowers. After acquiring all available petunia transcript sequences with homology to Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factors, PhMYB4 (named for its close identity to AtMYB4) was identified, cloned, and characterized. PhMYB4 transcripts accumulate to relatively high levels in floral tissues at anthesis and throughout open flower stages, which coincides with the spatial and developmental distribution of FVBP production and emission. Upon RNAi suppression of PhMYB4 (ir-PhMYB4) both petunia cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (PhC4H1 and PhC4H2) gene transcript levels were significantly increased. In addition, ir-PhMYB4 plants emit higher levels of FVBP compounds derived from p-coumaric acid (isoeugenol and eugenol) compared with MD. Together, these results indicate that PhMYB4 functions in the repression of C4H transcription, indirectly controlling the balance of FVBP production in petunia floral tissue (i.e. fine-tunes).

  2. The increase in pH during aging of porous sol-gel silica spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.K.; Kegel, W.K.; Jansen, J.B.H.; Geus, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The increase in pH in the hydrothermal fluid is studied after hydrothermal aging of porous silica gel spheres of 1–3 mm diameter. The porous silica spheres are formed by the sol-gel process from a supersaturated silica solution. The increase of the pH of the hydrothermal solution affects the silica

  3. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution over activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diego A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of Resorcinol a monohydroxylated phenol, poorly acid to 298 K, over activated carbon is analyzed by studying the solution's pH influence and the surface reduction in the adsorption process. To do this, an activated carbon of lignocellulose origin and a reduced activated carbon was used. The interaction solid solution is characterized by the analyses of adsorption in the isotherms to 298 K and pH values of 7. 00, 9.00 and 11.00 for a period of 48 hours. The capacity adsorption of activated carbons increases when the solution's pH decreases and the retained amount increases in the reduced coal to the pH of maximum adsorption.

  4. The potential of curcumin reagent as a natural pH indicator for the development of an optical pH sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmawani Mohammad; Musa Ahmad; Jamaluddin Mohd Daud

    2007-01-01

    The potential of curcumin reagent as a natural pH indicator for the development of an optical pH sensor was discussed in this study. Curcumin has been chosen because it has never been reported before for use in the development of an optical pH sensor. Curcumin is a coloring constituent of turmeric that giving yellow pigmentation. Curcumin showed clear color changes, for example yellow in acidic and reddish-brown in basic solutions. The color change is fast for example within 5 seconds. Results from the study showed that a linear pH range for this reagent was observed at pH 8-12 (R 2 =0.9854). Curcumin has a good photo stability with RSD value of 1.42 % for a study period of 6 months. The RSD values of the reproducibility study were found to be 1.43 % and 0.37 % for pH 9 and pH 12, respectively. Characterisation of the immobilised curcumin reagent also showed promising results, hence a good potential for use as a sensing reagent for an optical pH sensor. (author)

  5. Dendritic Zinc Growth in Acid Electrolyte: Effect of the pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Leandro N.; Pary, Paola; Seré, Pablo R.; Conconi, M. Susana; Egli, Walter A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, dendritic growth at the edges of electrogalvanized steel strip has been studied using a specially designed rotating washer electrode which simulates the fluid dynamic conditions and the current density distribution at the steel strip edge found in a production line. The effect of electrolyte pH and current density on dendritic growth in an acidic zinc plating bath (ZnSO4 and H2SO4) was addressed. The temperature was kept constant at 60 °C. Solution pH was adjusted to 1, 2 or 3 using different amounts of H2SO4. In addition, the influence of temperature on the pH of the solution was determined. The current density was set at 40 or 60 A/dm2, similar to that used in the industry. Deposits were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that pH strongly affects dendrites shape, length and texture. Furthermore, the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge and of deposits on the flat portion of the washer changed considerably as solution pH was increased from 1 to 3. It was found that the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge stems from the morphology of the deposit on its flat portion, which in turn determines their shape.

  6. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofomaja, Augustine E.; Ho, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  7. Effect of diet phase change, dietary Ca and P level and phytase on bird performance and real-time gizzard pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S A; Dunne, J; Mottram, T; Bedford, M R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel capsule technique was used to capture real-time pH readings from the gizzard over several hours, in response to different dietary treatments. 1. The first experiment was a preliminary study into capsule administration and pH recordings using 9 male Ross 308 broilers from 20 d. In the second experiment, broilers (576) were fed in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups; low and adequate Ca and AvP diets with and without Quantum Blue phytase (1500 FTU/kg). Capsules were administered to 8 birds from each treatment group, pre and post diet phase change, with readings captured over a 2.5 h period. 2. Phytase addition improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds fed low dietary Ca, while having no significant effect on birds fed adequate Ca diets. Unexpectantly, diets with higher Ca levels gave a lower average gizzard pH compared to the low Ca diet. Phytase addition, irrespective of Ca level, increased average gizzard pH. Fluctuations in gizzard pH (0.6-3.8) were observed across all treatment groups. Higher frequencies of pH readings below pH 1.0 were seen in birds fed an adequate Ca diet and with phytase supplementation of a low Ca diet. 3. These results signify the potential use of capsule techniques to monitor real-time pH changes. The implication on gastric protein and fibre hydrolysis as a result of large fluctuations in pH should be considered.

  8. Study of the pitting and repassiv,tion corrosion potential of zicaloy-4 halides solutions at 250C and several pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiazabal, J.I.; Cordova, R.; Gomez, H.; Layana, G.; Schrebler, R.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Zircaloy-4 electrode in chloride, bromide and iodide acid solution was investigated at 25 0 C employing stationary, quasi-stationary and potentiodynamic techniques. The results show that the pitting and repassivation potentials are independent on pH but both are dependent on halice concentration, following linear relation ships in these cases. It is also possible to correlate the pitting potential with the ionic radius of the anions, allowing thus to establish an order in their agressive properties. This order was extrapolated for fluoride ion and further experimental measurements show that the corrosion potential of Zircaloy-4 in acid or neutra solution of this ion (which undergoes active dissolution) is coincident with that predicted from the Ep v/s ionic radius determined for the other halides. (Author) [pt

  9. In vitro simulation of fretting-corrosion in hip implant modular junctions: The influence of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhman, Dmitry; Patel, Megha; Jacobs, Joshua J; Wimmer, Markus A; Hallab, Nadim J; Mathew, Mathew T

    2018-02-01

    The fretting-corrosion behavior of mixed metal contacts is affected by various mechanical and electrochemical parameters. Crevice conditions at the junction and patient-specific pathologies can affect the pH of the prosthetic environment. The main objective of this study is to understand the effect of pH variation at the stem/head junction of the hip implant under fretting corrosion exposure. We hypothesized that pH will have a significant influence on the fretting-corrosion behavior hip implant modular junctions. A custom-made setup was used to evaluate the fretting corrosion behavior of hip implant modular junctions. A Newborn calf serum solution (30 g/L protein content) was used to simulate the synovial fluid environment. A sinusoidal fretting motion, with a displacement amplitude of +50 µm, was applied to the Ti alloy rod. The effects of pathology driven, periprosthetic pH variation were simulated at four different pH levels (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.6). Electrochemical and mechanical properties were evaluated before, during, and after the applied fretting motion. The impedance of the system was increased in response to the fretting motion. The hysteresis tangential load/displacement behavior was not affected by pH level. The worn surfaces of CoCrMo pins exhibited the presence of tribolayer or organic deposits, in the pH 4.5 group, which may explain the lower drop in potential and mass loss observed in that group. Mechanically dominated wear mechanisms, namely, adhesive wear was shown in the pH 7.6 group, which may account for a higher potential drop and metal content loss. This study suggests that the fretting-corrosion mechanisms in hip implant are affected by the pH levels of the surrounding environment and patient-specific factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dependence of precipitation of trace elements on pH in standard water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shivcharan; Mohanty, Biraja P.; Singh, K. P.; Behera, B. R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2018-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the dependence of precipitation of trace elements on the pH of solution. A standard solution was prepared by using ultrapure deionized water (18.2 MΩ/cm) as the solvent and 11 water-soluble salts having different elements as solutes. Five samples of different pH values (2 acidic, 2 basic, and 1 neutral) were prepared from this standard solution. Sodium-diethyldithiocarbamate was used as the chelating agent to precipitate the metal ions present in these samples of different pH values. The targets were prepared by collecting these precipitates on mixed cellulose esters filter of 0.4 μm pore size by vacuum filtration. Elemental analysis of these targets was performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using 2.7 MeV protons from the single Dee variable energy cyclotron at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. PIXE data were analyzed using GUPIXWIN software. For most of the elements, except Hg with oxidation state +2, such as Co, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Cd, a general trend of enhancement in precipitation was observed with the increase in pH. However, for other elements such as V, As, Mo, Ag, and Bi, which have oxidation state other than +2, no definite pattern was observed. Precipitation of Ba and As using this method was negligible at all five pH values. From these results, it can be concluded that the precipitation and recovery of elements depend strongly on the pH of the water sample.

  11. The pH Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  12. The role of Eh and pH in leaching Saskatchewan uranium ores with chloride and nitrate leaching systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of solution E h and pH on the extractions of U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, As and Ni from two typical uranium ores from the province of Saskatchewan in Canada are discussed for the leachants ferric chloride, ferric nitrate, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. It is concluded that E h > 700 mV and pH 230 Th extraction is more sensitive to solution pH than to E h whereas Ni extraction is sensitive mainly to the solution E h . Arsenic extraction is very sensitive to solution E h , and for a given E h , is high at pH 1.3. (orig.) [de

  13. Influence of pH on the adsorption of uranium ions by oxidized activated carbon and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.I.; Park, H.S.; Woo, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of uranyl ions on surface-oxidized carbon were compared with those of powdered chitosan over a wide pH range. In particular, an extensive analysis was made on solution pH variation during the adsorption process or after adsorption equilibrium. Uranium adsorption on the two adsorbents was revealed to be strongly dependent on the initial pH of the solution. A quantitative comparison of the adsorption capacities of the two adsorbents was made, based on the isotherm data obtained at initial pH 3, 4, and 5. In order to analyze the adsorption kinetics incorporated with pH effects, batch experiments at various initial pH values were carried out, and solution pH profiles with the adsorption time were also evaluated. The breakthrough behavior in a column packed with oxidized carbon was also characterized with respect to the variation of effluent pH. Based on these experimental results, the practical applicability of oxidized carbon for uranium removal from acidic radioactive liquid waste was suggested

  14. The pH behavior of a 2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate zwitterion studied with NMR-titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myller, A. T.; Karhe, J. J.; Haukka, M.; Pakkanen, T. T.

    2013-02-01

    In this study a bifunctional 2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate (AEPH2) was 1H and 31P NMR characterized in a pH range of 1-12 in order to determine the zwitterion properties in different pH regions in H2O and D2O solutions. NMR was also used to determine the pH range where AEPH2 exists as a zwitterion. The phosphate group has two deprotonation points, around pH 1 and 6, while the amino group deprotonates at pH 11. The zwitterion form of AEPH2 (NH3+sbnd CHsbnd CHsbnd OPOH) exists as the main ion between pH 1 and 6 in water solutions and also in the solid state.

  15. SWCNT-Based Biosensor Modelling for pH Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of CNT delivery have been discovered with several biomedical functions during past decades. The mechanisms of the cellular uptake of CNTs are mainly maintained due to the chemical nature, the cell type, and the features of the molecules, which are used to functionalize the nanotube exterior. Since single-wall carbon Nanotube (SWCNT has unique chemical and physical properties, it is a great applicant for pH sensing. In addition, ion sensitive FET (ISFET base on nanostructured SWCNT have covered a new method to help genetic investigators restructure metabolic pathways in cells, recognize the progression of disease, and expand diagnostics and therapeutics. Particularly, because PH sensing is very crucial for the constancy of enzymes, it is essential to extend the cost efficient types of this sensing. In this research, the conductance changes of the CNT-based ISFET device with different pH values can be modelled by ion concentration of the solution. In addition, the electrical current of channel is imagined as a function of pH levels, which can be controlled by a control factor (α. Thus, ISFET based nanostructured SWCNT is proposed focusing on the area of electrical detection of hydrogen ions of the electrolyte membrane. Besides, electrical detection of hydrogen ion applications is suggested to be used by modelling the delivery of SWCNT sheets. In the end, after comparing the proposed model and experimental data, it has been reported that there is a good compatibility between them.

  16. PH-Induced Nanosegregation of Ritonavir to Lyotropic Liquid Crystal of Higher Solubility Than Crystalline Polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Spong, B.; Acciacca, A.; Fleisher, D.; Rodriguez-Hornedo, N.

    2009-01-01

    Birefringent spherical vesicles of ritonavir (RTV) are formed by increasing the pH of aqueous solutions from 1 to 3 or to 7 and by addition of water to ethanol solutions at room temperature. Increasing the pH creates supersaturation levels of 30--400. Upon this change in pH, the solutions become translucent, implying that some kind of RTV assembly was formed. Small spherical vesicles of narrow size distribution are detectable only after a few hours by optical microscopy. The vesicles show similar X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) behavior to amorphous RTV prepared by melt-quenching crystalline RTV. Examination by polarized optical microscopy suggests that these are lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) assemblies. Small-angle X-ray scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction further support the presence of orientational order that is associated with a nematic structure. RTV self-organizes into various phases as a result of the supersaturation created in aqueous solutions. The LLC vesicles do not fuse but slowly transform to the polymorphs of RTV (in days), Form I and finally Form II. Amorphous RTV in aqueous suspension also undergoes a transformation to a mesophase of similar morphology. Transformation pathways are consistent with measured dissolution rates and solubilities: amorphous > LLC >> Form I > Form II. The dissolution and solubility of LLC is slightly lower than that of the amorphous phase and about 20 times higher than that of Form II. RTV also self-assembles at the air/water interface as indicated by the decrease in surface tension of aqueous solutions. This behavior is similar to that of amphiphilic molecules that induce LLC formation.

  17. In Vitro binding capacity of zeolite A to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in rumen fluid as influenced by changes in pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess; Poulsen, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    with and without zeolite, as well as varying the content of Ca and/or P. The pH was lowered by addition of HCl so as to mimic abomasal conditions, followed by subsequent HCO3- addition to mimic small intestinal pH. Rumen fluid samples were taken at strategic time points in the experiment. All samples were......An in vitro experiment was designed to mimic the transport of ingested zeolite A in the forestomachs and proximal part of the small intestine so as to evaluate the binding capacity of zeolite A to Ca, P and Mg as influenced by changes in pH. This was done by incubation of rumen fluid solutions...... centrifuged and the supernatant analysed for Ca, P and Mg as indicators of the amount of unbound mineral. The addition of zeolite to rumen fluid solutions reduced the amount of supernatant Ca and Mg at rumen pH, whereas the level of P was not reduced. After adding HCl, a large proportion of the zeolite...

  18. Iridium Oxide pH Sensor Based on Stainless Steel Wire for pH Mapping on Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, S.; Ismail, M. C.; Kakooei, S.; Beheshti, M.; Zabihiazadboni, M.; Zavareh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple technique to fabricate the iridium oxide pH sensor is useful in several applications such as medical, food processing and engineering material where it is able to detect the changes of pH. Generally, the fabrication technique can be classified into three types: electro-deposition iridium oxide film (EIrOF), activated iridium oxide film (AIROF) and sputtering iridium oxide film (SIROF). This study focuses on fabricating electrode, calibration and test. Electro-deposition iridium oxide film is a simple and effective method of fabricating this kind of sensor via cyclic voltammetry process. The iridium oxide thick film was successfully electrodeposited on the surface of stainless steel wire with 500 cycles of sweep potential. A further analysis under FESEM shows detailed image of iridium oxide film which has cauliflower-liked microstructure. EDX analysis shows the highest element present are iridium and oxygen which concluded that the process is successful. The iridium oxide based pH sensor has shown a good performance in comparison to conventional glass pH sensor when it is being calibrated in buffer solutions with 2, 4, 7 and 9 pH values. The iridium oxide pH sensor is specifically designed to measure the pH on the surface of metal plate.

  19. Shelf-Life of Chlorine Solutions Recommended in Ebola Virus Disease Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Qais; Lubeck-Schricker, Maya; Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is widely recommended to wash living things (handwashing) with 0.05% (500 mg/L) chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% (5,000 mg/L) chlorine solution. Chlorine solutions used in EVD response are primarily made from powdered calcium hypochlorite (HTH), granular sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and liquid sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and have a pH range of 5-11. Chlorine solutions degrade following a reaction highly dependent on, and unusually sensitive to, pH, temperature, and concentration. We determined the shelf-life of 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions used in EVD response, including HTH, NaDCC, stabilized NaOCl, generated NaOCl, and neutralized NaOCl solutions. Solutions were stored for 30 days at 25, 30, and 35°C, and tested daily for chlorine concentration and pH. Maximum shelf-life was defined as days until initial concentration fell to pH = 7) had a maximum shelf-life of a few hours, NaDCC solutions (pH = 6) 2 days, generated NaOCl solutions (pH = 9) 6 days, and HTH and stabilized NaOCl solutions (pH 9-11) >30 days. Models were developed for solutions with maximum shelf-lives between 1-30 days. Extrapolating to 40°C, the maximum predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% NaDCC solutions were 0.38 and 0.82 hours, respectively; predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% generated NaOCl solutions were >30 and 5.4 days, respectively. Each chlorine solution type offers advantages and disadvantages to responders, as: NaDCC is an easy-to-import high-concentration effervescent powder; HTH is similar, but forms a precipitate that may clog pipes; and, NaOCl solutions can be made locally, but are difficult to transport. We recommend responders chose the most appropriate source chlorine compound for their use, and ensure solutions are stored at appropriate temperatures and used or replaced before expiring.

  20. Adsorção de cromo (VI por carvão ativado granular de soluções diluídas utilizando um sistema batelada sob pH controlado Chromium (VI adsorption by GAC from diluted solutions in batch system and controlled ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Souza

    2009-09-01

    solutions, and batch systems with controlled pH. The functional groups on the CAG surface was carried out by the Boehm method. In addition, effect of pH on the Cr(VI adsorption, adsorption equilibrium, and kinetic were studied under experimental conditions (pH = 6, MA = 6g, for 90min.. On the GAC surface, carboxylic groups were found to be in higher concentrations (MAS=0,43 mmol/gCAG, which increase the Cr(VI adsorption, principally in acidic pH values. The adsorption capacity is dependent on the pH of the solution, due to its influence on the surface properties of the CAG and different ionic forms of the Cr(VI solutions. The adsorption equilibrium data was adjusted satisfactorily by the Langmuir isotherm (R²=0,988, favorable type. From kinetics adsorption of 20 mg/L and 5 mg/L, the results were compatible with the national legislation (Res. nº 357/05. Therefore, the experimental system using (CAG was efficient in removing the Cr(VI from liquid streams containing low concentrations of the metal.

  1. Physicochemistry of the plasma-electrolyte solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Saito, Kenji; Takemura, Yu-ichiro; Shirai, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric rf plasma discharge was successfully investigated using NaOH or HCl electrolyte solutions as a counter electrode at different pH values. The emission intensities of solution components, self bias, and electron density strongly depend on the pH value of electrolyte. An addition of ethanol to the electrolyte solutions enhanced the dehydration, which markedly promoted the emissions of solution components as well as electrons from the solution. An acidification of the solution was always observed after the plasma exposure and two coexisting mechanisms were proposed to give a reasonable interpretation. The plasma-electrolyte interface was discussed based on a model of hydrogen cycle

  2. Study of fatigue crack nucleation in 12% chromium stainless steel in sulphate and phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, H.M.; Begley, J.A.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of fatigue crack nucleation has been studied in 12%Cr stainless steel at a single stress level of 448 MN m -2 in deaerated H 2 SO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 -NaOH ([SO 4 2- ] = 0.01M and 1M) and in H 3 PO 4 -NaOH ([PO 4 3- ] = 0.01M and 1M) solutions at pH 2, 7 and 10 at 100 0 C. In sulphate solutions at pH 2, the specimen suffered overall surface attack without the initiation of microcracks. The surface attack intensified at the prior austenite grain boundaries, martensite platelet boundaries, and non-metallic inclusions. In contrast, cracks initiated transgranularly in sulphate solutions at pH 7 and 10 with the development of selective attack at crack sites at later stages in the fatigue life. This attack was ascribed to local acidification as a result of hydrolysis of corrosion products extruded from inside the cracks. Long cracks with crack branching and debonded zones were observed in all phosphate solutions, except in 0.01M phosphate solution at pH 7. In this latter environment, short intrusion-extrusion microcracks were observed. This difference in behaviour was attributed to changes in the characteristics of the passive film as influenced by the local environmental conditions, mechanical rupture by plastic deformation, and electrochemical differences at the metal surface. (author)

  3. Influences of salt concentration, loading and pH on strontium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Kaplan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr on clay with contains zeolites and montmorillonite mixtures was investigated in solutions of NaCl by means of a batch technique. Sr retention was reduced with increasing NaCl concentration from 5*10 -4 to 5*10 -1 M. Distribution coefficients (K d ) linearly increased with pH in the acidic region but they were almost independent of pH in neutral and alkaline solutions. By fitting the data of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, the mean energies of adsorption and adsorption capacities of Sr at different pH values were calculated. The results showed that the mode of adsorption below pH 4.5 is ion exchange, while above that value a multilayer adsorption occurs. Adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and from empirical Freundlich parameters a site distribution function was calculated. (author)

  4. The effect of high pH alkaline solutions on the mineral stability of the Boom Clay - Batch experiments at 60 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honty, M.; De Craen, M.; Wang, L.; Madejova, J.; Czimerova, A.; Pentrak, M.; Stricek, I.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Boom Clay is currently viewed as a reference host formation for studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The interactions between bulk rock Boom Clay and 0.1 M KOH, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M Ca(OH) 2 , young cement water and evolved cement water solutions, ranging in pH from 12.5 to 13.2, were examined as static batch experiments at 60 deg. C to simulate alkaline plume perturbations, which are expected to occur in the repository due to the presence of concrete. Both liquids and solids were investigated at specific times between 90 and 510 days in order to control the elemental budget and to search for potential mineralogical alterations. Also, the clay fraction was separated from the whole-rock Boom Clay at the end of each run and characterized for its mineralogical composition. Thereby, the importance of the mineral matrix to buffer the alkaline attack and the role of organic matter to protect clay minerals were also addressed. The results indicate that the degree of geochemical perturbation in Boom Clay is dependent on the initial pH of the applied solution together with the nature of the major cation in the reactant fluids. The higher the initial pH of the media, the stronger its interaction with Boom Clay. No major non-clay mineralogical alteration of the Boom Clay was detected, but dissolution of kaolinite, smectite and illite occurred within the studied experimental conditions. The dissolution of clays is accompanied by the decrease in the layer charge, followed by a decrease in the cation-exchange capacity. The highest TOC values coincide with the highest total elemental concentrations in the leachates, and correspondingly, the highest dissolution degree. However, no quantitative link could be established between the degree of organic matter decomposition and clay dissolution.

  5. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, Ph.; Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B.

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author)

  6. Biosynthesis of schwertmannite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cell suspensions under different pH condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Yuehua [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhou Lixiang [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: lxzhou@njau.edu.cn; Liang Jianru; Xiong Huixin [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-01-01

    Oxidation of FeSO{sub 4} solution with initial pH in the range of 1.40-3.51 by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 cell at 26 deg. C and subsequent precipitation of resulting Fe(III) were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the oxidation rate of Fe(II) was around 1.2-3.9 mmol l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the formed precipitates were composed of natrojarosite with schwertmannite when the initial pH was 3.51, while only schwertmannite was produced when initial pH was in the range of 1.60-3.44 and no precipitate occurred when initial pH {<=} 1.40. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses showed that precipitates formed in solution with initial pH 3.51 were spherical particles of about 0.4 {mu}m in diameter and had a smooth surface, whereas precipitates in solution with initial pH {<=} 3.44 were spherical particles of approximately 1.0 {mu}m in diameter, having specific sea-urchin morphology. Specific surface area of the precipitates varied from 3.42 to 23.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that schwertmannite formed in solution with initial pH in the range of 2.00-3.44 had similar elemental composition and could be expressed as Fe{sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 4.42}(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.79,} whereas Fe{sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 4.36}(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.82} and Fe{sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 4.29}(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.86} as its chemical formula when the initial pH was 1.80 and 1.60, respectively.

  7. Formation of by-products at radiation - chemical treatment of water solutions of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, S.A.; Abdullayev, E.T.; Gurbanov, M.A.; Gurbanov, A.H.; Ibadov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation-chemical treatment is considered as a perspective method of water purification from chloroform. It provides the high level of purification (98 percent) of water solutions from chloroform and other chlorine-containing compounds. Meanwhile, other chlorine-containing products can be formed during the process of chloroform degradation and as a result of it the quality of water can change. This work studies the formation of by-products of γ-radiolysis of water solutions at various initial contents of chloroform. Dichlormethane and tetrachlorethane are identified as by-products. It is shown that at high contents of chloroform after certain adsorbed dose the forming products are reducing till their full disappearing. At small contents of chloroform in the studied interval of doses di-chlor-methane is forming. Differences of dose dependences of by-products at various contents of chloroform can be connected with the transition from radical mechanism to chain reaction at high concentrations of chloroform in solutions saturated by oxygen. pH-solutions also reduces during the radiation till pH=1, although this reduction also depends on initial concentration of chloroform. Essential change of pH occurs only at the radiolysis of water solutions containing chloroform ≥0,2 percent. And at radiating of 0,03 percent solution pH reduces only till 4 - 4,5

  8. The level of heat shock protein 90 in pig Longissimus dorsi muscle and its relationship with meat pH and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muhan; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2014-12-15

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that participates in various cellular processes, the role and significance of HSP90 in postmortem muscle though remains unclear. In the present study, pig Longissimus dorsi muscles, categorized into three pH groups, were tested for HSP90 levels and meat quality parameters (i.e. water holding capacity, colour, tenderness and lipid oxidation). The muscles with a high initial pH (pHi) group (pH>6.4) possessing the greatest water holding capacity and lightness, contained the highest HSP90 level, followed by intermediate (6.0-6.4) and low pHi groups (pHwater retention of meat and may be involved in postmortem meat quality development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration behavior of bentonite barrier of radioactive waste disposal by alkaline solutions. Part 1. Permeability change of compacted bentonite immersed in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Kunihiko

    2010-01-01

    Permeability tests using the compacted bentonites and alkaline solutions were carried out to estimate of alteration behavior and the change of permeability during the alteration reaction. The permeability tests of the compacted bentonites were carried out at 23degC for one week after they were immersed in alkaline solution at 60degC for four weeks (immersing test). After permeability tests, the compacted bentonites were repeatedly tested as the same procedure (i.e. repetition of permeability test and immersing test) at 11 cycles. The compacted bentonites with initial dry density of 1.6 Mg/m 3 were reacted with the different type of the alkaline solutions (deionized water, NaOH (pH=12 and 14), KOH (pH=12 and 14) and Ca(OH) 2 (pH=12)) in each experiments. In the case of deionized water and alkaline solutions of pH12, the mineral compositions of altered bentonite were similar to original bentonite while the exchangeable cations of altered bentonites were changed. No changes of the mineralogical features of montmorillonite in altered bentonites (i.e. illitization, baideritization and increasing of layer charge) were observed in the case of deionized water, pH12-NaOH and pH12-Ca(OH) 2 . The montmorillonite was changed to the illite/smectite interstratified mineral containing about 40% illite like component during the reaction with pH12-KOH. In the case of alkaline solutions with pH14, the component minerals of bentonite (e.g. montmorillonite, quartz and clinoptilolite) were dissolved, consequently secondly minerals (e.g. analcime and phillipsite) were crystallized during experiments. Furthermore, the mineralogical features of montmorillonite were changed as illitization (pH14-KOH), beidellitization (pH14-NaOH and pH14-KOH) and increasing of layer charge (pH14-NaOH and pH14-KOH). No increasing of permeability were observed during the experiment using pH12-NaOH and pH12-Ca(OH) 2 as well as the case of deionized water. In the case of pH12-KOH, the permeability continually

  10. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-15

    A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg(-1) in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L(-1) DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25°C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH4(+)-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50% of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%. RESULTS: The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9. Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm. In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were

  12. Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 1: Effect of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M. van; Wouters, K.; Wannijn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Present study aims to quantify the influence of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration for 238 U spiked soils. Eighteen soils collected under pasture were selected such that they covered a wide range for those parameters hypothesised as being potentially important in determining U sorption. Maximum soil solution uranium concentrations were observed at alkaline pH, high inorganic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, clay content, amorphous Fe and phosphate levels. Except for the significant correlation between the solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K d , L kg -1 ) and the organic matter content (R 2 = 0.70) and amorphous Fe content (R 2 = 0.63), there was no single soil parameter significantly explaining the soil solution uranium concentration (which varied 100-fold). Above pH = 6, log(K d ) was linearly related with pH [log(K d ) = - 1.18 pH + 10.8, R 2 = 0.65]. Multiple linear regression analysis did result in improved predictions of the soil solution uranium concentration but the model was complex. - Uranium solubility in soil can be predicted from organic matter or amorphous iron content and pH or with complex multilinear models considering several soil parameters

  13. Corrosion Effects on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of Giga-Grade Steel and its Heat Affected Zone in pH Buffer Solutions for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation test was conducted of giga-grade steel and its heat affected zone in pH buffer solutions, and the results were compared with model predictions. Pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation, particularly, in corrosive environment was evaluated by means of the modified Forman equation. As shown in results, the average corrosion rate determined from the ratio of pure corrosion induced crack length to entire crack length under a cycle load were 0.11 and 0.37 for base metal and heat affected zone, respectively, with load ratio of 0.5, frequency of 0.5 and pH 10.0 environment. These results demonstrate new interpretation methodology for corrosion fatigue crack propagation enabling the pure corrosion effects on the behavior to be determined.

  14. On the multi-level solution algorithm for Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, G. [Univ. of Erlangen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the recently introduced multi-level algorithm for the steady-state solution of Markov chains. The method is based on the aggregation principle, which is well established in the literature. Recursive application of the aggregation yields a multi-level method which has been shown experimentally to give results significantly faster than the methods currently in use. The algorithm can be reformulated as an algebraic multigrid scheme of Galerkin-full approximation type. The uniqueness of the scheme stems from its solution-dependent prolongation operator which permits significant computational savings in the evaluation of certain terms. This paper describes the modeling of computer systems to derive information on performance, measured typically as job throughput or component utilization, and availability, defined as the proportion of time a system is able to perform a certain function in the presence of component failures and possibly also repairs.

  15. On the problem of silica solubility at high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberg, J.

    1990-07-01

    The aqueous system Na 2 O-H 2 O-SiO 2 is considered to play an important role when strong alkaline pore waters of a cement based intermediate level radioactive waste repository intrude into the rock formations surrounding the near field. Under such conditions unknown quantities of silica may dissolve. Therefore the pH-dependence of the solubility of amorphous silica and quartz is investigated by a parameter variation study using the geochemical speciation code MINEQL/EIR. Published silica solubility data obtained in sodium hydroxide solutions at 25 and 90 o C are compared with the results of four models which use different proposed values of the rather uncertain equilibrium constants. Of main interest is the question of whether, in a high pH region, the silica solubility can be explained with different monomeric species only, or to what extent additional polymeric silica species have to be considered as well. The solubility of amorphous silica at 25 o C is well understood up to a pH of about 10.5, where it is determined by the solubility product and the first dissociation constant of monomeric silic acid. The most probable cause of the increased solubility of amorphous silica in the region between pH 10.5 and 11.3 is the formation of dimers, trimers and tetramers. Below a total silica concentration of 0.001 M and pH ≤ 10.0, however, polymerisation proves to be insignificant. Besides low temperature studies using amorphous silica, the solubility of quartz has also been measured in NaOH solutions at 90 o C. As is the case at lower temperatures, the reported values for the second dissociation constant at 90 o C scatter widely. It can be shown that in a NaOH medium up to 0.1 M only mononuclear silica species are stable. Therefore it is concluded that the trend of monomers to form polymers decreases strongly with temperature. In strong NaOH solutions at elevated temperatures, silica-sodium ion pairing seems to gain importance. (author) 12 figs., 9 tabs., 65 refs

  16. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Analysis of RuO2 Based Thick Film pH Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjakkal, Libu; Djurdjic, Elvira; Cvejin, Katarina; Kulawik, Jan; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Szwagierczak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The conductimetric interdigitated thick film pH sensors based on RuO 2 were fabricated and their electrochemical reactions with solutions of different pH values were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The microstructural properties and composition of the sensitive films were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The EIS analysis of the sensor was carried out in the frequency range 10 mHz–2 MHz for pH values of test solutions 2–12. The electrical parameters of the sensor were found to vary with changing pH. The conductance and capacitance of the film were distinctly dependent on pH in the low frequency range. The Nyquist and Bode plots derived from the impedance data for the metal oxide thick film pH sensor provided information about the underlying electrochemical reactions

  17. Development of a microprocessor-controlled coulometric system for stable ph control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet; van der Schoot, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The coulometric pH control system utilizes a programmable coulostat for controlling the pH of a certain volume of unbuffered solution. Based on theoretical considerations, conditions are established which guarantee stable operation with maximum suppression of disturbances from the dissolution of

  18. Decomposition kinetics of aminoborane in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, I.B.; Erusalimchik, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetics of aminoborane hydrolysis has been studied using the method of polarization galvanostatical curves on a platinum electrode in buffer solutions at pH 3; 5; 7. The supposition that the reaction of aminoborane hydrolysis is the reaction of the first order by aminoborane is proved. The rate constant of aminoborane decomposition in the solution with pH 5 is equal to: K=2.5x10 -5 s -1 and with pH 3 it equals K=1.12x10 -4 s -1

  19. Critical assessment of the pH of children's soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1, 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2, and 6 syndets (group 3. Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics. Results: The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9 found for the liquids (p < 0.05. Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34 (p < 0.05. Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging. Conclusions: Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy.

  20. Modified Organosilica Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Stable pH Sensing in Biological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kye J; Huynh, Gabriel T; Kouskousis, Betty P; Fletcher, Nicholas L; Houston, Zachary H; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Corrie, Simon R

    2018-04-19

    Continuous monitoring using nanoparticle-based sensors has been successfully employed in complex biological systems, yet the sensors still suffer from poor long-term stability partially because of the scaffold materials chosen to date. Organosilica core-shell nanoparticles containing a mixture of covalently incorporated pH-sensitive (shell) and pH-insensitive (core) fluorophores is presented as a continuous pH sensor for application in biological media. In contrast to previous studies focusing on similar materials, we sought to investigate the sensor characteristics (dynamic range, sensitivity, response time, stability) as a function of material properties. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at specific wavelengths was found to be highly sensitive to pH over a physiologically relevant range (4.5-8) with a response time of pH-specific signals when stored at room temperature for more than 80 days. Finally, we demonstrated that the nanosensors successfully monitored the pH of a bacterial culture over 15 h and that pH changes in the skin of mouse cadavers could also be observed via in vivo fluorescence imaging following subcutaneous injection. The understanding gained from linking sensor characteristics and material properties will inform the next generation of optical nanosensors for continuous-monitoring applications.

  1. Kinetics of the exchange between fibrous manganese dioxide and Mn2+ ions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rophael, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    The rate of exchange between fibrous manganese dioxide epsilon-MnO 2 and a 0.1 M MnSO 4 solution at 25 0 C and pH 2.0 was higher than the corresponding rate at pH 5.4. When the solid was washed with dilute acid (pH 2.0) before the exchange at pH 2.0, the results of the exchange at the two pH values were similar. When epsilon-MnO 2 was partially reduced with N 2 H 4 .H 2 O solution before the exchange, the rate of exchange was appreciably higher than that obtained for the unreduced solid. The exchange, at nearly pH 2.0, between epsilon-MnO 2 and various concentrations of Mn(NO 3 ) 2 solutions was increased to a small extent as the concentration increased tenfold. The exchange was followed by using 56 Mn-labelled MnO 2 and by measuring the β activity acquired by the Mn 2+ ion solution. The activity induced in the solid MnO 2 was produced by irradiation with thermal neutrons from a 241 Am- 9 Be laboratory neutron source. The neutron activation of manganese oxides has the following advantages: (i) a relatively high level of activity can be induced in the 55 Mn of the irradiated oxide because of its 100% abundance and its high neutron activation cross section, whereas the oxygen is unaffected; (ii) the half-life of the product 56 Mn is 9274 s which is convenient for kinetic studies; (iii) the activity produced almost decays in 24 h. (Auth.)

  2. Tuning interionic interaction by rationally controlling solution pH for highly selective colorimetric sensing of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Hao, Jie; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-04-01

    Direct selective sensing of arginine in central nervous systems remains very essential to understanding of the molecular basis of some physiological events. This study presents the first demonstration on a simple yet effective method for arginine sensing with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. The rationale for the method is based on the pH-dependent feature of the interionic interaction between cysteine and arginine. At pH 6.0, cysteine can only interact with arginine through the ion-pair interaction and such interaction can lead to the changes in both the solution color and UV-vis spectrum of the cysteine-protected Au-NPs upon the addition of arginine. These changes are further developed into an analytical strategy for effective sensing of arginine by rationally controlling the pH values of Au-NP dispersions with the ratio of the absorbance at 650 nm (A 650) to that at 520 nm (A 520) (A 650/A 520) as a parameter for analysis. The method is responsive to arginine without the interference from other species in the cerebral system; under the optimized conditions, the A 650/A 520 values are linear with the concentration of arginine within a concentration range from 0.80 to 64 μM, yet remain unchanged with the addition of other kinds of amino acids or the species in the central nervous system into the Au-NPs dispersion containing cysteine. The method demonstrated here is reliable and robust and could thus be used for detection of the increase of arginine in central nervous systems.

  3. Effects of pH on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Shamaila, S.; Sharif, R.; Wali, H.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide templates with pore diameter of 40 nm and inter pore separation of 100 nm are prepared by two step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. These templates are used to fabricate dc-deposited Co nanowires at different pH values of acidic bath. Continuous and densely packed nanowires having length ∼8 µm are observed. The hcp configuration appeared at moderate and high pH whereas both fcc and hcp phases are observed at low pH. However the crystallinity distorted at high pH due to formation of polycrystalline structure of cobalt nanowires. Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution. - Highlights: • Variation in the structure of dc deposited cobalt nanowires can be obtained by varying pH of acidic bath. • The hcp structure is stable at room temperature with low voltage deposition for electrodeposited Co nanowires. Co with fcc structure, is stable at temperatures above 422 °C or at pH<3 with high potential. • The hcp (100) plane is obtained with pH∼3.5 and (101) is stable at pH∼5.5 due to variation in temperature inside the pores with respect to the pH. • Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution

  4. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Chanpongsang, S.; Noordhuizen, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained

  5. Dental plaque pH and ureolytic activity in children and adults of a low caries population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Linnea; Dahlén, Anna; Eriksson, Cecilia; Suksuart, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque pH level and ureolytic activity among children and adults of Karen Hill tribes. Thirty-four children aged 6-10 years and 46 adults aged 20-38 years were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices, sucrose intake and betel chewing. Caries experience (DMFT and DT), calculus, bleeding on probing (BoP) and Plaque index (PlI) were registered. Ureolytic activity in supragingival plaque was tested at two interproximal sites (11/12 and 41/42) with the rapid urease test (RUT). Registration of plaque pH was performed at two interproximal sites (15/16 and 31/41) before, during and 30 min after rinsing with an urea solution (0.25%). Four interproximal plaque samples (one from each quadrant) per individual were collected to test the bacterial composition using the checkerboard technique. Children and adults had similarly low DMFT and DT values. Children had a higher baseline pH and a higher ureolytic activity in the maxilla (p plaque pH is related to the ureolytic activity, which explains the low acidogenic plaque microflora and the low caries levels in the Karen population.

  6. Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 1: effect of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M; Wouters, K; Wannijn, J

    2007-01-01

    Present study aims to quantify the influence of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration for (238)U spiked soils. Eighteen soils collected under pasture were selected such that they covered a wide range for those parameters hypothesised as being potentially important in determining U sorption. Maximum soil solution uranium concentrations were observed at alkaline pH, high inorganic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, clay content, amorphous Fe and phosphate levels. Except for the significant correlation between the solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K(d), L kg(-1)) and the organic matter content (R(2)=0.70) and amorphous Fe content (R(2)=0.63), there was no single soil parameter significantly explaining the soil solution uranium concentration (which varied 100-fold). Above pH=6, log(K(d)) was linearly related with pH [log(K(d))=-1.18 pH+10.8, R(2)=0.65]. Multiple linear regression analysis did result in improved predictions of the soil solution uranium concentration but the model was complex.

  7. Dependency of the band gap of electrodeposited Copper oxide thin films on the concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O) and pH in bath solution for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Md. Anisul

    2016-03-10

    In this study, Copper oxide thin films were deposited on copper plate by electrodeposition process in an electrolytic bath containing CuSO4.5H2O, 3M lactic acid and NaOH. Copper oxide films were electrodeposited at different pH and different concentration of CuSO4.5H2O and the optical band gap was determined from their absorption spectrum which was obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It was found that copper oxide films which were deposited at low concentration of CuSO4.5H2O have higher band gap than those deposited at higher bath concentration. The band gap of copper oxide films also significantly changes with pH of the bath solution. It was also observed that with the increase of the pH of bath solution band gap of copper oxide film decreased. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. The role of pH variation on the growth of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Song, Minwu; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study on the morphological variation of ZnO nanostructure by varying the pH of precursor solution via solution method. Zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide were used as a precursor, which was refluxed at 90 deg. C for an hour. The pH of the precursor solution (zinc acetate di hydrate) was increased from 6 to 12 by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Morphology of ZnO nanorods markedly varies from sheet-like (at pH 6) to rod-like structure of zinc oxide (pH 10-12). Diffraction patterns match well with standard ZnO at all pH values. Crystallinity and nanostructures were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, which indicates structure grew along [0 0 0 1] direction with an ideal lattice fringes distance 0.52 nm. FTIR spectroscopic measurement showed a standard peak of zinc oxide at 464 cm -1 . Amount of H + and OH - ions are found key to the structure control of studied material, as discussed in the growth mechanism.

  9. Trimerization Dictates Solution Opalescence of a Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chieh; Langford, Alex Jacob; Kumar, Sandeep; Ruesch, John Carl; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Opalescence, sometimes observed in antibody solutions, is thought to be mediated by light scattering of soluble oligomers or insoluble particulates. However, mechanistic features, such as stoichiometry and self-association affinity of oligomeric species related to opalescence, are poorly understood. Here, opalescence behavior of a monoclonal antibody (mAb-1) solution was studied over a wide range of solution conditions including different protein concentrations, pH, and in the presence or absence of salt. Hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of mAb-1 solutions were studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering. Opalescence in mAb-1 solutions is pH and concentration dependent. The degree of opalescence correlates with reversible monomer-trimer equilibrium detected by analytical ultracentrifugation. Increased trimer formation corresponds to increased opalescence in mAb-1 solutions at higher pH and protein concentrations. Addition of NaCl shifts this equilibrium toward monomer and reduces solution opalescence. This study demonstrates that opalescence in mAb-1 solutions does not arise from the light scattering of monomer or random molecular self-associations but is strongly correlated with a specific self-association stoichiometry and affinity. Importantly, at pH 5.5 (far below isoelectric point of mAb-1), the solution is not opalescent and with nonideal behavior. This study also dissects several parameters to describe the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic nonideality. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pH on boron adsorption in some soils of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Steiner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporary B deficiency can be triggered by liming of acid soils because of increased B adsorption at higher soil pH. Plants respond directly to the activity of B in soil solution and only indirectly to B adsorbed on soil constituents. Because the range between deficient and toxic B concentration is relatively narrow, this poses difficulty in maintaining appropriate B levels in soil solution. Thus, knowledge of the chemical behavior of B in the soil is particularly important. The present study investigated the effect of soil pH on B adsorption in four soils of Paraná State, and to correlate these values with the physical and chemical properties of the soils. Surface samples were taken from a Rhodic Hapludox, Arenic Hapludalf, Arenic Hapludult, and one Typic Usthorthent. To evaluate the effect of pH on B adsorption, subsamples soil received the application of increasing rates of calcium carbonate. Boron adsorption was accomplished by shaking 2.0 g soil, for 24 h, with 20 mL of 0.01 mol L¹ NaCl solution containing different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 4.0 mg B L-1. Sorption was fitted to non-linear form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Boron adsorption increased as concentration increased. Boron adsorption was dependent on soil pH, increasing as a function of pH in the range between 4.6 and 7.4, although the bonding energy has decreased. Maximum adsorption capacity (MAC of B was observed in the Arenic Hapludalf (49.8 mg B kg-1 soil followed by Arenic Hapludult (22.5 mg kg-1, Rhodic Hapludox (17.4 mg kg-1, and Typic Usthorthent (7.0 mg kg-1. The organic matter content, clay content, and aluminum oxide content (Al2O3 were the soils properties that affecting the B adsorption on Paraná soils.

  11. Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.  

  12. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Varma, Siddhartha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied for statistical analysis. The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at psalivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  13. OPC Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The study presented in this report focused on a low-activity wasteform containing a high-pH pore solution with a significant level of sulfate. The purpose of the study was to improve understanding of the complex concrete/wasteform reactive transport problem, in particular, the role of pH in sulfate attack. Paste samples prepared at three different water-to-cement ratios were tested. The mixtures were prepared with ASTM Type I cement, without additional admixtures. The samples were exposed to two different sodium sulfate contact solutions. The first solution was prepared at 0.15M Na2SO4. The second solution also incorporated 0.5M NaOH, to mimic the high pH conditions found in Saltstone. The data collected indicated that, in Na2SO4 solution, damage occurs to the pastes. In the case of the high-pH sulfate solution (Na2SO4 + NaOH), no signs of damage were observed on any of the paste mixtures. These results indicate that the high sulfate content found in the wasteform pore solution will not necessarily lead to severe damage to concrete. Good-quality mixtures could thus prove durable over the long term, and act as an effective barrier to prevent radionuclides from reaching the environment.

  14. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  15. Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschi, Massimiliano; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK a range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK a and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction

  16. Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Massimiliano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-06-02

    A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK{sub a} range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK{sub a} and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction.

  17. Motion-Based pH Sensing Based on the Cartridge-Case-like Micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yajun; Ge, Ya; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Mei; Sun, Yunyu; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin

    2016-02-17

    In this paper, we report a novel cartridge-case-like micromotor. The micromotor, which is fabricated by the template synthesis method, consists of a gelatin shell with platinum nanoparticles decorating its inner surface. Intriguingly, the resulting cartridge-case-like structure exhibits a pH-dependent "open and close" feature, which originates from the pH responsiveness of the gelatin material. On the basis of the catalytic activity of the platinum nanoparticle inside the gelatin shell, the resulting cartridge-case-like structure is capable of moving autonomously in the aqueous solution containing the hydrogen peroxide fuel. More interestingly, we find out that the micromotor can be utilized as a motion-based pH sensor over the whole pH range. The moving velocity of the micromotor increases monotonically with the increase of pH of the analyte solution. Three different factors are considered to be responsible for the proportional relation between the motion speed and pH of the analyte solution: the peroxidase-like and oxidase-like catalytic behavior of the platinum nanoparticle at low and high pH, the volumetric decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide under the basic condition and the pH-dependent catalytic activity of the platinum nanoparticle caused by the swelling/deswelling behavior of the gelatin material. The current work highlights the impact of the material properties on the motion behavior of a micromotor, thus paving the way toward its application in the motion-based sensing field.

  18. Synthesis of xenotime(YPO4) by precipitation from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikichi, Yasuo; Hukuo, Ken-iti; Shiokawa, Jiro.

    1978-01-01

    Xenotime (tetragonal YPO 4 ) was synthesized by the precipitation from a mixed solution of yttrium chloride and orthophosphoric acid or orthophosphate above 50 0 C. At 50 0 C, the initial precipitate from the solutions in the pH range from 0.8 to 2.9 was crystalline weinschenkite (monoclinic YPO 4 .2H 2 O) and amorphous phosphate was formed at pH above 3, while precipitation did not take place at pH 0.5. Weinschenkite was stable at 50 0 C, but amorphous phosphate gradually crystallized by aging and became crystalline xenotime at pH 3.7 after 5 days and at pH 5.0 after 28 days. At 90 0 C, xenotime was detected in the precipitate from the solution of pH 0.5, and was also obtained by aging weinschenkite at pH between 0.8 and 2.9 or amorphous phosphate at pH above 3. The unit cell parameters of the synthesized xenotime were as follows: a=b=6.893A, c=6.026A. (auth.)

  19. Critical assessment of the pH of children's soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Bruna Rafaela; Shimabukuro, Danielle Midori; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label. Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1), 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2), and 6 syndets (group 3). Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics. The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9) found for the liquids (p<0.05). Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid) and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34) (p<0.05). Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging. Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Ligand binding turns moth pheromone-binding protein into a pH sensor: effect on the Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Prusti, Rabi K; Mohanty, Smita

    2009-11-13

    In moths, pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for the transport of the hydrophobic pheromones to the membrane-bound receptors across the aqueous sensillar lymph. We report here that recombinant Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1) picks up hydrophobic molecule(s) endogenous to the Escherichia coli expression host that keeps the protein in the "open" (bound) conformation at high pH but switches to the "closed" (free) conformation at low pH. This finding has bearing on the solution structures of undelipidated lepidopteran moth PBPs determined thus far. Picking up a hydrophobic molecule from the host expression system could be a common feature for lipid-binding proteins. Thus, delipidation is critical for bacterially expressed lipid-binding proteins. We have shown for the first time that the delipidated ApolPBP1 exists primarily in the closed form at all pH levels. Thus, current views on the pH-induced conformational switch of PBPs hold true only for the ligand-bound open conformation of the protein. Binding of various ligands to delipidated ApolPBP1 studied by solution NMR revealed that the protein in the closed conformation switches to the open conformation only at or above pH 6.0 with a protein to ligand stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. Mutation of His(70) and His(95) to alanine drives the equilibrium toward the open conformation even at low pH for the ligand-bound protein by eliminating the histidine-dependent pH-induced conformational switch. Thus, the delipidated double mutant can bind ligand even at low pH in contrast to the wild type protein as revealed by fluorescence competitive displacement assay using 1-aminoanthracene and solution NMR.

  1. Transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media under various solution chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Gao Bin; Morales, Verónica L.; Tian Yuan; Wu Lei; Gao Jie; Bai Wei; Yang Liuyan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its wide applications, nanosized titanium dioxide may become a potential environmental risk to soil and groundwater system. It is therefore important to improve current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of titanium oxides nanoparticles (TONPs). In this work, the effect of solution chemistry (i.e., pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration) on the deposition and transport of TONPs in saturated porous media was examined in detail. Laboratory columns packed with acid-cleaned quartz sand were used in the experiment as porous media. Transport experiments were conducted with various chemistry combinations, including four ionic strengths, three pH levels, and two NOM concentrations. The results showed that TONP mobility increased with increasing solution pH, but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. It is also found that the presence of NOM in the system enhanced the mobility of TONPs in the saturated porous media. The Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to justify the mobility trends observed in the experimental data. Predictions from the theory agreed excellently with the experimental data.

  2. The effect of recommending a CPP-ACPF product on salivary and plaque pH levels in orthodontic patients: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Haleh; Banava, Sepideh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mojtahedzadeh, Faramarz

    2014-11-01

    Along with their re-mineralizing capacity, calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products combined with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) could also be beneficial by neutralizing acidic salivary and plaque pH. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACPF on salivary and plaque pH in orthodontic patients. As a triple-blind, cross-over randomized trial, 30 orthodontic patients with fixed appliances (age range = 15.70 ± 4.08 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. A CPP-ACPF paste (MI Paste Plus, GC America, Alsip, IL) was used by group 1 (n = 15) and a placebo by group 2 (n = 15) for 1 month. After a 1 month washout period, patients used the alternative paste for another month. Plaque and salivary pH levels were measured at all before and after periods. By applying MI Paste Plus, the plaque pH increased from 5.81 ± 0.45 to 6.60 ± 0.38 (p salivary pH recordings, which were 6.72 ± 0.43 and 6.71 ± 0.38, respectively, remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05). MI Paste Plus can be clinically beneficial in increasing plaque pH levels, but has no effect on the salivary pH.

  3. Plaque pH Changes Following Consumption of Two Types of Plain and Bulky Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Shiva; Noin, Sogol

    2011-01-01

    Consistency, backing process and content differences could influence cariogenic potential of foods. The aim was to compare plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of bread with different physical characteristics. In this clinical trial, interproximal plaque pH of 10 volunteers with high risk of dental caries (saliva Streptococcus mutans > 10(5), high dental caries experience, and average DMFT =6.10 ± 1.56) was measured. Plain traditionally backed "Sangak bread" and soft bulky "Baguette bread" and %10 sucrose solution were tested in a cross over designed experiment. Baseline plaque pH was recorded and followed by 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes intervals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). Sucrose solution caused the most pronounced pH and ΔpH drop from 7.15 ± 0.33 at baseline to 6.78 ± 0.29. Means plaque pH of 10% sucrose solution and Baguette were not statistically different at 1, 20 and 30 minutes (P > 0.05). Mean plaque pH of Sangak and Baguette showed significant differences at 0, 1, 20 and30 minutes (P bread samples within first 10 minutes, pH increased and then started to decrease during tenth to fifteenth minutes. During all experiment phases, the mean pH of Baguette with less consistency and carbohydrate content and higher rate of starch gelatination was lower compared to Sangak.

  4. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  5. Pb and Cd binding to natural freshwater biofilms developed at different pH: the important role of culture pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuyi; Dong, Deming; Ding, Xiaoou; Yang, Fan; Jiang, Xu; Guo, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of solution pH on adsorption of trace metals to different types of natural aquatic solid materials have been studied extensively, but few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of pH at which the solid materials were formed on the adsorption. The purpose of present study is to examine this effect of culture pH on metal adsorption to natural freshwater biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to biofilms which were developed at different culture pH values (ranging from 6.5 to 9.0) was measured at the same adsorption pH value (6.5). The culture pH had considerable effects on both composition and metal adsorption ability of the biofilms. Higher culture pH usually promoted the accumulation of organic material and Fe oxides in the biofilms. The culture pH also affected the quantity and species of algae in the biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to the biofilms generally increased with the increase of culture pH. This increase was minor at lower pH range and significant at higher pH range and was more remarkable for Cd adsorption than for Pb adsorption. The notable contribution of organic material to the adsorption at higher culture pH values was also observed. The profound impacts of culture pH on adsorption behavior of biofilms mainly resulted from the variation of total contents of the biofilm components and were also affected by the alteration of composition and properties of the components.

  6. Influence of soil solution cation composition on boron adsorption by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron (B) adsorption on five arid-zone soil samples from California was investigated as a function of solution pH (4-10) and cation composition (Na, Ca, or Mg). Boron adsorption increased with increasing solution pH, reached an adsorption maximum near pH 9, and decreased with further increases with...

  7. pH variations during diafiltration due to buffer nonidealities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Youngbin; Yang, Deyu; Singh, Nripen; Arunkumar, Abhiram; Ghose, Sanchayita; Li, Zheng Jian; Zydney, Andrew L

    2017-11-01

    Diafiltration is used for final formulation of essentially all biotherapeutics. Several studies have demonstrated that buffer/excipient concentrations in the final diafiltered product can be different than that in the diafiltration buffer due to interactions between buffer species and the protein product. However, recent work in our lab has shown variations in solution pH that are largely independent of the protein concentration during the first few diavolumes. Our hypothesis is that these pH variations are due to nonidealities in the acid-base equilibrium coefficient. A model was developed for the diafiltration process accounting for the ionic strength dependence of the pK a . Experimental results obtained using phosphate and histidine buffers were in excellent agreement with model predictions. A decrease in ionic strength leads to an increase in the pK a for the phosphate buffer, causing a shift in the solution pH, even under conditions where the initial feed and the diafiltration buffer are at the same pH. This effect could be eliminated by matching the ionic strength of the feed and diafiltration buffer. The experimental data and model provide new insights into the factors controlling the pH profile during diafiltration processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1555-1560, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Monosilicate adsorption by ferrihydrite and goethite at pH 3-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Raben-Lange, B.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    The constant capacitance model and the Elovich equation were combined in the following mathematical expression enabling calculation of the amount of silicic acid adsorbed by iron oxides as a function of the Si concentration, pH, soil:solution ratio, and reaction time: [GRAPHICS] K(a1) is the prot......The constant capacitance model and the Elovich equation were combined in the following mathematical expression enabling calculation of the amount of silicic acid adsorbed by iron oxides as a function of the Si concentration, pH, soil:solution ratio, and reaction time: [GRAPHICS] K(a1...

  9. Effect of pH on the structural, optical and morphological properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanoparticles by reflux precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungula, J.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Gallium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (GZO NPs) were synthesized by the reflux precipitation method at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 pH conditions of Ga/Zn precursor solution (Ga/Zn sol.). Analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that the diffraction peak intensities of GZO NPs increased and the crystallite sizes varied from 11 to 27 nm with an increase in the pH of the Zn/Ga sol. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed agglomerated tiny particles that formed on big slabs of nanorods at the lower pH, but fine and enlarged particles on nano-spherical bases formed at the higher pH values. The photoluminescence exciton peak intensities of the GZO NPs and their respective FWHM increased to a maximum at the 5 pH and then reduced slightly as the solution got more basic. The increase of the deep level peak intensities with the increase in the pH followed the XRD diffraction intensity results. It was observed that both the exciton and DLE peaks emission positions shifted to lower wavelengths up to the 5 pH and then red shifted for a further increase in the pH values. The UV-vis analysis also demonstrated that the optical properties of the GZO NPs improved with the increase Ga/Zn sol. pH, as shown by the blue shift of the absorption edge of the reflectance spectra. The band gap energy was tuned from 3.18 to 3.31 eV with the increase in the pH from 1 to 5. An additional increase in the pH yielded no significant change in the optical properties of the GZO NPs.

  10. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droessler, P.; Holzer, W.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form

  11. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  12. Evaluating Nanoparticle Sensor Design for Intracellular pH Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki; Sun, Honghao; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2011-01-01

    Particle-based nanosensors have over the last decade been designed for optical fluorescent-based ratiometric measurements of pH in living cells. However, quantitative and time-resolved intracellular measurements of pH in endosomes and lysosomes using particle nanosensors is challenging...... and there is a need to improve measurement methodology. In the present paper, we have successfully carried out time resolved pH measurements in endosomes and lyosomes in living cells using nanoparticle sensors and show the importance of sensor choice for successful quantification. We have studied two nanoparticle...... quantification of pH is an unfortunate result when measuring pH too close to the limit of the sensitive range of the sensors. Triple-labeled nanosensors with a pH measurement range of 3.2-7.0, which was synthesized by adding two pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pKa to each sensor, seem to be a solution...

  13. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-09

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. pCO2 And pH regulation of cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeongHun eYoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CO2 Serves as one of the fundamental regulators of cerebral blood flow. It is widely considered that this regulation occurs through pCO2-driven changes in pH of the cerebral spinal fluid, with elevated and lowered pH causing direct relaxation and contraction of the smooth muscle, respectively. However, some findings also suggest that pCO2 acts independently of and/or in conjunction with altered pH. This action may be due to a direct effect of cerebral spinal fluid pCO2 on the smooth muscle as well as on the endothelium, nerves, and astrocytes. Findings may also point to an action of arterial pCO2 on the endothelium to regulate smooth muscle contractility. Thus, the effects of pH and pCO2 may be influenced by the absence/presence of different cell types in the various experimental preparations. Results may also be influenced by experimental parameters including myogenic tone as well as solutions containing significantly altered HCO3- concentrations, i.e., solutions routinely employed to differentiate the effects of pH from pCO2. In sum, it appears that pCO2, independently and in conjunction with pH, may regulate cerebral blood flow.

  15. Graphite Screen-Printed Electrodes Applied for the Accurate and Reagentless Sensing of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Flávia E; Smith, Jamie P; Kwamou, Sophie I; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Iniesta, Jesus; Smith, Graham C; Bonacin, Juliano A; Banks, Craig E

    2015-12-01

    A reagentless pH sensor based upon disposable and economical graphite screen-printed electrodes (GSPEs) is demonstrated for the first time. The voltammetric pH sensor utilizes GSPEs which are chemically pretreated to form surface immobilized oxygenated species that, when their redox behavior is monitored, give a Nernstian response over a large pH range (1-13). An excellent experimental correlation is observed between the voltammetric potential and pH over the entire pH range of 1-13 providing a simple approach with which to monitor solution pH. Such a linear response over this dynamic pH range is not usually expected but rather deviation from linearity is encountered at alkaline pH values; absence of this has previously been attributed to a change in the pKa value of surface immobilized groups from that of solution phase species. This non-deviation, which is observed here in the case of our facile produced reagentless pH sensor and also reported in the literature for pH sensitive compounds immobilized upon carbon electrodes/surfaces, where a linear response is observed over the entire pH range, is explained alternatively for the first time. The performance of the GSPE pH sensor is also directly compared with a glass pH probe and applied to the measurement of pH in "real" unbuffered samples where an excellent correlation between the two protocols is observed validating the proposed GSPE pH sensor.

  16. Hydrogen production by sodium borohydride in NaOH aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 in NaOH aqueous solution is studied. The influence of pH of the NaOH aqueous solution on the rate of hydrogen production and the hydrogen production efficiency are studied for the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4. The results show that the activation energy of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 increased with the increase of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution.With the increasing of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution, the rate of hydrogen production and hydrogen production efficiency of NaBH4 hydrolysis decrease.

  17. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorgvin Vilbergsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique and the end (desired function or outcome is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means and produce outputs (ends. The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques for multiple treatment functions.

  18. The evaluation of temperature and pH influences on equilibrium swelling of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are synthesized by the method of radical polymerization of monomers: N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and acrylic acid (AA. Characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid hydrogels, p(NIPAM/AA, has been performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and by determination of the swelling behaviour in aqueous solutions at different temperatures (25, 31 and 37°C and pH values (2.2, 4.5, 6 and 6.8. After lyophilisation in the solution at pH 6 and temperature of 25°C, p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels have rapidly reached equilibrium degree of swelling, αe, in comparison to non-lyophilized samples. The mechanism of solvent transport within matrix in lyophilized samples corresponds to less Fickian diffusion, whereas Super case II diffusion is characteristic for non-lyophilized samples. p(NIPAM/AA hydrogel with 1.5 mol% of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM at the temperature of 25°C and pH 6.8, has reached the highest swelling equilibrium degree, αe = 259.8. The results of swelling studies have shown that p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels can be classified as superabsorbent polymers (SAPs. For the evaluation of pH and temperature influences on synthesized hydrogels swelling, a full three-level experimental design has been used. Two-factor interaction model (2FI is the most optimal model of a full three-level experimental design for representing the swelling equilibrium degree of p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels as a function of investigated parameters, i.e., temperature and pH. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  19. pH and Protein Sensing with Functionalized Semiconducting Oxide Nanobelt FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Yun, C. S.; Strouse, G. F.; Xiong, P.; Yang, R. S.; Wang, Z. L.

    2008-03-01

    We report solution pH sensing and selective protein detection with high-performance channel-limited field-effect transistors (FETs) based on single semiconducting oxide (ZnO and SnO2) nanobelts^1. The devices were integrated with PDMS microfluidic channels for analyte delivery and the source/drain contacts were passivated for in-solution sensing. pH sensing experiments were performed on FETs with functionalized and unmodified nanobelts. Functionalization of the nanobelts by APTES was found to greatly improve the pH sensitivity. The change in nanobelt conductance as functions of pH values at different gate voltages and ionic strengths showed high sensitivity and consistency. For the protein detection, we achieved highly selective biotinylation of the nanobelt channel with through APTES linkage. The specific binding of fluorescently-tagged streptavidin to the biotinylated nanobelt was verified by fluorescence microscopy; non-specific binding to the substrate was largely eliminated using PEG-silane passivation. The electrical responses of the biotinylated FETs to the streptavidin binding in PBS buffers of different pH values were systematically measured. The results will be presented and discussed. ^1Y. Cheng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093114 (2006). *Supported by NSF NIRT Grant ECS-0210332.

  20. pH Sensitivity of Novel PANI/PVB/PS3 Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korostynska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results from the investigation into the pH sensitivity ofnovel PANI/PVB/PS3 composite films. The conductimetric sensing mode was chosen as itis one of the most promising alternatives to the mainstream pH-sensing methods and it is theleast investigated due to the popularity of other approaches. The films were deposited usingboth screen-printing and a drop-coating method. It was found that the best response to pHwas obtained from the screen-printed thick films, which demonstrated a change inconductance by as much as three orders of magnitude over the pH range pH2-pH11. Thedevices exhibited a stable response over 96 hours of operation. Several films were immersedin buffer solutions of different pH values for 96 hours and these were then investigated usingXPS. The resulting N 1s spectra for the various films confirmed that the change inconductance was due to deprotonation of the PANI polymer backbone. SEM andProfilometry were also undertaken and showed that no considerable changes in themorphology of the films took place and that the films did not swell or contract due toexposure to test solutions.

  1. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eBurdikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g. pH, redox potential due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  2. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  3. Microneedle pH Sensor: Direct, Label-Free, Real-Time Detection of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Bladder pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Miyakoda, Kousei; Saito, Asuka; Yasoda, Yutaka; Kajiwara, Kagemasa; Kimura, Minoru; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-07-05

    Acid-base homeostasis (body pH) inside the body is precisely controlled by the kidneys and lungs and buffer systems, such that even a minor pH change could severely affect many organs. Blood and urine pH tests are common in day-to-day clinical trials and require little effort for diagnosis. There is always a great demand for in vivo testing to understand more about body metabolism and to provide effective diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we report the simple fabrication of microneedle-based direct, label-free, and real-time pH sensors. The reference and working electrodes were Ag/AgCl thick films and ZnO thin films on tungsten (W) microneedles, respectively. The morphological and structural characteristics of microneedles were carefully investigated through various analytical methods. The developed sensor exhibited a Nernstian response of -46 mV/pH. Different conditions were used to test the sensor to confirm their accuracy and stability, such as various buffer solutions, with respect to time, and we compared the reading with commercial pH electrodes. Besides that, the fabricated microneedle sensor ability is proven by in vivo testing in mouse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bladders. The pH sensor procedure reported here is totally reversible, and results were reproducible after several rounds of testing.

  4. Evolution of pH during in-situ leaching in small concrete cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguees, A.A. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Moreno, E.I. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering]|[CINVESTAV Merida-Unit (Mexico); Andrade, C. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion

    1997-11-01

    Small amounts (0.4 cc) of neutral water placed in small cylindrical cavities (5 mm diameter) in concrete exposed to 100% relative humidity first developed a pH comparable to that of a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. The pH then increased over a period of days-weeks toward a higher terminal value. A micro pH electrode arrangement was used. This behavior was observed in samples of 12 different concrete mix designs, including some with pozzolanic additions. The average terminal cavity pH closely approached that of expressed pore water from the same concretes. A simplified mathematical model reproduced the experimentally observed behavior. The model assumed inward diffusional transport of the pH-determining species in the surrounding concrete pore solution. The experimental results were consistent with the model predictions when using diffusion parameters on the order of those previously reported for alkali cations in concrete. The cavity size, cavity water content, and exposure to atmospheric CO{sub 2} should be minimized when attempting to obtain cavity pH values approaching those of the surrounding pore water.

  5. The influence of pH on the adsorption of lead by Na-clinoptilolite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of pH on the adsorption of lead by Na-clinoptilolite: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. ... At high pH of the contact solution, the adsorption process occurs by ion exchange and at low pH; i.e., it is physical. The variation of the Gibbs free energy demonstrates that adsorption occurs spontaneously. The process was ...

  6. Reassessment of pH reference values with improved methodology for the evaluation of ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, M.J. Guiomar H.M.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between pH as empirical number in routine control and the pH value regarded as conveying some information concerning the effective concentration or activity of hydrogen ions, a H , has caused much confusion. There are, however, reasons to conclude that the overwhelming amount of thermodynamic data is not sufficiently accurate--either due to ignorance of metrological concepts or due to insufficiently specified measurement processes of fundamental chemical quantities pH. The commonly used seven reference buffer solutions to which primary pH values have been conventional assigned, represent a selection out of a more extensive list, recommended by NBS (now NIST) in 1962. From then onwards conventions concerning the Debye-Hueckel model of electrolyte solutions and ionic strength have been revised and the pH(S) values reassessed in conformity but only for these seven reference buffer solutions. The others have, so far remained unchanged, locking harmonisation of the conventionally assigned pH(S) values. In this work, ionic strength is calculated through complete equations derived from the acidity constants. Concentrations of the various species involved in the conventional assignment of pH and their corresponding activity coefficients are therefore, more rigorously known. The process proves particularly useful for poliprotic acids with overlapping acidity constants, where the ratio is less than 10 3 . As a consequence, conventionally assigned pH values of reference buffer solutions are recalculated and corrections are introduced as appropriate

  7. The Effect of ringer Lactate as the Priming Solution of the Cardiopulmonary by Pass Circuit on Plasma Potassium Levels after Open Heart Surgery in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Peivandi Yazdi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB due to the higher volume of priming solution in comparison to the total blood volume in children requires careful consideration. Recently attention has been focused on the potential risk of hyperkalemia in these patients. Given its significant effects on cardiac rhythm, hyperkalemia is considered a medical emergency. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to determine the changes in K+ and other electrolytes following CPB in a pediatric cardiac surgery setting. Method: Sixty children scheduled for pediatric cardiac surgery weighing more than 5 kilograms with Hct level above 30% were enrolled. The prime solution used was Ringer-lactate. Venous blood were collected at defined time points: before, during and after CPB and at discharge. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the studied patients was 3.69±2.77 years. A rise in potassium levels during surgery was recorded. Also a significant difference in the potassium levels before surgery and at discharge were observed (p=0.007. A significant drop and a subsequent rise in the Hct level was seen overtime whereas a significant decrease in the PH and bicarbonate levels were detected. 31 experienced cardiac arrhythmia after undergoing CPB. Conclusion: A K+-free crystalloid that will offset the K+ load of stored blood is highly anticipated in these patients

  8. The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10 -4 M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10 -4 M and 1 x 10 -2 M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA 2- ) : k(OH + CO 3 2- ) : k(OH + HCO 3 - ) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

  9. Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervanne, Heini; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry

    2014-11-01

    The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m{sup 3}/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO{sub 4} solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO{sub 4} solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

  10. The role of preservation solution on acid-base regulation during machine perfusion of kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

    2006-01-01

    To meet the current clinical organ demand, efficient preservation methods and solutions are needed to increase the number of viable kidneys for transplantation. In the present study, the influence of perfusion solution buffering strength on renal pH dynamics and regulation mechanisms during kidney ex vivo preservation was determined. Porcine kidneys were hypothermically machine perfused for 72 h with either Unisol-UHK or Belzer-Machine Perfusion solution, Belzer-MP solution. Renal perfusate samples were periodically collected and biochemically analyzed. The UHK solution, a Hepes-based solution (35 mM), provided a more efficient control of renal pH that, in turn, resulted in minor changes in the perfusate pH relative to baseline, in response to tissue CO2 and HCO3- production. In the perfusate of Belzer-MP kidney group a wider range of pH values were recorded and a pronounced pH reduction was seen in response to significant rises in pCO2 and HCO3- concentrations. The Belzer-MP solution, containing phosphate (25 mM) as its main buffer, and only 10 mM Hepes, had a greater buffering requirement to attenuate larger pH changes.

  11. Similarity of salt influences on the pH of buffers, polyelectrolytes, and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinescu, Alina E; Bauduin, Pierre; Pinna, M Cristina; Touraud, Didier; Ninham, Barry W; Kunz, Werner

    2006-05-04

    Changes in pH induced by the addition of electrolytes to buffers, polyelectrolytes (a polycarboxy polymethylene and a polyethyleneimine), and proteins (casein, whey, and lysozyme) solutions are explored systematically. The two buffer systems are triethanolamine/triethanolammonium chloride and citric acid/sodium citrate. These are chosen because of the similarity of their acid-base equilibria with those of amino acids predominant in most proteins, that is, amino acids that include carboxylate or ammonium groups in their structures. The pH of triethanolamine and of citrate buffers respectively increases and decreases when salt is added. At low electrolyte concentrations (buffer solutions. It is even possible to qualitatively predict these changes in protein solutions simply from the primary protein structure. At least in the systems considered here, the specific ion effects on pH seem to correlate with the bulk activity coefficients of the added electrolytes, at least at moderate salt concentrations.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of X80 pipeline steel exposed to high pH solutions with different concentrations of bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Du, Cui-wei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Li, Xiao-gang

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of X80 pipeline steel in high pH solutions with various concentrations of HCO{3/-} at a passive potential of -0.2 V vs. SCE were investigated by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The SCC mechanism and the effect of HCO{3/-} were discussed with the aid of electrochemical techniques. It is indicated that X80 steel shows enhanced susceptibility to SCC with the concentration of HCO{3/-} increasing from 0.15 to 1.00 mol/L, and the susceptibility can be evaluated in terms of current density at -0.2 V vs. SCE. The SCC behavior is controlled by the dissolution-based mechanism in these circumstances. Increasing the concentration of HCO{3/-} not only increases the risk of rupture of passive films but also promotes the anodic dissolution of crack tips. Besides, little susceptibility to SCC is found in dilute solution containing 0.05 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 steel. This can be attributed to the inhibited repassivation of passive films, manifesting as a more intensive dissolution in the non-crack tip areas than at the crack tips.

  13. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  14. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  15. Ph responsive permeability and Ion- exchange characteristics of (PE/EPDM)-g-PMAA membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Awady, M.M.; El-Awady, N.I.; Eissa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA) on low density exchange membranes for recovery of different cations from their solutions was investigated. When the dialysis permeability of two solutes (glucose + urea) through the membrane were tested at different ph values and compared, glucose was found to be less efficient than urea for permeation through the membrane. The permeability response of such solute was noticed only at higher ph value (ph 8). The grafted film (membrane) with graft yield of 185% is experimentally adequate to permeate all molecules with radius of lower than 4.3 x 10 polyethylene blended with EPDM with a ratio (90/10) films was carried out using sodium bisulphite as initiator. Factors affecting grafting and the properties of the grafted films were studied in details and showed improved hydrophilic properties, good thermal stability and nearly unaffected strength properties which make them acceptable for practical uses.In the present work, the possibility of practical uses of such grafted films as ph-responsive membranes in a dialysis process and as ion--7 mm. Grafted membranes in different forms (COOH-form), (Na-methacrylate form) and (K methacrylate- form) were prepared to evaluate the membranes uptake selectivity to different mono, di-and trivalent cations from their solutions. The results obtained showed very good efficiency of the prepared membranes as compared with the values obtained for the commercial cation exchange resin (Dowex)

  16. Solutions of the two-level problem in terms of biconfluent Heun functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishkhanyan, Artur [Engineering Center of Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak (Armenia)]. E-mail: artur@ec.sci.am; Suominen, Kalle-Antti [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Applied Physics, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2001-08-17

    Five four-parametric classes of quantum mechanical two-level models permitting solutions in terms of the biconfluent Heun function are derived. Three of these classes are generalizations of the well known classes of Landau-Zener, Nikitin and Crothers. It is shown that two other classes describe super- and sublinear and essentially nonlinear level crossings, as well as processes with three crossing points. In particular, these classes include two-level models where the field amplitude is constant and the detuning varies as {delta}{sub 0}t+{delta}{sub 2}t{sup 3} or {approx}t{sup 1/3}. For the essentially nonlinear cubic-crossing model, {delta}{sub t}{approx}{delta}{sub 2}t{sup 3}, the general solution of the two-level problem is shown to be expressed as series of confluent hypergeometric functions. (author)

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Extending its application to soil pH measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina, E-mail: edilene@iq.unesp.br [São Paulo State University – UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni 55, CEP 14800-060, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gomes Neto, José A. [São Paulo State University – UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni 55, CEP 14800-060, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Milori, Débora M.B.P.; Ferreira, Ednaldo José [Embrapa Agricultural Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Anzano, Jesús Manuel [Laser Laboratory & Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/. Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Acid–base equilibria are involved in almost all the processes that occur in soil. The bioavailability of nutrients for plants, for instance, depends on the solubilization of mineral nutrients in the soil solution, which is a pH-dependent process. The determination of pH in soil solutions is usually carried out by potentiometry using a glass membrane electrode, after extracting some of the soil components with water or CaCl{sub 2} solution. The present work describes a simple method for determining the pH of soil, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Sixty samples presenting different textural composition and pH (previously determined by potentiometry) were employed. The samples were divided into a calibration set with fifty samples and a validation set with ten samples. LIBS spectra were recorded for each pelleted sample using laser pulse energy of 115 mJ. The intensities of thirty-two emission lines for Al, Ca, H, and O were used to fit a partial least squares (PLS) model. The model was validated by prediction of the pH of the validation set samples, which showed good agreement with the reference values. The prediction mean absolute error was 0.3 pH units and the root mean square error of the prediction was 0.4. These results highlight the potential of LIBS for use in other applications beyond elemental composition determinations. For soil analysis, the proposed method offers the possibility of determining pH, in addition to nutrients and contaminants, using a single LIBS measurement. - Highlights: • Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil are influenced by pH. • The pH of mineral soils is normally determined in slurries of water and soil sample by potentiometric measurements. • The association of LIBS elemental emissions with multivariate strategies of analysis has become LIBS a powerful technique. • LIBS was unprecedentedly applied for direct pH determination in different kinds of soil sample. • The clean and fast proposed

  18. Synthesis of sub-millimeter calcite from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi, M. A.; Morrison, J. M.; Burns, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    A novel aqueous synthesis that leads to the formation of calcite (CaCO3) crystals, up to 500μm in diameter, will be used to facilitate the study of contaminant transport in aqueous environmental systems. Existing processes tend to be complicated and often yield nanometer-sized or amorphous CaCO3. The synthesis method presented here, which involves slow mixing of concentrated solutions of CaCl2 ¬and (NH4)2CO3, produces single crystals of rhombohedral calcite in 2 to 4 days. Variations on the experimental method, including changes in pH and solution concentration, were explored to optimize the synthesis. Scanning Electron Microscope images show the differences in size and purity observed when the crystals are grown at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The crystals grown from solutions of pH 2 were large (up to 500 micrometers in diameter) with minimal polycrystalline calcium carbonate, while crystals grown from solutions with pH values beyond 4 were smaller (up to 100 micrometers in diameter) with significant polycrystalline calcium carbonate. The synthesis method, materials characterization, and use in future actinide contaminant studies will be discussed.

  19. Some effects of pH on iodine volatility in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, C.B.; Gwyther, J.R.; Sims, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of iodine in containment in the event of an accident involving fission product release would be strongly dependent on pH. High pH leads to a lower rate of radiolytic oxidation and in alkaline conditions the thermally stable form is IO 3 - . Much of the work on effects of pH on radiolytic oxidation reported in the literature may be erroneous or misleading because of postirradiation reaction and in this report some new experiments are described which were designed to overcome these problems involving sparged irradiated solutions of CsI spiked with 131 I. The rate of radiolytic oxidation has been measured as a function of pH between pH 4.6 and pH 9 and iodide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -6 mol dm -3 . Also discussed in the paper are factors which can affect the pH of the sump water and the effects of high pH in sprays. It is concluded that high pH is beneficial and it is important not only to achieve high pH but to maintain it. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  20. Adsorption of strontium ions on bentonites of slovak provenance - Influence of pH change of medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Paucova, V.

    2007-01-01

    Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by sorption. Slovak republic disposes of many significant deposits of bentonites, e.g. Jelsovy potok, Kopernica, Lieskovec, Lastovce, etc. The bentonites present significant group of natural nanomaterials composed of microcrystallic particles of montmorillonite. Bentonite is characterized by a low hydraulic conductivity, low throughput and excellent sorption capacity for cationic fission products of 235 U (e.g. 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 137 Cs). Sorption of strontium on bentonite from various Slovak deposits was studied using batch technique. Distribution coefficients (K d ) were determined for bentonite-strontium solution system as a function of contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration. The data were interpreted in term of Langmuir isotherm. The uptake of Sr was rapid and equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously. The effect of pH, on the sorption of metal ions on bentonite was studied by varying the pH of the aqueous metal solutions. The sorption of this nuclide increased by increasing pH. The percentage sorption decreased with increasing metal concentrations. These results could be helpful for nuclear waste management, for waste water effluents containing low concentrations of strontium. (authors)

  1. Fiber Optic pH Sensor with Self-Assembled Polymer Multilayer Nanocoatings

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Li-Yang; Yin, Ming-Jie; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Albert, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A fiber-optic pH sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) with electrostatic self-assembly multilayer sensing film is presented. The pH sensitive polymeric film, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was deposited on the circumference of the TFBG with the layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembly technique. The PDDA/PAA film exhibits a reduction in refractive index by swelling in different pH solutions. This effect results in wavelength s...

  2. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Passivation behavior of a ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Fattah-alhosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The passivation behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel was investigated in concentrated alkaline solutions in relation to several test parameters, using electrochemical techniques. Increasing solution pH (varying from 11.5 to 14.0 leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of the alloy. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that passive films formed on AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel behave as n-type semiconductor and the donor densities increased with pH. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness, which decreases with pH increase. The results revealed that for this ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions, decreasing the solution pH offers better conditions for forming passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective film.

  4. Methods of pH determination in Calcareous soils of Oman: The effect of Electrolyte and soil solution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Busaidi, A.; Cookson, P.

    2002-01-01

    Determination of pH assists in understanding many reactions that occur in soil. Soil pH values are highly sensitive to the procedure used for determination. In this study, pH was measured in different electrolytes [distilled water (pHw), 0.01MCaCl2 (pHCa), 1MKCl (pHk), and 0.01MBaCl2 (pHba)] with different soil: electrolyte ratios (i.e. 1:1, 1:2.5 and 1:5). The objective was to determine the effect of each electrolyte and dilution ratio on pH of saline and non-saline soils from Oman. It was found that ph values varied significantly between electrolytes and with different dilution ratios. Linear regression equations were generated between electrolytes, dilution ratios and were mostly significant. Soil pH values determined in different electrolytes were significantly interrelated. Water appeared as a highly suitable solvent for soil pH measurements because it is simple and values familiar to soil users. However, alkaline errors and electrode instabilities due to liquid junction and soluble salt effects, affected soil pH measurements, especially in water, and resulted in alkaline errors during pH measurements. Errors were minimized when pH was measured in electrolytes rather than in water. (author)

  5. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, W.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.; Deutzmann, R.; Hochmuth, E.

    2005-01-01

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are φ D (riboflavin, pH 8) ∼ 7.8 x 10 -3 , φ D (FMN, pH 5.6) ∼ 7.3 x 10 -3 , φ D (FMN, pH 8) ∼ 4.6 x 10 -3 , φ D (FAD, pH 8) ∼ 3.7 x 10 -4 , φ D (lumichrome, pH 8) ∼ 1.8 x 10 -4 , and φ D (lumiflavin, pH 8) approx. 1.1 x 10 -5 . In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out

  6. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, W.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.; Deutzmann, R.; Hochmuth, E.

    2005-01-01

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are ϕD(riboflavin, pH 8) ≈ 7.8 × 10 -3, ϕD(FMN, pH 5.6) ≈ 7.3 × 10 -3, ϕD(FMN, pH 8) ≈ 4.6 × 10 -3, ϕD(FAD, pH 8) ≈ 3.7 × 10 -4, ϕD(lumichrome, pH 8) ≈ 1.8 × 10 -4, and ϕD(lumiflavin, pH 8) ⩽ 1.1 × 10 -5. In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out.

  7. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, W. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Shirdel, J. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Zirak, P. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Deutzmann, R. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Hochmuth, E. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-01-10

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are {phi}{sub D}(riboflavin, pH 8) {approx} 7.8 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FMN, pH 5.6) {approx} 7.3 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FMN, pH 8) {approx} 4.6 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FAD, pH 8) {approx} 3.7 x 10{sup -4}, {phi}{sub D}(lumichrome, pH 8) {approx} 1.8 x 10{sup -4}, and {phi}{sub D}(lumiflavin, pH 8) approx. 1.1 x 10{sup -5}. In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out.

  8. Modeling retention and selectivity as a function of pH and column temperature in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Castells, Cecilia B; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-15

    In reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), the retention of weak acids and bases is a sigmoidal function of the mobile-phase pH. Therefore, pH is a key chromatographic variable to optimize retention and selectivity. Furthermore, at an eluent pH close to the pKa of the solute, the dependence of ionization of the buffer and solute on temperature can be used to improve chromatographic separations involving ionizable solutes by an adequate handling of column temperature. In this paper, we derive a general equation for the prediction of the retentive behavior of ionizable compounds upon simultaneous changes in mobile-phase pH and column temperature. Four experiments, two limiting pH values and two temperatures, provide the input data that allow predictions in the whole range of these two variables, based on the thermodynamic fundamentals of the involved equilibria. Also, the study demonstrates the significant role that the choice of the buffer compound would have on selectivity factors in RPLC at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C.

  9. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

  10. Effect of dietary roughage level on chewing activity, ruminal pH, and saliva secretion in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F G; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Hu, Z Y; Liu, G M; Sun, Y D; Liu, X W; Wang, Z H

    2017-04-01

    Increasing dietary roughage level is a commonly used strategy to prevent subacute ruminal acidosis. We hypothesized that high-roughage diets could promote chewing activity, saliva secretion, and hence more alkaline to buffer rumen pH. To verify the hypothesis, 12 multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with one cow in each treatment surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula. Treatments were diets containing 40, 50, 60, or 70% of roughage on a DM basis. Increasing dietary roughage level decreased DM, CP, OM, starch, and NE L intake, increased ADF intake, and decreased milk yield linearly. Intake of NDF was quite stable across treatments and ranged from 7.8 to 8.1 kg/d per cow. Daily eating time increased linearly with increased roughage level. The increase in eating time was due to increased eating time per meal but not number of meals per day, which was stable and ranged from 8.3 to 8.5 meals per day across treatments. Increasing dietary roughage level had no effect on ruminating time (min/d), the number of ruminating periods (rumination periods per d), and chewing time per ruminating period (min/ruminating period). Ruminating time per kilogram of NDF intake and total chewing time per kilogram of ADF intake were similar across treatments (57.4 and 183.8 min/kg, respectively). Increasing dietary roughage level linearly increased daily total chewing time; linearly elevated the mean, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH; and linearly decreased total VFA concentration and molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid. Saliva secretion during eating was increased, the secretion during rumination was unaffected, but the secretion during resting tended to decrease with increased dietary roughage level. As a result, total saliva secretion was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, the results of the present study did not support the concept that high-roughage diets elevated ruminal pH

  11. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H; Kokko, Marika E; Papirio, Stefano; Özkaya, Bestamin; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of acidic solution containing 5g/L of Fe(II) and 10mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7h, 96-98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pHremoves iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO 3 , to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH) 2 , neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO 3 neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH) 2 to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH) 2 as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO 4 are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies

  13. Survey on the Labour Market Position of PhD Graduates: Competence comparison and relation between PhD and current employment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuritsch, J.; Waaijer, C.J.F.; Van der Weijden, I.C.M.

    2016-07-01

    We compared the skills PhD graduates acquired during their PhDs to the ones they need in their current job. We also studied the relation between PhD topic and content of the current job of recent PhD graduates. Data was collected in a survey of 1,133 respondents with a PhD from five Dutch universities between early 2008 and mid-2012. We show that scientific skills and independence are developed sufficiently during the PhD education, whereas PhDs are lacking in management and communication skills. These competence discrepancies were compared to the educational level required for the PhD holder’s current job and the relatedness of the current job to the PhD topic. (Author)

  14. Cinética do escurecimeno não-enzimático com soluções modelo de açúcares e aminoácidos em pH neutro e ácido = Kinetic of non-enzimatic browning with model solutions of sugar and aminoacids in neutral and acid pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Barbosa Brião

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cor dos alimentos é um importante atributo para a escolha do consumidor. O escurecimento é desejável em alguns alimentos pela cor e pelo aroma produzidos (como nos casos do pão e carne assada, mas, é indesejável em outros (como no tratamento térmico de leite. A reação de Maillard é influenciada pela natureza dos açúcares e aminoácidos envolvidos, bem como pelo pH e temperatura do processo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o escurecimento de soluções modelo contendo açúcares e aminoácidos pela reação de Maillard em pH neutro e ácido, obtendo as taxas de reação e avaliando a cinética dela. Doistipos de açúcares (glicose e lactose foram misturados com dois tipos de aminoácidos (glicina ou glutamato de sódio em pH 7,0 e pH 5,1. As soluções (2 mol L-1 foram aquecidas em água fervente (97ºC, e a absorbância medida (420 nm em intervalos de tempo. A glicose apresentou maior taxa de reação que a lactose, enquanto que entre os aminoácidos a glicina reagiu com intensidade semelhante ao glutamato. A redução do pH do meio retarda a reação, e o escurecimento demonstrou menor taxa de reação em pH ácido.The color of food is an important attribute for consumer choice. Browning is desirable in some foods due to the color and flavor itproduces (such as in bread and roasted meat, but is undesirable for others (such as heattreated milk. The Maillard reaction is influenced by the nature of the sugars and amino acids involved, as well as the pH and temperature of the process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the browning of model solutions containing sugars and amino acids due to the Maillard reaction in neutral and acid pH, and to calculate the reaction rate and the kinetics of the reaction. Two types of sugars (glucose or lactose were mixed with amino acids(glycine or sodium glutamate in pH 7.0 or pH 5.1. The solutions (2 mol L-1 were heated in boiling water (97ºC, and the absorbance was measured (420 nm at time

  15. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Long; Zhou Dongmei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Chen Haifeng

    2007-01-01

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  16. pH effect on the enthalpy of dilution and volumetric properties of protocatechuic acid at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yan; Liu, Min; Wang, Yong; Wang, Chunmei; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Bingquan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The dilution thermal power of PCA in potassium phosphate buffer solutions at different pHs and apparent molar volumes were determined in order to investigate the interactions of PCA with the coexistent spicies. - Highlights: • Enthalpies of dilution and apparent molar volumes of PCA in PBS at different pHs were measured. • Enthalpic interaction coefficients, limiting partial molar volumes and experimental slopes of PCA were determined. • The pH dependence of the weak interactions in the investigated system was obtained. • (Solute + solvent) interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given system were discussed. - Abstract: The enthalpies of dilution of protocatechuic acid, a natural anti-cancer substance, in sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate buffer solutions with different pH values were measured by using a mixing-flow microcalorimeter at T = 298.15 K. Densities of the pseudo binary system (phosphate buffer + protocatechuic acid) were also measured with a quartz vibrating-tube densimeter. The enthalpic interaction coefficients (h 2 , h 3 and h 4 ) were computed according to the McMillan–Mayer model. Apparent molar volumes of the system were calculated from the data of densities, which have been used to deduce limiting partial molar volumes (V ϕ 0 ) of protocatechuic acid at different pH values. The aim of the experiments and data process is to investigate the interaction between the molecules of the important drug and that of the drug molecule with coexistent species in aqueous solutions as well as the influences on these interactions of such factors as pH and ion strength. Change trends of the enthalpic pair wise interaction coefficient h 2 and V ϕ 0 of protocatechuic acid with pH increasing in the both phosphate buffer solutions were obtained. The thermodynamic properties, h 2 and V ϕ 0 in potassium phosphate buffer solutions were compared with those in sodium phosphate buffer solutions at

  17. Conductivity of alanine solution for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Figel, M.; Regulla, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    The amino acid alanine is well known as a dosimetric detector material for high level dosimetry. Its application is based on the formation of radicals by ionising radiation. The free radicals are earlier detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or chemically after dissolving the irradiated samples. Of all these methods the ESR/alanine system is the most advanced and is suggested for reference dosimetry. At present, however, the high cost of the system is a serious handicap for a large scale routine application in radiation plants. In this study the variation of electrical conductivity of L-alanine solution with applied dose is investigated in the range from 0.5-200 kGy. The conductivity was measured with a 50 MHz RF oscillator. This readout method is uncomplicated and may be suitable for routine application. The experiments were performed with L-alanine solution in glass ampoules. (Author)

  18. Numerical modeling of acidity distribution in antroduodenum aimed at identifying anomalous zones at consuming drinks with different pH level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Kamaltdinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on describing mathematical model of a multi-phase flow in antroduodenum and its application for predicting digestive process features, including pH level detection. The suggested sub-model representing antroduodenal area of gastrointestinal tract is being developed within the frameworks of mathematical multilevel model depicting evolution of damage to critical organs and systems under exposure to risk factors. We introduced damages as per three functions (motor, secretory and absorbing one to several gastrointestinal tract zones (body of stomach, antrum, and duodenum and to pancreas and liver, into the sub-model. Mathematical problem statement includes records of mass and impulse conservation equations for mixture of liquid incompressible phases; ratios for mass flow intensity vector due to diffusion processes; ratios for mass sources due to reactions, secretion and components absorption, food dissolution, initial and terminal conditions. We obtained numeric experiment results when drinks with various pH level (2.3; 3.5; 7 were consumed; they revealed that anomalous considerable increase in acidity occurred in pyloric opening zone and duodenal cap zone when a drink with pH level equal to 2.3 was consumed. The results presented in this work make a considerable contribution into mathematical modeling development used to describe multiphase flows in biological channels with variable form. We showed that obtained acidity levels in various antroduodenum zones correspond to experimental data given in the works of other researchers. In future the model can be applied to predict risks of duodenum damages evolvement together with detecting areas of their localization under exposure to negative factors.

  19. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Dental Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Dige, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The pH in bacterial biofilms on teeth is of central importance for dental caries, a disease with a high worldwide prevalence. Nutrients and metabolites are not distributed evenly in dental biofilms. A complex interplay of sorption to and reaction with organic matter in the biofilm reduces...... the diffusion paths of solutes and creates steep gradients of reactive molecules, including organic acids, across the biofilm. Quantitative fluorescent microscopic methods, such as fluorescence life time imaging or pH ratiometry, can be employed to visualize pH in different microenvironments of dental biofilms...... allows monitoring both vertical and horizontal pH gradients in real-time without mechanically disturbing the biofilm. However, care must be taken to differentiate accurately between extra- and intracellular compartments of the biofilm. Here, the ratiometric dye, seminaphthorhodafluor-4F 5-(and-6...

  20. Removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from waste banana stem: Study on pH influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misran, E.; Bani, O.; Situmeang, E. M.; Purba, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The effort to remove methylene blue in artificial solution had been conducted using adsorption process. The abundant banana stem waste was utilized as activated carbon precursor. This study aimed to analyse the influence of solution pH to removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from banana stem as adsorbent. Activated carbon from banana stem was obtained by chemical activation using H3PO4 solution. Proximate analysis result showed that the activated carbon has 47.22% of fixed carbon. This value exhibited that banana stem was a potential adsorbent precursor. Methylene blue solutions were prepared at initial concentration of 50 ppm. The influence of solution pH was investigated with the use of 0.2 g adsorbent for 100 mL dye solution. The adsorption was conducted using shaker with at a constant rate of 100 rpm at room temperature for 90 minutes. The results showed that solution pH influenced the adsorption. The activated carbon from banana stem demonstrated satisfying performance since removal efficiencies of methylene blue were higher than 99%.

  1. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarniak P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petra Czarniak, Michael Boddy, Bruce Sunderland, Jeff D Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C, at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions.Materials and methods: The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s, 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined.Results: Lincomycin hydrochloride was found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days, and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days.Conclusion: Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. Keywords: lincomycin, stability, pH, intravenous fluids, IV additives

  2. Molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor for pH detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangzhen; Yang, Shuai; Miao, Bin; Gu, Le; Gu, Zhiqi; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Baojun; Wang, Hong; Wu, Dongmin; Li, Jiadong

    2018-04-18

    A molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor has been developed for pH detection. The sensing surface of the sensor was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to provide amphoteric amine groups, which would play the role of receptors for pH detection. On modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, the transistor exhibits good chemical stability in hydrochloric acid solution and is sensitive for pH detection. Thus, our molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor acheived good electrical performances such as chemical stability (remained stable in hydrochloric acid solution), good sensitivity (37.17 μA/pH) and low hysteresis. The results indicate a promising future for high-quality sensors for pH detection.

  3. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, L.N.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Wruck, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO 2 2+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO 2 2+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO 2 2+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na 2 SO 4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  4. Effect of pH change on the primary uran-mica mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmariovich, E M; Zhil' tsova, I G; Pakul' nis, G V; Shugina, G A [Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of the formation of ore bodies of hexavalent uranium minerals represented by uranyl vanadates and phosphates which are primary and sedimented from low temperature solutions (carnotite deposits in calcretes and carnotite - autunite deposits in black shale formations) are considered. Thermodynamic curves of the solubility dependence of various uranyl minerals on pH medium in the absence of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions and for sulphate-carbonate solutions have been calculated using dissociation constants of corresponding acids and ..delta..G/sup 0/f(298.15) values. It has been ascertained that uranyl mineral compounds according to the dependence of their solubility on ph medium form a distinct series from molybdates through arsenates, phosphates, vanadates and silicates to minerals of uranophane and kasolite group. It is shown that during the formation of infiltration deposits with uranyl mineralization a decisive role is played by the contrast change of pH value of medium caused by the presence of acid geochemical barrier (uranyl molybdates, arsenates, phosphates and vanadates are precipitating) or neutralizing alkaline barriers (uran-mica and uranyl silicates are precipitating) on the path of movement of oxygen metal-bearing solutions.

  5. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, T. T., E-mail: agteca@hotmail.com [AGTECA S.A., 230 Oceanbeach Road, Mount Maunganui, Tauranga 3116 (New Zealand); Cochrane, T. A., E-mail: tom.cochrane@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  6. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, T. T.; Cochrane, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N f ,” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N f was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N f , the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N f using recorded

  7. Radiolysis of Reactive AZO Dyes in Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagyo, Agustin NM; Winarti-Andayani; Hendig-Winarno; Ermin-Katrin; Soebianto, Yanti S

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation on aerated reactive dye solutions i.e Cibacron Violet, Cibacron Orange and Cibacron Yellow solutions have been studied. Parameters analysis were the change of pH after radiation, the change of absorption, degradation products and effects of pH on the radiolysis. The uv-vis absorption of solutions were observed before and after irradiation. pH variation was done from pHs 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12. Irradiation was done at doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy/h and was determined by a Fricke dosimeter. HPLC with UV detector was used to analyze the degradation products. Oxalic acid was the main degradation product and small amount of succinic acid was also detected. (author)

  8. Corrosion of alloy C-22 in organic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rodriguez, Martin A.; Giordano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022) in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C degrees. All the tested material was wrought Mill Annealed (MA). Tests were also performed in NaCl solutions containing weak organic acids such as oxalic, acetic, citric and picric acids. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was significantly higher in solutions containing oxalic acid than in solutions of pure NaCl at the same pH. Citric and Picric acids showed a slightly higher corrosion rate, and Acetic acid maintained the corrosion rate of pure chloride solutions at the same pH. Organic acids revealed to be weak inhibitors for crevice corrosion. Higher concentration ratios, compared to nitrate ions, were needed to completely inhibit crevice corrosion in chloride solutions. Results are discussed considering acid dissociation constants, buffer capacity and complex formation constants of the different weak acids. (author) [es

  9. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  10. An efficient and sensitive fluorescent pH sensor based on amino functional metal-organic frameworks in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Bing

    2016-04-28

    A pH sensor is fabricated via a reaction between an Al(III) salt and 2-aminoterephthalic acid in DMF which leads to a MOF (Al-MIL-101-NH2) with free amino groups. The Al-MIL-101-NH2 samples show good luminescence and an intact structure in aqueous solutions with pH ranging from 4.0 to 7.7. Given its exceptional stability and pH-dependent fluorescence intensity, Al-MIL-101-NH2 has been applied to fluorescent pH sensing. Significantly, in the whole experimental pH range (4.0-7.7), the fluorescence intensity almost increases with increasing pH (R(2) = 0.99688) which can be rationalized using a linear equation: I = 2.33 pH + 26.04. In addition, error analysis and cycling experiments have demonstrated the accuracy and utilizability of the sensor. In practical applications (PBS and lake water), Al-MIL-101-NH2 also manifests its analytical efficiency in pH sensing. And the samples can be easily isolated from an aqueous solution by incorporating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Moreover, the possible sensing mechanism based on amino protonation is discussed in detail. This work is on of the few cases for integrated pH sensing systems in aqueous solution based on luminescent MOFs.

  11. Are salivary amylase and pH - Prognostic indicators of cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Atmakuri Shanmukha; Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Surekha, Ch; Deepak, K G K

    2015-01-01

    Saliva, "Mirror of body's health" has long been of particular interest as a substitute for blood for disease diagnosis and monitoring. The radiation effects on salivary glands are of particular interest in which salivary amylase is a good indicator of salivary glands function. Thus, estimation of these parameters represents a reasonable approach in evaluation of patient's risk for disease occurrence, intensity and prognosis. To evaluate and compare the pH and amylase levels in saliva of cancer patients prior to treatment, patients during treatment. Saliva samples of 90 individuals were taken which were divided into 3 groups - 30 individuals without cancer, 30 cancer patients prior treatment and 30 cancer patients during treatment. Materials used were pH strips and pH meter, Salivary Amylase assay. Statistical analysis - ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test. 1) Significant decrease in salivary amylase levels - in cancer patients, during treatment when compared to others. 2) Significant decrease in salivary pH levels in newly diagnosed cancer patients prior to treatment. To conclude, pH strips and pH meter showed to be a useful tool in the measurement of pH of saliva in individuals with and without cancer. This study showed that cancer patients without treatment have a lower pH of saliva. Treatment increased the pH of the saliva to a more alkaline level whereas amylase levels decreased in those subjects. Therefore those parameters can be an area of further research with an increased sample size, which in-turn may help in opening the doors for new dimension in non invasive prognostic markers.

  12. Sorption of uranyl ions on silica. Effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength, concentration and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Tao Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of UO 2 2+ and phosphate on silica were simultaneously studied. The effect of contact time between the solid phase and aqueous solution, pH and ionic strength on the UO 2 2+ sorption in the absence and the presence of phosphate was investigated. The effect of contact time between the solid phase and aqueous solution, pH and ionic strength on the phosphate sorption was investigated too. The isotherms of UO 2 2+ and phosphate sorption at different pH values were determined. It was found that as compared with the sorption in the absence of phosphate, the sorption of UO 2 2+ on silica in the presence of phosphate is increased at low pH and decreased at high pH; the abruptly increased with increasing pH in the pH range 3-6; the sorption is gradually decreased with increasing pH in the pH range 2-12; the sorption insensitive and the sorption of phosphate is sensitive to ionic strength. (author)

  13. EFFECT OF pH ON ELECTROLESS Ni-P COATING OF CONDUCTIVE AND NON-CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Roy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P coating of carbon steel as well as a polypropylene substrate was conducted using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent in alkaline media. The influence of pH on coating appearances and the properties of the coatings for both steel and the polypropylene substrate were studied. A nickel-phosphorus coating of good appearance was obtained in the pH range between 5.5 and 12.5 on the carbon steel substrate and between 8.5 and 12 on the polypropylene substrate. The percentage of Ni content in the coating increased with increasing pH of the bath solution. A smooth, uniform microstructure was found in the coating deposited in relatively lower pH solutions compared to higher pH baths. The microhardness of the Ni-P coating decreased with an increasing percentage Ni content in the deposit.

  14. Establishment of a gaseous pH control concept in microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Bin; Schäpper, Daniel; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    Existing methods for pH control in bench-scale bioreactor systems often cannot be directly adapted for microbioreactors. This is because microbioreactors are commonly designed to work with constant volumes, operate bubble-free and have no headspace, which technically rules out any possibility...... of adding acid/base solution for pH control in microbioreactors. This work reports on the establishment of a gaseous pH control concept in microbioreactors where pH control was achieved by dosing of ammonia (NH3, 20 000 ppm) and pure carbon dioxide (CO2) gases to respectively; increase and lower the pH...... of the reactor content. It encompasses the establishment of an optical pH measurement by means of a fluorescent sensor spot, realization of the necessary gas connections, mixing of gases, and gas-exchange via a thin semi-permeable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane. It was shown that addition of NH3 and CO2...

  15. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniak, Petra; Boddy, Michael; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeff D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin(®) (lincomycin hydrochloride) in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C), at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions. The stability of Lincocin(®) injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride) stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann's), 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin(®) in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined. Lincomycin hydrochloride w as found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann's) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days), and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days). Lincocin(®) injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann's) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability.

  16. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  17. Engineering polyelectrolyte multilayer structure at the nanometer length scale by tuning polymer solution conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Killingsworth, Christopher; Kipper, Matt

    2008-03-01

    Chitosan (a weak polycation) and heparin (a strong polyanion) are used to make polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM). PEM thickness and composition are determined as a function of solution pH (4.6 to 5.8) and ionic strength (0.1 to 0.5 M). Over this range, increasing pH increases the PEM thickness; however, the sensitivity to changes in pH is a strong function of ionic strength. The PEM thickness data are correlated to the polymer conformation in solution. Polyelectrolyte conformation in solution is characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The highest sensitivity of PEM structure to pH is obtained at intermediate ionic strength. Different interactions govern the conformation and adsorption phenomena at low and high ionic strength, leading to reduced sensitivity to solution pH at extreme ionic strengths. The correspondence between PEM thickness and polymer solution conformation offers opportunities to tune polymer thin film structure at the nanometer length scale by controlling simple, reproducible processing conditions.

  18. PhD on Track – designing learning for PhD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunhild Austrheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three years ago we started the project "Information Management for Knowledge Creation". The project was initiated to create online information literacy modules for PhD students. The result of our endeavours, PhD on Track, will be launched in May 2013. The initial stage of the project was mapping out the information behaviour of PhD students, as well as what services they require from the library through a literature review and a focus group study. The findings of these inquiries formed the knowledge base from which we developed our information literacy modules. Our paper will focus on the interaction between content production and user testing when creating PhD on Track. Methods: User testing has been employed throughout the production stage. We have tested navigation and organisation of the web site, content and usability. The project team have conducted expert testing. Analysis: The results from our user testing have played an important part in decisions concerning content production. Our working hypothesis was that the PhD students would want an encyclopaedic website, a place to quickly find answers. However, the user tests revealed that PhD students understood and expected the website to be learning modules. Conclusions: The PhD students in the tests agreed that a site such as this would be useful, especially to new PhD students. They also liked the design, but had some qualms with the level of information. They preferred shorter text, but with more depth. The students would likewise have preferred more practical examples, more illustrations and more discipline specific information. The current content of PhD on Track reflects the feedback from the user testing. We have retained initial ideas such as one section for reviewing and discovering research literature and one section for publishing PhD research work. In addition, we have included more practical examples to indicate efficient workflows or relevant actions in context. Illustrations

  19. Influence of Soil Solution Salinity on Molybdenum Adsorption by Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molybdenum (Mo) adsorption on five arid-zone soils from California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution Mo concentration (0-30 mg L-1), solution pH (4-8), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 8 dS m-1). Molybdenum adsorption decreased with increasing pH. An adsorption maximum...

  20. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  1. Exact analytic solutions for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein level crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzold, D.

    1987-01-01

    An exact formula for the transition probability in level-crossing phenomena is derived for a general case, ranging from adiabatic to sudden crossings. This is done in the context of neutrino flavor oscillations for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, where hitherto only numerical or approximate solutions were obtained. The matter density or level splitting is assumed to be governed by a hyperbolic-tangent function which, however, can change arbitrarily fast between two constant values. For example, in context of the MSW effect this furnishes a nice fit to the solar density determining the level crossing of solar neutrinos. In the quasiadiabatic limit the exact Landau-Zener factor can be read off, correcting some expressions obtained so far. Even in the opposite limit of a sudden level crossing a conversion is found, which can have far-reaching consequences for neutrino detection on Earth

  2. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  3. The photodegradation of trichloroethylene with or without the NAPL by UV irradiation in surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Juncai [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Urban Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chu, W. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Urban Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cewchu@polyu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The photodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) with or without nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) by ultraviolet irradiation in surfactant solutions was examined in this study. The photodecay of TCE was studied at monochromatic 254 nm UV lamps. The effects of the type of surfactants, initial surfactant concentrations, pH levels and NAPL concentrations were examined to explore the photodecay of TCE. All the photodegradation of TCE followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics at various conditions. It was found that Brij 35 overdose and higher initial pH levels may retard or inhibit the photodecay of TCE, mainly due to protons, intermediate generation and change of surfactant structure in the processes. The optimal condition for TCE photodecay was suggested based on the analysis of kinetics data, from which the reaction mechanism of TCE in the presence of NAPL form was also studied. In general, the reactions of TCE in micellar solution and NAPL pool can be considered as independent pathways due to the low molecule diffusion between the two phases.

  4. The photodegradation of trichloroethylene with or without the NAPL by UV irradiation in surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Juncai; Chu, W.

    2009-01-01

    The photodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) with or without nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) by ultraviolet irradiation in surfactant solutions was examined in this study. The photodecay of TCE was studied at monochromatic 254 nm UV lamps. The effects of the type of surfactants, initial surfactant concentrations, pH levels and NAPL concentrations were examined to explore the photodecay of TCE. All the photodegradation of TCE followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics at various conditions. It was found that Brij 35 overdose and higher initial pH levels may retard or inhibit the photodecay of TCE, mainly due to protons, intermediate generation and change of surfactant structure in the processes. The optimal condition for TCE photodecay was suggested based on the analysis of kinetics data, from which the reaction mechanism of TCE in the presence of NAPL form was also studied. In general, the reactions of TCE in micellar solution and NAPL pool can be considered as independent pathways due to the low molecule diffusion between the two phases

  5. RuO₂ pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Wade; Wajrak, Magdalena; Alameh, Kamal

    2017-09-06

    A pH-sensitive RuO₂ electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO₂ working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO₂ pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO₂-PVB junction-modified RuO₂ reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to that of a commercial glass pH sensor in some common sample matrices, particularly, an excellent pH sensitivity of 55.7 mV/pH, a hysteresis as low as 2.7 mV, and a drift below 2.2 mV/h. The developed sensor structure opens the way towards the development of a simple, cost effective, and robust pH sensor for pH analysis in various sample matrices.

  6. A PhD is a PhD is a PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrow, Deborah Anne

    2017-01-01

    A PhD is a PhD is a PhD is a practice-based project that interrogates the process of an artist undertaking PhD research under established criteria. It consists of an exegesis, an original screenplay, and a digital film made for online viewing, with images drawn from a range of documentaries and films found on YouTube. They have been dissected, re-assembled and then re-embedded to YouTube. The source material covers topics such as medicalization of madness, the conspicuous appropriation of uni...

  7. Nanofiltration of Mine Water: Impact of Feed pH and Membrane Charge on Resource Recovery and Water Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mullett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two nanofiltration membranes, a Dow NF 270 polyamide thin film and a TriSep TS 80 polyamide thin film, were investigated for their retention of ionic species when filtering mine influenced water streams at a range of acidic pH values. The functional iso-electric point of the membranes, characterized by changes in retention over a small pH range, were examined by filtering solutions of sodium sulphate. Both membranes showed changes in retention at pH 3, suggesting a zero net charge on the membranes at this pH. Copper mine drainage and synthetic solutions of mine influenced water were filtered using the same membranes. These solutions were characterized by pH values within 2 and 5, thus crossing the iso-electric point of both membranes. Retention of cations was maximized when the feed solution pH was less than the iso-electric point of the membrane. In these conditions, the membrane has a net positive charge, reducing the transmission rate of cations. From the recoveries of a range of cations, the suitability of nanofiltration was discussed relative to the compliance with mine water discharge criteria and the recovery of valuable commodity metals. The nanofiltration process was demonstrated to offer advantages in metal recovery from mine waste streams, concomitantly enabling discharge criteria for the filtrate disposal to be met.

  8. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values ( 4 and 11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH 14 and brown at pH 2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms ;C;, ;H; and ;Dprot; at pH 14 and Forms ;A;, ;D;, and ;P; at pH 2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH 2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450 cm- 1, 616 to 632 cm- 1, 1332 to 1343 cm- 1 etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at 1548 cm- 1 in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at 1580 cm- 1. Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH 14. For example, the 423 cm- 1 band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at 447 cm- 1 in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at 850, 1067 and 1214 cm- 1 in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH 2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH 14). The DFT calculations for these

  9. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Distribution of Carbonated Apatite as a Function of Solution Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhettry; Wang; Hsu; Fox; Baig; Barry; Zhuang; Otsuka; Higuchi

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites (CAPs) exhibit the phenomenon of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) in weak acid media. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine two questions: first, whether the MES concept is applicable to a broader range of solution conditions and, second, whether a driving force function associated with a surface complex having a constant stoichiometry governs the dissolution of CAP and, if so, what is this stoichiometry. CAP preparations with carbonate contents of 1.8-5.7 wt% (synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate in solutions of varying bicarbonate levels or by direct precipitation from supersaturated calcium/phosphate/carbonate solutions) were studied as follows. MES distributions for each of the CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating the CAP under stirred conditions in a series of acetate buffers (0.10 M) containing various levels of calcium and phosphate in the pH range 4.5-6.5 and a solution calcium/phosphate ratio in the range 0.1-10. The amount dissolved in each instance was regarded as the fraction of the CAP possessing an MES value greater than that corresponding to the ion activity product (IAP) of the equilibrating solution. The solution IAPs were calculated from the solution compositions using plausible calcium phosphate stoichiometries, viz., dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, carbonated apatite (based on the bulk composition of the particular CAP involved in the experiment), and tetracalcium phosphate. The fraction of CAP dissolved was plotted against the solution IAPs for each experimental set using each of the six assumed stoichiometries for the surface complex. The results demonstrated that the MES concept was applicable to all of the CAP preparations in media of various solution compositions and different pH levels. The most important new outcome of this study was that MES profiles for each of the

  10. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  11. Response surface optimization of pH and ionic strength for emulsion characteristics of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, S; Zorba, O

    2009-11-01

    Effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5) and ionic strength (0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.55 M NaCl) on emulsion capacity, emulsion stability (ES), apparent yield stress of emulsion (AYS), and emulsion density (ED) of egg yolk were studied by using a model system. Ionic strength and pH had significant (P emulsion characteristics of egg yolk. Their interaction effects also have been found significant on ES, AYS, and ED. Predicted solutions of ES, emulsion capacity, and ED were minimum. The critical point of ES was determined to be at pH 6.08 and an ionic strength of 0.49 (M NaCl). Predicted solution for AYS was a maximum, which was determined to be at pH 6.04 and an ionic strength of 0.29 (M NaCl). Optimum values of pH and ionic strenght were 4.61 to 7.43 and 0.10 to 0.47, respectively.

  12. pH variation and influence in an autotrophic nitrogen removing biofilm system using an efficient numerical solution strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    A pH simulator consisting of an efficient numerical solver of a system of nine nonlinear equations was constructed and implemented in the modeling software MATLAB. The pH simulator was integrated in a granular biofilm model and used to simulate the pH profiles within granules performing the nitritation-anammox process for a range of operating points. The simulation results showed that pH profiles were consistently increasing with increasing depth into the granule, since the proton-producing aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were located close to the granule surface. Despite this pH profile, more NH3 was available for AOB than for anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, located in the center of the granules. However, operating at a higher oxygen loading resulted in steeper changes in pH over the depth of the granule and caused the NH3 concentration profile to increase from the granule surface towards the center. The initial value of the background charge and influent bicarbonate concentration were found to greatly influence the simulation result and should be accurately measured. Since the change in pH over the depth of the biofilm was relatively small, the activity potential of the microbial groups affected by the pH did not change more than 5% over the depth of the granules.

  13. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50 degree C and 90 degree C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na + , P0 4 3- , N0 2 - , NO 3 - and OH - . The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na + , PO 4 3- , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , and CO 3 2- . In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH - and Na + ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0 2 - and N0 3 - were retained in the pore solution indefinitely

  14. Stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Jennifer; McPherson, Timothy B; Kolling, William M

    2010-06-15

    The stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at 21-24 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C was evaluated. Sodium bicarbonate injection was obtained in 50-mL vials of 8.4% (1 meq/mL). A total of 50, 100, or 150 meq of sodium bicarbonate was added to each 1-L polyolefin bag of either sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection. All solutions were prepared in a laminar-airflow hood using aseptic technique. Bags were punctured once to remove headspace air and once for the addition of each 50 meq of sodium bicarbonate. Six replicates of each test solution were prepared. The solutions were stored at 21-24 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C. Control solutions (50 and 150 meq) were similarly prepared in triplicate. Control solutions were sparged with either nitrogen gas or oxygen gas before storage. Sodium bicarbonate stability was assessed by measuring solution pH. Bicarbonate content was measured utilizing titration. Both pH and bicarbonate concentrations were measured immediately upon preparation and on days 3, 5, and 7 for both test and control solutions. All 95% confidence interval values for sample solution pH remained within 7.0-8.5 for seven days at 2-4 degrees C. Sodium bicarbonate solutions of 50, 100, and 150 meq in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection were stable for up to seven days when refrigerated. The 50-meq solution was stable for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature, and the 100- and 150-meq solutions were stable for up to 30 hours when stored at room temperature.

  15. Comparing the acidities of aqueous, frozen, and freeze-dried phosphate buffers: Is there a "pH memory" effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetráková, Ľubica; Vykoukal, Vít; Heger, Dominik

    2017-09-15

    The concept of "pH memory" has been established in the literature for the correlation between the pH of a pre-lyophilization solution and the ionization state of freeze-dried powder (lyophile). In this paper, the concept of "pH memory" is explored for the system of an aqueous solution, a frozen solution, and a lyophile. Sodium and potassium phosphate buffers in the pH range of 5-9 were frozen and lyophilized with sulfonephthalein indicators as acidity probes, and their Hammett acidity functions were compared to the initial pH of the aqueous solution. The results show that the acidities of the lyophiles are somewhat changed compared to the initial pHs, but the acidities in the frozen state differ more substantially. The Hammett acidity functions of the frozen buffers were found to be markedly dissimilar from the initial pH, especially in the sodium phosphate frozen at 233K, where an increase in the initial pH led to a decrease in the Hammett acidity function of the frozen state at a certain pH range. The large acidification observed after freezing the sodium phosphate buffer was not detected in the lyophiles after the sample had been dried; the phenomenon is explained considering the formed crystals analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that monitoring the final acidity of a lyophile is not sufficient to predict all the acidity changes throughout the whole lyophilization process. The importance of well-controlled freezing and lyophilization conditions follows from the results of the research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the pH on the radiocesium adsorption in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roque, Mario Lucio; Boaretto, Antonio E.; Moniz, Antonio C; Smolders, Erik E. T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate that the pH dependent charges are specific change sites for radiocesium. Clay minerals occurrence in superficial samples of eight tropical soils was analyzed by X-Ray diffractometry. The variation of superficial charge of these soils were quantify by potentiometric titration in a range from 3 to 8 pH values. The results of radiocesium interception potential showed the presence of specific sites of adsorption of this radionuclide for all the soils. The variation of radiocesium adsorption for all soils was quantified in a pH defined range. The increase on the pH values caused increase on the radiocesium adsorption by the soils and a consequent decrease in the radiocesium activity in the equilibrium solution. The soil with predominance of the 2:1 clay minerals showed higher radiocesium adsorption than the soils with 1:1 clay minerals or iron and aluminum oxides. The increase on the negative charge in consequence of pH increase caused increase on radiocesium adsorption. The correction of soil acidity with lime by increasing the specific sites charge for radiocesium and decreasing the radionuclide activity in soil solution may cause decrease on the transference of radiocesium from soil to plant. (author)

  17. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P; Sathler, Lúcio

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

  18. Structure of PIN-domain protein PH0500 from Pyrococcus horikoshii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Inagaki, Eiji; Kuroishi, Chizu; Tahirov, Tahir H.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of P. horikoshii OT3 protein PH0500 was determined by the multiple anomalous dispersion method and refined in two crystal forms. The protein is a dimer and has a PIN-domain fold. The Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 protein PH0500 is highly conserved within the Pyrococcus genus of hyperthermophilic archaea and shows low amino-acid sequence similarity with a family of PIN-domain proteins. The protein has been expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms: PH0500-I and PH0500-II. The structure was determined at 2.0 Å by the multiple anomalous dispersion method using a selenomethionyl derivative of crystal form PH0500-I (PH0500-I-Se). The structure of PH0500-I has been refined at 1.75 Å resolution to an R factor of 20.9% and the structure of PH0500-II has been refined at 2.0 Å resolution to an R factor of 23.4%. In both crystal forms as well as in solution the molecule appears to be a dimer. Searches of the databases for protein-fold similarities confirmed that the PH0500 protein is a PIN-domain protein with possible exonuclease activity and involvement in DNA or RNA editing

  19. Umbilical Cord Blood pH in Intrapartum Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Fouzia; Khan, Ayesha; Ali, Tahmina; Rabia, Syeda

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association of cord arterial blood pH with neonatal outcome in cases of intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Descriptive analytical study. Gynaecology Unit-II, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from September 2011 to November 2012. All singleton cephalic fetuses at term gestation were included in the study. Those with any anomaly, malpresentation, medical disorders, maternal age 7.25, neonatal outcome measures (healthy, NICU admission or neonatal death), color of liquor and mode of delivery recorded on predesigned proforma. Statistical analysis performed by SPSS 16 by using independent-t test or chi-square test and ANOVA test as needed. A total of 204 newborns were evaluated. The mean pH level was found to be significantly different (p=0.007) in two groups. The pH value 7.25 had significant association (p 7.25. Majority (63.6%) cases needed caesarean section as compared to 31.4% controls. There is a significant association of cord arterial blood pH at birth with neonatal outcome at pH 7.25; but below the level of pH 7.25 it is still inconclusive.

  20. Use of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate in Buffering Commonly Administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Solutions for Use with Midline or Peripheral Line Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertos, Enrique; Spencer, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the use of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate in the buffering of commonly administered vancomycin hydrochloride solutions for use with midline or peripheral line catheters. Nine admixtures of vancomycin hydrochloride were aseptically prepared for this study. Vancomycin hydrochloride solutions were prepared in triplicates in the following strengths, 1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams, which were added to 250-mL bags of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (with overfill). To each prepared solution of vancomycin hydrochloride, 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate was added. The pH was measured to obtain a baseline level. At day 9, the pH of each sample was measured and compared to those at baseline. The osmolality of each sample was also measured. There was no statistical difference in the pH at baseline and at day 9 (α = 0.05, P = 0.347). A solution of vancomycin hydrochloride that is compounded in 250 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (including overfill) and buffered with 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate maintained a pH in the range of 5 to 9 and an osmolality in the range of 150 mOsm/kg to 500 mOsm/kg.

  1. Zirconium oxide crystal phase: The role of the pH and time to attain the final pH for precipitation of the hydrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Harris, M.B.; Simpson, S.F.; De Angelis, R.J.; Davis, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    Precipitated hydrous zirconium oxide can be calcined to produce either a monoclinic or tetragonal product. It has been observed that the time taken to attain the final pH of the solution in contact with the precipitate plays a dominant role in determining the crystal structure of the zirconium oxide after calcination at 500 0 C. The dependence of crystal structure on the rate of precipitation is observed only in the pH range 7--11. Rapid precipitation in this pH range yields predominately monoclinic zirconia, whereas slow (8 h) precipitation produces the tetragonal phase. At pH of approximately 13.0, only the tetragonal phase is formed from both slowly and rapidly precipitated hydrous oxide. The present results, together with earlier results, show that both the pH of the supernatant liquid and the time taken to attain this pH play dominant roles in determining the crystal structure of zirconia that is formed after calcination of the hydrous oxide. The factors that determine the crystal phase are therefore imparted in a mechanism of precipitation that depends upon the pH, and it is inferred that it is the hydroxyl concentration that is the dominant factor

  2. Semantic conditioning of salivary pH for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Carolin A; De Massari, Daniele; Wagner-Podmaniczky, Franziska; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Semantic conditioning of salivary pH was investigated as a new paradigm for binary communication. In a sample of eleven healthy participants, affirmation or negation of presented statements were paired with milk and lemon to condition changes in salivary pH level. Significant differences between the conditioned reactions were found at the group level. However, the analysis of pH changes on single-subject level revealed significant differences between affirmative and negative responses to the presented statements only for isolated samples in few participants. When classifying a change in pH value of more than .01 as correct response to a statement, only responses to affirmative statements reached mean accuracies of more than 60%. Improvements in the paradigm are necessary before testing it with the critical target population of patients to prove its profit for basic yes/no communication in case no other reliable means of communication could be preserved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. pH variation and influence in an autotrophic nitrogen removing biofilm system using an efficient numerical solution strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    A pH simulator consisting of an efficient numerical solver of a system of nine nonlinear equations was constructed and implemented in the modeling software MATLAB. The pH simulator was integrated in a granular biofilm model and used to simulate the pH profiles within granules performing...... the nitritation-anammox process for a range of operating points. The simulation results showed that pH profiles were consistently increasing with increasing depth into the granule, since the proton producing aerobic ammonium oxidizers (AOB) were located close to the granule surface.Despite this pH profile, more...... NH3 was available for AOB than for anaerobic ammonium oxidizers (AnAOB), located in the center of the granules. However, operating at a higher oxygen loading resulted in steeper changes in pH over the depth of the granule and caused the NH3 concentration profile to increase from the granule surface...

  4. Investigations of actinides in the context of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Trivalent actinides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, N.L.; Boris Brendebach; Marquardt, Ch.M.

    2014-01-01

    The speciation of redox sensitive trivalent actinides Pu(III), Np(III), and U(III) has been studied in aqueous solution. The redox preparation, stabilization, and speciation of these trivalent actinides in aqueous systems are discussed here. The reductants investigated were rongalite, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and acetohydroxamic acid and the An(III) species have been characterized by UV-Vis and XANES spectroscopy. The results show that the effectiveness of stabilization decreases generally in the order Pu(III) > Np(III) > U(III) and that the effectiveness of each reducing agent depends on the experimental conditions. More than 80 % of Pu(III) aquo species have been stabilized up to pH 5.5, whereas the Np(III) aquo ion could be stabilized in a pH range 0-2.5, and U(III) aquo ion is sufficiently stable at pH 1.0 and below over time periods suitable for experiments. However, this study gives a basis for the characterisation of the trivalent lighter actinides involved in complexation, sorption, and solid formation reactions in the future. (author)

  5. Modelling impacts of acid deposition and groundwater level on habitat quality and plant species diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Mol, J.P.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Reinds, G.J.; Hinsberg, van A.; Vries, de W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction
    We quantified the effects of the site factors pH and nitrate (NO3) concentration in soil solution and groundwater level on the vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems for the Netherlands in response to changes in atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) deposition and groundwater level

  6. Functional and molecular characterization of transmembrane intracellular pH regulators in human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Huang, Shu-Fu; Chao, Shih-Chi; Chang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Li, Chung-Hsing; Loh, Shih-Hurng

    2018-06-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pH i ) plays vital roles in many cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metastasis. Thus far, Na + -H + exchanger (NHE), Na + -HCO 3 - co-transporter (NBC), Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger (AE) and Cl - /OH - exchanger (CHE) have been identified to co-regulate pH i homeostasis. However, functional and biological pH i -regulators in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have yet to be identified. Microspectrofluorimetry technique with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF, was used to detect pH i changes. NH 4 Cl and Na + -acetate pre-pulse were used to induce intracellular acidosis and alkalosis, respectively. Isoforms of pH i -regulators were detected by Western blot technique. The resting pH i was no significant difference between that in HEPES-buffered (nominal HCO 3 - -free) solution or CO 2 /HCO 3 -buffered system (7.42 and 7.46, respectively). The pH i recovery following the induced-intracellular acidosis was blocked completely by removing [Na + ] o , while only slowed (-63%) by adding HOE694 (a NHE1 specific inhibitor) in HEPES-buffered solution. The pH i recovery was inhibited entirely by removing [Na + ] o , while adding HOE 694 pulse DIDS (an anion-transporter inhibitor) only slowed (-55%) the acid extrusion. Both in HEPES-buffered and CO 2 /HCO 3 -buffered system solution, the pH i recovery after induced-intracellular alkalosis was entirely blocked by removing [Cl - ] o . Western blot analysis showed the isoforms of pH i regulators, including NHE1/2, NBCe1/n1, AE1/2/3/4 and CHE in the hDPSCs. We demonstrate for the first time that resting pH i is significantly higher than 7.2 and meditates functionally by two Na + -dependent acid extruders (NHE and NBC), two Cl - -dependent acid loaders (CHE and AE) and one Na + -independent acid extruder(s) in hDPSCs. These findings provide novel insight for basic and clinical treatment of dentistry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating nanoparticle sensor design for intracellular pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sun, Honghao; Henriksen, Jonas R; Christensen, Nynne M; Almdal, Kristoffer; Andresen, Thomas L

    2011-07-26

    Particle-based nanosensors have over the past decade been designed for optical fluorescent-based ratiometric measurements of pH in living cells. However, quantitative and time-resolved intracellular measurements of pH in endosomes and lysosomes using particle nanosensors are challenging, and there is a need to improve measurement methodology. In the present paper, we have successfully carried out time-resolved pH measurements in endosomes and lyosomes in living cells using nanoparticle sensors and show the importance of sensor choice for successful quantification. We have studied two nanoparticle-based sensor systems that are internalized by endocytosis and elucidated important factors in nanosensor design that should be considered in future development of new sensors. From our experiments it is clear that it is highly important to use sensors that have a broad measurement range, as erroneous quantification of pH is an unfortunate result when measuring pH too close to the limit of the sensitive range of the sensors. Triple-labeled nanosensors with a pH measurement range of 3.2-7.0, which was synthesized by adding two pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pK(a) to each sensor, seem to be a solution to some of the earlier problems found when measuring pH in the endosome-lysosome pathway.

  8. Sorption of ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions using β-cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, Michael; Jackson, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The ability of a cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer to remove ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions was examined by batch rebinding assays. The results from the aqueous binding studies were fit to two parameter models to gain insight into the interaction of ochratoxin A with the nanosponge material. The ochratoxin A sorption data fit well to the heterogeneous Freundlich isotherm model. The polymer was less effective at binding ochratoxin A in high pH buffer (9.5) under conditions where ochratoxin A exists predominantly in the dianionic state. Batch rebinding assays in red wine indicate the polymer is able to remove significant levels of ochratoxin A from spiked solutions between 1-10 μg·L(-1). These results suggest cyclodextrin nanosponge materials are suitable to reduce levels of ochratoxin A from spiked aqueous solutions and red wine samples.

  9. Modeling pH variation in reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Oded; Bishop, Noga Fridman; Lahav, Ori; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2015-12-15

    The transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions through reverse osmosis membranes constitutes a unique case of ionic species characterized by uncommonly high permeabilities. Combined with electromigration, this leads to complex behavior of permeate pH, e.g., negative rejection, as often observed for monovalent ions in nanofiltration of salt mixtures. In this work we employed a rigorous phenomenological approach combined with chemical equilibrium to describe the trans-membrane transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions along with salt transport and calculate the resulting permeate pH. Starting from the Nernst-Planck equation, a full non-linear transport equation was derived, for which an approximate solution was proposed based on the analytical solution previously developed for trace ions in a dominant salt. Using the developed approximate equation, transport coefficients were deduced from experimental results obtained using a spiral wound reverse osmosis module operated under varying permeate flux (2-11 μm/s), NaCl feed concentrations (0.04-0.18 M) and feed pH values (5.5-9.0). The approximate equation agreed well with the experimental results, corroborating the finding that diffusion and electromigration, rather than a priori neglected convection, were the major contributors to the transport of hydronium and hydroxide. The approach presented here has the potential to improve the predictive capacity of reverse osmosis transport models for acid-base species, thereby improving process design/control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

  11. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hardan, Naif H; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Ahmed, Naser M; Jalar, Azman; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim; Chiu, Weesiong; Al-Rawi, Hamzah N

    2016-06-07

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions.

  12. Unified pH values of liquid chromatography mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu, Agnes; Jalukse, Lauri; Liigand, Jaanus; Kruve, Anneli; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo; Rosés, Martí; Leito, Ivo

    2015-03-03

    This work introduces a conceptually new approach of measuring pH of mixed-solvent liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phases. Mobile phase pH is very important in LC, but its correct measurement is not straightforward, and all commonly used approaches have deficiencies. The new approach is based on the recently introduced unified pH (pH(abs)) scale, which enables direct comparison of acidities of solutions made in different solvents based on chemical potential of the proton in the solutions. This work represents the first experimental realization of the pH(abs) concept using differential potentiometric measurement for comparison of the chemical potentials of the proton in different solutions (connected by a salt bridge), together with earlier published reference points for obtaining the pH(abs) values (referenced to the gas phase) or pH(abs)(H₂O) values (referenced to the aqueous solution). The liquid junction potentials were estimated in the framework of Izutsu's three-component method. pH(abs) values for a number of common LC and LC-MS mobile phases have been determined. The pH(abs) scale enables for the first time direct comparison of acidities of any LC mobile phases, with different organic additives, different buffer components, etc. A possible experimental protocol of putting this new approach into chromatographic practice has been envisaged and its applicability tested. It has been demonstrated that the ionization behavior of bases (cationic acids) in the mobile phases can be better predicted by using the pH(abs)(H₂O) values and aqueous pKa values than by using the alternative means of expressing mobile phase acidity. Description of the ionization behavior of acids on the basis of pH(abs)(H₂O) values is possible if the change of their pKa values with solvent composition change is taken into account.

  13. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  14. Process for recovering tungsten from alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozaki, S.; Nemoto, S.; Hazeyama, T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for recovering tungsten from an alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores. This invention comprises adjusting the pH of an alkaline leaching solution which is obtained by lixiviating ore containing tungsten with an alkaline solution to 7--8 with acid to oxidize molybdic acid ions in the solution, adding a sulfide donor, then precipitating molybdenum sulfide compounds by adjusting the pH value of the solution to 2--3. Tungstic acid ions are recovered as calcium tungstate by the addition of a calcium ion donor after the molybdenum sulfide compounds are separated

  15. Corrosion behaviour of the UO2 pellet in corrosive solutions using electrochemical Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taftanzani, A.; Sucipto; Lahagu, F.; Irianto, B.

    1996-01-01

    The UO 2 electrodes has been made from the local product of UO 2 pellets. The corrosion behaviour of the UO 2 pellets is affected by solution, by pH value and by concentration of salt solution. Investigation into corrosion behaviour of UO 2 electrodes have been carried out in saturated salt solutions using electrochemical technique. The saturated solutions have been made from salts NaCl, Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 . The pH value have been done over range 1 pH 10 and the salt concentration (C) over range 0,001 mol/l C 1,0 mol/l, Na 2 CO 3 solution produced the lowest corrosion rates of UO 2 pellets. Those rates were relative constant in the range of pH = 4 - 8. The results indicate an influence of the Na 2 CO 3 concentrations on the corrosions on the corrosion rate, and the lowest rates occur in 0,10 mol/l Na 2 CO 3 . The lowest corrosion rate was 0.3388 mil/year in 0.10 mol/l Na 2 CO 3 by pH = 4. (author)

  16. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  17. Intracellular pH and 42.00 C heat response of CHO cells cultured at pH 6.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.A.; Fox, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously reported that cells under chronic low pH (6.6) conditions have altered thermotolerance. They further characterized both the doubling time (t/sub d/) and the internal pH (pH/sub 1/) of CHO cells continuously cultured at pH 6.6 for times greater than one year. The following differences were noted: 1) A t/sub d/ of 16 hr compared to a t/sub d/ of 12 hr for cells at normal pH (7.3) and a t/sub d/ of 25 hr for the acute low pH cells (pH = 6.6; incubation time = 4 hr). 2) A pH/sub i/ 0.1-0.15 pH units > normal cells and 0.3 pH units > acute low pH cells. 3) Survival at 42.0 0 C which differed from both normal and acute low pH cells. The chronic culture was still quite sensitive to 42.0 0 C treatments during the first 5 hr, but developed tolerance at a higher level than cells under acute low pH conditions. The pH/sub i/ of the chronic culture responded to 42.0 0 C heating in a manner similar to that for acute low pH cells. Whether this culture represents a normal response to long term low pH exposure, or was the response of a mutant population is at the present unknown

  18. Polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly as a function of pH and ionic strength using the polysaccharides chitosan and heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Killingsworth, Christopher E; Kipper, Matt J

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work is to explore the effects of solution ionic strength and pH on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) assembly, using biologically derived polysaccharides as the polyelectrolytes. We used the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique to assemble PEM of the polysaccharides heparin (a strong polyanion) and chitosan (a weak polycation) and characterized the sensitivity of the PEM composition and layer thickness to changes in processing parameters. Fourier-transform surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry provided in situ and ex situ measurements of the PEM thickness, respectively. Vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided details of the chemistry (i.e., composition, electrostatic interactions) of the PEM. We found that when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer, the PEM thickness could be increased from less than 2 nm per bilayer to greater than 4 nm per bilayer by changing the solution pH; higher and lower ionic strength buffer solutions resulted in narrower ranges of accessible thickness. Molar composition of the PEM was not very sensitive to solution pH or ionic strength, but pH did affect the interactions between the sulfonates in heparin and amines in chitosan when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer. Changes in the PEM thickness with pH and ionic strength can be interpreted through descriptions of the charge density and conformation of the polyelectrolyte chains in solution.

  19. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  20. Corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel in concrete for nuclear facilities exposed in high chloride and low pH environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Raman, Vedarajan

    2010-01-01

    The Cl ion concentration and pH were monitored by inserting micro-electrodes into artificial pores in the mortar which was exposed in 0.5 mol/l chloride solution (pH 4.0). At the same time, the electrochemical behavior of the reinforcing steel was investigated by EIS. The Cl ion concentration in the mortar was obtained using Ag/AgCl micro-electrodes, showing that this behavior is generally controlled by diffusion. When the diffusion equation was used in this work, the diffusion coefficient (D c ) showed a high value of D c = 9.5 x 10 -5 mm 2 /s. Similarly, the pH in the mortar was obtained using W/WO x micro-electrodes. With a 10 mm cover thickness, pH continued to decrease to pH 8.0, which was considered by penetration of H + ions from the surface. Based on the results of monitoring with the micro-electrodes, solutions simulating those in the pores in mortar were prepared and used in EIS measurements. The charge transfer resistance R ct in the simulated solutions showed good correspondence with the impedance Z (Z 1mHz -Z sol ) in the actual mortar. This is attributed to the fact that the corrosion of reinforcing steel was controlled by the solution conditions (mainly Cl concentration and pH) in the pores in mortar.

  1. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca 2+ at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor for

  2. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor

  3. Development of oxygen and pH sensors for aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stvartak, C.; Alcock, C.B.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Fergus, J.W.; Bakshi, N.

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion science has long recognized that two of the most important parameters in characterizing the corrosivity of an aqueous environment are oxygen chemical potential and pH. These parameters not only determine the thermodynamic driving forces for various corrosion reactions, but also characterize the rates of these reactions and hence the lifetime of a particular component. The primary goal of this project is to develop an electrochemical oxygen and pH sensor for continuous use in the cycle chemistry control of power plants. In the past year, electrochemical sensors with a metal/metal oxide or metal/metal hydride internal reference electrode and a fluoride-based electrolyte tube have been developed and tested in this laboratory. The corrosion tests showed that the LaF 3 -based solid electrolyte was very stable both chemically and physically in water. Furthermore, its electrical conductivity is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of stabilized zirconia below 573 K (300 degree C), which is the main advantage of a fluoride-based electrolyte at low temperatures. With this electrolyte and the selected internal oxygen reference electrode (Ag/Ag 2 O), the electrochemical probe demonstrated Nernstian responses to the oxygen chemical potential and pH of the aqueous solution with good reproducibility. A similar cell with Zr/ZrH 1+x as the internal hydrogen reference electrode showed promising pH sensing characteristics. It is proposed that these two cells be combined to form a double-headed electrochemical probe to determine oxygen chemical potential and pH in the solution simultaneously

  4. High sensitivity pH sensing on the BEOL of industrial FDSOI transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahhal, Lama; Ayele, Getenet Tesega; Monfray, Stéphane; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Fornacciari, Benjamin; Pardoux, Eric; Chevalier, Celine; Ecoffey, Serge; Drouin, Dominique; Morin, Pierre; Garnier, Philippe; Boeuf, Frederic; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2017-08-01

    In this work we demonstrate the use of Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator (FDSOI) transistors as pH sensors with a 23 nm silicon nitride sensing layer built in the Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL). The back end process to deposit the sensing layer and fabricate the electrical structures needed for testing is detailed. A series of tests employing different pH buffer solutions has been performed on transistors of different geometries, controlled via the back gate. The main findings show a shift of the drain current (ID) as a function of the back gate voltage (VB) when different pH buffer solutions are probed in the range of pH 6 to pH 8. This shift is observed at VB voltages swept from 0 V to 3 V, demonstrating the sensor operation at low voltage. A high sensitivity of up to 250 mV/pH unit (more than 4-fold larger than Nernstian response) is observed on FDSOI MOS transistors of 0.06 μm gate length and 0.08 μm gate width. She is currently working as a Postdoctoral researcher at Institut des nanotechnologies de Lyon in collaboration with STMicroelectronics and Université de Sherbrook (Canada) working on ;Integration of ultra-low-power gas and pH sensors with advanced technologies;. Her research interest includes selection, machining, optimisation and electrical characterisation of the sensitive layer for a low power consumption gas sensor based on advanced MOS transistors.

  5. Surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in antiseptic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yuliati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid ionomer cement or resin modified glass ionomer cement is a developed form of conventional glass ionomer cement. This hybrid ionomer cement can be eroded if in direct contact with acid solution which will affect surface hardness. The aim of this study is to learn surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in methyl salicylate 0.06% (pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% (pH 2.9 solution. Sample of hybrid ionomer cement with 5 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness was immersed in sterile aquadest solution (control, methyl salicylate pH 3.6, povidon iodine pH 2.9 for 1 minute, 7 and 14 minutes. Surface hardness was measured with Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. The obtained data was analyzed statistically with ANOVA followed by LSD test. The result of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in sterile aquadest, methyl salicylate 0.06% pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 for one minute, showed no significant difference; while immersion for 7 and 14 minutes showed a significant difference. The conclusion states that hybrid ionomer cement after 14 minutes immersion in povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 has the lowest surface hardness.

  6. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Lin Zuo

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+/HCO(3(- cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis.Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH solution, the intracellular pH (pHi recovery from NH(4Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3(- buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3(- buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS, the inhibitor of HCO(3(- transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+. The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH.The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  7. Adsorption of cadmium by activated carbon cloth: influence of surface oxidation and solution pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, J R; Streat, M

    2002-03-01

    The surface of activated carbon cloth (ACC), based on polyacrylonitrile fibre as a precursor, was oxidised using nitric acid, ozone and electrochemical oxidation to enhance cadmium ion exchange capacity. Modified adsorbents were physically and chemically characterised by pH titration, direct titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area and porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. BET surface area decreased after oxidation, however, the total ion exchange capacity increased by a factor of approximately 3.5 compared to the commercial as-received ACC. A very significant increase in cadmium uptake, by a factor of 13, was observed for the electrochemically oxidised ACC. Equilibrium sorption isotherms were determined at pH 4, 5 and 6 and these showed that cadmium uptake increased with increasing pH. There was clear evidence of physical damage to ozone-oxidised fibre, however, acid and electrochemically oxidised samples were completely stable.

  8. 3,3′-Bicarbazole-Based Host Molecules for Solution-Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs are attractive due to their low-cost, large area displays, and lighting features. Small molecules as well as polymers can be used as host materials within the solution-processed emitting layer. Herein, we report two 3,3′-bicarbazole-based host small molecules, which possess a structural isomer relationship. 9,9′-Di-4-n-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-nBuPh and 9,9′-di-4-t-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-tBuPh exhibited similar optical properties within solutions but different photoluminescence within films. A solution-processed green phosphorescent OLED with the BCz-tBuPh host exhibited a high maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 43.1 cd/A and 40.0 lm/W, respectively, compared to the device with the BCz-nBuPh host.

  9. Acid-base equilibrium in aqueous solutions of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryff-Keller, A.; Kraska-Dziadecka, A.

    2011-12-01

    13C NMR spectra of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in aqueous solutions of various acidities and for various solute concentrations have been recorded and interpreted. The spectra recorded at pH = 2 and below contain the signals of the neutral solute molecule exclusively, while the ones recorded at pH = 7 and above only the signals of the appropriate anion, which has been confirmed by theoretical GIAO-DFT calculations. The signals in the spectra recorded for solutions of pH pH variation have been observed for the parent barbituric acid.

  10. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m 3 (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml

  11. Determining pH at elevated pressure and temperature using in situ ¹³C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, J Andrew; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Yanzhe; Hayes, Sophia E; Giammar, Daniel E; Conradi, Mark S

    2015-02-03

    We have developed an approach for determining pH at elevated pressures and temperatures by using (13)C NMR measurements of inorganic carbon species together with a geochemical equilibrium model. The approach can determine in situ pH with precision better than 0.1 pH units at pressures, temperatures, and ionic strengths typical of geologic carbon sequestration systems. A custom-built high pressure NMR probe was used to collect (13)C NMR spectra of (13)C-labeled CO2 reactions with NaOH solutions and Mg(OH)2 suspensions at pressures up to 107 bar and temperatures of 80 °C. The quantitative nature of NMR spectroscopy allows the concentration ratio [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] to be experimentally determined. This ratio is then used with equilibrium constants calculated for the specific pressure and temperature conditions and appropriate activity coefficients for the solutes to calculate the in situ pH. The experimentally determined [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] ratios agree well with the predicted values for experiments performed with three different concentrations of NaOH and equilibration with multiple pressures of CO2. The approach was then applied to experiments with Mg(OH)2 slurries in which the change in pH could track the dissolution of CO2 into solution, rapid initial Mg(OH)2 dissolution, and onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation.

  12. A miniature integrated multimodal sensor for measuring pH, EC and temperature for precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Taichi; Murata, Hiroaki; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si(3)N(4) membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  13. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Wade; Wajrak, Magdalena; Alameh, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to...

  14. Rapid synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in aqueous solution at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared in aqueous solu- tion at room temperature. We investigated the ... NCs dispersed in buffer solution (pH = 4⋅0). FTIR spectra were recorded on a ... the theory of acid-base equilibrium, the initial pH value of original solution determines the ...

  15. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  16. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  17. Biocorrosion properties of antibacterial Ti-10Cu sintered alloy in several simulated biological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Erlin

    2015-03-01

    Ti-10Cu sintered alloy has shown strong antibacterial properties against S. aureus and E. coli and good cell biocompatibility, which displays potential application in dental application. The corrosion behaviors of the alloy in five different simulated biological solutions have been investigated by electrochemical technology, surface observation, roughness measurement and immersion test. Five different simulated solutions were chosen to simulate oral condition, oral condition with F(-) ion, human body fluids with different pH values and blood system. It has been shown that Ti-10Cu alloy exhibits high corrosion rate in Saliva pH 3.5 solution and Saliva pH 6.8 + 0.2F solution but low corrosion rate in Hank's, Tyrode's and Saliva pH 6.8 solutions. The corrosion rate of Ti-10Cu alloy was in a order of Hank's, Tyrode's, Saliva pH 6.8, Saliva-pH 3.5 and Saliva pH 6.8 + 0.2F from slow to fast. All results indicated acid and F(-) containing conditions prompt the corrosion reaction of Ti-Cu alloy. It was suggested that the Cu ion release in the biological environments, especially in the acid and F(-) containing condition would lead to high antibacterial properties without any cell toxicity, displaying wide potential application of this alloy.

  18. The nature of rusts and corrosion characteristics of low alloy and plain carbon steels in three kinds of concrete pore solution with salinity and different pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.K.; Singh, D.D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► LAS rebars corrode 2–3 times slower than PCS in concrete pore solution and mortars. ► Raman and XRD studies show that goethite and maghemite phases of rusts formed on LAS. ► On PCS unstable phases of lepidocrocite and akaganite are formed. ► EIS confirms more stable rust on LAS than on PCS. ► A model is proposed to explain formation of passive film on surface of steels. - Abstract: Correlation of corrosion characteristics and nature of rusts on low alloy (LA) and plain carbon (PC) steels exposed in simulated concrete pore solution of different pH is studied. Rusts formed under wet/dry conditions are examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. LA rust is more adherent compared to PC as confirmed by measurement of weight in gain and electrochemical studies. EIS results show improvement in protective properties of steels with passage of time. Both steels are found prone to pitting attack in chloride contaminated pore solution. Rebars embedded in concrete exhibit same trend as recorded in solution exposure tests.

  19. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pHpHpH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  20. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 150 0 C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  1. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to that of a commercial glass pH sensor in some common sample matrices, particularly, an excellent pH sensitivity of 55.7 mV/pH, a hysteresis as low as 2.7 mV, and a drift below 2.2 mV/h. The developed sensor structure opens the way towards the development of a simple, cost effective, and robust pH sensor for pH analysis in various sample matrices.

  2. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena; Alameh, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to that of a commercial glass pH sensor in some common sample matrices, particularly, an excellent pH sensitivity of 55.7 mV/pH, a hysteresis as low as 2.7 mV, and a drift below 2.2 mV/h. The developed sensor structure opens the way towards the development of a simple, cost effective, and robust pH sensor for pH analysis in various sample matrices. PMID:28878182

  3. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  4. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H., E-mail: sarita.ahoranta@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kokko, Marika E., E-mail: marika.kokko@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Papirio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.papirio@unicas.it [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Özkaya, Bestamin, E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Puhakka, Jaakko A., E-mail: jaakko.puhakka@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Continuous and rapid arsenic removal with biogenic jarosite was achieved at pH 3.0. • Arsenic removal was inefficient below pH 2.4 due to reduced Fe–As co-precipitation. • As(V) had better sorption characteristics than As(III). • Biogenic jarosite adsorbed arsenic more effectively than synthetic jarosite. - Abstract: Treatment of acidic solution containing 5 g/L of Fe(II) and 10 mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7 h, 96–98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28 mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pH < 2.4. As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the system. In shake flask experiments, As(V) sorbed onto jarosite better than As(III). Moreover, the sorption capacity of biogenic jarosite was significantly higher than that of synthetic jarosite. The developed bioprocess simultaneously and efficiently removes iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment.

  5. New formulae for solutions of quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations on level-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Hermann; Korepin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Feodor

    2004-01-01

    We present a new form of solution to the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation [qKZ] on level-4 in a special case corresponding to the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. Our form is equivalent to the integral representation obtained by Jimbo and Miwa in 1996 [7]. An advantage of our form is that it is reduced to the product of single integrals. This fact is deeply related to a cohomological nature of our formulae. Our approach is also based on the deformation of hyper-elliptic integrals and their main property-deformed Riemann bilinear relation. Jimbo and Miwa also suggested a nice conjecture which relates solution of the qKZ on level-4 to any correlation function of the XXX model. This conjecture, together with our form of solution to the qKZ, makes it possible to prove a conjecture that any correlation function of the XXX model can be expressed in terms of the Riemann zeta-function at odd arguments and rational coefficients. This issue will be discussed in our next publication

  6. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif H. Al-Hardan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous silicon (PSi was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions